CCM TUTORIALS

STAR-CD VERSION 4.08

CONFIDENTIAL — FOR AUTHORISED USERS ONLY

© 2008 CD-adapco

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION Tutorial Structure ..........................................................................................................1 Basic Definitions ..........................................................................................................1 Running a Tutorial ........................................................................................................2 Working with commands ................................................................................ 1-2 Using tutorial command files .......................................................................... 1-3 Tutorial 1 - FLOW IN A MIXING PIPE Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 1-1 Tutorial 1.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION ...................................... 1-3 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 1-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 1-18 Tutorial 1.1 POST-PROCESSING ......................................................................... 1-19 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 1-19 Tutorial 2 - EVALUATION OF MESH EFFECTS Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 2-1 Tutorial 2.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS .................................................. 2-3 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 2-3 CFD Analysis .................................................................................................. 2-7 Post-Processing ............................................................................................... 2-7 Tutorial 2.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS .............................................. 2-19 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 2-19 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 2-23 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 2-23 Tutorial 2.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS ................................................. 2-33 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 2-33 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 2-36 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 2-36 Tutorial 3 - POROUS MEDIA FLOW Tutorial 3.1 FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC, HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM .............. 3-2 Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 3-2 Modelling Strategy .......................................................................................... 3-2 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 3-2 CFD Analysis .................................................................................................. 3-8 Post-Processing ............................................................................................... 3-8
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Tutorial 3.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC, HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM .... 3-19 Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 3-19 Modelling Strategy ........................................................................................ 3-19 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 3-19 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 3-21 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 3-21 Tutorial 4 - MULTI-FLUID FLOWS Tutorial 4.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE 4-2 Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 4-2 Modelling Strategy .......................................................................................... 4-2 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 4-2 CFD Analysis .................................................................................................. 4-8 Post-Processing ............................................................................................... 4-8 Tutorial 4.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS . 4-13 Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 4-13 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 4-13 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 4-18 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 4-18 Tutorial 4.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION ................. 4-23 Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 4-23 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 4-23 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 4-29 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 4-29 Tutorial 5 - TURBULENT FLUID STREAM MIXING Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 5-1 Tutorial 5.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW ........................................................................... 5-2 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 5-2 CFD Analysis .................................................................................................. 5-9 Post-Processing ............................................................................................... 5-9 Tutorial 5.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW ................................................................... 5-15 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 5-15 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 5-18 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 5-19 Tutorial 6 - SUPERSONIC AND TRANSONIC FLOWS Tutorial 6.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW ..... 6-2 Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 6-2
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Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 6-2 CFD Analysis - Coarse Mesh .......................................................................... 6-5 Mesh Refinement ............................................................................................ 6-6 CFD Analysis - Refined Mesh ...................................................................... 6-10 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 6-12 Tutorial 7 - MULTIPLE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAMES Introduction ..................................................................................................... 7-1 Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 7-1 Tutorial 7.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS ............................................. 7-2 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 7-2 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 7-15 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 7-15 Tutorial 8 - LAGRANGIAN TWO-PHASE FLOW Tutorial 8.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION ......................... 8-2 Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 8-2 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 8-2 User Subroutine ............................................................................................... 8-7 CFD Analysis .................................................................................................. 8-9 Post-Processing ............................................................................................... 8-9 Tutorial 8.2 TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION ................ 8-17 Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 8-17 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 8-17 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 8-19 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 8-20 Tutorial 9 - COMBUSTION Physical Problem Description ......................................................................... 9-1 Tutorial 9.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) ............................. 9-3 Pre-Processing ................................................................................................. 9-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 9-12 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 9-13 Panel Definition ............................................................................................. 9-18 Tutorial 9.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) ........................ 9-27 Additional Modelling Notes .......................................................................... 9-27 Numerical Considerations ............................................................................. 9-28 Pre-processing ............................................................................................... 9-28 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 9-37
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Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 9-38 Tutorial 9.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR, RADIATION) ............... 9-43 Pre-processing ............................................................................................... 9-43 User Subroutines ........................................................................................... 9-56 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 9-59 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 9-59 Tutorial 9.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) ............ 9-65 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 9-65 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 9-72 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 9-72 Tutorial 10 - BUOYANCY AND RADIATION EFFECTS Introduction ................................................................................................... 10-1 Material Properties ........................................................................................ 10-2 Tutorial 10.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN ......... 10-3 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 10-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 10-9 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 10-9 Tutorial 10.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION ..................................... 10-15 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 10-15 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 10-21 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 10-21 Tutorial 10.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID ............... 10-25 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 10-25 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 10-29 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 10-29 Tutorial 11 - MOVING GRIDS Tutorial 11.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS ........... 11-2 Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 11-2 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 11-2 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 11-15 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 11-15 Tutorial 11.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS .............................. 11-19 Physical Problem Description ..................................................................... 11-19 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 11-20 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 11-37 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 11-37

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Tutorial 12 - EULERIAN TWO-PHASE FLOW Tutorial 12.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES ........................................ 12-2 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 12-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 12-6 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 12-7 Suggestions for Further Exercises ................................................................. 12-8 Tutorial 12.2 AERATION TANK ........................................................................ 12-11 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 12-11 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 12-15 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 12-15 Suggestions for Further Exercises ............................................................... 12-18 Tutorial 12.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER .............................................................. 12-19 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 12-19 User Subroutine ........................................................................................... 12-23 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 12-25 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 12-25 Tutorial 12.4 BOILING SIMULATION .............................................................. 12-29 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 12-29 User Subroutines ......................................................................................... 12-33 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 12-39 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 12-39 Discussion of Results .................................................................................. 12-43 Validation Check ......................................................................................... 12-43 Suggestions for Further Exercises ............................................................... 12-44 Tutorial 13 - AEROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS Introduction ................................................................................................... 13-1 Tutorial 13.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER ................................... 13-2 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 13-2 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 13-5 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 13-5 Tutorial 13.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER ........................... 13-11 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 13-12 User Subroutines ......................................................................................... 13-16 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 13-21 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 13-22 Tutorial 14 - LIQUID FILM SIMULATION Tutorial 14.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL ............................ 14-2
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Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 14-2 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 14-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 14-7 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 14-8 Suggestions for Further Exercises ............................................................... 14-11 Tutorial 14.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL ....................................... 14-13 Problem Description .................................................................................... 14-13 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 14-13 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 14-21 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 14-22 Tutorial 14.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT ............. 14-25 Introduction ................................................................................................. 14-25 Physical Problem Description ..................................................................... 14-25 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 14-26 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 14-29 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 14-29 Tutorial 15 - COAL COMBUSTION Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 15-1 Modelling Strategy ........................................................................................ 15-1 Tutorial 15.1 ISOTHERMAL, NON-REACTING FLOW .................................... 15-3 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................... 15-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 15-7 Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 15-7 Tutorial 15.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION ................................ 15-11 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 15-11 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 15-19 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 15-19 Tutorial 15.3 TWO-COMPETING-STEPS DEVOLATILISATION .................. 15-25 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 15-25 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 15-27 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 15-27 Tutorial 16 - LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF FULLY-DEVELOPED CHANNEL FLOW Physical Problem Description ....................................................................... 16-1 Modelling Strategy ........................................................................................ 16-2 Tutorial 16.1 STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS ........................................................ 16-3 Pre-processing ............................................................................................... 16-3 CFD Analysis ................................................................................................ 16-3
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Post-Processing ............................................................................................. 16-4 Macro ............................................................................................................ 16-8 Tutorial 16.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION ..................................................... 16-11 Pre-Processing ............................................................................................. 16-11 User Subroutine ........................................................................................... 16-14 CFD Analysis .............................................................................................. 16-15 Post-Processing ........................................................................................... 16-15 Bibliography ................................................................................................ 16-23 Macros ......................................................................................................... 16-23

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INTRODUCTION
Tutorial Structure
This document contains examples of applying STAR-CD to a variety of tutorial problems, thus demonstrating some of its features and illustrating their use. However, for a detailed description of STAR-CD’s overall capabilities, you are advised to consult the Computational Continuum Mechanics (CCM) and Post-Processing User Guides in addition to this document. Each tutorial starts with a brief description of the physical problem, followed by a description of GUI operations and typed STAR-CD commands needed to set up the corresponding model, perform a CCM analysis and display the results. In those instances where graphical output is generated, selected screen plot images are also included in the description. This enables you to check that you have followed the tutorial correctly up to that point. The tutorials are structured in such a way that, for a given physical feature distinguishing a particular problem, a number of different variants are analysed to illustrate different options. The tutorial numbering system reflects this structure.

Basic Definitions
Throughout this volume, it is assumed that you will be using STAR-CD’s Graphical User Interface facilities whenever possible. Therefore, the discussion is in terms of GUI operations (e.g. selecting items from a screen menu, clicking option buttons in a dialog box, etc.) unless the required action can only be performed by typing a command in pro-STAR’s I/O window. Most GUI facilities are incorporated in the pro-STAR Model Guide panel that opens directly from pro-STAR and enables you to build models for most commonly-occurring CFD problems in a systematic and user-friendly way. The on-screen placement of pro-STAR windows and panels are arranged as shown below. This consists of: • The pro-STAR Model Guide on the right — this displays a tree structure for finding your way around the system, plus various panels for detailed specification of a particular operation. It may be collapsed or expanded using the GUIde button. The main pro-STAR window on the left — this enables you to display your current model as well as manipulate various aspects of its on-screen appearance. The latter is achieved via several buttons and pop-up menus along the top and down the left-hand side of the window. Some of the less obvious buttons are labelled in the illustration shown overleaf. The I/O window at the bottom — this confirms the action taken by pro-STAR in response to a GUI operation. It also enables you to type instructions in command form for cases where no equivalent GUI operation is available. It may be moved to the right using the Attach Output Right button, , when the pro-STAR Model Guide is collapsed.

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These instructions should also be followed in running the tutorials. “Running a STAR-CD Analysis”). together with any specific guidance given for each individual tutorial.Working with commands Show pro-STAR Model Guide Display vertices Display boundaries Display splines Display blocks Turn edges on/off Plot with legend Plot four views View Controls Turn mesh on/off Turn lights on/off Switch plot method Plot orientation cube Orientation slider controls Reset buttons Zoom On Zoom Off Zoom Back Display coordinate systems Display the cell editor Display/edit a user table Store/recall set. then click the Set Active Type button on the displayed Cell Tool dialog box. you can: 1. surface or view Select a cell set Select a boundary set Select a block set Select a vertex set Select a spline set Select a couple set Select a droplet set Throughout the document. dialog box buttons. Type in just the desired command name. For example Tools > Cell. > Set Active Type means click Tools on the main pro-STAR window’s menu bar. “>” signs denote successive mouse clicks on menu names. menu list items.... Detailed instructions on how to perform a STAR-CD analysis from start to finish are given in the CCM User Guide (Chapter 2. Running a Tutorial Working with commands If you wish to run through any of the tutorials by working in command mode. This will cause pro-STAR to prompt 2 Version 4.. then click the Cell.08 . item in the drop-down list. etc.

g. 3. e. user subroutines) to it. supply a tutorial name (e.. 2.inp (for pre-processing) or post. Create a directory for the tutorial and copy the prep.inp.ccmp. Replace any number of commands with your own abbreviation. 2.inp and the tutorial will fail.g. start up pro-STAR in the usual way.g. For a pre-processing session. The tutorial command files and auxiliary files may be copied from the directory $STARDIR/STARCDTUTS/. by making use of the tutorial command files supplied in your STAR-CD installation CD-ROM (see the STAR-CD Installation and Systems Guide for more information).08 3 . The procedure for a post-processing session is identical to the above. user-defined subroutines. etc.inp and auxiliary files (e.inp Important Note: When running tutorials involving use of the screen cursor. tut. etc. defined via command *ABBREVIATE.ccmg. Following the automatic execution of all commands. Also included are auxiliary files needed by particular cases. copy all STAR-CD generated files (e.inp and the run is terminated by typing quit./star. A comprehensive discussion of the various facilities for customising or abbreviating command-mode input is given in Chapter 1 of the Commands volume (section on “pro-STAR Commands”). cgrid files containing grid-changing commands. tut) and then type the following command in the I/O window: ifile prep. If the tutorial involves a restart from a previous case. quit.inp (for post-processing). post. terminate the pro-STAR session by typing. nosave Version 4. Using tutorial command files The usual procedure for repeating the pre.or post-processing part of a tutorial via the supplied tutorial command files is as follows: 1. Altering these in any way will invalidate the screen coordinate information stored in file prep. The files are written in separate sub-directories for each tutorial and are called either prep. 3. make sure that both the main pro-STAR window and the graphics area within it remain at their normal (default) sizes. tut. 4. tut. except that the file name supplied is now post.g. Repeat all commands in a single action. save 5.) from their current location to the new directory.mdl. This substitute can be used repeatedly throughout the session in place of the original commands.Using tutorial command files you for the required parameters and will also show you the system defaults.

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located on the left and centre of the above figure. The mesh used to describe the problem geometry is shown below. density. Adiabatic and no-slip conditions are assumed at the pipe walls. There is also an outlet pipe on the right-hand side through which the fluid exits. Version 4. Alternatively. The air stream entering the solution domain at each inlet has a specified velocity.2 of the Meshing Tutorials volume. they may continue with this tutorial using files provided in the STAR-CD installation directory. turbulence intensity and turbulence length scale. These properties vary throughout the pipe as the two streams mix. through which air at different temperatures flows into the interior. temperature.1 and 2.0-1 Mixing pipe geometry Physical Problem Description The assembly has two inlet pipes. run and post-process a simple CFD problem involving flow through a mixing pipe. Users wishing to generate the mesh used in this case from scratch should first complete Tutorial 2. The problem geometry is shown below: Figure T1.Physical Problem Description Tutorial 1 FLOW IN A MIXING PIPE This tutorial describes in detail how to set up.08 1-1 .

Physical Problem Description Figure T1.0-2 Mixing pipe mesh 1-2 Version 4.08 .

bnd and mixing_pipe. mixing_pipe.2 of the Meshing Tutorials volume.2 (mixing_pipe. mixing_pipe. as shown below: Version 4.mdl) into this directory.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 1. If you have completed Tutorial 2..cel. copy the coded files mixing_pipe. Alternatively. in the main pro-STAR window.Tutorial 1.1and 2.inp supplied with the STAR-CD installation into it.08 1-3 . copy the model file created at the end of Meshing Tutorial 2.mdl File option is selected Click Continue If you have chosen to start from the coded files provided with STAR-CD: • • Click Continue Select File > Read Input Coded File.vrt.. • • • Start pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (mixing_pipe) in the Case Name text box If you have chosen to restart from the model file mixing_pipe.mdl: • • Check that the Resume From Existing .1 • • • • • PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Initiate a pro-STAR pre-processing session that builds a CFD model for a simple problem Alter fluid properties Specify turbulence and thermal models Apply boundary conditions Perform a CFD analysis using the STAR-CD solver This part of the tutorial gives a detailed account of how to: Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut1-1.

1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Mesh Checking • In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name mixing_pipe...339 cells. select File > Model Title. In the Title text box type: FLOW IN A MIXING PIPE • Click Apply and Close Mesh Checking A simple. Rotating the mesh by holding the left mouse button whilst dragging the cursor across the display window should not reveal any malformed or irregular cells on the 1-4 Version 4. method of checking the mesh is to display it on screen and examine it visually: • Select C > All The I/O window states that the mesh contains 82. but often effective.inp • Click OK The next step is to give the model a name: • • In the main window.Tutorial 1.08 .

Tutorial 1. Once you are satisfied there are no problems there.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Mesh Checking mesh surface.1 • Click the button at the bottom of the rotate slider to reset the view angle Version 4.-1. reset the view and check the interior mesh structure: • Select Plot > Up Axis > Z • Select View > Isometric > -1.08 1-5 .

1-1 .Tutorial 1. Click Cplot to display the mesh shown in Figure T1.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Mesh Checking • • • • Click the Zoom Off button.08 . Turn on light shading by clicking the Light Switch On/Off button. Light The varying size of cells within the trimmed mesh is clearly shown.0-2 above Select a Clipped Hidden plot type to display Figure T1. Figure T1. shading enhances the 3D effect of the mesh visualisation.1-1 Clipped hidden view of mixing pipe mesh interior 1-6 Version 4.

appropriate fluid properties must be specified. located inside the Thermophysical Models and Properties and Liquids and Gases folders: • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Version 4. so no changes are required. The panel to check for this is Molecular Properties.Tutorial 1. Material Properties Before any boundary conditions can be applied.08 1-7 .1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Basic Problem Settings Basic Problem Settings Most pre-processing operations are performed using various panels of the pro-STAR Model Guide. The first panel to check is Analysis Features at the top of the pro-STAR Model Guide folder tree: • Open the Analysis Features panel This case is a steady-state problem and includes none of the other analysis features listed here.

However. since the air temperature (and hence density) of each inlet stream is different.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Material Properties The default fluid material is air so this does not need to be changed.P) from the Density list The rest of this panel’s options are suitable for the analysis so: • 1-8 Click Apply Version 4. the Density option must be re-specified: • Select Ideal-f(T.Tutorial 1.08 .

This is the default k-ε model in STAR-CD and will be used in most of the tutorials provided.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Locations The next set of parameters requiring attention are those describing the application of a turbulence model: • • • Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence option Under the Turbulence tab. in this case there are nine such regions numbered 14 — 22.1-2 Observe that there is one boundary for every cell face on the mesh surface. these boundaries are split into different regions. All default parameter settings are suitable for this model so: • Click Apply Since the problem in hand is non-isothermal. Depending on the features of that surface.08 1-9 . the energy equation must be activated: • • • Open the Thermal Models panel Select On for the Temperature Calculation option Click Apply This completes the specification of physical properties and models for the fluid. The next step is to locate the boundary regions and specify boundary conditions. Boundary Locations Meshes such as this one created using pro-STAR’s Automated Meshing module automatically include boundary definitions on all mesh surfaces. to display Figure T1.Tutorial 1. Version 4. select the k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number model. To display these boundaries: • • Select B > All in the main window Click the Display Boundaries button. .

1-2. smooth wall) to it. 1-10 Version 4.08 .1-2 Default boundaries displayed on a clipped hidden view of the mesh Most of these regions correspond to parts of the mixing pipe wall and are redundant for the purposes of this tutorial. one can take advantage of a useful pro-STAR feature that (a) assigns all cell faces on the mesh surface for which no boundaries have been specified to a default region (known as region no. stationary.Tutorial 1. click on any boundary lying on the pipe’s first inlet plane. In this case. To start this process.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Locations Figure T1. 0) and (b) sets up a default set of boundary conditions (adiabatic. They may therefore be combined into a single region and assigned the appropriate wall boundary conditions. no-slip. as shown in Figure T1.1-3. In doing this. The information displayed on the I/O window will indicate that the region number corresponding to this inlet is 14. the default conditions are appropriate to the pipe wall and they may therefore be applied indirectly simply by deleting most of the boundaries shown in Figure T1. first remove the boundaries on the inlet and outlet faces from the current boundary set: • • Select B > Unselect > Region Cursor Select Using the screen cursor.

as shown in Figure T1.Tutorial 1. click on any boundary lying on the pipe’s second inlet plane. Version 4.1-3 Selecting a boundary on the first inlet • • • Select View > Isometric > 1. The information displayed on the I/O window will indicate that the region number corresponding to this inlet is 22.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Locations Select a boundary here Figure T1.1-4.1 to change the view Select B > Unselect > Region Cursor Select Using the screen cursor.08 1-11 .-1.

1-4 Selecting a boundary on the second inlet • • Select B > Unselect > Region Cursor Select Using the screen cursor.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Locations Select a boundary here Figure T1. 1-12 Version 4. as shown in Figure T1.Tutorial 1.08 . The information displayed on the I/O window will indicate that the region number corresponding to the outlet is 19.1-5. click on any boundary lying on the pipe’s outlet plane.

Tutorial 1. hence all those remaining in the set are the (redundant) wall boundaries created by the AutoMesh Module.1-5 Selecting a boundary on the outlet To verify that the above operations have been performed correctly: • Enter the following command in the I/O window: COUNT BOUNDARY The resulting I/O window output should be as shown below. indicating that all inlet/outlet boundaries have been excluded.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Locations Select a boundary here Figure T1.08 1-13 . To delete these boundaries: • Enter the following command in the I/O window: BDEL BSET Version 4.

