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BFJ 113,1

96

Consumer behaviour in the market of catering services in selected countries of Central-Eastern Europe
Anna Dabrowska ˛
Institute for Market, Consumption and Business Cycles Research, Warsaw, Poland
Abstract
Purpose – New member countries of the European Union such as Lithuania, Latvia and Poland are an interesting subject of study due to the fact that processes of changes in consumption and consumer behaviour in these countries are characterized by large dynamics. The purpose of this paper is to present consumer behaviour in the market of catering services in all the above-mentioned countries as well as in Ukraine. Catering services are an important market on account of their functions and the needs they satisfy. Moreover, on the one hand, under favourable conditions the market of catering services develops dynamically, and, on the other, in time of economic crisis we can feel its consequences fast because of decreasing demand. The possibility of observing consumer behaviour and its sensitivity to factors influencing food purchase decisions is interesting to both researchers and business practice. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is of an empirical character. The presented consumer research findings, which refer to gastronomic services are a part of a study aimed at examining the situation of consumers and consumer behaviours in four countries: Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Ukraine. Consumer research like Omnibus, which has been conducted by GfK Research Company for a research project: “The Position of a Consumer and Changes in Consumption in the Central-Eastern Europe following the EU Enlargement” (the author has been the manager of the project), is representative with regard to: age, sex and the size of location. The research method was a direct (face-to-face) interview, based on a standardized questionnaire, conducted in a respondent’s house. Findings – Analysis of the obtained qualitative and quantitative data allows us to conclude that consumers react to factors creating demand in various ways; consumers-respondents are differentiated with regard to frequency of using catering outlets; social and demographic features also influence ´ consumer behaviour; and the greatest number of respondents use the services of cafes. Originality/value – The paper examines consumer behaviour in the gastronomic services market. The findings may be interesting for entrepreneurs whose activity is connected with the gastronomic sector or who are interested in diversifying onto the markets analysed in the research. What is worth emphasizing is that the majority of respondents perceive a positive influence of Europeanisation on quality, competition, the level of service or observing consumer rights. These evaluations also concern the changes which occur in domestic markets of catering services. Keywords Consumer behaviour, Catering industry, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Ukraine Paper type Research paper

British Food Journal Vol. 113 No. 1, 2011 pp. 96-108 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0007-070X DOI 10.1108/00070701111097367

1. Introduction The process of services consumption in economic and social life is taking place in countries such as: Lithuania, Latvia, Poland or the Ukraine at a different pace. We observe an increasing importance of services in households’ consumption, which refers also to catering services. Gastronomy plays a significant role in the contemporary

education. Poland and Ukraine) the researchers have carried out a consumer study of an Omnibus type. and consumer behaviour is diversified with regard to social and demographic features (sex. The source of addresses was the Common Electronic System of Population Register (PESEL) in Lithuania. It is impossible not to notice the role of catering services in shaping and strengthening emotional bonds between people. Latvia. Consumption and Business Cycles Research. Catering services serve to free or use our spare time. because they are the first to feel the consequences of this process. One may also say that this market. 7). The project has been realised by IBRKK – Institute for Market. The aim of this article is to show consumer behaviour in selected countries in the Central-Eastern Europe on the market of catering services. based on empirical research. including catering services market. We may say that households in the analysed countries aspire to such a level. financed with the financial resources of Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland. the researchers formed a hypothesis which stated that consumer behaviour is conditioned by the social and economic situation of particular countries. it seems to be a rather distant future. however. economic polarization of societies establishes various roles of catering services in particular countries. There is a feedback interrelation between the social and economic changes taking place. Catering services contribute to raising the population’s standard of living.service market as it satisfies consumers’ nutritional needs outside their households. p. p. in fact. Catering services are connected with spare time. The research has been performed by GfK Research Company. When undertaking the study. place of residence. Poland and Ukraine. expenses on eating out take the highest position in Great Britain – about 34 per cent (Maslowski. and the selection of groups was stratified (Stratified Multistage Clustered Sampling). The level of consumption of these services influences the standard and quality of life of contemporary societies. occupational status). relieving (still mainly) housewives of performing onerous and frequently monotonous housework. 2005. Latvia. 2. Spare time is. The author has been the manager of the project. Research methodology Gastronomic services have been one of the research areas connected with the project: “The Position of a Consumer and Changes in Consumption in the Central-Eastern Europe following the EU Enlargement”. Methodology of sampling: in the first phase the assumed number of the Catering services 97 . 207). In the countries of the European Union. modernizing consumption structure. which is becoming more and more difficult due to increasing competition. We should note that consumers belong to a group of main actors of market transformations which occur in such countries as: Lithuania. The applied research method was a direct (face-to-face) interview in a respondent’s house based on a standardized interview questionnaire. 2006. and we observe the development of the market. age. In order to examine consumer behaviour in the four countries of Central-Eastern Europe (Lithuania. Latvia. Moreover. motivates entrepreneurs to engage increasingly sophisticated activities in order to draw consumers’ attention. Poland or Ukraine. the time which we have “saved” or “gained” (Baudrillard. Sampling was of a multistage character.

