DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL

UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI

TUGAS KELOMPOK
MATA KULIAH GEOLOGI DINAMIK

OLEH KELOMPOK II :
AL HAJAR

(D611 07 014)

ANDI RAHMATULLAH

(D611 07 046)

A.M SUHARTO PUTRA

(D611 07 047)

AMRITZAL NUR

(D611 09 273)

ABDUL MANAF

(D611 09 276)

NUR HIKMAH

(D611 09 000)

WAHDANIAH

(D611 09 000)

MAKASSAR
2010

TEORI TEKTONIK LEMPENG

“Dan Dia menancapkan gunung-gunung di bumi supaya bumi itu tidak
goncang bersama kamu, (dan Dia menciptakan) sungai-sungai dan jalan-jalan
agar kamu mendapat petunjuk”(QS. An-Nahl 16:15)
“Dan kamu lihat gunung-gunung itu, kamu sangka dia tetap di tempatnya,
padahal ia berjalan sebagai jalannya awan. (Begitulah) perbuatan Allah yang
membuat dengan kokoh tiap-tiap sesuatu; sesungguhnya Allah Maha Mengetahui
apa yang kamu kerjakan” (QS. An-Nahl 27:88)
Begitulah yang tertulis di dalam Al-Quran, yang diturunkan 14 abad yang
lalu menyatakan bahwa sesungguhnya gunung-gunung itu tidaklah diam,
melainkan bergerak. Al-Quran secara tidak langsung sudah memberikan
gambaran tentang adanya pergerakan pada bumi (lempeng), yang pada akhirnya
beberapa abad kemudian muncullah teori-teori tentang adanya pergerakan
lempeng. Yang paling terkenal adalah Teori Tektonik Lempeng.
Teori Tektonik Lempeng (bahasa Inggris: Plate Tectonics) adalah teori
dalam bidang geologi yang dikembangkan untuk memberi penjelasan terhadap
adanya bukti-bukti pergerakan skala besar yang dilakukan oleh litosfer bumi.
Teori ini telah mencakup dan juga menggantikan Teori Pergeseran Benua yang
lebih dahulu dikemukakan pada paruh pertama abad ke-20 dan konsep seafloor
spreading yang dikembangkan pada tahun 1960-an.
Perkembangan Teori
Pada akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, geolog berasumsi bahwa
kenampakan-kenampakan

utama

bumi

berkedudukan

tetap.

Kebanyakan

kenampakan geologis seperti pegunungan bisa dijelaskan dengan pergerakan
vertikal kerak seperti dijelaskan dalam Teori Geosinklin. Sejak tahun 1596, telah
diamati bahwa pantai Samudera Atlantik yang berhadap-hadapan antara benua
Afrika dan Eropa dengan Amerika Utara dan Amerika Selatan memiliki
kemiripan bentuk dan nampaknya pernah menjadi satu. Ketepatan ini akan
semakin jelas jika kita melihat tepi-tepi dari paparan benua di sana. Sejak saat itu

banyak teori telah dikemukakan untuk menjelaskan hal ini, tetapi semuanya
menemui jalan buntu karena asumsi bahwa bumi adalah sepenuhnya padat
menyulitkan penemuan penjelasan yang sesuai.
Penemuan radium dan sifat-sifat pemanasnya pada tahun 1896 mendorong
pengkajian ulang umur bumi, karena sebelumnya perkiraan didapatkan dari laju
pendinginannya dan dengan asumsi permukaan bumi beradiasi seperti benda
hitam. Dari perhitungan tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa bahkan jika pada
awalnya bumi adalah sebuah benda yang merah-pijar, suhu Bumi akan menurun
menjadi seperti sekarang dalam beberapa puluh juta tahun. Dengan adanya
sumber panas yang baru ditemukan ini maka para ilmuwan menganggap masuk
akal bahwa Bumi sebenarnya jauh lebih tua dan intinya masih cukup panas untuk
berada dalam keadaan cair.
Teori Tektonik Lempeng berasal dari Hipotesis Pergeseran Benua
(continental drift) yang dikemukakan Alfred Wegener tahun 1912. Dan
dikembangkan lagi dalam bukunya The Origin of Continents and Oceans terbitan
tahun 1915. Ia mengemukakan bahwa benua-benua yang sekarang ada dulu adalah
satu bentang muka yang bergerak menjauh sehingga melepaskan benua-benua
tersebut dari inti bumi seperti 'bongkahan es' dari granit yang bermassa jenis
rendah yang mengambang di atas lautan basal yang lebih padat. Namun, tanpa
adanya bukti terperinci dan perhitungan gaya-gaya yang dilibatkan, teori ini
dipinggirkan. Mungkin saja bumi memiliki kerak yang padat dan inti yang cair,
tetapi tampaknya tetap saja tidak mungkin bahwa bagian-bagian kerak tersebut
dapat bergerak-gerak.

