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Principle of Teletraffic Engineering
MUHAMMAD NAVEED MUHAMMAD NAVEED SHAIKH 08TL19 Submitted to: Sir Nasrullah Pirzada

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Generation of realization of this stochastic process 3. It provides the full insight of the system so one cans easily analysis without hits and trials method.1 Simulation: It is statistical method to estimate the performance or some other characteristics if the system is under consideration. We can achieve required optimization but on the cost many resources like time. 2.since there are different . Modeling of system 2. Collection of data 4. • • • • • • No restriction is on simulation we can consider any situation even best or worst. We can calculate exact values. Phases of simulation. Main functions of Control: Resource management using virtual path connection: it includes the management of group of VCs according to traffic types which they carry . Traffic control and congestion in ATM. We can switch the many situations very rapidly. Control of traffic in ATM: Traffic control refers to predictive traffic handling methods. 1. Statistical analysis of the gathered data. Importance in traffic Engineering. power etc. Modeling is very easy.

• ABR flow control In the ABR services. the sources adapts its rate to changing network conditions.ABR flow is based on specific resource management.traffic on different VCs so they require different QoS which is also comes under the resource management. Traffic management in internet: Traffic management is needed in order to achieve the required QoS and performance under these circumstances and to protect the network and other users against badly behaving traffic. It checks whether the path is which is about to assign is up to mark means provides required QoS or not Traffic shaping: • Means it will make the traffic so that all data streams can flow without any ambiguity. • Frame discard It is like a feature which is used to discard the frame which is possible for network to remove the congestion within the network. • Selective cell discard In ATM. Connection admission control: It includes some of the below function: • • It prohibits the system from overload. Congestion in ATM: It refers to the reactive traffic handling methods Main function of congestion: • Explicit forward congestion indication It is a bit in cell header which gives warnings about the congestion in an ATM. to minimize the congestion we have CLP feature cell loss priority which t ells network that it can reject or approve the particular cell. Internet has been a best effort service environment. 3. .

These protocols are highly scalable and resilient. they are based on simple algorithms for path selection which have very limited functionality to allow flexible control of the path selection process Dynamic Routing in the Internet Routing algorithms used in the Internet are adaptations of the Shortest Path Tree (SPF) algorithm. Each link is associated with multiple link costs and each link cost is used to compute routes for a particular ToS. In terms of routing control. Even using dynamic link metric assignment in accordance with the traffic being routed (using a traffic matrix like Q-OSPF does). Static link metric assignment can easily lead to unfavorable scenarios where some links become congested while some others remain lightly loaded. However. Dynamic metrics are assigned dynamically based on some measure such as delay. Classical ToS-based routing is now outdated as the IP header's ToS field has been replaced by an IP header's DiffServ (DS) field. packet loss or throughput. ToS (Type of Service) Routing ToS Routing involves different routes going to the same destination with selection dependent upon the ToS field of an IP packet. unbalanced load in the network can still occur due to some factors like resources not being deployed in the most optimal locations. Static metrics are assigned administratively according to local criteria. Internet has employed distributed protocols for intra-domain routing. All these considerations are moving the interest in path-oriented technologies such as "explicit routing" and "constraint-based" routing. forecasting errors. The SPF algorithm must be run for each ToS resulting in very expensive computation. and dynamics in the traffic matrix due to the temporal nature of traffic patterns. Effective traffic engineering is difficult to perform in classical ToS-based routing because each class still relies exclusively on SPF routing which results in localization of traffic concentration within the network 4. Traffic and congestion control in the internet. The ToS classes may be classified as low delay and high throughput.Very limited traffic management capabilities exist in IP networks to provide differentiated queue management and scheduling service to packets belonging to different classes. where cost is based on link metrics. There are number of methods for this I discussing some of them . A separate SPF is computed for each ToS. These metrics can be static or dynamic quantities.

• TCP congestion control It stops the different sources to transmit the data more than that which can flow without congestion within the network. VBR best effort UBR etc they requiem different types of QoS for example for VBR we can vary the QoS and in same way we can compromise on Quality of service for best effort. Differentiated Service: There are no signaling and static service level agreements. QoS architecture: QoS service architecture tells the network that which services required which type of QoS so we can say it divides the services in to classes according to their QoS requirements. • TCP Vegas congestion avoidance Its purpose is to avoid the number of packets more than that which exceeds the bottle neck limit. Integrated services: There are no of services like CBR. • Packed scheduling It tells the network which packet should flow first and which will go next we can say it tells the order in which packets are transmitted and this arrangement ultimately avoid congestions. 5. Higher priority traffic (packets) gets more quality of service than low priority packets. QOS is also differential for these services. • Queue management It‘s motive is to make the queue management more efficient and tells the network this packet should not store in the buffer or queue in the buffer because of many reasons. .• TCP flow control It stops the different sources to transmit the data more than that which can receive by receiver without error.

It gives an estimate of future traffic. Traffic forecasting defines the estimated traffic growth in the network over the planning period. Dimensioning should be cost effective. Peak traffic is determined by the concept of busy hour. Some important points. • • • • Traffic is varying continuously so dimension observation should also be continuous Dimension should be based on peak traffic not on average because it will allow maximum traffic.6. . Final results traffic matrix describes the traffic interest between exchanges or local exchanges. Purpose of traffic forecasting is to provide a basis for network planning. Starting point: current traffic in busy hour Other factors include changes in the number of subscriber and changes in the traffic per subscriber. Traffic forecasting and dimensioning Traffic forecasting: It is the information about the future demands for telecommunications traffic. dimensioning and taking decisions in network investments. Dimensioning The basic task of dimensioning determines the minimum system capacity needed in order that incoming traffic meet the specified grade of service.