there are no substitutes for it. because it satisfies physiological needs. which has been conducted among people living in Lithuania. Motives and directions of changes in food consumption are presented in Figure 1. secondly. and it presents important information for business. the influence of environment. Food products should meet the needs of consumers. The obtained results concerning the situation of consumers and consumer behaviour. like Ukraine. similarly to the case of other products and services. Thus. services) may be considered in the context of (Kraszewski. social and economic situation of a household. The development of market economy in the analysed countries contributed to widening of a selection of food products. Therefore. convenience food products as well as fresh food with high nutrition values which is tasty and first-of-all safe” (Ozimek. The Omnibus findings are representative in respect of age. Among the motives for food consumption we may differentiate such factors as: improving fitness and slimness (e. p. 3. ecology – the quality of products (goods.BFJ 113. 11).g.1 98 sample has been randomly divided between the size of location and region. quality of conformance (the degree of the conformity with the model). and in the third phase – realized by GfK interviewers – respondents are randomly chosen from a group of people residing at the selected address. changes in a lifestyle and diet as well as women’s professional activity exert a significant influence on the consumers’ purchasing decisions in the food market. we should agree on the opinion that ”consumers expect both: a large selection of competitive (in terms of price). which lets us analyse and define transformations in the uniting Europe. buying low-calorie food). consumers are driven by various factors of economic and non-economic character. the presented research may be considered as original and innovative. or as a degree in which product class has a potential capacity to bring satisfaction to consumers. including the research into gastronomic services are significant contribution. sex and the size of a location. We may observe a deficit of the studies. and. Quality. buying semi-finished products) and the development of social and business relations. In the quantitative research. or the countries aspiring to membership of the Community. In this study quality has been considered as a factor in consumer decisions. 2006. Latvia. and also. 24): market quality (the degree in which a given product satisfies the needs of a particular buyer). When making decisions concerning food purchases. highly processed. p. Getting to know purchasing habits of societies in particular countries allows us to discover similarities and differences. 2006. preference quality (the priority of selection of a given product over other products available on the market). they should be safe. Characteristics of catering services Food in the hierarchy of a man’s needs takes a very specific place: firstly. reducing the difficulty of preparing meals (e. Factors such as: individual experience.g. which would examine and record consumer behaviour in the markets of a new group of the so-called 12-UE MS. in the second phase locations and their citizens are selected by draw. . Ukraine and Poland. the following factors have been distinguished: . fashion and imitation. primarily.

character of a product or service and individual consumer’s features (e. . . Based on the data presented above. a means to build an image of a company and product on the market as well as information concerning quality. 100).Catering services 99 Figure 1. It means that financial means are the main determinant of purchase of food products. Brand – can be defined as a group of characteristics communicated in a symbolic form by an enterprise to buyers. stimulate and direct demand. advertising is one of sources of marketing information which establishes non-personal communication that does not demand any particular involvement or effort on the client’s part. Only in Poland this factor has been outdistanced by price. Brand is also defined through consumer feelings and experiences of those who use a particular product (Mazurek-Lopacinska. we may conclude that the majority of respondents considered quality and ecology to be the most important factor in the selection of food. For a consumer.g. p. which was pointed to by nearly 80 percent of respondents. It expresses the features of an offer. Habit – a factor which can be associated with a consumer’s loyalty towards a product or company. Consumers’ reaction mechanisms to advertising messages are diversified and conditioned by the form of commercial communications. responsiveness to advertising). In the study respondents answered the following question: “Which of the factors are of decisive importance in making decisions concerning purchases of goods and services in your household?” The findings pertaining to food purchases are presented in Table I. In the remaining countries indications were several (or dozens) percentage points lower. according to a company’s assumptions. 2003. which. Price – an indicator of the value of products (goods and services) for a client. shape buyers’ needs. Changes in food consumption . should be associated with a particular brand. . . Promotion/advertising – promotion is a process of communication between an enterprise and the market. and these are the activities and measures by means of which you inform consumers about a product and/or a company. Price plays an important role in consumers’ perception of the above characteristics.