Kecocokan / kesamaan Garis Pantai

Gambar : Kecocokan garis pantai benua Amerika Selatan Bagian Timur dengan garis
pantai benua Afrika Bagian Barat

Wegener menduga bahwa benua-benua tersebut diatas pada awalnya
adalah satu atas dasar kesamaan garis pantai. Atas dasar inilah kemudian Wegener
mencoba untuk mencocokan semua benua benua yang ada di muka bumi.
Persebaran Fosil
Diketemukannya fosil-fosil yang berasal dari binatang dan tumbuhan yang
tersebar luas dan terpisah di beberapa benua, seperti (gambar):
Fosil Cynognathus, suatu reptil yang hidup sekitar 240 juta tahun yang lalu
dan ditemukan di benua Amerika Selatan dan benua Afrika.
Fosil Mesosaurus, suatu reptil yang hidup di danau air tawar dan sungai yang
hidup sekitar 260 juta tahun yang lalu, ditemukan di benua Amerika
Selatan dan benua Afrika.
Fosil Lystrosaurus, suatu reptil yang hidup di daratan sekitar 240 juta tahun
yang lalu, ditemukan di benua benua Afrika, India, dan Antartika.
Fosil Clossopteris, suatu tanaman yang hidup 260 juta tahun yang lalu,
dijumpai di benua benua Afrika, Amerika Selatan, India, Australia, dan
Antartika.

fosil Lystrosaurus dijumpai di benua-benua Afrika. Pegunungan yang umurnya sama dengan pegunungan Appalachian juga dijumpai di British Isles dan Scandinavia. dan fosil Glossopteris dijumpai di benua benua Amerika Selatan. India. Kesamaan Jenis Batuan Jalur pegunungan Appalachian yang berada di bagian timur benua Amerika Utara dengan sebaran berarah timurlaut dan secara tiba-tiba menghilang di pantai Newfoundlands. dan Antartika. India. fosil Mesosaurus di benua benua Amerika Selatan dan Afrika. India.Gambar : Persebaran fosil Cynognathus diketemukan hanya di benua Amerika Selatan dan benua Afrika. Kedua pegunungan tersebut apabila diletakkan pada lokasi sebelum terjadinya pemisahan / pengapungan. Afrika. Afrika. . dan Australia. dan Antartika. Antartika. dan Australia. kedua pegunungan ini akan membentuk suatu jalur pegunungan yang menerus. Bukti Iklim Purba (Paleoclimatic) Gambar : Sebaran lapisan es di belahan bumi bagian selatan pada 250 – 300 juta tahun yang lalu serta sebaran fosil Lystrosaurus dijumpai di benua-benua Afrika. India. fosil Glossopteris dijumpai di benua benua Amerika Selatan. Antartika.