-1.Tutorial 1.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions Display the remaining boundaries: • • • Select B > All Change back to a Hidden Surface plot Select View > Isometric > -1. as required Select region 14.1 to display Figure T1. adiabatic wall.08 . select region 0 (the default boundary region) and note that it is defined as a stationary. the first inlet. no-slip.1-6 Boundary display with a single (default) wall boundary region Boundary Conditions Specify boundary conditions at the inlets and outlet as follows: • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Define Boundary Regions panel In the boundary regions list.1-6 Figure T1. from the boundary regions list Choose Inlet from the Region Type drop-down menu Enter boundary conditions as shown below: 1-14 Version 4.

08 Click Apply Select region 22. from the boundary regions list Choose Inlet from the Region Type drop-down menu 1-15 .Tutorial 1. the second inlet.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • Version 4.

Tutorial 1.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Enter boundary conditions as shown below: • 1-16 Click Apply Version 4.08 .

1-7. the maximum number of iterations to Controls be performed and the maximum residual tolerance acceptable for convergence need to be specified: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. from the boundary regions list Choose Outlet from the Region Type drop-down menu The boundary condition defaults shown on the panel are appropriate for this case. select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 300 The default Maximum Residual Tolerance of 0. so click Apply to confirm Click Replot to produce the mesh plot shown in Figure T1.08 1-17 .001 is acceptable so click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete. • Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button. which now includes a graphical representation of the boundary conditions applied above. Version 4.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION Pre-Processing Set Run Time Controls • • • • Select region 19. The next section details how to prepare and run the analysis in STAR-CD. the outlet. Check that the yellow arrows indicating the inlet velocities point in the correct direction and are perpendicular to the inlet boundary planes. Set Run Time Before the analysis can be run in STAR-CD.Tutorial 1.1-7 Boundary conditions shown on mesh plot This completes the boundary condition setup. Figure T1.

.01 Check that Write Geometry File is set to Yes Click Start The geometry and problem files will be written automatically and the analysis will run in the window that pro-STAR was started from.. In the Save Problem File dialog. Save the geometry and problem files in pro-STAR.08 . Once complete. 1-18 Version 4. save the model file and then quit pro-STAR: • • • • • • In the pro-STAR window. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit At the command line enter the following: star The analysis will start and the results will be displayed in your session’s window. Once it is complete. to open the Save Geometry File dialog The geometry was created in centimetres so set the Geometry Scale Factor to 0.01 Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.. Run STAR interactively from within pro-STAR using the pro-STAR Model Guide Both of these are described below.1 PRE-PROCESSING AND CFD SOLUTION CFD Analysis Running From The Command Line CFD Analysis There are two ways of running a STAR-CD analysis: 1. then quit pro-STAR and run the STAR solver from the command line 2.Tutorial 1. Running Interactively The pro-STAR Model Guide’s Run Analysis Interactively panel activates the STAR solver through the pro-STAR interface: • • • • • Select File > Save Model Open the Run Analysis Interactively panel in the Analysis Preparation folder Select Other for Model Units and set the Scale Factor to 0. you can continue by post-processing the results in pro-STAR as described in the next section. select File > Save Geometry. pro-STAR may be restarted and the results post-processed as described in the second part of this tutorial.. Running From The Command Line Begin by writing the geometry and problem files.

and the results file.08 1-19 .1 • • • • POST-PROCESSING Initiate a pro-STAR post-processing session for evaluating the solution results produced by STAR-CD for a simple problem Create simple vector and contour plots Produce plots of particle tracks Combine particle tracks with vector or contour plots This part of the tutorial gives a detailed account of how to: Post-Processing Preliminaries Begin by checking that the model file. generated during the first part of this tutorial exist in your current working directory.mdl.Tutorial 1. mixing_pipe.mdl File option is selected Click Continue Click Cplot Read in the results of the analysis: • • • Select the Post-Processing folder Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Contour Plots The first plot to be drawn is a contour plot of temperature on the surface of the mixing pipe: • • • Select the Data tab in the Load Data panel Turn On the Smooth option Select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Version 4. • • • • • Start pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Check that the case name (mixing_pipe) is displayed in the Case Name text box and that the Resume From Existing . mixing_pipe.ccmp.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 1.

08 . select options Contour (filled) and Edge 1-20 Version 4.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Contour Plots • • • Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab.Tutorial 1.

select options Contour (filled) and Edge Change the Normal coordinates to 0.Tutorial 1.1-8 Temperature contours on the mesh surface Now plot contours of velocity magnitude on an x-z plane passing through the origin: • • • • • • Version 4. 1.08 Return to the Load Data panel Select item Velocity Magnitude from the Calculated Scalar Data list Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab. 0 1-21 .1-8 Figure T1.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Contour Plots • Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T1.

1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Contour Plots • • Click Apply Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T1.08 .Tutorial 1.1-9 1-22 Version 4.

08 1-23 .1-10 Version 4.Tutorial 1.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Velocity Vector Plots Figure T1. select options Vector and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T1.1-9 Velocity magnitude contours on an x-z plane through the origin Velocity Vector Plots Velocity vectors will first be plotted on the mesh surface: • • • • • • • Open the Load Data panel Turn Off the Smooth option Select Velocity Components UVW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab.

08 . Therefore.3 to make each arrow head larger 1-24 Version 4.25 Change the Scale Factor to 0.7 to make each vector arrow shorter Change the Fraction Length of Arrow Head to 0. the following measures may be taken to thin out the vectors and generally improve the clarity of the plot: • • • • Select the Vectors tab in the Create Plots panel Adjust the Thin Vectors slider so that it is at approximately 0.Tutorial 1.1-10 Velocity vectors displayed on the mesh surface It can be seen that the flow field pattern cannot be seen very clearly as Figure T1.1-10 displays far too many vectors.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Velocity Vector Plots Figure T1.

1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Velocity Vector Plots • • Click Apply Click Replot in the pro-STAR window to display Figure T1.Tutorial 1.08 Thinned out velocity vectors displayed on the mesh surface 1-25 .1-11 Version 4.1-11 Figure T1.

Tutorial 1.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Velocity Vector Plots The revised plot now clearly shows the flow swirling through the mixing pipe. 1-26 Version 4.1-12 are too thinly spaced near the centre of the model geometry. specify the number of points in the x.1-12 Figure T1. However.directions as 75 and 66. respectively. this is not the case near the walls where the presence of a finer mesh results in more vectors being displayed. For this case.and y.08 . A plot with evenly distributed vectors across the plane can be achieved using the Presentation Grid facility: • • • Select the Vectors tab in the Create Plots panel Turn On the Presentation Grid facility The presentation grid is defined by the number of grid points in each direction across the entire plot window. plot velocity vectors on the plane that was previously used for the velocity magnitude contour plot: • • • Select the Section/Clipped tab in the Create Plots panel Select options Vector and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T1.1-12 Velocity vectors displayed on an x-z plane The vectors shown in Figure T1. Next.

1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Velocity Vector Plots • • Click Apply Click Replot in the pro-STAR window to display Figure T1.08 Velocity vectors displayed on an x-z plane using a presentation grid 1-27 .1-13 Version 4.1-13 Figure T1.Tutorial 1.

select a Geometry plot and Hidden Surface plot type Select the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button in the toolbar at the top of the main window • • • Hold the middle mouse button and drag to zoom in on the smaller inlet Select B > New > Cursor Select 6 inlet boundary faces as indicated below: 1-28 Version 4.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Particle Tracks Particle Tracks An effective way of visualising a flow pattern is to draw tracks of imaginary massless particles introduced into to the flow at specified points. Here we will draw tracks of particles introduced at the smaller inlet: • • • • In the Post-Processing folder. it is necessary to collect the inlet boundary faces from which particles will originate into a boundary set: • • In the pro-STAR window. select sub-folder Particle Tracks Open the Particle Initialization panel Select Boundary Faces for the Particle Location Type Select Bset from the drop-down menu that appears underneath Before continuing.08 .Tutorial 1.

1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Particle Tracks Select boundaries here Figure T1.1-15. Note that the exact boundaries chosen are not important in this case Version 4.08 1-29 .Tutorial 1.1-14 Selecting boundary faces on the smaller inlet • • Click the Done button at the top right of the screen to end cursor selection Click Replot to display a plot similar to that shown in Figure T1.

08 .Tutorial 1.1-15 Boundaries selected as starting points for particle tracks • • Click Apply in the Particle Initialization panel Select the Particle Generation panel • • • • 1-30 Click Generate Tracks Open the Plot Particles panel Change the Display option to Continuous Click Plot Tracks Version 4.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Particle Tracks Figure T1.

1-16 .1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Particle Tracks • Click the Zoom Off button.1-16 Tracks of particles introduced at the smaller inlet Figure T1.1-17 Version 4. T1.08 1-31 .1-16 illustrates very clearly the swirling nature of the flow. in the pro-STAR window to display Figure Figure T1. Return to the Load Data pro-STAR Model Guide panel Select Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) Select Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Select the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab of the Create Plots panel select options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T1.Tutorial 1. Particle tracks can also be plotted together with vectors or contours by producing such a plot after displaying the particle tracks: • • • • • • • • Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button.

Descriptions of more complex post-processing operations may be found in some of the other tutorials in this volume. 1-32 Version 4.1 POST-PROCESSING Post-Processing Particle Tracks Figure T1.08 .1-17 Particle tracks displayed with a temperature contour plot Note that in order to produce further plots of vectors or contours without the particle tracks.Tutorial 1. This completes the post-processing part of this tutorial. you will need to return to the Plot Particles panel and click the Clear Tracks button.

an outlet.07 m2/s3.08 2-1 . Figure T2. a tetrahedral and a polyhedral mesh. the case presented here is based on a parabolic inlet velocity profile with fixed turbulence characteristics. In the experimental set-up.205 kg/m3 1.115.0-1.17 m/s. the flow velocity and turbulence characteristics were non-uniform across the inlet section. The flow is isothermal. All three are based on the same initial shell surface defining the problem geometry but each mesh was produced using different Version 4. these values having been derived from experimental data. to simplify the modelling procedure. All fluid mass entering the solution domain exits through the outlet. However. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate at the inlet are set to 0.0-1 Problem geometry The same problem is modelled using three different meshes: a hexahedral. The depth of the solution domain is 300 mm throughout.024 m2/s2 and 0. Based on the height of the obstacle. incompressible and turbulent and turbulence is simulated using the standard linear k-ε model combined with the Wolfstein two-layer model. The boundaries consist of an inlet. The fluid is air and its physical properties are assumed constant and equal to the STAR-CD default values: Density Molecular viscosity 1. This case is based on an investigation conducted by the Danish Maritime Institute whose experimental data are compared with the STAR-CD predictions. Wall 300 Inlet Outlet 40 320 10 Wall 870 All units in mm.0-1) and default no-slip walls for the remaining boundaries.Physical Problem Description Tutorial 2 EVALUATION OF MESH EFFECTS Physical Problem Description The problem considered is steady airflow over an obstacle mounted at the bottom wall of a three-dimensional channel.81 × 10–5 Pa s The fluid enters the solution domain at standard pressure and temperature (1 bar and 293 K) with a maximum velocity of 1. a symmetry plane on one of the two ‘side’ faces (parallel to the plane of the paper in Figure T2. The geometry is shown in Figure T2. respectively. the Reynolds number is 3.

08 . Comparisons are then drawn between the accuracy and speed of each type of mesh. 2-2 Version 4.Physical Problem Description methods.

1.cel. The table describes the inlet velocity profile while the text file contains the experimental data and is used for comparing them to the analysis results.xy. In the Title text box type AIR FLOW OVER AN OBSTACLE (HEXAHEDRAL MESH) Click Apply and Close The pro-STAR Model Guide is displayed on your screen. Ignore the warnings regarding non-existent cell table numbers as new ones are created during import. next to the main pro-STAR window.tbl and the text file exp230. choose C > All Select View > Isometric > -1.Tutorial 2.1 Click Cplot to display Figure T2. This enables you to set the basic features of your model and ensures that only those panels that are essential for your analysis are activated. a two-layer turbulence model Use a pre-defined table to describe a boundary condition Produce contour plots of wall data Produce and customize graphs of cell and wall data This tutorial will show the user how to: Pre-Processing Preliminaries Begin by creating a directory for this tutorial (called tut2-1) and copy the cell. and that both are of File Type Coded Click Apply The I/O window should tell you that 74. Start up pro-STAR in this directory: • • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify the graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type hex in the Case Name text box Click Continue In the main pro-STAR window. hex. and verify the use of..1-1 Version 4. select File > Model Title.vrt.bnd) into it.cel and hex. • • • • Select folder Grids and then open the Import Grids panel Select pro-STAR as the file Format Check that the default cell and vertex files are hex. vertex and boundary files supplied with STAR-CD (hex. respectively. To display the grid: • • • In the main pro-STAR window.699 cells have been imported.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 2.08 2-3 . Also copy the table file inlet.1 • • • • • HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Model a 3D flow using a simple hexahedral mesh Apply.vrt and hex..985 vertices and 67.

no change is necessary.08 . • • • Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Given that the default property values are those of air at standard temperature and pressure.Tutorial 2.1-1 Hexahedral mesh There are currently no boundaries attached to the grid as only the cell and vertex data have been imported. To import boundary definitions from the boundary file: • • • Select folder Locate Boundaries in the pro-STAR Model Guide and open the Import Boundaries panel The boundary file is hex. This should be displayed in the File Name box Click Apply Now the boundaries can be displayed: • • In the main pro-STAR window. Turn on the standard k-ε turbulence model: • • 2-4 Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence modelling option Version 4. choose B > All Click the Display Boundaries button. The only property data needed for an isothermal and incompressible flow are fluid density and molecular viscosity.bnd.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Material Properties Figure T2. Hide the boundary regions again: • Material Properties Click off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button again Check the default fluid property settings.

The near-wall layer thickness should be large enough to fully encompass the boundary layer (but not too large. • • • • Fluid Initialization Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 29772 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Type 93 in the Pressure Cell Number box.04 m. 1 in the region scroll list Select Table from the User Option menu Click the file browser button to select the table file inlet.0 for U-velocity Under the Turbulence tab.Tutorial 2. This is a cell on the wall near to the inlet. The suitability of this value will be checked in the “Post-Processing” section Click Apply Choose a cell just above the obstacle as the monitoring location. enter 1. To define the two-layer model: • • • • • Select the Near-Wall Treatment tab Turn On the Standard Two-Layer model Select option Wolfstein from the Model menu in the Two-Layer Model section Change the Near-Wall Thickness Distance to 0.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Fluid Initialization • • Select option k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu in the Turbulence tab Click Apply A two-layer model is to be used to account for turbulence near the walls. Click Apply Set the initial velocity and turbulence parameters as follows: • • • • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel in the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Ensure that Constant is selected from the Options menu On the Flow Conditions tab. boundary conditions are specified as follows: For the wall (region 0): • • • • • Select folder Define Boundaries Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 0 in the region scroll list Select Active from the Two-Layer drop-down menu under Wall Parameters Click Apply For region 1. Click Open to exit from the file browser Select option k/Epsilon from the Turbulence Switch menu 2-5 . as the computational time will increase unnecessarily).08 Select region no.03 Change the Mixing Length value to 0. the inlet velocity profile will be specified by a table: • • • • • Version 4.03 Click Apply Boundary Conditions Having imported the boundary location definitions and their associated region numbers.tbl. select Tl/Mixing Length from the Model section Change the Intensity to 0.

.. select Utility > Count > All Select File > Save Model Use of a second-order differencing scheme can significantly increase the accuracy of the solution. Check the model by displaying some key parameters in the I/O window (number of cells and cell types.Tutorial 2. type 10 in the Output Frequency box In the Additional Output Data section.. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. Alternatively. as shown below.08 2-6 . boundary regions. • • Analysis Controls In the main pro-STAR window.001 in the Geometry Scale Factor text box to convert the geometry units from metres to millimetres Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.024 m2/s2 in the k box and 0.. select File > Save Geometry. 0. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. save all model data for the hexahedral mesh. etc.07 m2/s3 in the Epsilon box. Click Apply For the outlet (region 2): • • Ensure that the Flow Split is set to 1 Click Apply No user input is required for the last (symmetry plane) boundary region. In the Save Problem File dialog. select MARS as the momentum and turbulence Differencing Scheme Click Apply Set the frequency of outputting data to the solution (post-processing) file and specify that wall data (shear force coefficients and y+ values) are to be stored in it. This process is described in the next section. select item Shear Force from the list Enable the Post option checkbox Repeat the above process for item Yplus Choose to Show Selected to display a summary of the chosen items Click Apply Go to the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 250 Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete.) and then save the model data. Type 0.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • Type inlet values for the turbulence parameters. • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. click Save Version 4. Also specify the maximum number of iterations: • • • • • • • • • • Final Operations Select the Analysis Output panel under the Analysis Controls folder In the Solution File section. you may continue with the CFD analysis. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. Select MARS as the differencing scheme for this analysis: • • • Select folder Analysis Controls in the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Primary Variables panel Under the Differencing Schemes tab.

click Plot to Screen Display Figure T2. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Ensure that the units in which the model was built are correctly selected (option button Millimeters).1-2 by clicking the Reset View button. Also scale down the vector size and switch on the edge display mode: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file hex. Click Start The analysis will then start automatically.Tutorial 2. which is the small button at the bottom right of the orientation cube.7 Click Apply Under the Section/Clipped tab. proceed as follows: • • • • Select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. ensure that None is selected Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab. Leave all other settings at their default values.08 2-7 . 0.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS CFD Analysis Preliminaries • Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. as shown below: Version 4. select item Velocity Components UVW In the Scalar Data list. choose Vector from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Check that the Normal parameter is set to 0.ccmp: • • • Basic Plots Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel and display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Select the cell-based velocity vectors for plotting. 1 and the Point parameter is set to 0. 0 Go to the Vectors tab and type 0.5 in the Scale Factor box Click Apply Go to the Options tab and select User from the Range menu Enter a range of 0 to 1. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations. 0.

select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu In the Scalar Data list.6 Click Apply Under the Section/Clipped tab.9 to 0.1-2 Velocity vector plot on the symmetry plane As expected.1-3 2-8 Version 4.Tutorial 2. click Plot to Screen and zoom out to display Figure T2. select item Pressure and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab choose Contour (filled) from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu In the Options tab.08 .1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T2. ensure that User is selected from the Range menu Enter a Range of -1. a recirculation zone is observed downstream of the obstacle. Now examine the pressure distribution: • • • • • • • • • Return to the Load Data panel In the Data tab. Zoom in using the mouse to examine it more closely.

2 Click Apply Go to the Load Data panel Select item Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main window. click Replot To apply a more suitable scale to the plot: • • • • Return to the Create Plots panel In the Options tab enter values from 0 to 2 for the User range Click Apply In the main window.08 2-9 .1-5 Version 4. click Replot to display Figure T2.Tutorial 2. click Replot to display Figure T2.1-4 Select item Dissipation Rate from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main window.1-3 Filled contour plot of pressure on the symmetry plane Plot the vertex-based turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate: • • • • • • • • • In the Options tab check User is selected from the Range list and enter values 0 to 0.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T2.

Tutorial 2.1-5 Contour plot of turbulence dissipation rate on the symmetry plane Validation of Results In Tutorial 2. select option Wall from the Data Type menu Version 4.2 and 2.3. • • • Go to the Options tab in the Create Plots panel Choose Auto for Range and click Apply In the Load Data panel.08 2-10 . the distribution of y+ values at the wall boundaries will be noted for each of them. tetrahedral and polyhedral cells will be used to mesh the same problem.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Validation of Results Figure T2. In order to ensure that the three meshes are comparable.1-4 Contour plot of turbulence kinetic energy on the symmetry plane S Figure T2.