and women in Poland and Ukraine. kinds.6 24. people aged 25-34 (Lithuania). habit bears the greatest importance for consumers in Lithuania.7 79. which in the case of food play a significant role due to their influence on health. a value expressed in monetary units which the purchaser is obliged to pay to the seller for a product or a service. The situation in Latvia is entirely different (nearly 35 per cent indications). inhabitants of urban agglomerations (in all countries) and those living in rural areas (Latvia. Promotion/advertising.2 27. those aged 25-34 (Latvia). Latvia) or with education lower than secondary (Poland.4 28.5 60.3 64. moreover. Main factors influencing decisions concerning food purchases (% indications) Source: On the basis of reports from a study: “Consumer’s position and changes in consumption in Central-Eastern Europe” following the EU Enlargement (Pozycja konsumenta i zmiany w konsumpcji w ´ krajach Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej po rozszerzeniu Unii Europejskiej). Respondents in Ukraine are the most “resistant” to promotional/advertising activities (below 10 per cent indications). Ukraine) and villagers (in all countries).2 Poland n ¼ 894 52. Respondents in Ukraine and Latvia attach less importance to brand (indications at the level of several per cent).BFJ 113. Advertising can be seen in virtually all areas of everyday life. people with secondary education (Lithuania.6 19. men in Latvia and Ukraine. were pointed by women in Lithuania and Poland. Undoubtedly.0 38.2 6. people aged 54-65 (Lithuania). 55-64 (Latvia).5 28. people with . Factors influencing food purchase decisions are differentiated by social-demographic features of respondents (Table II).1 33.9 49. Ukraine). people from the highest age groups (only in Latvia these are people aged 55-64). Brand is another factor differentiating the consumers’ approach towards the selection of food products.1 Factors Quality. the knowledge of purchase motivation and emotions are used in advertisements and other marketing activities.6 17. 162). 45-54 (Poland) and those aged 25-34 and 45-54 (Ukraine). consumers are exposed to its influence since very young age. Both.5 Ukraine n ¼ 1000 83.5 Latvia n ¼ 298 63.8 57. ecology Price Promotion/advertising Brand Habit Lithuania n ¼ 301 64.8 100 Table I.5 13. As Lewicka-Strzałecka observes “It is not consumers who decide on the quantity. it is the business which persuades them to make the decisions which are in its interest” (Lewicka-Strzalecka. Price. (The author was the manager of the research project) Considerable discrepancies in indications relate to a subsequent factor – promotion/advertising. and those under 24 years of age (Poland and Ukraine). Quality and ecology. whose aim is to deliver necessary information. 2002. ways and conditions of producing goods which exist in the market.7 34. Advertising and other marketing activities attempt to influence consumers everywhere and in every moment. are the factor which most frequently is a basis for food purchase decisions of men in Lithuania and Latvia. prices. Interestingly. as well as people with tertiary education. is the most important factor for men (in all countries). this factor gains in importance among consumers in Poland and Lithuania. p.