Amerika Selatan. Bukti pertama bahwa lempeng-lempeng itu memang mengalami pergerakan didapatkan dari penemuan perbedaan arah medan magnet dalam batuan-batuan yang berbeda usianya. dimana belahan bumi bagian selatan ditutupi oleh lapisan es yang sangat tebal.Para ahli kebumian juga telah mempelajari mengenai ilklim purba. Australia. Kedua kurva perpindahan kutub utara magnet bumi membentuk sudut 300 dan apabila dianggap arah kutub utara bumi tetap ditempatnya. maka dengan cara mennyatukan ke dua kurva tersebut dapat menjelaskan adanya perpindahan / pemisahan benua-benua seperti posisi saat ini. Terbukti juga teorinya bahwa arus konveksi di dalam mantel bumi adalah kekuatan penggeraknya. dibuktikanlah teori yang dikemukakan geolog Inggris Arthur Holmes tahun 1920 bahwa tautan bagian-bagian kerak ini kemungkinan ada di bawah laut. Penemuan ini dinyatakan pertama kali pada sebuah simposium di Tasmania tahun 1956. tetapi . namun selanjutnya justru lebih mengarah ke pengembangan teori tektonik lempeng yang menjelaskan pemekaran (spreading) sebagai konsekuensi pergerakan vertikal (upwelling) batuan. seperti benua Antartika. Mula-mula. Di kemudian hari. Pengapungan Benua dan Paleomagnetisme Kurva dari perpindahan kutub utara magnet bumi berdasarkan hasil analisa arah kemagnetan purba yang terekam dalam batuan lava yang berasal dari hasil analisa batuan-batuan di benua Eropa dan Asia serta batuan-batuan yang berasal dari benua Amerika Utara. dan India. Afrika. dimana pada 250 juta tahun yang lalu diketahui bahwa belahan bumi bagian selatan pada zaman itu terjadi iklim dingin. penemuan ini dimasukkan ke dalam teori ekspansi bumi.

Hipotesa pemekaran lantai samudra pada dasarnya adalah suatu hipotesa yang menganggap bahwa bagian kulit bumi yang ada didasar samudra Atlantik tepatnya di Pematang Tengah Samudra mengalami pemekaran yang diakibatkan oleh gaya tarikan (tensional force) yang digerakan oleh arus konveksi yang berada di bagian mantel bumi (astenosfir). Kemajuan pesat dalam teknik pencitraan seismik mula-mula di dalam dan sekitar zona Wadati-Benioff dan beragam observasi geologis lainnya tak lama kemudian mengukuhkan tektonik lempeng sebagai teori yang memiliki kemampuan yang luar biasa dalam segi penjelasan dan prediksi.menghindarkan keharusan adanya bumi yang ukurannya terus membesar atau berekspansi (expanding earth) dengan memasukkan zona subduksi/hunjaman (subduction zone). Guyots. sekaligus juga membaharui dunia ilmu bumi dengan memberi penjelasan bagi berbagai macam fenomena geologis dan juga implikasinya di dalam bidang lain seperti paleogeografi dan paleobiologi. Sejalan dengan itu. Gambar : Arus konveksi yang menggerakan lantai samudra (litosfir). maka magma yang berasal dari astenosfir kemudian naik dan membeku. pembentukan material baru di Pematang Tengah Samudra (Midoceanic ridge) dan penyusupan lantai samudra kedalam interior bumi (astenosfir) pada zona subduksi. teori tektonik lempeng juga dikembangkan pada akhir 1960-an dan telah diterima secara cukup universal di semua disiplin ilmu. Seiring dengan diterimanya anomali magnetik bumi yang ditunjukkan dengan lajur-lajur sejajar yang simetris dengan magnetisasi yang sama di dasar laut pada kedua sisi mid-oceanic ridge. Akibat dari pemekaran yang terjadi disepanjang sumbu Pematang Tengah Samudra. Pada waktu itulah teori tektonik lempeng berubah dari sebuah teori yang radikal menjadi teori yang umum dipakai dan kemudian diterima secara luas di kalangan ilmuwan. Penelitian lebih lanjut tentang hubungan antara seafloor spreading dan balikan medan magnet bumi (geomagnetic reversal) oleh geolog Harry Hammond Hess dan oseanograf Ron G. dan sesar translasi (translation fault). Dalam tulisannya diuraikan mengenai bukti-bukti adanya pemekaran lantai samudra yang terjadi di pematang tengah samudra (mid oceanic ridges). Mason menunjukkan dengan tepat mekanisme yang menjelaskan pergerakan vertikal batuan yang baru. tektonik lempeng menjadi diterima secara luas. serta umur kerak samudra yang lebih muda dari 180 juta tahun. Penelitian tentang dasar laut dalam. sebuah cabang geologi kelautan yang berkembang pesat pada tahun 1960-an memegang peranan penting dalam pengembangan teori ini. .