0. select Data Type Cell Ensure the Smooth option is turned Off Choose Two Layer from the Scalar Data list 2-11 . it is necessary to assemble a new cell set that contains only these shells: • • • • • • • • Change the plot type to a Hidden Surface plot Select View > Axis > +Y Ensure edge plotting is off by clicking the Display Edges button.5 -1. the maximum value considered acceptable for a rigorous examination of wall data.1-6 . main pro-STAR window Select Plot > Wplot from the menu bar Select C > New > Type and click anywhere on the visible surface Select Post > Caverage > Cset Click Wplot Type the following in the I/O window VIEW -0.1-6 y+ values plotted on the walls This plot shows that the y+ values never exceed 6. To check whether the near-wall layer thickness in the turbulence model (see page 2-5) was given a reasonable value: • • • Version 4.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Validation of Results • • • Ensure the Smooth option is turned Off Select item YPLUS from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Since wall data are stored in specially created shells at the wall surfaces (cell type no.1 and that for the vast majority of the flow regime they are below 3.Tutorial 2.08 In the Load Data panel. in the Figure T2. 5).0 • Click Replot to display Figure T2.5 0.

select C > All Click Cplot and reset the view by clicking the Reset View button at the bottom right of the orientation cube to display Figure T2.1-7 Plot demonstrating correct application of two-layer model Graph Plotting It is sometimes useful to display the results of the analysis as x-y graphs. Figure T2.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Graph Plotting • • • • • • Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab select Contour (filled) and None Click Plot to Screen In the main pro-STAR window. such pro-STAR facilities constitute powerful tools for display and analysis. OPERATE or ROPERATE). The red region in this plot represents cells in the boundary layer. The green region also has minimal thickness. When combined with various data manipulation functions (e. In other words. hence the computational cost is minimal. the green region cells that are outside the boundary layer but still inside the near-wall layer and the blue region cells outside the near-wall layer.g. such as axis scaling. bar charts or pie charts.Tutorial 2. Some of the code’s x-y graph plotting capabilities are demonstrated in this part of the tutorial.1-7. The following operations are normally necessary for producing an x-y graph: • • • • • Extract and prepare the data to be plotted Store the data in graph registers Create graphs by plotting the contents of any register against those of another register Combine several graphs into pro-STAR’s basic graph entity. as required. legends and Version 4.08 2-12 . called a ‘frame’ Define essential information for each frame. the near-wall layer encompasses the whole boundary layer. The plot shows that the two-layer model has been implemented correctly as there are no places at which the blue and red regions are in contact.

select sub-folder Graphs followed by sub-folder Extract Data Open the Field Data panel Click Reset Graph at the bottom of the panel and choose Yes Check that the Select data along option at the top of the panel is set to Line Enter 300 as the Number of data points To increase the number of allowed data points. The graph will plot the U velocity (the abscissa) against the y-coordinate (the ordinate). 0. as shown in Figure T2. stored in post register 4 so choose Post 4 as the post register from which to load field data.1-8 • • • • • • Version 4. ensure that Hidden Surface plot is selected using the drop-down menu in the main pro-STAR window. Simple Graphs The first requirement is to assemble a set of U velocity magnitude values along a line on the symmetry plane located at x = 230 mm. In the pro-STAR Model Guide. and produce a default graph. To do this. 300. proceed as follows: • Not all the graph specification options are available when a section plot is displayed. as shown in the examples below.08 2-13 .Tutorial 2. 0 Scalar post data is. choose to plot the graph data against the Y-axis Click Create Graph to see a default graph of the data. To avoid this. The Register Data box will show that the U velocity component (SU) is now loaded in post register no. type MEMORY MAXPRB 1000 • • • • • • • • • • in the I/O window Ensure that Line defined by End points is selected Specify these end points to be 230. 0 and 230.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Simple Graphs • graph labels Display the frame One does not need to follow the entire procedure outlined above. Default settings can often be used. 4 For the Graph Data Vs option. by default. Post data to load Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel Turn On the Smooth option Select item Velocity Component U from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Return to the Field Data panel.

U velocity profile at x = 230 mm.m/s Change the axis end-points by entering 0 and 1.mm. respectively Change the format for Numbers to Integer Click Apply Go to the Options sub-tab In the Additional Graph Labels section. in the Xmajor box Click Apply In the Y-Axis Parameters options. in the text box Version 4.Tutorial 2.1-8 Default graph of U velocity on the symmetry plane at x = 230 mm Customizing Graphs It is clear that the default graph is not exactly what is required. Ymax boxes. respectively Change the axis annotations by entering 0.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Customizing Graphs Figure T2. 1 in the scroll list and then enter the desired label. change the axis end-points by entering 0 and 300 in the Ymin. the required segment length for major tick marks. Also. select label no.1. change the Title to Y .08 • • • • 2-14 .4 in the Xmin and Xmax boxes. To swap the axes and adjust their scales: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Customize Graphs panel Go to the Pairs tab Click Clear at the bottom of the Register Pairs list and choose Yes to remove the existing graph Choose SU (which should be Register # 9) from the X-Axis Register list Choose Y LOCATION (which should be Register # 4) from the Y-Axis Register list Click Add Register Pair and then click Apply Click Draw All Frames Go to the Axis tab For the X-Axis Parameters option. change the Title to U .

85.1-9 Version 4.. X2 = 9. Y2 =9. Specify the label’s location by entering coordinates (3. Find it using pro-STAR’s built-in file manager Select xyxyxy from the Establish X-Y pairs list Click Create Graph The External Data panel can also be used to save graph register data to an external file. yellow Click Apply Click Redraw in the main pro-STAR window to display Figure T2. click Redraw to display the modified graph Experimental results are provided in a coded (text) file.5. To change one of them and add a legend: • • • • • • • • • • • Return to the Customize Graphs panel In the Display tab select Legend from the Display Options menu Specify the Location as X1 = 7.35.85. To save the data displayed in Figure T2.Tutorial 2. To plot these on the same graph and hence check the validity of the numerical results: • • • • Open the External Data panel The required File Name is exp230.xy.e.08 2-15 .xy Choose to Specify the Register to store data as 4 Change the Increment in register to 5 Click Save Registers The colours of the two graphs are the same.85 Click Apply Select the Registers tab Click on Register 4 in the Registers list and change its label to Numerical Click Apply Click on Register 11 in the Registers list and change its label to Experimental Change the Color under Line Parameters to number 7.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Customizing Graphs • • • underneath.0) in the Sx and Sy boxes Click Apply In the main window. 9. i.1-8: • • • • Change the File Name to hex230. Y1 = 8.

The former is a more suitable choice because its sign also indicates the flow direction.08 . 0.. the re-attachment point of the recirculation zone can be determined by finding the point on the ‘bottom’ wall at which the wall shear force is zero.1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Wall Shear Force Figure T2. 0 and 1200. 0. On the other hand. the total wall shear force scalar is positive everywhere and so a minimum value would need to be used to estimate the re-attachment point instead of a zero value. This may be determined approximately by using a wall plot.1-6.1-9 Comparison of U velocity profile with experimental results The numerical results are within 10% of the experimental results in the region in which the experiment was carried out (0 < Y (mm) < 180). i.e. 0 Select Post 4 from the Post data to load menu Go to the Load Data panel Select Data Type Wall and Smooth option On Select Shear Force (X-Dir) from the Scalar Data list and click Get Data Return to the Field Data panel Choose to plot the graph data against the X-axis Click Create Graph To customize the graph: 2-16 Version 4. The x-component of the wall shear force is by far the greatest. as in Figure T2. wall shear force is a useful quantity for judging the length of the circulation zone.Tutorial 2. so it can be used in place of the total wall shear force scalar. but a more accurate method is to plot a graph. To produce such a graph: • • • • • • • • • • • Click Reset Graph and then Yes to remove the existing graph data Go to the Field Data panel Change the Number of data points to 175 Choose to Select data along a Line and Specify the End points as 330. Wall Shear Force In this case.

1 in the scroll list and then enter the desired label. in the text box underneath. 9. Specify the label’s location by entering coordinates (2. Exit pro-STAR by selecting: • File > Quit > Quit.mm Click Apply Under the Display tab. X2 = 9.0. Wall Shear Force at y = 0. Specify the graph Location as having parameters X1 = 2.08 2-17 .35. downstream of obstruction.0) in the Sx and Sy boxes Click Apply then Draw All Frames to display Figure T2.0. 6. Y1 = 2.1-10 Figure T2.N Change the Title Location to 0. Y2 = 8.Tutorial 2. Final Operations This tutorial is now complete.5.65 Click Apply For the Y-Axis Parameters in the Axis tab. Nosave Version 4. respectively Change the Numbers type to Integer and the Title to X .1 HEXAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Customize Graphs panel In the Axis tab. select label no. choose X-Axis for the Parameters option Change Xmin and Xmax to 330 and 1200. change the Title to Shear Force .8 Click Apply Go to the Options tab In the Additional Graph Labels section.1-10 Graph of wall shear force along the ‘bottom’ wall The recirculation zone extends roughly 800 mm downstream of the obstacle.5.

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This should be displayed in the File Name text box Click Apply To display the grid: • Version 4. in this case.bnd) into it..663 vertices and 140.08 In the main pro-STAR window. as follows: • • • Select folder Locate Boundaries and open the Import Boundaries panel The boundary file is tet. This tutorial will show the user how to: • • • • Model a 3D flow using a simple tetrahedral mesh Apply. respectively..2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS This tutorial tackles exactly the same problem as Tutorial 2. import the grid into pro-STAR using the pro-STAR Model Guide: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. Also copy the table file inlet.vrt.141 cells have been imported. tet.bnd. Boundary data must also be imported. Ignore the warnings regarding non-existent cell table numbers as new ones are created during import. containing the inlet velocity profile and experimental data.1 except that. select folder Grids and then open the Import Grids panel Select pro-STAR as the file Format Check that the default cell and vertex files are tet.vrt and tet. a tetrahedral mesh is used instead of a hexahedral one. In the Title text box type AIR FLOW OVER AN OBSTACLE (TETRAHEDRAL MESH) Click Apply and Close Now. a two-layer turbulence model Produce contour plots of wall data Produce and customize graphs of cell and wall data Pre-Processing Create a directory for this tutorial (called tut2-2) and copy the coded files provided supplied with the STAR-CD installation (tet.cel and tet. The dimensions of individual cells are approximately the same as in the hexahedral mesh. Start up pro-STAR in this directory: • • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Choose the graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type tet in the Case Name box Click Continue Select File > Model Title.tbl and the text file exp230. and that both are of File Type Coded Click Apply The I/O window should show that 52.cel. select C > All 2-19 ..Tutorial 2.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Tutorial 2. Particular care is also taken to ensure that the near-wall cells are of the same thickness. and verify the use of.xy.

Material Properties The default fluid property values are those of air at standard temperature and pressure.mdl) file.. it is always advisable to check that the mesh is connected and has no cracks in it. No change to these is necessary. the cells are all connected and belong to one group so the mesh is OK.2-1 Figure T2. To check the mesh connectivity: • • • • Choose Tools > Check.1.. Turn on the standard k-ε turbulence model: • • • • • 2-20 Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence modelling option Select option k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu Version 4.Tutorial 2. from the pro-STAR window menu Select Connectivity from the Check list Click Apply Click Close In this case. Check visually that all boundaries are appropriate to the case and then click the button again to switch boundaries off Whenever a grid is imported from files other than a complete model (.08 .2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Material Properties • • Select View > Isometric > -1.2-1 Tetrahedral mesh To display the boundaries: • • • Select B > All Click the Display Boundaries button.1 Click Cplot to display Figure T2.

03 Change the Mixing Length value to 0. The suitability of this value will be checked in the “Post-Processing” section Click Apply Choose a fluid cell just above the obstacle as the monitoring location: • • • • Fluid Initialization Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 66638 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Type 158 in the Pressure Cell Number box.0 for U-velocity Under the Turbulence tab. To define the two-layer model: • • • • • Select the Near-Wall Treatment tab Turn On the Standard Two-Layer model Select option Wolfstein as the Two-Layer Model Change the Near Wall Thickness Distance to 0. select Tl/Mixing Length from the Model section Change the Intensity to 0.035 m.1 Click Apply Set the initial velocity and turbulence parameters as follows: • • • • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel in the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Ensure that Constant is selected from the Options menu On the Flow Conditions tab. 1 in the region scroll list Select Table from the User Option menu Click the file browser button and select the table file inlet. Click Apply For the outlet (region 2): Version 4. enter 1.07 in the Epsilon box.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Fluid Initialization • Click Apply A two-layer model is to be used to account for turbulence near the walls.08 2-21 . The near-wall layer thickness should be large enough to fully encompass the boundary layer. boundary conditions are imposed as follows: For the wall (region 0): • • • • • Select folder Define Boundaries Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no. 0 in the region scroll list Select Active from the Two-Layer pull-down menu Click Apply For the inlet (region 1): • • • • • • • Select region no.03 Click Apply Boundary Conditions Having imported the boundary location definitions and their associated region numbers. This cell is in the same position as the one specified in Tutorial 2.tbl Click Open to exit from the file browser Select option k/Epsilon from the Turbulence Switch menu Type inlet values for the turbulence parameters.Tutorial 2.024 in the k box and 0. 0.

This process is described in the next section. select File > Save Geometry.. Enter 0. Analysis Controls Use of a second-order differencing scheme can significantly increase the accuracy of the solution. you may continue with the CFD analysis. select MARS as the momentum and turbulence Differencing Scheme Click Apply Set the frequency of data output to the solution file and specify that wall data.. as shown below. • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window.. save all model data for the tetrahedral mesh. Select MARS as the differencing scheme for this analysis: • • • Open folder Analysis Controls in the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Primary Variables panel Under the Differencing Schemes tab. type 10 in the Output Frequency box In the Additional Output Data section.Tutorial 2.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • Ensure that the Flow Split is set to 1 Click Apply No user input is required for the last (symmetry plane) boundary region. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. In the Save Problem File dialog.. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. select item Shear Force from the list Enable the Post option checkbox Repeat the above process for item Yplus Choose to Show Selected to display a summary of the chosen items Click Apply Specify the maximum number of iterations: • • • Go to the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 250 Click Apply Check the model: • • • Final Operations In the Model Validation panel Select All Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete.08 .001 for the Geometry Scale Factor Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. Alternatively. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit 2-22 Version 4. specifically shear force coefficients and y+ values. are to be stored in it: • • • • • • • Select the Analysis Output panel In the Solution File section.

Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file tet.Tutorial 2. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel.ccmp: • • • Basic Plots Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel and display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file The plots shown in this section are similar to those in Tutorial 2.5 Click Apply Go to the Options tab and select User from the Range list. Enter a range of 0 to 1. Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. Check that the units in which the model was built are correctly selected (option button Millimeters).7 Click Apply Under the Section/Clipped tab.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS CFD Analysis Preliminaries CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. proceed as follows: • • • • Select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. choose Vector from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Check that the Normal parameter is set to 0. 0.08 2-23 .1. click Plot to Screen Display Figure T2. 0 Go to the Vectors tab and enter a Scale Factor of 0. 0. thus enabling the user to draw comparisons between the two cases. 1 and the Point parameter is set to 0.2-2 by selecting View > Axis > +Z Version 4. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations. select item Velocity Components UVW Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab. Leave all other settings at their default values. The first of these is a velocity vector plot: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list.

9 to 0. enter a Range of -1. click Plot to Screen to display Figure T2.1-2.2-3 2-24 Version 4.2-2 Plot of velocity vectors on the symmetry plane The plot shows very few differences to that in Figure T2.Tutorial 2. select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu In the Scalar Data list. select item Pressure and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab choose options Contour (filled) and Edge In the Options tab.08 .2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T2.6 Click Apply Under the Section/Clipped tab. Now examine the pressure distribution: • • • • • • • • Return to the Load Data panel In the Data tab. the most obvious being a slightly smaller recirculation zone.

2-3 and Figure T2.2-4 Select item Dissipation Rate from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Options tab enter values from 0 to 2 for the User Range Click Apply In the main window.2-3 Plot of pressure contours on the symmetry plane The most obvious differences between Figure T2.2 for the User Range Click Apply Go to the Load Data panel Select item Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main window.08 2-25 .1-3 occur far downstream of the obstruction. click Replot to display Figure T2. Plot the vertex-based turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate: • • • • • • • • • • • • In the Options tab enter values From 0 To 0.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T2. click Replot to display Figure T2.Tutorial 2.2-5 Version 4.

2-4 Contours of turbulence kinetic energy on the symmetry plane Figure T2. select option Wall from the Data Type menu Ensure Smooth option is turned Off Version 4.08 2-26 .2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Validation of Results Figure T2.2-5 Contours of turbulence dissipation rate on the symmetry plane Validation of Results Plot the y+ values at the wall boundaries to help verify the suitability of the mesh for the turbulence model employed: • • • • Go to the Options tab in the Create Plots panel Choose Auto Range and click Apply In the Load Data panel.Tutorial 2.

5 -1.1-6).2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Validation of Results • • Select item YPLUS from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Since wall data are stored in specially created shells at the wall surfaces (cell type no.0 • in the I/O window Click Replot to display Figure T2. 5). This is what we would expect because the thickness of the cell layer next to the wall is the same for both meshes. To check whether the near-wall layer thickness in the turbulence model (see page 2-21) was given a reasonable value: • • • Version 4. it is necessary to assemble a new cell set that contains only these shells: • • • • • • • • Change the plot type to a Hidden Surface plot Select View > Axis > +Y Turn off edge plotting by clicking the button in the main pro-STAR window Select Plot > Wplot Select C > New > Type and click anywhere on the visible surface Select Post > Caverage > Cset Select Plot > Wplot Type VIEW -0.5 0.08 In the Load Data panel. select Data Type Cell Ensure the Smooth option is turned Off Choose Two Layer from the Scalar Data list 2-27 .2-6 y+ values plotted on the walls Note that the y+ values are roughly comparable to those shown for the hexahedral mesh (Figure T2.Tutorial 2.2-6 Figure T2.

To avoid this. proceed as follows: • Not all the graph specification options are available when a section plot is displayed.Tutorial 2. The first requirement is to assemble a set of U velocity magnitude values along a line located at x = 230 mm. as shown below: The plot shows that the two-layer model has been implemented correctly.08 • 2-28 . This saves some computational time. the tetrahedral mesh has permitted the use of a smaller near-wall layer thickness compared to that in Tutorial 2. though the greater number of cells in the tetrahedral model is a much more significant factor.1 will be created next.1. To do this. and produce a default graph. Figure T2. select C > All and then click Cplot Display Figure T2. In addition. open sub-folder Graphs followed by sub-folder Extract Data Version 4.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Simple Graphs • • • • • • Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab select Contour (filled) and None Click Plot to Screen In the main pro-STAR window. The graph will plot the U velocity (the abscissa) against the y-coordinate (the ordinate).2-7 by clicking the Reset View button.2-7 Plot demonstrating correct application of two-layer model Simple Graphs Graphs similar to those in Tutorial 2. ensure that Hidden Surface plot is selected in the drop-down menu in the main pro-STAR window. In the pro-STAR Model Guide. z = 0 mm.

click Create Graph to see a default graph of the data Customizing Graphs The default graph presentation needs to be adjusted. click Redraw to display the modified graph 2-29 Version 4. 9.mm.0) in the Sx and Sy boxes Click Apply In the main window. 1 in the scroll list and then enter U velocity profile at x = 230 mm in the text box underneath.08 . 0 and 230. Also.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Customizing Graphs • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Field Data panel Click Reset Graph at the bottom of the panel and choose Yes Check that the Select data along option at the top of the panel is set to Line Enter 100 as the Number of data points Ensure that Line defined by End points is selected Specify these end points to be 230. The Register Data box will show that the U velocity component (SU) is now loaded in post register no. Enter coordinates (3. To do this we swap the axes and adjust their scales: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Customize Graphs panel Go to the Pairs tab Click Clear at the bottom of the Register Pairs list and choose Yes to remove the existing graph Choose SU (which should be Register # 9) from the X-Axis Register list Choose Y LOCATION (which should be Register # 4) from the Y-Axis Register list Click Add Register Pair and then click Apply Go to the Axis tab For the X-Axis Parameters option. enter 0 and 300 in the Ymin.1 in the Xmajor box and then click Apply For the Y-Axis Parameters option. 300.m/s Enter 0 and 1. Ymax boxes. Xmax boxes. 0. respectively Select Integer as the Numbers format Click Apply Go to the Options tab In the Additional Graph Labels section. 4 For the Graph Data Vs option.Tutorial 2. change the Title to U . change the Title to Y .5.4 in the Xmin. select label no. choose to plot the graph data against the Y-axis Type MEMORY MAXPRB 1000 • in the I/O window to increase the number of sensors (data points) allowed Back on the Field Data panel. 0 Choose Post 4 from the Post data to load menu Go to the Load Data panel Ensure option Cell is selected from the Data Type menu Turn On the Smooth option Select item Velocity Component U from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Return to the Field Data panel. respectively Enter 0.

xy Choose to Specify the Register to store data as 4 Change the Increment in register to 5 Click Save Registers To add a legend: • • • • • • • • • • • Return to the Customize Graphs panel In the Display tab select Legend from the Display Options menu Specify the Location as X1 = 7.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Customizing Graphs Experimental results are provided in a coded (text) file. i.e. Y2 =9. To plot these on the same graph and hence check the validity of the numerical results: • • • • Open the External Data panel The required File Name is exp230. Y1 = 8.2-8 2-30 Version 4.85. X2 = 9. To save the data displayed in the graph: • • • • Change the File Name to tet230.85.. Find it using pro-STAR’s built-in file manager Select xyxyxy from the Establish X-Y pairs list Click Create Graph The External Data panel can also be used to save graph register data to an external file. yellow Click Apply Click Redraw in the main pro-STAR window to display Figure T2.xy.Tutorial 2.35.08 .85 Click Apply Select the Registers tab Click on Register 4 in the Registers list and change its label to Numerical Click Apply Click on Register 11 in the Registers list and change its label to Experimental Change the Color under Line Parameters to number 7.

the numerical results are within 10% of the experimental results in the region in which the experiment was carried out (0 < Y (mm) < 180). Y1 = 2.2-8 Comparison of U velocity profile with experimental results As with the hexahedral mesh. respectively Change the Numbers type to Integer and the Title to X .08 Go to the Customize Graphs panel Under the Display tab. choose X-Axis for the Parameters option Change Xmin and Xmax to 330 and 1200. 0.0.35. 0 Select Post 4 from the Post data to load menu Go to the Load Data panel Select Data Type Wall and Smooth option On Select Shear Force (X-Dir) from the Scalar Data list and click Get Data Return to the Field Data panel Choose to plot the graph data against the X-axis Click Create Graph To customize the graph: • • • • • • • Version 4. 0 and 1200.0.mm Click Apply 2-31 .Tutorial 2. X2 = 9.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Wall Shear Force Figure T2. Wall Shear Force To produce a graph of wall shear force: • • • • • • • • • • • Click Reset Graph and then Yes to remove the existing graph data Go to the Field Data panel Change the Number of data points to 175 Check that Line is selected for the Select data along option and Specify the End points as 330. 0. Y2 = 8. Specify the graph Location as having parameters X1 = 2.65 Click Apply In the Axis tab.