0 63.7 18.9 42.8 26.8 36.6 6.5 76.2 23.0 60.7 44.9 44.2 51.1 86.4 22.0 6.8 13.8 61.5 5.6 40.5 20.8 57.5 22.000 .0 79.6 36.Sex Age of a respondent (years) Education Factors 67.0 50.1 35.2 68.0 52.2 49.9 50.6 59.6 84.9 62.9 58.8 77.6 63. ecology Price and terms of payment Promotion/advertising Brand Habit Ukraine (n ¼ 1.6 13.5 66.6 22.0 48.3 31.0 36.2 48.5 56.5 20.9 29.000) Quality.4 84.7 22.7 11.2 21.3 23.1 28.0 56.2 42.1 15.3 16.2 79.9 50.3 23.0 35.8 50.0 28.3 68.8 53.8 2.2 32.6 28.3 43.6 78.5 79.1 3.0 52.2 27.1 63.9 7.9 15.4 69.1 24.5 12. ecology Price and terms of payment Promotion/advertising Brand Habit Poland (n ¼ 894) Quality.6 32.7 81.7 79.1 27.9 72.4 24.7 34.1 32.5 25.3 86.9 84.1 32.7 58.6 13.4 54.2 54.0 64.0 42.9 62.6 35.8 51.2 26.1 20.0 18.0 32.6 52.3 61.1 21.1 11.5 76.2 30.4 22.4 63.2 34.7 29.0 14.2 27.9 34.6 41.6 49.5 27.1 28.7 42.7 42.1 23.9 26.6 13.2 28.4 Lithuania (n ¼ 301) Quality.8 40.3 75.9 49.2 27. ecology Price and terms of payment Promotion/advertising Brand Habit Source: On the basis of reports from a study: “Consumer’s position and changes in consumption in Central-Eastern Europe” following the EU Enlargement (Pozycja ´ konsumenta i zmiany w konsumpcji w krajach Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej po rozszerzeniu Unii Europejskiej).2 50.4 63.8 52.2 20.9 85.4 67.0 76.0 60.0 19.4 59.1 47. Decisive factors influencing food purchase decisions according to demographic and social characteristics (% indications) .9 65.6 35.7 59.1 50.4 37.3 32.3 68.8 25.4 38.6 43.5 6.7 21.9 78.3 24.4 61.3 58.3 64.7 50.2 6.3 65.1 41.4 42.2 30.1 67.6 22.8 25.2 34.6 59.7 35.64 secondary Secondary Higher Village inhabitants inhabitants 75.1 62.1 16.6 22.7 17.4 63.7 18.9 51.0 27.1 Male Female $24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 Size of location City with Lower City up to more than than 500.4 27.8 7.9 54.4 18.9 42.5 48.3 13.6 29.5 80.1 21.1 84.8 9.7 7.7 84.4 23.7 82.9 6.6 22.4 47.6 57.5 13.6 57.7 65.2 65.7 66.8 30. ecology Price and terms of payment Promotion/advertising Brand Habit Latvia (n ¼ 298) Quality.4 16.9 82.4 18.0 67.5 63.3 24.5 21.1 36.7 5. (The author was the manager of the research project) Catering services 101 Table II.7 74.0 57.8 18.2 16.5 37.9 62.7 5.5 77.7 49.8 84.6 34.6 53.1 48.2 24.5 60.0 52.7 12.4 33.1 9.4 14.9 83.9 51.4 32.0 65.8 25.6 33.5 57.4 39.0 26.0 30.3 82.7 50.3 62.7 64.9 16.6 37.6 54.000 500.3 29.2 26.0 81.2 63.8 12.5 68.5 35.5 34.6 26.5 7.0 53.0 28.3 X X X X X 82.9 38.4 8.9 44.7 18.8 62.9 25.0 56.4 27.2 31.

Furthermore. catering services may be a source of prestige (Bombol and Dabrowska. we observe a process of services’ adapting to the norms of satisfying nutritional needs pertaining to a particular social group (professional group). we more and more frequently point to social and esthetical needs (recreation and contact with other people. Poland) and with lower than secondary (Ukraine). It may be a significant indication for entrepreneurs wanting to enter these “new markets”. thirst). Poland. on the other. was important for women in Poland and men in other countries. understood as an image. people from cities with more than 500. Apart from physiological needs (satisfying hunger.000 inhabitants (Lithuania. were women in Lithuania and Poland. those aged 45-54 (Lithuania) and 55-64 (Latvia). 4. Also.000 inhabitants (Poland) as well as people from rural areas (Latvia. a consumer has an increasingly larger possibility of comparing offers. A widening range of offers aimed at diversified consumer groups (young and older age groups. consumers appreciating world cuisine) induces more and more people to an even occasional consumption of catering services. Together with the development of catering services market. secondary education (Latvia) or higher education (Ukraine) as well as inhabitants of cities up to 500. Latvia). strengthening interpersonal and family bonds). on the one hand. Ukraine) or villagers (Lithuania). consumers aged 25-34 (Poland. 2003. creating conditions enabling their consumption in the place of purchase and rendering various services satisfying needs in terms of entertainment. p. there occur changes in perceiving the role of these services in the context of satisfied needs. Poland) and lower than secondary (Latvia). Poland. Ukraine). 113). Consumers in the analysed countries differ in terms of assigning a decisive role to particular factors with regard to their social and demographic features. respondents with higher education (Ukraine). The respondents who pointed to a brand. Poland). Sala as ”a separate. which is associated with repeated purchase. Latvia. the evaluation of the purchase can take place only after its consumption. inhabitants of cities with over 500. Frequency of using catering services Catering service is a specific good.BFJ 113. 14-15). people with higher education (Lithuania. rest. psychical regeneration etc” (Sala. we may conclude that consumers in the examined countries are diversified in their choices.000 inhabitants (Latvia.000 inhabitants (Lithuania). This development implies many important changes with regard to using catering services. more and less wealthy consumers. people from cities up to 500. Based on the information presented above. pp. 2004. Habit. people with secondary education (Lithuania. distinguished in the social division of work.1 102 education lower than secondary (Lithuania. . men in Latvia and Ukraine. organized business activity. people aged 25-34 (Lithuania. We may not disregard the fact that the development of catering services market is connected with the development of urbanization. which consists in satisfying consumers’ nutritional needs through selling ready dishes and beverages.000 inhabitants (Poland) or those living in rural areas (Ukraine). Ukraine) and under 24 years of age (Latvia). and the ones from cities below 500. mass and individualized consumer. Gastronomy is described by J. because. Ukraine). simultaneously creating conditions for transformations in functions and forms of gastronomy activity. businesspeople.