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Tiga jenis batas lempeng tersebut adalah: Batas transform (transform boundaries) terjadi jika lempeng bergerak dan mengalami gesekan satu sama lain secara menyamping di sepanjang sesar transform (transform fault). Mid-oceanic ridge dan zona retakan (rifting) yang aktif adalah contoh batas divergen. salah satunya adalah Sesar San Andreas (San Andreas Fault) di California.relatif terhadap satu sama lain. USA. Batas transform umumnya berada di dasar laut. Gerakan relatif kedua lempeng bisa sinistral (ke kiri di sisi yang berlawanan dengan pengamat) ataupun dekstral (ke kanan di sisi yang berlawanan dengan pengamat). dengan Lempeng Pasifik yang bergerak ke arah barat laut. Sesar ini merupakan pertemuan antara Lempeng Amerika Utara yang bergerak ke arah tenggara. Batas konvergen/destruktif (convergent/destructive boundaries) terjadi jika . Tiga jenis ini masing-masing berhubungan dengan fenomena yang berbeda di permukaan. Batas divergen/konstruktif (divergent/constructive boundaries) terjadi ketika dua lempeng bergerak menjauh satu sama lain. namun ada juga yang berada di daratan.

Besarnya kepadatan litosfer yang lama relatif terhadap astenosfer di bawahnya memungkinkan terjadinya penyusupan ke mantel yang dalam di zona subduksi sehingga menjadi sumber sebagian besar kekuatan penggerak pergerakan lempeng. Pada waktu pembentukannya di mid ocean ridge. atau tabrakan benua (continental collision) jika kedua lempeng mengandung kerak benua. tetapi kepadatan ini meningkat seiring dengan penuaan karena terjadinya pendinginan dan penebalan. litosfer samudera pada mulanya memiliki kepadatan yang lebih rendah dari astenosfer di sekitarnya. Pelepasan panas dari mantel telah didapati sebagai sumber asli dari energi yang menggerakkan tektonik lempeng. meskipun masih cukup diperdebatkan. Contoh kasus ini dapat kita lihat di Pegunungan Andes di Amerika Selatan dan busur pulau Jepang (Japanese island arc). sehingga kandungan air ini dilepaskan saat pemanasan terjadi bercampur dengan mantel dan menyebabkan pencairan sehingga menyebabkan aktivitas vulkanik. di mana potongan lempeng yang terhunjam mengandung banyak bersifat hidrat (mengandung air). Pandangan yang disetujui sekarang. Kelemahan astenosfer memungkinkan . Palung laut yang dalam biasanya berada di zona subduksi. adalah bahwa kelebihan kepadatan litosfer samudera yang membuatnya menyusup ke bawah di zona subduksi adalah sumber terkuat pergerakan lempeng. Kekuatan Penggerak Pergerakan Lempeng Pergerakan lempeng tektonik bisa terjadi karena kepadatan relatif litosfer samudera dan karakter astenosfer yang relatif lemah.dua lempeng bergesekan mendekati satu sama lain sehingga membentuk zona subduksi jika salah satu lempeng bergerak di bawah yang lain.

atau termal (melalui ekspansi dan kontraksi termal dari energi panas). yaitu friksi dan gravitasi. Sumber penggerak ini masih menjadi topik penelitian intensif dan diskusi di kalangan ilmuwan ilmu bumi. Bagaimana konveksi mantel berhubungan secara langsung dan tidak dengan pergerakan planet masih menjadi bidang yang sedang dipelajari dan dibincangkan dalam geodinamika. Dengan satu atau lain cara. mineral (dari variasi struktur mineral). Manifestasi dari keheterogenan kepadatan secara lateral adalah konveksi mantel dari gaya apung (buoyancy forces). Variasi dalam kepadatan ini bisa bersifat material (dari kimia batuan). Meskipun subduksi dipercaya sebagai kekuatan terkuat penggerak pergerakan lempeng. energi ini harus dipindahkan ke litosfer supaya lempeng tektonik bisa bergerak. juga lempeng Eurasia yang bergerak tetapi tidak mengalami subduksi di manapun. Ada dua jenis gaya yang utama dalam pengaruhnya ke pergerakan planet. . masih ada gaya penggerak lain yang dibuktikan dengan adanya lempeng seperti lempeng Amerika Utara.lempeng untuk bergerak secara mudah menuju ke arah zona subduksi. Pencitraan dua dan tiga dimensi interior bumi (tomografi seismik) menunjukkan adanya distribusi kepadatan yang heterogen secara lateral di seluruh mantel.

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