0) in the Sx and Sy boxes Click Apply then Draw All Frames to display Figure T2.5.Tutorial 2. Even so. 1 in the scroll list and then enter the desired label. Exit pro-STAR by selecting: • File > Quit > Quit. Nosave 2-32 Version 4. change the Title to Shear Force . select label no. Final Operations This tutorial is now complete.2 TETRAHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations • • • • • • • For the Y-Axis Parameters.2-9 Figure T2.5. Wall Shear Force at y = 0. the predicted recirculation zone length can easily be measured. downstream of obstruction.N Change the Title Location to 0.2-9 Graph of wall shear force along the ‘bottom’ wall The irregularity of the tetrahedral mesh leads to a less smooth shear stress profile compared to that for the hexahedral mesh.8 Click Apply Go to the Options tab In the Additional Graph Labels section. 6. Specify the label’s location by entering coordinates (2. in the text box underneath. 9.08 .

bnd is displayed in the File Name box Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Tutorial 2. which will be used to draw comparisons between the results produced by the three meshes in this tutorial group.cel and poly. and verify the use of.tbl and the text files exp330..3 • • • • • POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Model a 3D flow using a simple polyhedral mesh Apply. Also copy the table file inlet. select folder Locate Boundaries Open the Import Boundaries panel Check that poly. a two-layer turbulence model Produce contour plots of wall data Produce and customize graphs of cell and wall data Draw comparisons between different mesh types This tutorial will show the user how to: Pre-Processing Create a directory for this tutorial (called tut2-3) and copy the files provided with STAR-CD (poly. and that both are of File Type Coded Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window. vertex and boundary data into pro-STAR using the pro-STAR Model Guide and display the grid and boundaries: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.bnd) into it.08 2-33 . hex330.vrt and poly. select B > All and Click the Display Boundaries button to display all boundaries.xy.. poly. In the Title text box type AIR FLOW OVER AN OBSTACLE (POLYHEDRAL MESH) Click Apply and Close Import the cell. Start up pro-STAR in this directory: • • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Choose the graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type poly in the Case Name box Click Continue Select File > Model Title.1.3-1 In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select folder Grids and then open the Import Grids panel Select pro-STAR as the file Format Check that the default cell and vertex files are poly.xy.1 Click Cplot to display Figure T2. Check the boundary locations visually and then click off the Display Boundaries button Version 4. respectively.cel.xy. and tet330.Tutorial 2.vrt. select C > All Select View > Isometric > -1.

turn On the Standard Two-Layer option Select Wolfstein from the Model list Enter a Near Wall Thickness Distance of 0. The suitability of this value will be checked in the “Post-Processing” section.3-1 Polyhedral Mesh Material Properties Turn on the two-layer turbulence model: • • • • • • • • • Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Turbulence Models panel Turn On Turbulence and select the k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model list Click Apply Under the Near-Wall Treatment tab.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Material Properties Figure T2. Click Apply Set the monitoring and pressure reference cell locations to be equivalent to those chosen in the previous two tutorials: • • • • Fluid Initialization Select the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Change the Monitoring Cell Number to 27774 Change the Pressure Cell Number to 9 Click Apply Set the initial velocity and turbulence parameters as follows: • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel in the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Ensure that Constant is selected from the Options menu On the Flow Conditions tab.0 for U-velocity Under the Turbulence tab.05 m. enter 1.08 2-34 . select Tl/Mixing Length from the Model section Version 4.Tutorial 2.

write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • Boundary Conditions Change the Intensity to 0. type 10 in the Output Frequency box In the Additional Output Data section. select item Shear Force from the list Enable the Post option checkbox Repeat the above process for item Yplus Choose to Show Selected to display a summary of the chosen items Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete. Enter 0.03 Click Apply Activate the two-layer turbulence model at all wall boundaries: • • • • • Select folder Define Boundaries Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 0 Wall from the list Change the Two-Layer option to Active Click Apply Specify conditions at the inlet and outlet: • • • • • • • • • • Analysis Controls Select region 1 Inlet from the list Select Table from the User Option menu Click the file browser button and select the table file inlet. Alternatively.001 as the Geometry Scale Factor 2-35 Version 4.03 Change the Mixing Length value to 0. you may continue with the CFD analysis. • • Select File > Save Geometry. This process is described in the next section.Tutorial 2..tbl Click Open to exit from the file browser Select option k/Epsilon from the Turbulence Switch menu Specify k to be 0. as shown below.. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. save all model data for the polyhedral mesh. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively.07 m2/s3 Click Apply Select region 2 Outlet from the list Ensure that the Flow Split is set to 1 Click Apply Select MARS as the differencing scheme for this analysis: • • • Open folder Analysis Controls in the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Primary Variables panel Under the Differencing Schemes tab. select the MARS Differencing Scheme for momentum and turbulence Click Apply Set the frequency of data output to the solution file and specify that wall data are to be stored in it: • • • • • • • Final Operations Select the Analysis Output panel In the Solution File section.024 m2/s2 and Epsilon to be 0.08 .

5 Click Apply Go to the Options tab and select User from the Range list Enter a range of 0 to 1.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS CFD Analysis Preliminaries • • • • Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. 0. Convergence will be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations.. 0 Go to the Vectors tab and then enter a Scale Factor of 0. 1 and the Point parameter is set to 0. 0. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file poly. In the Save Problem File dialog. Click Start The analysis will then start automatically.3-2 by selecting View > Axis > +Z 2-36 Version 4. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel. choose options Vector and Edge Check that the Normal parameter is set to 0.1 and Tutorial 2.ccmp: • • • Basic Plots Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel and display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file The plots drawn in this section are similar to those in Tutorial 2.7 Click Apply Under the Section/Clipped tab. Check that the units in which the model was built are correctly selected (option button Millimeters). select item Velocity Components UVW Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab. Leave all other settings at their default values. proceed as follows: • • • • Select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. click Plot to Screen Display Figure T2.08 . The first of these is a velocity vector plot: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list..Tutorial 2.2 to enable the user to draw comparisons between them.

click Plot to Screen to display Figure T2. as with the tetrahedral mesh.08 2-37 .1-2 and Figure T2.3-2 Velocity vector plot The vector plot is. enter a Range of -1.3-3 Version 4. However.9 to 0.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T2. Now examine the pressure distribution: • • • • • • • • Return to the Load Data panel In the Data tab. quite similar to those shown in Figure T2.6 Click Apply Under the Section/Clipped tab. select item Pressure and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab choose options Contour (filled) and Edge In the Options tab.Tutorial 2. select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu In the Scalar Data list. again. the recirculation zone appears slightly shortened.2-2.

3-4 Select item Dissipation Rate from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Options tab enter values from 0 to 2 for the User Range Click Apply In the main window. click Replot to display Figure T2. Plot the vertex-based turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate: • • • • • • • • • • • • In the Options tab enter values from 0 to 0.1-3. Figure T2. but all three plots are very similar.2-3 and Figure T2. click Replot to display Figure T2.2 for the User Range Click Apply Go to the Load Data panel Select item Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main window.Tutorial 2.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T2.3-3.08 .3-5 2-38 Version 4.3-3 Pressure contour plot There are a few differences between Figure T2.

3-4 Contours of turbulence kinetic energy Figure T2.Tutorial 2.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Validation of Results Figure T2. select option Wall from the Data Type menu Ensure Smooth option is turned Off 2-39 Version 4.08 .3-5 Contours of turbulence dissipation rate Validation of Results Plot the y+ values at the wall boundaries to help verify the suitability of the mesh for the turbulence model employed: • • • • Go to the Options tab in the Create Plots panel Choose Auto Range and click Apply In the Load Data panel.

5 0.1-6 and Figure T2.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Validation of Results • • Select item YPLUS from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Since wall data are stored in specially created shells at the wall surfaces (cell type no. it is necessary to assemble a new cell set that contains only these shells: • Type VIEW -0. click the button to deselect the Display Edges option Select a Hidden Surface plot Select Plot > Wplot Select C > New > Type and click anywhere on the upper wall boundary Select Post > Caverage > Cset Select Plot > Wplot to display Figure T2.3-6 y+ values plotted on the walls The y+ values are roughly comparable to those shown for the hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes (Figure T2. select Data Type Cell Ensure the Smooth option is turned Off Choose Two Layer from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Version 4. 5).2-6.5 -1.3-6 Figure T2. respectively).0 • • • • • • in the I/O window In the main window. To check whether the near-wall layer thickness in the turbulence model (see page 2-34) was given a reasonable value: • • • • • 2-40 In the Load Data panel.Tutorial 2. This is what we would expect because the thickness of the cell layer next to the wall is the same for all three meshes.08 .

z=0mm against the y-coordinate. 0.00001mm to ensure that all the vertices representing the data points are found correctly.00001 2-41 Version 4.3-7 The plot shows that the two-layer model has been implemented correctly.08 . however. open sub-folder Graphs followed by sub-folder Extract Data Open the Field Data panel Click Reset Graph at the bottom of the panel and choose Yes Check that the Select data along option at the top of the panel is set to Line Enter 300 as the Number of data points Ensure that Line defined by End points is selected Specify these end points to be 330. we will now plot graphs comparing results from all three meshes with each other and with the experimental data. 0. Not all the graph specification options are available when a section plot is displayed. 300.Tutorial 2. Begin by plotting a graph of U velocity at x = 330mm.2. Given the structure of the mesh.2 should have been copied into the working directory at the beginning of this tutorial. To avoid this: • • • • • • • • Ensure that Hidden Surface plot is selected in the drop-down menu in the main pro-STAR window. Files containing experimental data and also those obtained in Tutorial 2. In the pro-STAR Model Guide.1 and Tutorial 2. as in Tutorial 2. 0.1 and Tutorial 2.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Comparative Graphs • • • • In the Section/Clipped tab select Contour (filled) and None Click Plot to Screen In the main pro-STAR window. set z to 0.3-7 Plot demonstrating correct application of two-layer model Comparative Graphs Instead of plotting graphs showing just the current results.00001 and 330. Figure T2. select C > All Click Cplot and reset the view by clicking the Reset View button at the bottom right of the orientation cube to display Figure T2.

Ymax boxes.7 in the Xmin. Find it using the file manager Select xyxyxy from the Establish X-Y pairs list Click Create Graph The File containing data from the tetrahedral mesh is tet330.4 and 1.xy. 4 For the Graph Data Vs option. Enter coordinates (3.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Comparative Graphs • • • • • • • • • Choose Post 4 for the Post data to load Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel Ensure option Cell is selected from the Data Type menu Turn On the Smooth option Select item Velocity Component U from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Return to the Field Data panel.0. respectively Select Integer as the Numbers format Click Apply Go to the Options tab In the Additional Graph Labels section. change the Title to U .Tutorial 2. click Redraw to display the modified graph Now import the experimental data and the data sets from the previous two tutorials and plot them all on the same graph: • • • • • Open the External Data panel in the Extract Data folder The File containing data from the hexahedral mesh is hex330.xy.mm. 1 in the scroll list and then enter U velocity profile at x = 330 mm in the text box underneath.0) in the Sx and Sy boxes Click Apply In the main window. click Create Graph to see a default graph of the data Open the Customize Graphs panel Go to the Pairs tab Click Clear at the bottom of the Register Pairs list and choose Yes to remove the existing graph Choose SU (which should be Register # 9) from the X-Axis Register list Choose Y LOCATION (which should be Register # 4) from the Y-Axis Register list Click Add Register Pair and then click Apply Go to the Axis tab For the X-Axis Parameters option. select label no.m/s Enter -0. The Register Data box will show that the U velocity component (SU) is now loaded in post register no.08 2-42 . Xmax boxes. 9.1 in the Xmajor box and click Apply For the Y-Axis Parameters option. choose to plot the graph data against the Y-axis Type MEMORY MAXPRB 2000 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • in the I/O window to increase the number of sensors (data points) allowed Back on the Field Data panel. Also. change the Title to Y . enter 0 and 300 in the Ymin. Find it using the file manager Version 4. respectively Enter 0.

These graphs have been generated in the same way as Figure T2.xy using the file manager Select xyxyxy from the Establish X-Y pairs list Select Create Graph Using the same technique as described in Tutorial 2.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Comparative Graphs • • • • • Select xyxyxy from the Establish X-Y pairs list Click Create Graph Select File exp330. Note that you will need to rename the graph registers containing the y-axis data.08 2-43 . x =230 mm and x = 380 mm are also available and graphs of these are shown below. add a legend to the plot.3-8 Graph comparing U velocity data at x = 330 mm Files containing data at x = 30 mm.3-8.Tutorial 2.3-8. Version 4. The result is displayed in Figure T2.1. Figure T2.

3-10 Graph comparing U velocity data at x = 230 mm 2-44 Version 4.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Comparative Graphs Figure T2.Tutorial 2.08 .3-9 Graph comparing U velocity data at x = 30 mm Figure T2.

Table 1:Comparison of run data Mesh Hexahedral Tetrahedral Polyhedral No.08 2-45 . of CPU Time (s)a iterations 212 203 92 396 681 217 a. Conversely. the hexahedral mesh is marginally more accurate than the other two.3-11 Graph comparing U velocity data at x = 380 mm The results from the three meshes show broad agreement with the experimental data. Exit pro-STAR by selecting: • File > Quit > Quit.Run time will vary with computer speed The polyhedral mesh fills the problem geometry much more efficiently.Tutorial 2. In this region in particular.2 would be expected to produce a significant increase in accuracy with little increase in run time. primarily in the recirculation zone. Nosave Version 4. examination of the model size and number of iterations and time required to reach convergence (shown in Table 1) shows that the polyhedral mesh may be preferable. Final Operations This tutorial is now complete.3 POLYHEDRAL MESH ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T2. However. allowing fewer cells to be used and run times to be reduced without significantly degrading the solution accuracy. of cells 67699 140141 60838 No. although all of them also show discrepancies. a polyhedral mesh with as many cells as the tetrahedral mesh in Tutorial 2.

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Tutorial 3 POROUS MEDIA FLOW The tutorials in this group are designed to familiarise users with STAR-CD’s capabilities for modelling porous media flow.08 3-1 . A polyhedral mesh.0-1 Mesh geometry Version 4. The tutorials demonstrate how to model flow in highly porous (isotropic and orthotropic) or moderately porous media. Figure T3. based on the geometry used in Meshing Tutorial 7 (see the Meshing Tutorials volume) is provided.

catalyst. In this case α = 25 and β = 1500.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file catalyst.cel..vrt. • • • • • • • Start pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (cat_iso) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Select File > Read Input Coded File. Modelling Strategy The following steps are taken to set up the model: • • • • In the cell table list. catalyst.Tutorial 3. These values are roughly what would be expected from a porous catalyst.bnd and catalyst.. The pressure drop per unit length is given by the equation ∆p -----.08 . HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Model flow through an isotropic. define a porosity index for the porous medium Define porous properties pertaining to that porosity index Select a cell range for the porous medium Modify the cell type of the selected cell range Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut3-1.. highly porous medium Produce vector and contour plots Compute sums and averages of field data Check the validity of the porous model This tutorial aims to demonstrate how to: Physical Problem Description The tutorial models an isotropic porous subdomain of length 0. • 3-2 In the main window.03 m in the centre of the catalyst geometry. β are coefficients defining the porous resistance.inp as well as problem geometry and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files.1 FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 3.= – ( αv + β )v L where v is the superficial velocity through the medium and α. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog. Values for the resistance coefficients can be measured experimentally or derived using various empirical relationships. depending on the exact nature of the problem (see Chapter 8 of the Methodology volume).inp supplied with the STAR-CD installation into it. Version 4..1 • • • • FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC. select File > Model Title. Copy the coded files catalyst. select the File name catalyst.

1 FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC.1.0-1 Material Properties This part of the model building is conveniently handled through a series of panels under the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder. define the porous subdomain. • • • Open the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder to display the available facilities Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel In this tutorial. so the properties shown on the panel are acceptable. Check Hidden Surface is selected as the cell plot type Select Plot > Up Axis > Z Set the viewpoint by selecting View > Isometric > -1. density and viscosity are assumed to be constant.108 cells.run).Tutorial 3. 2 in the Cell Editor’s scroll list Select Fluid from the Cell Type menu Change the value in the Porosity Index box to 1 Type POR1 in the Name box Click Apply and then Close Version 4. The I/O window tells you that the mesh has 103. In the cell table list.08 3-3 . Next. The displayed Reference Data defaults for pressure and reference pressure cell location are also acceptable.1 Click Cplot The mesh geometry is shown in Figure T3. The I/O window tells you that the mesh read in has 29. Select cell row no. Select V > All. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Pre-Processing Mesh Checking • In the Title text box type: 3D FLOW THROUGH AN ISOTROPIC HIGHLY POROUS CATALYST • Mesh Checking Click Apply and Close Verify that the mesh data are correct by selecting all cells and vertices and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • • In the main window. • • • • • Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for Turbulence to set up a turbulent flow Select the desired turbulence model.488 vertices. the fluid is air at standard pressure and temperature and its temperature. click the Cell Editor button. define cells of type 2 as belonging to a porous medium (called POR1 and identified by colour 3 and porosity index 1): • • • • • • In the Utilities toolbar. select C > All. The cell number appears in the Monitoring Cell Number box and can be left at its default value of 1. from the Model menu in the Turbulence tab Click Apply to save your settings Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel to check the cell whose flow variable values will be sent to the solution monitoring file (cat_iso. These conditions are also the pro-STAR defaults. K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number.