and how frequently they use them. villagers and those who support themselves using non-earned sources (e. whereas the canteens were used by the largest group of people in Latvia 18. Gastronomic outlets often become specific showcases for cities. and the smallest in Poland – 2. Basic subsystems of catering services market . ´ Respondents in all examined countries most frequently visited cafes. social benefits.4 per cent). Latvia. The findings are presented in Table IV. When we considered fast-food outlets it was Latvia (17. in particular that of a younger generation. p. system and special gastronomy create the market of catering services (Table III). The largest number of respondents who visit restaurants at least once a week or a few times a month was recorded in Lithuania (11. offering a set of specified dishes. Worldwide trends connected with globalisation affected also the examined countries. This study analysed catering services and the frequency of using them by consumers in Lithuania.1 per cent. even occasionally.6 per cent). fast-food outlets.5 per cent. such as: McDonald’s. The author tried to establish which gastronomic outlets respondents use.g. It can be associated with the importance of price in selecting food products. In the period of socio-political system changes there occurred a development of the chains of international corporations’ outlets specialising in offering fast food catering services. 28) System gastronomy Fast food outlets Gastronomic systems Gastronomic outlets in shopping centres Gastronomy in department stores Special gastronomy Gastronomy near transport infrastructure: Gastronomic outlets near motorways Outlets near railway/bus stations Outlets in means of transport Catering: Canteens School canteens Canteens in companies Catering in hospitals and welfare centres Catering services 103 Table III. We should note that in these countries the gastronomy market in recent years has changed dramatically. cafes and canteens are mainly elderly people. What attracts our attention is the fact that the majority of people in Poland and Ukraine answered that they do not use catering services. people with secondary education or lower than secondary.Three subsystems – individual. KFC etc. Individual gastronomy Gastronomy offering catering services: Outlets of individual owners Ethnic restaurants Luxurious restaurants Snack bars Vegetarian cuisine outlets Specialized outlets Taverns Outlets offering beverages: Beer-pubs Clubs Discos Night clubs Source: Jenn (2004. also due to foreign capital. Poland and Ukraine. Pizza Hut. In the catering services market we may consider fast food outlets as a separate category within system gastronomy. the smallest in Ukraine (3. The people ´ who do not use the services of restaurants.8 per cent and 4.7 per cent). Emergence of these outlets. influences the changes in dietary patterns and the way of spending free time.7 per cent. ´ similarly to cafes – 34.4 per cent) and Poland (4. scholarships).

