Definiton Mall can refer to a shopping mall, which is a place where a collection of retail stores all adjoin a pedestrian

area, or an exclusively pedestrian street, that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. "Mall" is generally used in North America and Australasia to refer to large enclosed shopping areas, while the term "arcade" is more often used, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings. A larger, often only partly covered but exclusively pedestrian shopping area in Britain is termed a "shopping precinct" or "pedestrian precinct." The majority of British shopping centers are in town centers, usually inserted into old shopping districts, and surrounding by subsidiary open-air shopping streets. A number of large out-of-town "regional malls" such as Meadowhall were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibited the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centers, although with patchy success.

History of malls
Indoor, multi-vendor shopping is an idea with a rich history. Popular malls throughout history include Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered and dates from the tenth century, and the 10-kilometer long covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar. The Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the fifteenth century and is still one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford,England was officially opened on November 1, 1774, and is still going strong today. The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island introduced the concept to the United Statesin 1828. The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy followed in the 1860s and is closer to large modern malls in structure.

In the mid-twentieth century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new style of shopping center was created away from city centers. Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include Market Square, Lake

built in north Seattle. Dundrum Town Centre in Dundrum. the first fully enclosed mall.000 square meters (approximately 6 million square feet). Kansas City. Dublin. Pennsylvania. Malaysia.000 square meters. which opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina. opened in October 2004. The Mall of Arabia inside Dubailand in Dubai. One of the world's largest shopping complexes at one location is the two-mall agglomeration of the Plaza at King of Prussia and the Court at King of Prussia in the Philadelphiasuburb of King of Prussia. Berjaya Times Square in Kuala Lumpur. Missouri (1924).Forest. and the Southdale Center. In the UK. Canada for 20 years. will become the largest mall in the world at 929. in 1954. The new generation called malls included |Northgate Mall. Gruen's Northland Shopping Center. Alberta. The concept was pioneered by the Austrian-born architect Victor Gruen. Beijing's Golden Resources Shopping Mall. The most visited shopping mall in the world and largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America. set to open in 2008. Chrisp Street Market was the first pedestrian shopping area built with a road at the shop fronts. United Arab Emirates. is the world's largest mall at 600. Comparable in size is Europe's largest shopping center. Classes of malls . Minnesota in 1956. built near Detroit. Illinois (1916) and Country Club Plaza.000 square meters (10 million square feet). located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington. The King of Prussia mall has the most shopping per square foot in the United States." The title of the largest enclosed shopping mall was held by the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton. Minnesota. in 1950. is advertised at 700. Ireland. A very large shopping mall is sometimes called a "megamall.

and so forth. seen here with its six floors. with a sidewalk in front. it is typically larger with 400. Strip malls are typically developed as a unit and have large parking lots in front.Cevahir Mall. Regional mall A regional mall is a shopping mall that is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. Super-regional mall A super-regional mall is a shopping mall with over 800. Given its wider service area.000 square meters) [2] of gross leasable area. They face major traffic arterials and . residential space. these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable.000 square feet (37.000 to 74.[2] and offers a wider selection of stores. amusement parks.000 square feet (74.[1] This trend can be seen in the construction and design of many modern "supermalls" such as Cevahir Mall in Turkey.000 square meters) gross leasable area with at least 2 anchors. regional and super-regional malls exist as parts of large superstructures that often also include office space. which serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region in which it is located. Turkey. In many cases. As such. Strip malls strip mall (also called a plaza) is an open-area shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row.000 to 800. Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas.

banks. The other variety of strip mall in the United States has large retailers as the anchors. with their spacious parking garages. The smaller variety is more common. In response. and other similar stores. Sometimes the buildings will wrap around the parking lot to hide the parking from the road or residential areas. They are serviceoriented and will often contain a grocery store. gas stations. dry cleaner. a ." Those in more urban areas are more typically known as "retail parks. This type of strip mall is found in nearly every city or town in the U. they cater to a small residential area. The type of retailers may vary widely— from electronics to bookstores to home improvement stores. compared to the grocery storeanchored strip mall. In some cases. Some of these strip centers may only have three or four of the large retailers in them. They are sometimes referred to as "power centers" in the real estate development industry because they attract and cater to residents of an entire population area. strip malls in the United Kingdom are typically found on the edges of cities on greenfield sites. and are known as "out of town shopping centres. Sometimes. and Canada. strip malls come in two sizes. small restaurant. while others may have a dozen or more major retailers. Newer strip malls are often built with elaborate architecture to blend in with the neighborhood or be more attractive. and often located at the intersection of major streets in residential areas. and private security guards. In the United States and Canada. well-maintained walkways. Strip malls vary widely in architecture. and other businesses will also have their own free-standing buildings in the parking lot of the strip center.S. There are typically only a few of these types of strip malls in a city. Older strip malls tend to have plain architecture with the stores arranged in a straight row. strip malls are broken up into smaller buildings to encourage walking. such as Wal-Mart or Target.tend to be self-contained with few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods. Malls are seen as more convenient than public streets." Advantages and Disadvantages One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets. Due to land use issues. video rental store.

the PATH system of Toronto (27 km of passageway) and the Plus15 system of Calgary (16 km of overhead passageway). and the security systems used by the mall itself and by the individual tenants. some malls.[5] Suggestions at protecting stores from crime. as outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas are favored. In addition. it has become rare for new shopping malls to be built. many early malls have become largely abandoned. Such malls had advantages such as temperature control. These "dead malls" have failed to attract new business and often sit unused for many years until restored or demolished. Crime was found to occur when the malls occupancy was lowest. California. better designed mall areas.[4] Criminologists have suggested that different factors affecting mall crime include the design of the mall. California. such as the Del Amo Fashion Center in Torrance. as more modern facilities are built. although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still much in demand by those seeking weather-protected. leaving the remainder of the indoor mall intact. have replaced the former anchor store building with the more modern outdoor design. these structures often attract people who explore and photograph them. and iron fences on the doors and windows of stores after hours. Since then. the location of the mall. when stores entrances were blind (hard to see from a wide open area). therefore.few jurisdictions. Until the mid-1990s. involve stricter store security. due to decreased traffic and tenancy. . In addition the enclosed interconnections between downtown multistory shopping malls continue to grow in the Underground City of Montreal (32 km of passageway). have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop within the boundaries of privately owned malls. during and after hours. In the United States. and when the store may have been extremely busy and. when replacing an empty anchor location. such as the Sherman Oaks Galleria in Los Angeles. the trend was to build enclosed malls and to renovate older outdoor malls into enclosed ones. In parts of Canada. all-underone-roof shopping. lights on around the premises at night. Some enclosed malls have been opened up. occupied. the trend has turned and it is once again fashionable to build open-air malls. notably California. Interesting examples of architecture and urban design.

Malls often house well-established franchises. Malls. causing them to shop at malls where they are likely to purchase items they did not intend and thus spend more money. are a symbol of materialism and are able to generate a wealth of capital simply by displaying itself as a social hub. they reduce the customers' needs and desires for stand-alone stores.Conclusion Malls are an easy and convenient addition to society. and special mall sales all play a part in luring customers into spending money. customer greetings. By bringing together popular franchises and chains. . As malls become larger. Many corporations place their retailstores in malls because of the large numbers of people visiting malls on a daily basis. malls show the consumer what they should want and buy in order to elevate their social status and appearance. Attractive window displays. consumers can buy their material needs and wants without leaving the single overarching structure. With the presence of multiple stores in the same location. however. eliminating competition from small businesses.

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