1.08 . X2. i.. 4.Tutorial 3. To include these three layers.1-1 Change the viewpoint by selecting View > Isometric > -1.1 FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC. and X3 boxes Type 1500 for Beta in the X1. they may be removed from the cell set by selecting C > Unselect > Zone and drawing a box around them Click Cplot • Some of the blue extrusion-layer cells are also part of the porous subdomain.X2. 1 3-4 Version 4. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Pre-Processing Material Properties Specify the resistance coefficients in the global Cartesian directions: • • • • • • • • Go to the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select sub-folder Porosity Open the Porous Resistance and Porosity panel Check that option By Local Coordinate System is selected from the Define (X1.e. you will need to ‘grow’ the cell set three times: • • • • • • • • Select V > New > Cell Set Select C > New > Vertex Set Face Select V > New > Cell Set Select C > New > Vertex Set Face Select V > New > Cell Set Select C > New > Vertex Set Face Click Cplot to display Figure T3. X2. those within the catalyst ring.101 cells will be selected If any cells outside the ring are accidentally selected.X3) menu and 1 is entered in the Coordinate System box Type 25 for Alpha in the X1. and X3 boxes Leave the Porosity at its default value of 1 Click Apply Collect all cells that will take on porous properties into a set: • • • • • • Select View > Axis > -X Select C > Unselect > Type and click on any of the blue extrusion-layer cells Click Cplot Select C > New > Zone Carefully draw a box enclosing only the central block of cells.

HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Pre-Processing Material Properties Figure T3. select the whole mesh and display it as shown in Figure T3.1 FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC. You will see that the colour of the chosen cells is now green (colour 3). In the Cell Tool scroll list...1-1 Catalyst ring Assign the selected cells to the currently active cell type (no. select C > All Click Cplot Select View > Isometric > -1.1-2 to confirm visually that the correct cells have become porous.Tutorial 3. select Tools > Cell. highlight cell type number 2 and then choose Modify > Modify Type (Cell Set) Click Replot. 2) and plot: • • • • In the main window. 1 Version 4. 1. confirming the change to porous cells.08 3-5 . • • • In the main window. Close the Cell Tool Finally.

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Pre-Processing Boundary conditions

Figure T3.1-2

Mesh geometry displaying porous subdomain

Boundary conditions

Specify boundary conditions for the inlet and outlet boundary regions: • • • • Select folder Define Boundaries and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no. 1 (the inlet) in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions as shown below:

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Click Apply Select region no. 2 (the outlet) in the scroll list The default settings are acceptable, so click Apply

Check visually that the boundary conditions are applied correctly: • • • Final Operations Click the Display Boundaries button, Select B > All Click Cplot

The pre-processing task is now complete. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage, save all model data, write the problem and geometry files and exit from pro-STAR, as shown below. Alternatively, you may run STAR interactively, as described in the next section. • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel, select File > Save Geometry... Set the Geometry Scale Factor to 0.1. This gives the catalyst a realistic maximum diameter of 10cm Click Apply. Ignore the I/O window warning regarding the scale factor Click Close Select File > Save Problem... In the Save Problem File dialog, click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit
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CFD Analysis Preliminaries

CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively, proceed as follows: • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel, select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder, open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select Other for the Model Units option and enter a Scale Factor of 0.1 Click Start

The analysis will then start automatically. The solution should satisfy the convergence criteria within the specified maximum number of iterations. Check file cat_iso.info for error messages during the run. There should be none. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis: • • • Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file

You are now ready to start the post-processing session. Postprocessing Load the velocity vector components and then plot the vectors: • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list, select item Velocity Components UVW to load all three velocity components Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab, check that Vector is selected from the Option menu and select Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Change the Normal vector to -1, 0, 0 Click Apply Click Plot to Screen Click off the Display Boundaries button, Select View > SNormal View to display Figure T3.1-3

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Post-Processing Post- processing

Figure T3.1-3

Velocity vector plot on the y-z plane

To establish the approximate mean velocity magnitude in the porous subdomain: • • • • Open the Cell Tool and select cell type number 2 Click Set Active Type Close the Cell Tool Select C > New > Type Current and then click Cplot to display Figure T3.1-4

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Post-Processing Post- processing

Figure T3.1-4

Velocity vectors on the y-z plane in the porous region

Note that the mean velocity magnitude through the porous cells is approximately 3.2 m/s. Now inspect the pressure variation throughout the model: • • • • • • • • Select C > All Go back to the Load Data panel In the Data tab, select option Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu In the Scalar Data list, select item Pressure and then click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab, select plot options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen Click Cplot to display Figure T3.1-5

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Post-Processing Analysis of Results

Figure T3.1-5

Cell-averaged filled contour plot of pressure

Analysis of Results

Figure T3.1-5 shows that the largest pressure drop occurs across the porous cells. To see the value of this drop more clearly, collect all cells within the porous region (porosity index 1) into a set and plot pressure contours on the surface of the porous medium. • • • • In the main window, select C > New > Porosity When the cursor appears on your screen, click any cell in the porous region. The I/O window message should indicate that 9,621 cells have been selected Select View > Isometric > -1,1,1 Click Cplot to display Figure T3.1-6

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Post-Processing Analysis of Results

Figure T3.1-6

Filled contour plot of pressure on the surface of the porous medium

Figure T3.1-6 shows that the pressure across the upstream interface of the porous medium is non-uniform, so an average needs to be calculated. To do this, it is necessary to collect all cells on each of the porous interfaces into a set: • • • • • • • • • • • Select V > New > Cell Set Surface Select Tools > Cell... In the Cell Tool, select number 11 from the list and click Set Active Type Select C > New > Type Current Select V > Subset > Cell Set Surface Select C > New > Vertex Set Face Click Cplot Select View > Axis > -X Ensure the Display Edges and Display Mesh Lines buttons are turned off to display Figure T3.1-7 Select C > Subset > Zone Draw a box around the left-hand (upstream) group of cells

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Figure T3.1-7

Vertex set on the upstream boundary of the porous medium

The pressure values at the fluid cells adjacent to the porous medium can be reasonably used to approximate the pressure values on the upstream surface of the porous medium, given that the pressure drop across this medium is much greater than that in the unresisted flow. In addition, cell values are more suitable than surface vertex values since the latter are averages of cell values on either side of the surface separating the porous from the non-porous subdomain, and may lead to a possible underestimate of the pressure drop. This point is illustrated in Figure T3.1-8.

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Porous subdomain

Pressure

Actual surface value Values at adjacent cells

Vertex value

y-coordinate

Figure T3.1-8

Diagram illustrating the reason for choosing cell-centred pressure values

Load the pressure values and their corresponding cell volumes into pro-STAR’s post registers: • • • • • • • Select Post > Operate... In the Post Register Operations dialog, select Function Category Load cell data > Pressure Choose to Load cell pressure into Register 5 Using Relative Values Click Apply Select Function Category Load cell data > Volume Select Register 6 Click Apply

The average pressure value should be accurately volume-weighted. If the cell values were averaged without volume-weighting, the small near-wall cells would be over-represented and the pressure magnitude would thus be underestimated. To calculate the pressure-volume product for each cell:
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Post-Processing Analysis of Results

• • •

Select Function Category Multi-register > Multiply Select Register 4 = Register 5 * Register 6 Click Apply then Close

Sum the pressure-volume product on the upstream surface of the porous medium: • In the I/O window, type *get prs1 rtot 4. A value of 1.505 should be displayed.

Sum the cell volumes on the upstream surface of the porous medium: • In the I/O window, type *get vol1 rtot 6. A value of 0.822e-2 should be displayed.

The volume-weighted average pressure across the upstream surface is the first of these parameters divided by the second, i.e., 183.09 Pa. The pressure across the downstream surface of the porous medium is also non-uniform, though to a much lesser degree. The average pressure across the non-porous cells on this surface can be calculated similarly and was found to be 33.88 Pa. The average pressure drop is therefore 149.21 Pa compared to a theoretical pressure drop of 151.68 Pa. Since the theoretical value assumes a constant superficial velocity of 3.2 m/s throughout the porous medium, while the calculated velocity varies, the 1.6% discrepancy between the theoretical and calculated pressure drops is acceptable. The turbulence parameters can be inspected by plotting the relevant contours: • • • • • • • • • • • • Select C > All Select View > SNormal View Go back to the Load Data panel Check Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) is selected Select item Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab, select options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot To Screen and Cplot to display Figure T3.1-9 In the Load Data panel, select item Dissipation Rate from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main window, click Replot to display Figure T3.1-10

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Figure T3.1-9

Turbulence kinetic energy contour plot

Figure T3.1-10

Dissipation rate contour plot

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2 m/s): αL -----.08 3-17 . Nosave Version 4. the use of the porosity model is justified.= 11.622 ρ βL ------.Tutorial 3. This condition is satisfied here and the total resistance term is one order of magnitude greater than the convection term.989 m2/s3 for the turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Fixing the turbulence parameters within the porous subdomain causes the flow downstream of it to exhibit very little turbulence. Note that such settings may be changed via the Turbulence Properties panel within the Thermophysical Models and Properties > Porosity sub-folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide. confirm that STAR-CD’s porous model has been used correctly by normalising the resistance coefficients as follows (again assuming a superficial through-flow velocity of 3.01 m. Therefore. Finally.1 FLOW IN AN ISOTROPIC.67 ρV The simplified momentum equation employed within the porous medium is only valid if the sum of the normalised parameters is >> 1. Quit the pro-STAR session by choosing: • File > Quit > Quit. respectively. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Analysis of Results Turbulence parameters are fixed in the porous medium by assuming a turbulence intensity of 10% and length scale of 0.154 m2/s2 and 0. These correspond to values of 0.= 0.

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The values of these coefficients in the y-direction are the same as in Tutorial 3. resistance coefficients are set up so as to prevent flow along the x.e.Tutorial 3. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Model flow through an orthotropic.08 In the main window.mdl) into it Rename this file cat_ortho. as follows: • • • Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut3-2 and copy the model file generated in Tutorial 3. select File > Model Title. αy = 25 and βy = 1500 Modelling Strategy The modelling steps used in setting up this case are identical to those described in Tutorial 3.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC. except that the porous medium now has orthotropic properties.. highly porous medium Produce vector and contour plots Compute sums and averages of field data Check the validity of the porous model This tutorial aims to demonstrate how to: • • • • Physical Problem Description In this tutorial. 3-19 . the isotropic.mdl File option Deselect the Append to Previous ..e.ccmp) to the current directory Start up the pro-STAR interface: • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Accept the default case name (cat_ortho) displayed in the Case Name text box Select the Resume From Existing . it is also necessary to copy the solution file for that case (cat_iso. cat_iso.1.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC. i..1. highly porous medium specified in Tutorial 3.1 (i.1 will act as the starting point of the current analysis. Pre-Processing Preliminaries A number of preliminary file-copying operations are needed for proper operation of this tutorial.echo File option Click Continue The above reads the data in file cat_ortho. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 3.1 is re-defined as an orthotropic porous medium.and z-directions of the global Cartesian coordinate system (see Figure T3.mdl Since the solution obtained in Tutorial 3.1. • Version 4. To this end.mdl and sets up the model as it was at the end of Tutorial 3.2-1).

08 3-20 . to Figure T3.2-1 . change the title to: 3D FLOW THROUGH AN ORTHOTROPIC HIGHLY POROUS CATALYST • Click Apply and Close Check the model geometry retrieved from file cat_ortho.X3) menu and 1 is entered in the Coordinate System box Type 1e6 in the X1 boxes for Alpha and Beta Check that 25 is entered in the X2 box for Alpha and 1500 is entered in the X2 box for Beta Type 1e6 in the X3 boxes for Alpha and Beta Version 4. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Pre-Processing Material Properties • In the Title text box.2-1 Mesh Geometry Material Properties Enter appropriate resistance coefficients for the porous medium in the Cartesian coordinate system: • • • • • • • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties Select sub-folder Porosity Open the Porous Resistance and Porosity panel Check that option By Local Coordinate System is selected from the Define (X1.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC.Tutorial 3.X2. display Figure T3.mdl • • • Select C > All In the main window. click Cplot Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button.

as described in the next section. proceed as follows: • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. In the Save Problem File dialog. select file cat_iso. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively.08 Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list. save all model data.1 then click Start The analysis will then start automatically. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM CFD Analysis Run Time Controls • Run Time Controls Click Apply Set restart options so that the analysis will restart from the solution file of Tutorial 3.ccmp from the browser dialog and then click Open Click Apply Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. select item Velocity Components UVW to load all three velocity components Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab..2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC. Ensure that the default value for the Geometry Scale Factor is 0. Alternatively. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Check that the Scale Factor is set to 0. check that Vector is selected from the Option 3-21 ..1: • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Restart panel Select Standard Restart from the Restart File Option list Click the browser button next to the Restart File box. you may run STAR interactively. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis: • Select folder Post-Processing • Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab • Click Open Post file You are now ready to start the post-processing session Postprocessing Load the velocity vector components and plot the vectors: • • • • • Version 4. Check file cat_ortho. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder.1 Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. write the problem and geometry files and exit from pro-STAR. as shown below.. • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. The solution should converge within the specified maximum number of iterations.info for error messages during the run.. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.Tutorial 3. select File > Save Geometry.

1-3.processing • • • • menu and select Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Change the Normal vector to -1. To examine any variations more closely.2-2 Figure T3. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Post. a velocity magnitude plot in the porous subdomain is necessary: • • • Open the Cell Tool and select Cell Type number 2 Select C > New > Type Current and click Cplot to display Figure T3. reveals few apparent differences between them.08 .2-2 Velocity vectors on the y-z plane Initial comparison of Figure T3.Tutorial 3.2-2 with the equivalent plot for the isotropic porous medium.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC. Figure T3. 0.2-3 Close the Cell Tool 3-22 Version 4. 0 Click Apply Click Plot to Screen Select View > SNormal View to display Figure T3.

select plot options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen Click Cplot to display Figure T3. Note that the mean velocity magnitude in the porous subdomain is approximately 3. select item Pressure Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab.2 m/s.2-3 and the equivalent plot for the isotropic porous medium.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC.Tutorial 3. is that the orthotropic property prevents the bulk of the fluid flowing through the centre of the model from spreading outwards and slowing down.processing Figure T3.08 3-23 . as it does in the isotropic case.1-4. Figure T3.2-4 Version 4. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Post.2-3 Velocity vectors on the y-z plane in the porous subdomain The significant difference between Figure T3. Now inspect the cell-based pressure variation: • • • • • • • • • Select C > All Go back to the Load Data panel Select Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) In the Scalar Data list.

2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC.1 Click Cplot to display Figure T3.1.08 .2-5 3-24 Version 4. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Post. plot the cell-centred pressure in the porous subdomain: • • • Select C > New > Porosity and click anywhere inside the porous subdomain Select View > Isometric > -1.2-4 Cell-averaged pressure plot Before calculating the pressure drop across the catalyst.processing Figure T3.Tutorial 3.

280 should be 3-25 .Tutorial 3..2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC.. For the downstream surface: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Version 4. In the Cell Tool. so averages should be calculated.2-5 Cell-averaged pressure plot in the porous subdomain The pressure across the surfaces of the porous medium is clearly non-uniform.08 Select V > New > Cell Set Surface Select Tools > Cell... select number 11 from the list and click Set Active Type Select C > New > Type Current Select V > Subset > Cell Set Surface Select C > New > Vertex Set Face Click Cplot Select View > Axis > -X Ensure Display Edges and Display Mesh Lines buttons are turned off Select C > Subset > Zone Draw a box around the right-hand (downstream) group of cells Select Post > Operate.processing Figure T3. A value of 0. Select Function Category Load cell data > Pressure Select Register 5 using Relative Values Click Apply Select Function Category Load cell data > Volume Select Register 6 Click Apply Select Function Category Multi-register > Multiply Select Register 4 = Register 5 * Register 6 Click Apply then Close In the I/O window type *get prs2 rtot 4. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Post.

In the I/O window type *get vol2 rtot 6. 33.29 Pa.841e-2 should be displayed. This may be compared with the expected pressure drop of 151.2-7 3-26 Version 4. The turbulence parameters may be inspected by plotting the relevant contours: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select C > All Select View > SNormal View Go back to the Load Data panel Check Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) is selected Select item Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab. based on an average cell velocity of 3.07 Pa.78 Pa. select item Dissipation Rate from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main window. Analysis of Results The above figures give an average pressure drop of 148. select options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot To Screen Click Cplot to display Figure T3.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Analysis of Results • displayed.. The user can verify these calculations. click Replot to display Figure T3.68 Pa. i.2 m/s. The pressure across the upstream surface of the porous subdomain can be calculated similarly and found to be 182. The volume-weighted average pressure across the downstream surface is the first of these parameters divided by the second.Tutorial 3.2-6 In the Load Data panel. A value of 0.e.08 .

2-6 Contour plot of turbulence kinetic energy Figure T3. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Analysis of Results Figure T3.Tutorial 3.2-7 Contour plot of dissipation rate Version 4.08 3-27 .2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC.

1. Nosave 3-28 Version 4.2 FLOW IN AN ORTHOTROPIC. HIGHLY POROUS MEDIUM Post-Processing Analysis of Results Turbulence parameters are fixed in the porous medium by assuming a turbulence intensity of 10% and length scale of 0.01 m. fixing the turbulence parameters in this way causes the flow downstream of the porous medium to exhibit very little turbulence. The normalised resistance coefficients have the same values as those in Tutorial 3.08 . based on a velocity magnitude of 3.989 m2/s3. the same conclusions about the validity of using the STAR-CD porous model can be drawn in this case.154 m2/s2 and 0. Therefore. Consequently.Tutorial 3. As in Tutorial 3. the values for turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate should be roughly 0. Quit the pro-STAR session by choosing: • File > Quit > Quit.1.2 m/s. respectively.

Figure T4. two-dimensional flow analysis. Examples of mesh generation are provided in the Meshing Tutorials volume. including free-surface and cavitating flows.0-1. supplied in file gridfs. The mesh consists of a single layer of polygonal prisms.0-1 Geometry plot showing the mesh. distribution of cell types and generic boundary region names Version 4.ccmg and displayed in Figure T4.Tutorial 4 MULTI-FLUID FLOWS The next three tutorials demonstrate how to set up and perform simulations of multi-fluid flows.08 4-1 . suitable for performing a planar. All three tutorials use the same ready-to-use polyhedral mesh.

The front and back planes are therefore symmetry planes. In this directory: • • • • Start pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (gravfs) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Define a transient simulation of a multi-fluid flow and give the case a title: 4-2 Version 4.08 . However. Initially.g. Under the action of gravity. the cells on the right vessel were assigned to cell type 1 and those on the left to cell type 2. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a directory for the tutorial called tut4-1 and copy file gridfs.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Perform an unsteady flow simulation using the transient SIMPLE algorithm Activate STAR-CD’s interface-capturing method for multi-fluid flows with a free-surface Post-process the simulation results Create animations using a neutral plot file together with pro-STAR’s Animation utility This tutorial aims to demonstrate how to: • • • • Physical Problem Description The tutorial simulates gravity-driven fluid flow through a channel connecting two chambers. All other boundaries are solid walls except for the horizontal top surfaces where a constant (atmospheric) static pressure is applied. The simulation is 2D.Tutorial 4. when inlet boundary conditions are present). both phases need to be present within the domain. liquid flows into the right chamber under assumed turbulent conditions. liquid also flows in through the top left boundary so as to maintain the fluid level constant. This was done in order to facilitate definition of the initial liquid and air distribution within the model. Modelling Strategy During mesh generation. the left chamber is filled with liquid and the right one is filled with air. The left chamber is represented by the green-coloured cells and the right chamber by the red-coloured cells. as shown in Figure T4. Note that in some cases (e. Cell typing then offers a convenient way of assigning fluid characteristics to cells and thus makes for a simple initialization process.0-1. After some time. the liquid-air interface on the right chamber settles at the level of the top boundary in the left chamber.ccmg supplied with the STAR-CD installation into it. At the same time.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 4. one may start with the whole solution domain filled by a single fluid phase. if pressure boundary conditions and gravity are used to drive the flow.