9 32.7 5.6 6.4 28.8 4.2 3.000 inhabitants and non-working people.5 1. Frequency of using catering services (% replies) Source: On the basis of reports from a study: “Consumer’s position and changes in consumption in Central-Eastern Europe” following the EU Enlargement (Pozycja konsumenta i zmiany w konsumpcji w ´ krajach Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej po rozszerzeniu Unii Europejskiej). while women and people under 24 years of age visit cafes and canteens (canteens – people aged 35-44).7 8.9 48. ´ In Lithuania the services of restaurants.6 44.7 30.1 8.4 5.9 59.6 Ukraine n ¼ 1.2 1.9 22.6 1.2 46.7 2.5 1.3 13.1 64.3 0. canteens). with education lower than secondary.4 21.4 5. fast-food outlets and cafes are used more ´ often by young people (under 24 years of age).4 17.5 3.3 34. people from cities with more than 500.9 49.0 7.4 69. inhabitants of large agglomerations (except for fast-food outlets – inhabitants of rural areas) and non-working people.4 3.7 9.0 17.7 Latvia n ¼ 298 2.7 1.8 3.6 1.8 59. men (apart from cafes).000 inhabitants and non-working respondents (canteens – working people).0 1. In Latvia the services offered by restaurants and fast-food bars are more frequently ´ used by men.3 25. Other groups of respondents who use gastronomic services are: people with education lower than secondary (restaurants and fast food ´ restaurants) and with higher education (cafes.6 72.7 19.5 87.0 1. (The author was the manager of the research project) Below the author has presented the profile of consumers using gastronomic services in particular countries with the consideration of demographic and social characteristics and the frequencies of using the services: “a few times a month” and/or “at least once a week”(Table V).9 1.5 78. people from cities with more than 500.9 39.3 3.0 12.2 37.BFJ 113.1 24.6 63.3 0.6 2.2 4.3 7.000 0.1 Specification Restaurants At least once a week A few times a month Occasionally We don’t use them It’s difficult to say Fast-foods At least once a week A few times a month Occasionally We don’t use them It’s difficult to say ´ Cafes At least once a week A few times a month Occasionally We don’t use them It’s difficult to say Canteens At least once a week A few times a month Occasionally We don’t use them It’s difficult to say Lithuania n 301 5.4 104 Table IV.7 10.6 0.0 39.4 25. and people with higher education.0 8.0 6.7 Poland n ¼ 894 1.5 2.5 28.6 2. . The canteens are most frequently used by people aged 55-64.9 21.8 3.6 4.5 3.2 12.3 29.1 1.0 71.4 29.2 2.8 56.

4 16.0 33.2 18.2 11.8 7.2 3.7 4.1 23.8 2.4 12.2 14.4 20.9 20.6 7.8 1.7 55.0 24.0 4.8 8.9 5.6 45.1 5.2 16.9 10.0 17.5 4.7 23.0 7.7 41.2 17.3 5.000) Restaurants Fast food restaurants ´ Cafes Canteens 5.8 0.3 15.1 9.0 2.6 16.7 15.8 17.4 2.5 11.5 12.4 0.0 34.8 2.5 6.9 23.4 10.0 11.9 8.3 27.2 4.5 Lithuania (n ¼ 301) Restaurants Fast food restaurants ´ Cafes Canteens Latvia (n ¼ 298) Restaurants Fast food restaurants ´ Cafes Canteens Poland (n ¼ 894) Restaurants Fast food restaurants ´ Cafes Canteens Ukraine (n ¼ 1.8 10.6 2.2 25.8 1.9 3.4 20.1 12.3 3.3 36.4 3.9 11.0 36.4 17.7 0.7 8.0 0.7 41.9 6.1 7.4 26.2 42.2 5.8 3.2 2.8 0.5 6.6 9.6 3.8 12.5 6.8 7.7 1.3 30.9 6.0 34.8 1.5 6.4 23.1 11.9 2.9 2.3 5.0 17.9 6.0 20.5 23.5 43.4 22.3 0.2 2.4 14.6 1.7 22.7 32.1 20.9 2.7 6.5 0.2 5.8 25.1 16.0 6.6 12.8 0.8 13.8 2.3 10.1 5.8 17.2 42.3 17.4 14.4 10.8 20.2 10.4 2.7 10.2 9.5 16.7 5.0 20.6 33.9 1.9 10.7 23.5 16.5 18.1 15.7 18.0 4.0 2.Factors 6.4 11.7 19.0 5.7 15.0 4.0 14.1 29.9 4.5 10.8 4.3 5.0 8.2 19.1 7.7 9.0 5.5 11.0 6.7 6.0 10.9 14.7 1.5 24.6 8.6 3.0 34.3 3.5 7.6 26.8 2.7 19.6 10.5 24.5 2. Profile of consumers using gastronomic services with the frequency of “at least once a week” and/or “a few times a month” divided with regard to social and demographic features (% replies) 105 .3 18.6 4.6 3.9 32.8 18.8 1.3 16.6 5.4 4.0 6.4 9.6 35.8 6.4 19.8 20.9 6.7 23.7 2.4 2.2 14.0 48.9 9.7 1.6 Respondent’s Sex Respondent’s age (years) Education Size of location occupational status Male Female $ 24 25-34 35-44 Male Female $ 24 25-34 35-44 Male Female $24 25-34 35-44 Male Female 7.0 9.4 37.1 1.6 10.5 3.7 4.7 29.0 4.2 18.3 20.4 11.9 5.8 7.0 36.7 12.6 3.2 3.5 16.4 10.5 19.5 11.1 14.9 7.7 7.3 15.4 45.6 20.9 25.5 33.1 13.9 1.9 8.9 40.2 10.8 14.7 2.1 6.0 12.7 X X X X 0.9 3.4 0.7 16.9 14.0 4.9 2.7 14.3 2.5 17.2 5.0 26.5 16.7 3.1 8.0 8.4 2.4 17.2 Catering services Table V.0 9.8 5.0 1.3 0.4 3.7 12.9 0.5 5.3 7.0 17.