08 Open the Additional Scalars sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel On the Molecular Properties tab. • • In the main window..0-1.. select File > Model Title. under the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder. which is set to Wall). Note that the boundary regions Type are all set to Symplane (except for region number 0. The fluid in the left chamber is assumed to be liquid water H2O_l and the fluid in the right chamber is assumed to be Air.0-1 The generic names of all boundary regions are indicated in Figure T4. Their locations can be displayed on the grid plot via the following steps: • • • • Select the Locate Boundaries folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Create Boundaries panel Select each region shown on the list in turn (except no. Scalar Properties Two scalars must be defined to represent the two fluids in the left and right chamber. ensure that Scalar # is set to 1 Choose Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate H2O_l in the list and click Select 4-3 . select C > All to put all cells into the current cell set • Check that the Geometry plot option and Hidden Surface plot type are selected • Click Cplot to display the grid shown in Figure T4.ccmg as the Geometry File name • Check that the State Name entry is set to default • Click Apply • In the main window. In the Title text box type: GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH A FREE SURFACE • Click Apply and Close Mesh Import/ To import and display the mesh: Visualization • Select the Grids folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide • Open the Import Grids panel • Select the CCM option from the Format list • Enter gridfs.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Pre-Processing Mesh Import/ Visualization • • • • Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select Transient for the Time Domain option Select On for the Multi-Fluid option Click Apply Note that a sub-folder called Multifluid will now be activated in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. 0) and then click Plot Region to display its location Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button. These boundary regions are set to correct Type later on in the tutorial. To define the two scalars: • • • • • Version 4.Tutorial 4.

Turn on turbulence modelling and select an appropriate model: • • • • • Select the Liquids and Gases folder and open the Turbulence Models panel Check that the setting at the top of the panel is Material # 1 Select On for the Turbulence option Select k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model list Accept the default settings for this model and click Apply To select monitoring and pressure reference locations: • • • Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon in the Monitoring Information section to select the monitoring location In the main pro-STAR window. Alternatively. 0) in coordinate system 1 Click Apply The remaining fluid properties are specified using panels in the Liquids and Gases folder. This location is chosen because this corner will always contain air and so the pressure variations are likely to be minimal.81 m/s2 Change the Direction of Gravity Force to (0. if present.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Pre-Processing Material Properties • • • • • • • Material Properties Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other default values and click Apply On the Molecular Properties tab. -1. select a cell just to the right of the narrow middle section.08 . enabling you to specify different properties for different fluid domains. enter 675 for the Pressure Cell Number. click the mouse icon to select the reference pressure cell number In the main pro-STAR window. This location is chosen because large variations in field variable values are expected here. change the Scalar # to 2 Choose Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate AIR from the list and click Select Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other defaults and click Apply To specify the magnitude and direction of the gravity force: • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Gravity panel Change the Acceleration due to gravity to 9.Tutorial 4. enter 631 for the Monitoring Cell Number. These panels feature a Material # option. click on a cell at the top right-hand corner. In the Reference Data section. Alternatively. Click Apply • • • To turn on buoyancy: • • Open the Buoyancy panel and tick the Buoyancy checkbox The default values for Location and Density are suitable for this problem so click Apply 4-4 Version 4.

1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Pre-Processing Fluid Initialization Fluid Initialization Set the initial velocity and turbulence parameters as follows: • • • • • • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel in the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Select Table cell from the Options menu Select cell type Number 1 from the list On the Flow Conditions tab.Tutorial 4. As no table is used.03 Change the Mixing Length value to 0. It is only necessary therefore to specify the Initial Volume Fraction of the scalars.08 Select cell type No. enter 1. select Tl/Mixing Length from the Model section Change the Intensity to 0. 2 from the bottom window Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the top window Enter 1 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Select Scalar Number 2 (AIR) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed First.0 for U-velocity and V-velocity Under the Turbulence tab. define the wall boundary conditions: 4-5 . clear the Table Name: • Click Clear Table Name Iinitialize scalar values in the right chamber. 1 from the bottom window Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Select Scalar Number 2 (AIR) from the top window Enter 1 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Now initialize scalar values in the left chamber. where cells have a cell type ID of 2: • • • • • • • • • Boundary Conditions Version 4. where cells have a cell type ID of 1: • • • • • • • • • Select cell type No.25 Click Apply Repeat the above steps for cell type Number 2 Scalar Initialization To initialize the specified scalars: • • • Open the Additional Scalars sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Scalar Initialization panel Ensure that Table Cell is selected from the Values menu The initial spatial and temporal distribution of scalars H2O_l and AIR are assumed to be constant for all the cells with cell type ID of 1 (right chamber) and 2 (left chamber).

Tutorial 4. This tutorial will also use the AMG solver.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Pre-Processing Scalar Boundaries • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and open the Define Boundary Regions panel In the region list select region 1.08 • 4-6 . Intensity and 0. named TopLeft No action is needed for the regions named Back and Front as these are already defined as symmetry planes in the supplied mesh geometry file. Right (region 3).03 for the Turb.25 for the Length Ensure that UVW is set to option Off Click Apply Repeat this process for region 7. This is the only supported temporal discretization scheme for multi-fluid flow problems. define the pressure boundary conditions: • • • • • • • • • • Select region 5. and Bottom (region 6) Next. named Wall Change the Region Type to Wall Accept all the default settings and click Apply Repeat this operation for the regions named Left (region 2). Analysis Controls The transient SIMPLE solution algorithm must be used for multi-fluid flows. named TopRight Change the Region Type to Pressure Change the Pressure Option to Static Ensure that the Pressure value is set to 0 Pa Check that the Environment Pressure and Mean options are turned Off Change the Turbulence Switch to Tl/Length Type 0. Scalar Boundaries Specify values for the scalars at pressure boundaries as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region 5 from the Boundary Region list Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the Scalars list Ensure that the Boundary Condition is set to Constant Enter 0 for the Value Click Apply Select region 7 from the Boundary Region list Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the Scalars list Check that the Boundary Condition is set to Constant Enter 1 for the Value Click Apply The above boundary conditions for the two scalars in effect enforces the condition that only air may enter through region 5 (TopRight) and only water may enter the domain through region 7 (TopLeft) boundaries. Click Apply Version 4. To specify these settings: • • • • Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Solution Method panel Change the Maximum Number of Outer Iterations to 10 Change the Scalar Method menu setting to AMG and check that the Temporal Discretization option is set to Euler Implicit.

it is more common to run lengthy transient simulations from the command line. deselect the W-Momentum flow variable Click Apply Under the Solver Parameters tab.4 (higher than the default) Set the Residual Tolerance for all variables to 0. set the Output interval to 0. specify the Time step for period as 0.Tutorial 4.8 Change the Differencing Scheme to HRIC Leave all other settings at their default values and click Apply Repeat the above under-relaxation and differencing scheme settings for the second scalar (AIR) and click Apply Specify what data should be written to the results (.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Pre-Processing Run Time Controls The tutorial performs a two-dimensional analysis so it is not necessary to solve for the momentum component in the z-direction. To write the problem and geometry files and save the model file: Version 4.08 4-7 .ccmp) file and the transient post data (. To turn this off and specify appropriate settings for the solver parameters and differencing schemes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Primary Variables panel Under the Equation Status tab. set the Relaxation Factor for the momentum and turbulence equations to 0.000 time steps.ccmt) file: • • • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Under the Post tab. check that the UD scheme is selected for all variables Click Apply Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) Change the Under-Relaxation Factor to 0.005 seconds. check that the Write Solution File option is selected with an Output Frequency of 100 time steps Click Apply Under the Transient tab.01 Set the Number of Sweeps to 100 for all variables Click Apply Under the Differencing Schemes tab. Click Set Although you can run the simulation interactively from the pro-STAR Model Guide.8 Set the Relaxation Factor for the pressure equation to 0.25 seconds Select the H2O_l output variable from the list and enable the Post option Repeat for the Turb Kinetic Energy variable Click Apply To specify the run time and time step size: • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Set the Run time control for the analysis to Run for a Time of 5 seconds Click Apply In the Time Step Option section. This means that the run will continue for 1.

.. In the Save Problem File dialog. check that 1 is entered as the Geometry Scale Factor Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE CFD Analysis Preliminaries • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window.Tutorial 4. The run should only take a few minutes. the monitored values do converge. click Save Select File > Save Model You can stay within the current pro-STAR session by either moving pro-STAR into the background or by opening another terminal window to start up the STAR solver. the latter showing the distribution of water in the solution domain: • • • • • • 4-8 Under the File(s) tab of the Load Data panel.ccmt from the Transient list Click Open Transient file The following steps describe how to create static plots of flow variables at specified times and also how to create an animation from a sequence of static plots that show how the flow varies over time. The screen output will show that. select time step 100 from the Time Step list and click Store Time to load the data. for some time steps. In the Save Geometry File dialog. so the maximum number of outer iterations need not be increased for this case. the residuals fail to converge to the specified tolerance within the specified maximum number of outer iterations.08 . select File > Save Geometry. select the Post-Processing folder and then open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab.. Basic Plots The first plot will show how the water front moves through the connecting channel into the right vessel. Under the Data tab. and how the free surface deforms during this process. select Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) Select Velocity Components UV (2D vectors) from the Vector Data list Select H2O_l from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Version 4. The plot superimposes velocity vectors on a contour plot of the H2O_l scalar. Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing session by opening the transient post data file: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select Transient as the Analysis option Click Add File Select file gravfs. However. CFD Analysis Check that you are in the current working directory and then start the simulation by typing: star at the command line..

1-1 Repeat the above steps to display H2O_l contours and velocity vectors after 600 and 1000 time steps.08 4-9 . Figure T4. respectively Click Plot to Screen to display H2O_l contours and velocity vectors simultaneously. This plot is shown in Figure T4. as computed after 100 time steps.1-1 Water volume fraction and velocity vectors after 100 time steps Version 4.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Post-Processing Basic Plots • • • Under the 3-D Surface tab.Tutorial 4.1-2. as shown in Figure T4. select Vector & Contour and Edge for the Option and Edge/Mesh options.

repeat the steps listed above changing the time step selected in the File(s) tab and the variables selected in the Data tab as desired. A description of how to do this is given in Tutorial 1. it may be useful to use a presentation grid. displacing air through the right pressure boundary (TopRight) as it progresses.Tutorial 4. Figure T4. usually when the mesh density varies significantly within the domain.1-1 shows water flowing into the domain through the left pressure boundary (TopLeft) and moving towards the right chamber. You may also plot other quantities such as pressure or turbulent kinetic energy.1-3.1. This is expected and. This prevents overcrowding of velocity vectors in regions where the mesh is very fine. or in combination with vectors. 4-10 Version 4. since these were also stored in the transient post data file. or vectors alone for subsequent time steps.08 . 600.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T4. you may continue plotting contours of H2O_l alone. This type of plot was created by selecting options Contour (filled) and Edge on the 3-D Surface tab. Pressure contours after 100.1-2 Water volume fraction and velocity vectors after 600 (top) and 1000 (bottom) time steps In some situations. since the results look plausible. and 1000 time steps are shown in Figure T4. To do this.

The animation created here uses contours of the H2O_l scalar. If the run duration is sufficiently extended. 600 (middle) and 1000 (bottom) steps Note how. as described in Tutorial 8. the pressure profile becomes increasingly stratified.3. However.2 and Tutorial 12. The advantage of this method is primarily in improved presentation. which must first be displayed as static contour plots: 4-11 Version 4. Animations pro-STAR loops can be used to produce on-screen animations.Tutorial 4. animations can also be produced by writing data to a neutral plot file and using a command to replay them. over time.08 . an equilibrium point will be reached at which the fluids become stationary and the pressure contours appear horizontal and evenly spaced.1-3 Pressure contours after 100 (top). as an animation replayed from a neutral plot file will usually run faster and more smoothly than one created directly on screen.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Post-Processing Animations Figure T4.

20 distance. You may. If such a plot does not appear. Nosave 4-12 Version 4.Tutorial 4.08 . It will clearly take significantly longer for equilibrium to be reached.20..plot term.1 The animation shows the free-surface movement for the first 5 seconds.1. Enter the following commands in the I/O window for the animation: nfil. A command sequence is now used to set up.file. if you wish. select the first time step in the Time Step list Click Store Time Under the Data tab.auto term.auto center. write and play back an animation sequence showing how the H2O_l distribution changes during the analysis.gravfs.gravfs. To quit pro-STAR: • Select File > Quit > Quit..1-1 but without the vectors.ON REPL *define STORE NEXT GETV CONC 1 REPL *end *loop.plot.0. check that Contour plot option and Hidden Surface plot type are selected. select H2O_l from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot in the main pro-STAR window to display a plot similar to Figure T4.rast SURFSEL.1.1 GRAVITY-DRIVEN MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE Post-Processing Animations • • • • • Under the File(s) tab of the Load Data panel.x play. run the analysis for a longer period of time by: • • • Increasing the Time the analysis is Run for specified in the Run Time Controls panel Writing a new problem file Running STAR again The tutorial is now complete.

“Front” and “Back” are symmetry planes. Pre-Processing Create a directory for the tutorial called tut4-2 and copy file gridfs. The shape of the liquid-gas interface that develops in the chamber downstream of the nozzle depends on the contact angle between liquid and wall. the problem’s physical dimensions are scaled down by a factor of 1. The mesh used is the same as that of previous tutorial.Tutorial 4. the flow can be assumed to be laminar.ccmg supplied with the STAR-CD installation into it.000. The boundary regions labelled “Bottom”.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Physical Problem Description Tutorial 4. Initially. In this directory: • Version 4. Gravity acts in the positive x-direction and so helps to drive the fluid flow through the nozzle. The boundary region labelled “Left” is now an inlet with fluid velocity of 1 mm/s and the boundary region labelled “Right” is at atmospheric pressure. however. For the given geometry and inlet velocity.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS How to simulate multi-fluid flow in which capillary effects are important The appearance of parasitic currents under certain conditions in such analyses This tutorial aims to demonstrate: • • Physical Problem Description This tutorial simulates forced flow of liquid glycerine through a nozzle into an air-filled chamber at atmospheric pressure. coloured green) is filled with liquid and the remainder of the solution domain is filled with air. This gives a nozzle width of about 1 mm.08 Start pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line 4-13 .2-1 Geometry plot showing the mesh. the chamber behind the nozzle (cell type 2. distribution of cell types and generic boundary region names In this instance. and all other regions are solid walls. Figure T4.

select C > All to put all cells into the current cell set • Check that the Geometry plot option and Hidden Surface plot type are selected • Click Cplot to display the grid shown in Figure T4.ccmg as the Geometry File name • Check that the State Name entry is set to default • Click Apply • In the main window.. change the Scalar # to 2 Choose Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate AIR in the list and click Select Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other default values and click Apply Switch on the surface tension model: • • • Open the Multifluid sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Models panel Select On for the Surface Tension option Version 4. ensure that Scalar # is set to 1 Choose Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate C3H8O3_l in the list and click Select Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other default values and click Apply On the Molecular Properties tab. To define the two scalars: • • • • • • • • • • • • Multi-fluid Models Open the Additional Scalars sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel On the Molecular Properties tab. In the Title text box type: FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS • Click Apply and Close Mesh Import/ To import and display the mesh: Visualization • Select the Grids folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide • Open the Import Grids panel • Select the CCM button from the Format list • Enter gridfs.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Pre-Processing Mesh Import/ Visualization • • • Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (forcfs) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Define a transient simulation of a multi-fluid flow and give the case a title: • • • • • • Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select Transient in the Time Domain section Select On for the Multi-Fluid option Click Apply In the main window.2-1 Scalar Properties Two scalars must be defined to represent liquid glycerine in the left chamber and air in the right chamber. select File > Model Title..Tutorial 4.08 4-14 .

0) in coordinate system 1 Click Apply Select the Liquids and Gases folder and open the Turbulence Models panel Check that Turbulence is switched Off so that the flow is treated as laminar To select monitoring and pressure reference locations: • • • Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon in the Monitoring Information section to select the monitoring location In the main pro-STAR window. To initialize the scalars representing the fluids: • • Open the Additional Scalars sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Scalar Initialization panel 4-15 Version 4. The surface tension coefficient and contact angle for the fluids.08 . select a cell just to the right of the narrow section.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Pre-Processing Material Properties • • • Click Apply Open the Surface Tension panel Check that Scalar # 1 and Scalar # 2 are shown as C3H8O3_l and AIR. the left chamber contains only glycerine and the right chamber only air.Tutorial 4. respectively Note that the surface tension effects are determined by a pair of fluids. enter 631 for the Monitoring Cell Number.059688 for the Surface Tension Coefficient Enter 45 degrees for the Contact Angle at Wall Click Apply To select other physical models: • • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder and open the Gravity panel Change the Acceleration value to 9. Alternatively. click on a cell at the top right-hand corner. Click Apply • • • To turn on buoyancy: • • Scalar Initialization Open the Buoyancy panel and tick the Buoyancy checkbox The default values for Location and Density are suitable for this problem so click Apply Initially. however. 0. correspond to the first fluid. In the Reference Data section. This location is chosen because this corner will always contain air and so the pressure variations are likely to be minimal. enter 675 for the Pressure Cell Number. click the mouse icon to select the reference pressure cell number In the main pro-STAR window. • • • Material Properties Enter 0. Alternatively.81 m/s2 Change the Direction of Gravity Force to (1. This initial distribution is specified by associating the two fluids with different cell types. This location is chosen because large variations in field variable values are expected here.

named Left Change the Region Type to Inlet Change the U velocity to 0. named Wall Change the Region Type to Wall and click Apply Repeat this operation for the regions named TopRight and TopLeft Select region 3. 2 from the bottom window Select Scalar Number 1 (C3H8O3_l) from the top window Enter 1 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Select Scalar Number 2 (AIR) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply To define boundary conditions for this simulation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and open the Define Boundary Regions panel In the region list select region number 1. 4-16 Version 4.08 . named Right. where cells have a cell type ID of 2: • • • • • • • Boundary Conditions Select cell type No. It is only necessary therefore to specify the Initial Volume Fraction of the scalars. from the list Change the Region Type to Pressure Change the Pressure Option to Static Ensure that None is selected for Turbulence Switch and UVW is Off Click Apply Select region 2. • Click Clear Table Name Initialize scalar values in the right chamber with cell type ID of one first: • • • • • • • Select cell type No.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Select Table Cell from the Values menu The initial spatial and temporal distribution of scalars C3H8O3_l and AIR are assumed to be constant for all the cells with cell type ID of 1 (right chamber) and 2 (left chamber). Clear the Table Name as no table is used. “Front” and “Bottom” as these are already defined as symmetry planes in the supplied mesh geometry file.205 Ensure that Velocity is selected for the Flow Switch option Click Apply No action is needed for the regions named “Back”.Tutorial 4.001 m/s Ensure that 1 is selected for Coordinate System and Density is set to 1. 1 from the bottom window Select Scalar Number 1 (C3H8O3_l) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Select Scalar Number 2 (AIR) from the top window Enter 1 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Now initialize scalar values in the left chamber.

8 Set the Relaxation Factor for the pressure equation to 0.08 4-17 . 1 (C3H8O3_l) and change the Under-Relaxation Factor to to 0. This tutorial will also use the AMG solver. check that the UD scheme is selected for all variables Click Apply Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select scalar no.Tutorial 4. set the Relaxation Factor for the momentum equations to 0. in the case of backflow.ccmp) file and the transient Version 4.01 Set the Number of Sweeps to 100 for all variables Click Apply Under the Differencing Schemes tab. the only supported temporal discretization scheme for multi-fluid flow problems Click Apply • The tutorial performs a two-dimensional analysis so it is not necessary to solve for the momentum component in the z-direction. deselect the W-Momentum flow variable Click Apply Under the Solver Parameters tab. To specify these settings: • • • • Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Solution Method panel Change the Maximum Number of Outer Iterations to 10 Change the Scalar Method menu setting to AMG and check that the Temporal Discretization option is set to Euler Implicit. only air enters through the pressure boundary: • • • • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region 2 (Inlet) from the Boundary Region list Select Scalar Number 1 (C3H8O3_l) from the Scalars list Ensure that the Boundary Condition is set to Constant Enter 1 for the Value Click Apply The boundary Value for Boundary Region 3 (Pressure) is set to 0 by default so no change is needed.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Pre-Processing Scalar Boundaries Scalar Boundaries Scalar boundary conditions must be defined such that only glycerine enters through the inlet boundary and.8 Change the Differencing Scheme to HRIC Leave all other settings at their default values and click Apply Repeat the above under-relaxation and differencing scheme settings for the second scalar (AIR) and click Apply Specify what data should be written to the results (.4 (higher than the default) Set the Residual Tolerance for all variables to 0. Analysis Controls The transient SIMPLE solution algorithm must be used for multi-fluid problems. To turn this off and specify appropriate settings for the solver parameters and differencing schemes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Primary Variables panel Under the Equation Status tab.

Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing session by opening the transient post data file: 4-18 Version 4.. To write the problem and geometry files and save the model file: • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. change the Geometry Scale Factor to 0. click Save Select File > Save Model You can stay within the current pro-STAR session by either moving pro-STAR into the background or by opening another terminal window to start up the STAR solver. select File > Save Geometry.08 . In the Save Problem File dialog. The analysis should only take a few minutes.ccmt) file: • • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Under the Post tab.. • Click Set Although you can run the simulation interactively from the pro-STAR Model Guide.. check that the Write Solution File option is selected with an Output Frequency of 100 time steps Click Apply Under the Transient tab. it is more common to run lengthy transient simulations from the command line.000 time steps.001 to convert the model units to millimetres Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.Tutorial 4. set the Output interval to 0. check that the Time step for period is 0. CFD Analysis Check that you are in the current working directory and then start the simulation by typing: star -dp at the command line. The output on the screen will show that the outer iterations are converging to the specified tolerance for each time step.1 seconds Select the C3H8O3_l output variable from the list and enable the Post option Click Apply To specify the run time and time step size: • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Set the Run time control for the analysis to Run for a Time of 2 seconds Click Apply In the Time Step Option section. In the Save Geometry File dialog..001 seconds This means that the run will continue for 2.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS CFD Analysis Run Time Controls post data (.

Tutorial 4. Figure T4. select options Vector and Edge 4-19 . ensure that Auto Range is selected and click Apply Under the 3-D Surface tab. Basic Plots First. contact angle=45 degrees.08 Under the Data tab of the Load Data panel. namely Tutorial 4. Animated plots are not produced here as the methods for creating them are described in detail in other tutorials.1.3.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Post-Processing Basic Plots • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select the Post-Processing folder and then open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab. plot the C3H8O3_l distribution and velocity vectors after 1. select options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T4.2-2 Note that the angle the liquid-air interface makes with the wall is approximately 45 degrees.2 and Tutorial 12. select the file for step number 1700 from the Time Step list Click Store Time to load the data Under the Data tab. select Transient as the Analysis option Click Add File Select file forcfs.700 time steps: • • • • • • • • Under the File(s) tab of the Load Data panel. select Velocity Components UV (2D vectors) from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Options tab. select Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) Select C3H8O3_l from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab. Tutorial 8.ccmt from the Transient list Click Open Transient file The remainder of this tutorial demonstrates how to create static plots of flow variables at specified times. time steps=1700 • • • • • Version 4.2-2 Glycerine volume fraction.

contact angle=45 degrees. contact angle=150 degrees.08 ...2-3 Figure T4. Figure T4.2-4 and Figure T4. Re-run the analysis as before. time steps-=1700 Version 4.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Post-Processing Basic Plots • Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T4. time steps=1700 To examine how changing the contact angle affects the resulting free surface: • • • • • Open the Multifluid sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Surface Tension panel Enter 150 degrees for the Contact Angle at Wall Click Apply Select File > Save Problem.2-3 Velocity vectors.2-4 4-20 Glycerine volume fraction.Tutorial 4. The resulting plots are shown in Figure T4. • Follow the procedure described above to plot contours of volume fraction and velocity vectors after 1.2-5.700 time steps.

e.Tutorial 4. If the solution domain was extended further to the right and the analysis run for longer. where necessary. This value can be overridden. contact angle=150 degrees. via user coding. i. The tutorial is now complete.2-5 Velocity vectors. This would occur because gravity would cause the droplet to accelerate to a speed greater than that in the nozzle. This is caused by numerical inaccuracies arising from poor cell quality close to this boundary. the liquid does not spread along the wall after passing through the nozzle but instead continues to flow in the direction of the gravity force. The latter is activated by selecting User rather than Constant for the Surface Tension in the Surface Tension panel. The relevant user subroutine. Using a few layers of hexahedral cells next to the wall could remove this abnormality. To quit pro-STAR: • In the main window. time steps=1700 The increase in contact angle means that the wall is now non-wetting.08 4-21 . can then be modified as required.2 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAPILLARY EFFECTS Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T4. In some applications. FSTEN. the droplet forming behind the nozzle would eventually detach from it. The velocity vector field shows abnormally high velocity vectors at a cell close to the wall boundary. Nosave Version 4. it may be necessary to specify different contact angles on different walls. select File > Quit > Quit.

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001) are the same as those used in Tutorial 4. mesh and scale factor (0. “Front” and “Back” are symmetry planes.. select File > Model Title. The boundary labelled “Left” in Figure T4.2. In this directory: • • • • Start pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (cavit) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Define a transient simulation and activate the multi-fluid modelling option: • • • • Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select Transient for the Time Domain option Select On for the Multi-Fluid option Click Apply Give the case a title: • • In the main window.3 • • • FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Perform a simulation of a multi-fluid flow in which cavitation takes place Display fluid interface and cavitation data in the same plot Change the Post Colormap settings to improve the appearance of contour plots This tutorial aims to demonstrate how to: Physical Problem Description This tutorial models the forced flow of water through a nozzle into an air-filled chamber at atmospheric pressure. The boundaries labelled “Bottom”.08 4-23 .0-1 is at a static pressure of 500 bar (absolute) and the boundary labelled “Right” is at static pressure of 1 bar (absolute). and all other boundaries are solid walls. The geometry. In the Title text box type: FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION • Click Apply and Close Mesh Import/ To import and display the mesh: Visualization • Select the Grids folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide • Open the Import Grids panel • Select the CCM button from the Format list Version 4.. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a directory for the tutorial called tut4-3 and copy file gridfs. Initially.ccmg supplied with the STAR-CD installation into it.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 4. The sharp corner at the entrance into the narrow nozzle combined with the flow acceleration produces a low pressure region in which cavitation will take place. the nozzle is filled with liquid (cell type 2) and the downstream chamber is filled with air (cell type 1).Tutorial 4.

Tutorial 4. ensure that Saturation Pressure. ensure that Scalar # is set to 1 Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate H2O_l in the list and click Select Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other default values and click Apply The saturation properties of H2O_l will be assigned from the database.ccmg as the Geometry File name Check that the State Name entry is set to default Click Apply In the main window. • On the Saturation Properties tab. In addition. select C > All to put all cells into the current cell set Check that the Geometry plot option and Hidden Surface plot type are selected Click Cplot to display the grid shown in Figure T4. change the Scalar # to 3 Choose Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate AIR in the list and click Select Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other default values and click Apply Switch on the surface tension and cavitation models: • • • • • • • • • Open the Multifluid sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Models panel Select On for the Surface Tension option Select On for the Cavitation option Click Apply Open the Surface Tension panel Ensure that Scalar # 1 is set to H2O_l Change the Scalar # 2 setting to 3 (AIR) Enter 0. • • • • • • • • • • Multi-fluid Models On the Molecular Properties tab. To define these scalars: • • • • • • • Open the Additional Scalars sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel On the Molecular Properties tab.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Pre-Processing Scalar Properties • • • • • • Scalar Properties Enter gridfs. change the Scalar # to 2 Choose Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Locate H2O (water vapour) in the list and click Select Check that the Influence setting is Active Accept all other default values and click Apply On the Molecular Properties tab. Saturation Temperature and Latent Heat of Vaporization values for H2O_l are correct If you modify the saturation properties ensure that you click Apply. a third scalar must be set up to represent the volume fraction of water vapour generated during the cavitation process.08 4-24 .0727 for the Surface Tension Coefficient Version 4.0-1 Two scalars must be defined to represent water in the left chamber and air in the right chamber.

Alternatively. respectively Click Apply To select other physical models • • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties. respectively Ensure also that the Average Nuclear Radius and the Number of Nuclei are set to 1.0E-6 and 1. click on a cell at the top right-hand corner. This location is chosen because this corner will always contain air and so the pressure variations are likely to be minimal. enter 631 for the Monitoring Cell Number.08 4-25 . In this case. click the mouse icon to select the reference pressure cell number In the main pro-STAR window. k and ε are chosen to give a turbulent viscosity of the order of 0. select k-Epsilon from the Model section Change the Turbulent Energy to 1 Change the Epsilon value to 10000 Click Apply Repeat the above steps for cell type Number 2 Note that what is important here is not the actual values specified but rather their ratio. In the Reference Data section.0 for U-velocity and V-velocity Under the Turbulence tab. enter 1. as this determines the initial turbulent viscosity. Click Apply • • • Fluid Initialization Set the initial velocity and turbulence parameters as follows: • • • • • • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel in the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Select Table cell from the Options menu Select cell type Number 1 from the list On the Flow Conditions tab.0E12. Alternatively.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Pre-Processing Material Properties • • • • • • Material Properties Enter 90 for the Contact Angle at Wall Click Apply Open the Multifluid Cavitation panel Ensure that Scalar # 1 and Scalar # 2 are set to 1 (H2O_l) and 2 (H2O).Tutorial 4. enter 675 for the Pressure Cell Number. followed by the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Open the Turbulence Models panel Check that the setting at the top of the panel is Material # 1 Select On for the Turbulence option Select k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model list Click Apply To select monitoring and pressure reference locations: • • • Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon in the Monitoring Information section to select the monitoring location In the main pro-STAR window. This location is chosen because large variations in field variable values are expected here. select a cell just to the right of the narrow section.01 Version 4.

where cells have a cell type ID of 1: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select cell type No. the left chamber contains only water and the right chamber only air. This initial distribution is specified by associating the two fluids with different cell types.Tutorial 4. where cells have a cell type ID of 2: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select cell type No. As no table is used. 2 from the bottom window Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the top window Enter 1 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Select Scalar Number 2 (H2O) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Select Scalar Number 3 (AIR) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed 4-26 Version 4. It is only necessary therefore to specify the Initial Volume Fraction of the scalars.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Pre-Processing Scalar Initialization Scalar Initialization Initially. 1 from the bottom window Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Select Scalar Number 2 (H2O) from the top window Enter 0 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Select Scalar Number 3 (AIR) from the top window Enter 1 in the Initial Volume Fraction box Click Apply Click Yes on the Warning dialog to proceed Now initialize the scalars in the left chamber. To initialize the scalars: • • • Open the Additional Scalars sub-folder in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Scalar Initialization panel Ensure that Table Cell is selected from the Values menu The initial spatial and temporal distribution of scalars H2O_l and AIR are assumed to be constant for all the cells with cell type ID of 1 (right chamber) and 2 (left chamber). clear the Table Name: • Click Clear Table Name Initialize the three scalars in the right chamber.08 .

ensuring that the Pressure value is set to 0 Pa No action is needed for the regions named “Front”. Scalar Boundaries Scalar boundary conditions at the pressure boundaries must also be specified: • • • • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region 2 (Pressure) from the Boundary Region list Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) from the Scalars list Ensure that the Boundary Condition is set to Constant Enter 1 for the Value Click Apply The boundary Value for Boundary Region 3 (Pressure) is set to 0 by default so no change is required. Note that the above Pressure values are specified relative to the Reference Pressure of 1 bar.03 for the Turb. the only supported temporal discretization scheme for multi-fluid flow problems Click Apply • The tutorial performs a two-dimensional analysis so it is not necessary to solve for the momentum component in the z-direction. This tutorial will also use the AMG solver. Intensity and 0. “Bottom” and “Back” as these were already defined as symmetry planes in the supplied mesh geometry file. named Left Change the Region Type to Pressure Change the Pressure Option to Static Change the Pressure value to 499.Tutorial 4. To turn this off and specify Version 4. named Right. named Wall Change the Region Type to Wall and click Apply Repeat this operation for the regions named TopRight and TopLeft Select region 2.0E5 Pa Check that the Environment Pressure and Mean options are turned Off Change the Turbulence Switch to Tl/Length Type 0.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions Boundary Conditions To define boundary conditions for this problem: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and open the Define Boundary Regions panel In the region list select region number 1. Analysis Controls The transient SIMPLE solution algorithm must be used for free-surface problems.00025 for the Length Ensure that UVW is set to option Off Click Apply Repeat the above steps for region 3.08 4-27 . To specify these settings: • • • • Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Solution Method panel Change the Maximum Number of Outer Iterations to 10 Change the Scalar Method menu setting to AMG and check that the Temporal Discretization option is set to Euler Implicit. No changes are required to the boundary conditions of the H2O scalar since the default setting of 0 volume fraction at all boundaries is appropriate for this problem.

8 Change the Differencing Scheme to HRIC Leave all other settings at their default values and click Apply Repeat the above under-relaxation and differencing scheme settings for Scalar Number 2 (H2O) and Scalar Number 3 (AIR) in turn and click Apply Specify what data should be written to the results (. select File > Save Geometry.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Pre-Processing Run Time Controls appropriate settings for the solver parameters and differencing schemes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Primary Variables panel Under the Equation Status tab.ccmt) file: • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Under the Post tab. set the Relaxation Factor for the momentum and turbulence equations to 0. deselect the W-Momentum flow variable Click Apply Under the Solver Parameters tab.. it is more common to run lengthy transient simulations from the command line.Tutorial 4. change the Geometry Scale Factor to 0.. specify the Time step for period as 1e-6 seconds. This means that the run will continue for 500 time steps Click Set Although you can run the simulation interactively from the pro-STAR Model Guide.ccmp) file and the transient post data (. set the Output interval to 1e-4 seconds Select the H2O_l and H2O output variables from the list in turn.01 Set the Number of Sweeps to 100 for all variables Click Apply Under the Differencing Schemes tab. In the Save Geometry File dialog. change the differencing scheme for the momentum equations to MARS Click Apply Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select Scalar Number 1 (H2O_l) Change the Under-Relaxation Factor to 0.8 Set the Relaxation Factor for the pressure equation to 0.4 Set the Residual Tolerance for all variables to 0.001 to convert the model units to millimetres Click Apply and then Close Version 4. check that the Write Solution File option is selected with an Output Frequency of 100 time steps Click Apply Under the Transient tab.08 . To write the problem and geometry files and save the model file: • • • 4-28 In the main pro-STAR window. enable the Post option and click Apply To specify the run time and time step size: • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Set the Run time control for the analysis to Run for a Time of 5e-4 seconds Click Apply In the Time Step Option section.

1.. select the file for step number 500 from the Time Step list and click Store Time to load the data Under the Data tab.3. select the Post-Processing folder and then open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab. plot velocity vectors after 500 time steps: • • • • • • • Under the File(s) tab of the Load Data panel..2 and Tutorial 12. CFD Analysis Check that you are in the current working directory and then start the simulation by typing: star -dp at the command line.Tutorial 4.ccmt from the Transient list Click Open Transient file The remainder of this tutorial demonstrates how to create static plots of flow variables at specified times. Tutorial 8. Basic Plots First. click Save Select File > Save Model You can stay within the current pro-STAR session by either moving pro-STAR into the background or by opening another terminal window to start up the STAR-CD solver. Animated plots are not produced here as the methods for creating them are described in detail in other tutorials. select options Vector and Edge Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T4. select Transient as the Analysis option Click Add File Select file cavit.3-1 Version 4. Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing session by opening the transient post data file: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. The analysis should only take a few minutes. The output on the screen will show that the outer iterations are converging to the specified tolerance for each time step. In the Save Problem File dialog. namely Tutorial 4.08 4-29 .3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION CFD Analysis Preliminaries • • • Select File > Save Problem. select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu Select Velocity Components UV (2D vectors) from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab.

3-2 Water distribution contour (500 time steps) Now plot the distribution of water vapour.08 .Tutorial 4.3-2 Figure T4. after 500 time steps: 4-30 Version 4.3-1 Velocity vectors (500 time steps) Next plot the H2O_l distribution (volume fraction of liquid water) after 500 time steps: • • • • • • Return to the Data tab of the Load Data panel Select H2O_l (the water volume fraction) from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab. select options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T4.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T4. H2O.

08 .. Note that the colours displayed under the menu change when you do this Click Apply Change the Number of Color Indices to 12 Change the Range to User and enter minimum and maximum values 0 and 2 4-31 • • • Version 4. put the H2O_l and H2O data in post registers 5 and 6. select Post > Operate.e. First.Tutorial 4..3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Post-Processing Basic Plots • • On the Data tab of the Load Data panel.3-3 Water vapour distribution contour (500 time steps) As expected. select H2O (the water vapour volume fraction) from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data and Replot to display Figure T4. to open the Post Register Operations dialog Select Function Category Scalar/Vector > Multiply Choose Register 6 = 2 * Register 6 Click Apply Select Function Category Multi-register > Add Choose Register 4 = Register 5 + Register 6 Click Apply and then Close Select Post > Caverage > Cset Under the Options tab of the Create Plots panel. respectively: • Enter the following commands in the I/O window: OPERATE GETC CONC 5 1 OPERATE GETC CONC 6 2 • • • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window.3-3 Figure T4. It is possible to create a contour plot that approximately shows both the H2O and H2O_l distributions (i.. cavitation occurs at the nozzle entrance as a result of the low pressure region produced by the sharp corner and the accelerating flow. both water vapour and liquid water) by using the OPERATE utility to manipulate the post data. select RGB from the Color Map menu.

the latter leads to an overprediction of the size of the region of high water vapour concentration.3 FORCED MULTI-FLUID FLOW WITH CAVITATION Post-Processing Basic Plots • • • Click Apply Under the 3-D Surface tab. The tutorial is now complete. However. check that options Contour (filled) and Edge are selected Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T4. orange and red regions predominantly by water vapour. To quit pro-STAR: • Select File > Quit > Quit.3-4 H2O_l and H2O distributions contour (500 time steps) To a reasonable approximation. Nosave 4-32 Version 4. the blue and turquoise regions are predominantly occupied by air.Tutorial 4. In such a case. the green regions predominantly by liquid water and the yellow. the resulting plot is prone to inaccuracies in those places where air and water vapour occur together and also where the value of H2O_l is only slightly greater than that of H2O.08 . Manipulating the results in this way provides a qualitative visual estimate of the extent of the different regions.3-4 Figure T4.

293 K).1 of the Meshing Tutorials volume.0 2. Air at standard pressure and temperature (1 bar. The background fluid for this problem is air (constant pressure of 1 bar. created in Tutorial 1. The tutorial is divided into two parts. its physical properties are as follows: Molecular weight Density Molecular viscosity Specific heat Thermal conductivity 28. Figure T5.637 × 10–2 kg/kmole kg/m3 Pa s J/kg K W/m K The flow is three-dimensional and essentially symmetric. The pipe walls (inner and outer) are assumed to be adiabatic and the orifice plate has negligible thermal resistance.81 × 10–5 1006.08 Mesh structure for the dilution pipe model (back elevation) 5-1 .96 1. one dealing with a steady-state and the other with a transient analysis. temperature of 293 K). with the inner pipe covering only one quarter of the total distance between inlet and outlet. An orifice plate protrudes from the outer wall half way along the pipe. flows in through the outer annulus with a uniform velocity of 5 m/s. so only half of the problem geometry was considered in building the mesh. The problem geometry consists of two concentric pipes.0-1 Version 4. Methane gas (molecular weight 16 kg/kmole) at a temperature of 323 K flows in through the inner pipe at a uniform velocity of 10 m/s.Physical Problem Description Tutorial 5 TURBULENT FLUID STREAM MIXING Physical Problem Description This tutorial deals with the mixing of air and methane gas in a dilution pipe. using the mesh shown in Figure T5.0-1.205 1.

Therefore. make sure that the supplied files are copied into your current directory. 0. before starting the tutorial.1 • • • STEADY 3-D FLOW Set up and analyse a turbulent.. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (dil_pipe_ss) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. multi-species flow Define boundary conditions for both main flow variables and additional scalar variables representing species mass fractions Create multiple cross-sectional plots showing the analysis results as part of a single operation The primary task of this tutorial is to: Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut5-1. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name dil_pipe. dil_pipe.080 cells were read in Select V > All. The I/O window output shows that 2.08 . The I/O window output shows that 2. In the Title text box type: TURBULENT MIXING IN A DILUTION PIPE (STEADY) • Mesh Checking Click Apply and Close Verify that the mesh data are correct by selecting all cells and vertices and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • In the main window. boundary and problem setup files are already available (files dil_pipe. -1) using the orientation cube’s slider controls to display Figure T5.vrt.1-1 It will be seen that the mesh is in fact the same as the one created in Meshing 5-2 Version 4.. vertex. respectively). • • In the main window.cel. select File > Model Title.1) and the relevant cell.inp.331 vertices were read in Check that Hidden Surface is the default cell plot type Click Cplot Change the viewpoint to approximately (-1. dil_pipe..bnd and dil_pipe.5. select C > All.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file dil_pipe.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 5.Tutorial 5. The mesh for this problem has already been created in the Meshing Tutorials volume (Tutorial 1.inp plus the problem’s cell..