we should pay attention to the fact that the so-called ‘self-service’ i. and there emerge gastronomic outlets popularising world cuisine. meals prepared on one’s own at home are a threat to the level of consumption of catering services.e. people with higher education.. On the other hand. should be of priority importance.000 inhabitants) and non-working people.e.1 106 ´ In Poland the services of restaurants. i. Consumers. also in terms of providing nutrition (Holloway et al.000 inhabitants). At this point it would be recommended to quote results of the study carried out in May 2009 by Chair of Living Standards and Consumption in Warsaw School of Economics: “Consumer in the Time . with the consideration of social and economic features. people under 34 years of age. though we cannot elide from the initial stage. Therefore. and due to this fact they decide. consumers are main judges of the offered services. Conclusions More popular use of catering services and an increase of their market importance attracts attention of researchers as well as business practice (at least it should) to consumers’ behaviours and factors generating demand. cafes and canteens are most frequently used by men. and the standard and quality of catering services increasingly improve). We cannot ignore the impact of the worldwide crisis on the situation of consumers and limiting expenses. In the context of the above statement. market and marketing strategy. Finally. fast food outlets. There appear more and more frequent efforts to valuate homemade food production. in the broad sense. The possibilities and directions for development of catering services market will shape demand-supply changes taking place in the next years in particular countries. which makes it impossible for them to fully satisfy their needs with regard to eating out. among others on catering services. and probably this information should be of interest to entrepreneurs. to a large extent. people with higher education. In Ukraine catering services are more frequently used by men. quality. inhabitants of large agglomerations (over 500. The knowledge of consumer behaviour also gives an opportunity to adapt gastronomy more accurately to various segments. Consumer research with international scope provides us with knowledge about consumers’ reactions and behaviours in particular countries. Undoubtedly. On the one hand. 4. the present condition of the market. expect not only proper quality but also a satisfying correlation between price and quality. We should also point to the fact that catering services play a very specific role because they are connected with consumers’ safety. They should not endanger their lives or health.BFJ 113. As can be seen in the research. inhabitants of large agglomerations (in the case of canteens – cities under 500. young people under 34 years of age (canteens – people aged 35-64). who are more and more aware of their position on the market (and also of their rights). about their success and market position of gastronomic entities. the availability of services is rising (the product and service range is more and more diversified. This information can be used in creating the offer of services. the number of outlets offering catering services increases. it is worth noting that in recent years there appeared a rather paradox situation in the examined countries. many consumers still do not have sufficient financial means at their disposal. non-working people (in the case of restaurants – working people). price is a very important selection factor for many consumers. 2002).

J. Catering services 107 . (2003). p. Frankfurt Am Main 1993”. Its Myths and Structures (Społeczenstwo konsumpcyjne. Torun. Mexican. Warsaw. on readiness to flexible adjustment of an offer to changing needs and possibilities of consumers. .. Generally. rynek. (2006).c. Konsumpcja. Consumption Society. Warsaw. which will cause popularising eating out or delivering ready dishes to consumers’ houses. Consumption. The custom of organising family celebrations outside the home is becoming more popular. A.). in Sala. (Ed. (2006). the development of gastronomic market in terms of supply will depend on enterprise initiatives mainly of qualitative character. and Tamplin. Liber Publishing House. marketing). An increase of population’s real income. Marketing. Spare Time.gov.E. Change of lifestyle. We can also point here to the care for regular eating.. (2004). which influences fitness and figure. References ´ Baudrillard. (Czas ˛ wolny. Jego mity i struktury). Organizational and technical innovations will play a significant role. Kraszewski. J. which creates a need for gastronomy development in connection with hotel facilities. which is reflected in restaurants’ offers of world cuisine (e. Warsaw. Modern Concepts of Quality Management (Nowoczesne koncepcje ´ ˛ ´ zarzedzania jakoscie). Increasing distance between workplaces and places of residence of population. Deucher Fachverlag.g. Offering services at a proper quality level – consumers expect such changes as well as a higher standard of services. Short. S.uk/ hhsa/downloads Jenn. 142. Greek. UK Office for National Statistics 2002. Italian. Nevertheless. (2002). A. S. Holloway. Prakseologia. The development of tourist movement. conducted among 364 inhabitants of seven cities of Masovian Voivodeship. . available at: www. Bombol. No. Russian and Arab cuisine. ˛ ´ Lewicka-Strzałecka.of Crisis” (”Konsument w dobie kryzysu”). Dom Organizatora Publishing House. etc. R. M. A. Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne Publishing House. Marketing in Gastronomy. The decrease of a number of people in households. (2002). “Die deuche Gastronomie. Japanese. . and. which creates a need for gastronomic outlets in companies and schools. Chinese. by the same token. create conditions for increasing dynamics of expenses on catering services. S. Market. 28. widening of the segment of single people. . which will contribute to the creation and increase of discretionary fund. Sic! Publishing House s.statistics. and Debrowska. “Household Satellite Account (Experimental) Methodology”. K. the following factors will mainly influence the increase of importance of catering services in the examined countries: . . “On Consumer’s Responsibility (O odpowiedzialnosci konsumenta)”. More than half of respondents indicated that they limit the number of meals they have outside the home and 34 per cent of them buy cheaper food products.). Increased interest in culture of other countries. .

emeraldinsight. ´ z Sala. Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne Publishing House. and she is also an employee of Chair of Living Standards and Consumption in Warsaw School of Economics. ´stwo Ozimek. Anna Debrowska participates in Dolceta ˛ and Dolceta Plus programmes (Development of Online Consumer Education Tools for Adults). K. (Wyzsza Szkoła Handlu i Finansow Miedzynarodowych im. A. How We Live? Material Conditions. the author is an expert on consumers. Also.com Or visit our web site for further details: www. “Polish people and new tendencies in consumption” (“Polacy Mazurek-Łopacin wobec nowych tendencji w konsumpcji”). Warsaw. Fryderyka Skarbka). the largest multidisciplinary network of universities offering continuing education. SGGW Publishing House. Catering Services in Highly Developed Countries (on the example of the EU countries and the United States) (Usługi gastronomiczne w krajach wysoko rozwinietych (na ˛ ´ ´ przykładzie krajow Unii Europejskiej i Stanow Zjednoczonych)). Warsaw.pl To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight. Warsaw. Institute for Market. Marketing in Gastronomy (Marketing w gastronomii). Consumption and Market Behaviour (Jak ˙ yjemy? Warunki materialne. (2005). Consumption and Business Cycles Research. Warsaw.1 108 Masłowski. Consumption and Business Cycles Research. K. where she also holds a position of Associate Professor. ˛ ´ska. (2006). I. habilitated doctor). Food Safety in the Aspect of Consumer Protection in Poland (Bezpieczen ˙ ywnosci w aspekcie ochrony konsumenta w Polsce). Warsaw. Buyers’ Behavior and Its Marketing Consequences (Zachowania Mazurek-Łopacin ´ nabywcow i ich konsekwencje marketingowe). (2004). ´ska. Anna Debrowska can be contacted at: ˛ annadabrowska1@wp. About the author Anna Debrowska is doktor habilitowany (second academic degree. J. Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne Publishing House. holds a ˛ position of Associate Professor in Department of Consumption in Institute for Market. konsumpcja.BFJ 113. Publishing House of ˙ ´ Skarbek Graduate School of Business Economics. z zachowania na rynku).com/reprints . (2005). (2003). The coordinator of the project is EUCEN (European Universities Continuing Education Network). She is an author of a number of consumer research and publications concerning service markets and consumer behaviour.