1-1 Mesh geometry Material Properties Check the default fluid properties and then choose the ideal gas law for density variations. making it a function of temperature only (incompressible flow): • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.Tutorial 5.08 Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel 5-3 .1. select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Choose option Ideal-f(T) from the Density menu Click Apply Turn on the standard k-ε turbulence model: • • • • Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence modelling option Select K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu Click Apply Turn on the solution of the temperature equation: • • • Open the Thermal Models panel Select On for the Temperature Calculation option Click Apply Set the monitoring point location: • Version 4. Figure T5.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Material Properties Tutorial 1.

1 NAMED CH4 INFLUENCE = ACTIVE SOLVER TURNED ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT = 16. The required scalar is methane and its properties can be retrieved from the built-in property database.11750000E-04 SPECIFIC HEAT = 2230.68e6 Temp. methane is treated as a user-defined scalar and its properties are supplied manually for the purposes of illustration.38000000E-01 MOLECULAR VISCOSITY = 0.038 Heat of Formation — -4.00000000 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY = 0. including turbulence parameters at the two inlets in terms of turbulence intensity and length scale: • • Select folder Define Boundaries and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no. of Formation — 298. Save the model data entered so far: • Boundary Conditions In the main window. However. • Type the following property data in the corresponding dialog boxes: Scalar # 1 — CH4 Density — 0.669 Molecular Weight — 16 Molecular Viscosity — 1. in this tutorial. 1 (the inner inlet) in the scroll list Version 4.0000 HEAT OF FORMATION = -4680000.15000 FLUID GROUP = LIGHT Note that the scalar’s ACTIVE designation signifies that its concentration at any point in the flow will influence the overall fluid density at that point.0 Conductivity — 0.66900002 BETAM = 0.000000 DENSITY = 0.15 Click Apply • The details of the scalar’s properties will be shown in the I/O window as follows: PROPERTIES FOR SCALAR NO.0 TEMPERATURE OF FORMATION = 298.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Scalar Properties • • Scalar Properties Type 11 in the Monitoring Cell Number text box Click Apply Physical properties for scalar variables are specified next: • Select the Additional Scalars folder and then open the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel It will be seen that no scalar entities have been defined yet.08 5-4 .175e-5 Specific Heat — 2230. select File > Save Model Specify boundary conditions for each region.Tutorial 5.

Tutorial 5.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes.08 5-5 . as shown below: • • • • Click Apply Select region no. as shown below: Version 4. 2 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length in the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes.

08 . as shown below: 5-6 Version 4.Tutorial 5.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • • Click Apply Select region no. 3 in the boundary regions scroll list Select option TI/Length in the Turbulence Switch menu Enter pressure boundary conditions in the appropriate boxes.

1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Click Apply Specify boundary conditions for the scalar (CH4) mass fraction. in the Value box and then click Apply Select region no. 1 (the inner pipe inlet) in the Boundary Region scroll list. Select cell plot type Quick Hidden Line from the drop-down menu to display Figure T5. ensuring that its value is 1. Enter the required boundary value. 2 (the outer pipe inlet) and then region no.0 at all other boundaries.0 at the inner pipe inlet and 0. select B > All Select B > Unselect > Symplane Turn on the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button. • • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region no. 1.1-2 Version 4.08 5-7 . Ensure CH4 is selected in the Scalars list.Tutorial 5. 3 (the outflow boundary) in the list to confirm that the scalar mass fraction at both boundaries is 0 Check the boundary conditions graphically: • • • • In the main window.

Tutorial 5.1-2 Inlet and outflow boundary condition display Control Parameters Check the status of the control parameters: • Select folder Analysis Controls Check the scalar control parameters and then modify some of them: • • • • Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Check that CH4 is selected in the Scalar scroll list and then type 0.0001 in the Residual Tolerance box corresponding to the Temperature equation Click Apply Check the status of the run time control parameters: • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Enter 200 for the Maximum Number of Iterations Click Apply 5-8 Version 4.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Control Parameters Figure T5.0001 in the Residual Tolerance box Click Apply Make the residual error tolerances for the temperature and scalar equations the same.08 . This ensures that both equations are solved to the same level of accuracy: • • • Run Time Controls Open the Primary Variables panel Select the Solver Parameters tab and type 0.95 in the Under-Relaxation Factor box Type 0.

If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. In the Save Problem File dialog. save all model data. the model geometry units were specified in inches. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. select cell plot type Quick Hidden Line to display Figure T5.08 . In the Save Geometry File dialog. check that Vector is selected from the Option menu and select Grid from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen In the main window. Remember that.. for convenience. • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. Leave all other settings at their default values Click Start The analysis will then start automatically.0254 in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively.Tutorial 5... as shown below. proceed as follows: • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. select item Velocity Components UVW to load all three velocity components Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations.ccmp: • • • Postprocessing Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Load velocity vector components for plotting and then display them on your screen using the ‘Quick Hidden Line’ mode: • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file dil_pipe_ss.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW CFD Analysis Final Operations Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. enter 0. you may continue with the CFD analysis.. This must be changed into meters by applying the appropriate conversion factor before writing data to the geometry file. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Ensure that the units in which the model was built are correctly selected (option button Inches). select File > Save Geometry. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. Alternatively.1-3 5-9 Version 4. This process is described in the next section.

check that the default setting is None In the Scalar Data list. select the contour plotting option and plot in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • • • Go back to the Load Data panel In the Data tab.08 .1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Post.processing Figure T5.1-4 5-10 Version 4.1-3 Velocity magnitude plot Load vertex-based pressure values. select plot options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T5. select option Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu In the Vector Data list.Tutorial 5. select item Pressure and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab.

1-5 Figure T5.1-5 Version 4.processing Figure T5.1-4 Pressure plot Load vertex-based temperatures and plot: • • • Go back to the Load Data panel In the Scalar Data list. select item Temperature and then click Get Data In the main pro-STAR window. click Replot to display Figure T5.08 Temperature plot 5-11 .1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Post.Tutorial 5.

choose Contour (filled) from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Select Multiple Plane for the Plot option The default number (10) of section planes to be plotted in succession is shown in the Increments box and is suitable. The Direction menu is activated to allow specification of the desired direction.Tutorial 5. (d) Select direction no. For example. load cell-based values and then average them at the vertex positions: • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel In the Data tab. select item Velocity Magnitude and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab.direction) from this menu and then click Apply • Click Sweep to see 10 section plots of temperature plotted in quick succession. starting at one end of the model and finishing at the other Once the sections are defined. they can be re-used to produce plots of any other variable.processing A multi-section plot of a variable can be made using the following procedure: • • • • • • Go to the Create Plots panel Select tab Section/Clipped For the Section Plot Type. as follows: (a) Click the coordinate system selection button to display the Coordinate Systems dialog (b) Select the toroidal coordinate system (no. 4 has been selected. 2 (the θ.1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Post.08 . 4) and then click Apply and Close (c) Note that the entry in the Coordinate System box changes to show that system no. select Cell from the Data Type menu Select On from the Smooth option menu In the Scalar Data list. velocity magnitude plots can be generated as follows: • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Check that option Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) is selected from the Data Type menu In the Calculated Scalar Data list.1-6 5-12 Version 4. select item CH4 and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Select the 3-D Surface tab and then choose Contour (filled) from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T5. check that Contour (filled) is selected from the Option menu and Edge is selected from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Sweep to see the velocity magnitude distribution plotted on a series of cross-sections through the model To produce the best display of the calculated methane mass fraction distribution. Define the normal direction to these planes to be the direction of a coordinate axis.

1 STEADY 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T5.Tutorial 5.1-6 Methane mass fraction plot Final Operations The tutorial is now complete. select File > Quit > Quit. Nosave Version 4.08 5-13 . To quit pro-STAR: • In the main window.

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1 will act as the starting point of the present analysis.ccmp) to the current directory Start up the pro-STAR interface: • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Accept the default case name (dil_pipe_tr) displayed in the Case Name text box Select the Resume From Existing .. The only difference is that transient boundary conditions are now imposed at the inlet planes.1 (dil_pipe_ss. At the same time. The model also has the same boundaries and boundary region definitions. change the title to: TURBULENT MIXING IN A DILUTION PIPE (TRANSIENT) • Click Apply and Close Check the geometry and boundary conditions visually to confirm that the model has been read in correctly.mdl File option Deselect the Append to Previous . the methane inlet velocity decreases from 10 m/s to 2 m/s. it is also necessary to copy the solution file for the steady-state case (dil_pipe_ss. • • In the main window.mdl and will set up the model as it was at the end of Tutorial 5.08 5-15 .. select File > Model Title.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 5.1. as follows: • • • Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut5-2 and copy the model file generated in Tutorial 5.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW The problem geometry and mesh for this tutorial is the same as for Tutorial 5. the air inlet velocity increases linearly from 5 m/s to 9 m/s over a period of 2 seconds. simulating the gradual shut down of an upstream valve.2-1.mdl Since the solution obtained in Tutorial 5. At the end of this tutorial it is expected that users will be able to: • • • Set up a transient calculation Set up a table that defines the changing boundary conditions Perform some basic post-processing appropriate to transient calculations Pre-Processing Preliminaries A number of initial file copying operations are needed for proper operation of this tutorial. If they were not displayed automatically then display them as follows: • • Select C > All Click Cplot Version 4.echo File option Click Continue This will read all data in file dil_pipe_tr.1.mdl) into it Rename this file as dil_pipe_tr. In the Title text box. As shown in Figure T5.Tutorial 5.

1 (the global Cartesian coordinate system) in the scroll list. The coordinate system choice will appear in the Table Editor dialog. enter INNER_INLET in the Table Title box Click the Coordinate System button and then select system no. as shown in Figure T5.Tutorial 5. period at the two inlet planes The above variation may be defined using pro-STAR tables and then applied to the two inlet boundaries. To set up a table for the inner inlet: • • • Click the Table Editor button. Define transient boundary conditions To set up the pro-STAR Model Guide environment for a transient simulation. the basic requirement of this case is to simulate a time variation in the inlet stream velocities.08 • 5-16 . Select the transient solution mode 2. .2-1 below: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Time (sec) 1 2 Inner Inlet Outer Inlet Figure T5.2-1 Velocity changes over a 2 sec. proceed as follows: • • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and open the Analysis Features panel Select Transient from the Time Domain menu and then click Apply Table Definition Velocity (m/s) As indicated in the tutorial’s introduction. as velocities will be specified in this system Click Close. Version 4.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Transient Solution Setting Transient Solution Setting The modifications needed to change to a transient analysis are as follows: 1. in the main pro-STAR window In the Table Editor dialog.

It will be seen that the PISO algorithm has been selected automatically.08 .2-1 Now set up a table for the outer inlet by editing the one currently on display: • • • • • • Enter a new name. 2 (Outer_inlet) in the boundary regions scroll list Select Table from the User Option menu Open the pro-STAR file browser by clicking the button next to the Table Name box. in the File Name box at the top of the panel Click Write to save the table data just entered in the above file Click Graph to display a graph of the outer inlet V-velocity variation. corresponding to the previously defined time points of 0 and 2 Enter a new name. OUTER_INLET. which should be as shown in Figure T5. choose file in2.Tutorial 5.tbl. 0 for the 1st time point and 2 for the 2nd time point Click the green Fill Independent Variable Columns button. which should be as shown in Figure T5. in the Table Title box Enter two new end-point values for the V-velocity.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Pre-Processing Boundary Re-definition • • • • • • • • • Select Extrapolate from the Out of bound value option menu Select TIME in the list of Independent Variables Select the V component of velocity from the Dependent Variables scroll list Enter two values in the TIME column in the Independent Variables Table. 1 (Inner_inlet) in the boundary regions scroll list • Select Table from the User Option menu • Open the pro-STAR file browser by clicking the button next to the Table Name box.tbl from the file list and click Open. choose file in1. 5 and 9. 10 and 2. corresponding to the two time points specified above Enter a new name.2-1 Close the Table Editor dialog Boundary Apply the time variation in velocity defined above to the inner inlet: Re-definition • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and select folder Define Boundaries • Open the Define Boundary Regions panel • Select region no.tbl from the file list and click Open. enter two end-point values for the V-velocity. in2. In the Independent-Dependent Variables Table.tbl. 5-17 Version 4. The selected file name will now be displayed in the box Click Apply to instruct STAR to read V-velocity boundary values from this table • Analysis Controls Check the analysis controls status: • • Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Solution Method panel. The selected file name will now be displayed in the box • Click Apply to instruct STAR to read V-velocity boundary values from this table Repeat for the outer inlet: • • • Select region no. in1. in the File Name box at the top of the panel Click Write to save the table data just entered in the above file Click Graph to display a graph of the inner inlet V-velocity variation.

as shown below. select file dil_pipe_ss.Tutorial 5. Dissipation. by default.5 seconds for the transient post file Note that. Alternatively.025 in the Time step for period box Click Set Specify that the analysis is to start from the previously calculated steady-state solution: • • • • Final Operations Open the Restart panel Select option Standard Restart from the Restart File Option menu Click the browser button next to the Restart File box... you may continue with the CFD analysis. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. the Velocity and Pressure variables are already selected for output in the upper scroll list. Choose a number of additional items for output. check that 0. Check the list display to verify your choices and then click Apply Check the status of the run time controls and then specify the simulated elapsed time and the time step to be used: • • • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation Open panel Run Time Controls Check that Run for is selected for the Run time control option and type 2 in the Time box Click Apply In the Time Step Option section.. proceed as follows: 5-18 Version 4. In the Save Geometry File dialog. Temperature. save all model data. Density and scalar variable CH4.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW CFD Analysis Run Time Controls • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Go to the Transient tab Define an output period Starting at time t = 0 seconds and with an Output interval of 0.ccmp from the browser dialog and then click Open Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete. Turb Kinetic Energy. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. check that 0 is entered in the Period start time box and enter 0. select File > Save Geometry.08 . This process is described in the next section. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. by selecting each one in turn and then enabling the Post option checkbox.0254 is entered in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. Turbulent Viscosity. In the Save Problem File dialog.

select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. Therefore. Post-Processing Preliminaries Open the file containing the transient post data (dil_pipe_tr. -1) by selecting View > Axis > -Z to display Figure T5. the time steps at which flow data were stored during the run should appear in the Time Step scroll list Postprocessing The next step in transient post-processing is to identify the point in time at which results are to be manipulated and displayed.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Preliminaries • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel.7 in the Scale Factor box Click Apply Change the viewpoint and replot: • In the main window. select the required time (0.Tutorial 5. Bear in mind that transient solutions can involve lengthy computer runs. Load velocity vector components. 0.ccmt is displayed in the Post File box and then click Add File Select file dil_pipe_tr.5 sec in this case) and then click Store Time.1.ccmt): • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel Select option Transient from the Analysis menu In the Transient section. change the viewpoint to (0. the analysis for this tutorial will take longer than for Tutorial 5. check that file dil_pipe_tr.2-2 Version 4. This loads results calculated after 20 time steps.08 5-19 . select the cross-sectional plotting option and reduce the size of all vectors: • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and select item Velocity Components UVW in the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel and select the Section/Clipped tab Accept the default section definition and click Plot to Screen Go to the Vectors tab and then type 0. This is done as follows: • In the Time Step list. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Check that the units in which the model was built are correctly selected (option button Inches) Select Yes for the Write Geometry File option Click Start The analysis will then start automatically and will stop after 80 time steps.ccmt from the Transient list and then click Open Transient file.

2-3 5-20 Version 4.processing Figure T5.Tutorial 5.2-2 Velocity magnitude plot at t = 0.08 . select Contour (filled) from the Option menu Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T5.5 s The methane mass fraction can be plotted as follows: • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select On from the Smooth option menu Select item CH4 in the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Post.

08 5-21 . select Option Vector Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T5. This loads results calculated after 80 time steps.5 s The results after 2. highlight the desired time (2 secs) and then click Store Time.processing Figure T5.0 seconds (80 time steps) may be plotted in the same manner: • • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel and then select the File(s) tab In the Time Step list.Tutorial 5. Go to the Data tab and select Smooth option Off In the Vector Data list. select item Velocity Components UVW Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab.2-3 Methane mass fraction plot at t = 0.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Post.2-4 Version 4.

0 s • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select On from the Smooth option menu Select item CH4 in the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Select Contour (filled) from the Option menu in the Section/Clipped tab Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T5.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Post.Tutorial 5.2-4 Velocity magnitude plot at t = 2.2-5 5-22 Version 4.processing Figure T5.08 .

08 5-23 . To quit pro-STAR: • In the main window.Tutorial 5.2 TRANSIENT 3-D FLOW Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T5. select File > Quit > Quit.2-5 Methane mass fraction plot at t = 2.0 s Final Operations The tutorial is now complete. Nosave Version 4.

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08 6-1 .0-1 Symmetrical diamond-shaped wedge used in supersonic flow tutorial Version 4. inflow 5o 9 cm Figure T6. shown in Figure T6.Tutorial 6 SUPERSONIC AND TRANSONIC FLOWS Tutorials in this section are designed to demonstrate the application of STAR-CD to compressible flow problems. Tutorial 6.0-1.1 involves flow over an idealised two-dimensional wing geometry.

893. This process is repeated until the mesh is sufficiently fine to give a reasonable resolution of the shock and expansion waves. Initially. a symmetry plane may be placed along the major length to reduce the computational cost of the simulation. in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • 6-2 Select File > Read Input Coded File. This is then refined in the areas where the pressure gradient is greatest. as calculated from the equation below: u u M = -. super. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name super.05 Jkg-1K-1. super1.cel. For air at a temperature of 293 K.vrt. Therefore.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 6. which is sufficiently large to ensure that the flow is supersonic across the entire solution domain.inp respectively). super.bnd and super.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW A method of adaptive mesh refinement How to set up a model of inviscid supersonic compressible flow How to calculate gradients of scalar post data This tutorial aims to demonstrate: • • • Physical Problem Description In this tutorial. the case is run with a simple.402 and 287. respectively. make sure these files are copied into your current directory. boundary and problem setup files are provided with the STAR-CD installation (files super. Create a sub-directory for the first analysis.. vertex.Tutorial 6..inp Click OK Version 4.= -------------c κRT where κ is the adiabatic index and R is the gas constant for air. Therefore.08 . coarse mesh. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name. taken as 1. this is equivalent to a velocity of 650 m/s. before starting the tutorial. the ‘wing’ geometry is a diamond wedge with major length 9 cm and half-angle 5° (see Figure T6. The initial mesh for this problem has already been created and the relevant cell. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and the inlet velocity is set at Mach 1. The inlet flow direction is parallel to the major length (zero angle of attack) so the flow is symmetrical. called tut6-1a.0-1). Pre-Processing Preliminaries The two analyses described in this tutorial will be performed in separate directories.

followed by the Liquids and Gases sub-folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Change the Density setting to Ideal-f(T.08 In the pro-STAR Model Guide panel select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder.Tutorial 6.. Material Properties Since the flow is compressible. the fluid density will be modelled using the ideal gas law. Type ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW in the Title text box Click Apply and Close Select C > All then Cplot to display the mesh shown in Figure T6.1-1 Coarse mesh geometry The coarseness of the mesh leads to highly smeared shock waves in the first run but the refinement procedure will correct this..P) Change the Molecular Viscosity setting to Inviscid Click Apply Go to the Thermal Models panel and select On for the Temperature Calculation option Click Apply 6-3 .1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Pre-Processing Material Properties This will read default problem settings from file super.inp as well as the problem geometry and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. The inviscid assumption also needs to be specified and the temperature calculation needs to be turned on: • • • • • • • Version 4. select File > Model Title. • • • • In the main window.1-1 Figure T6. First though. a complete model for the problem must be set up.

08 6-4 . To display them on the screen: • • • Select View > Isometric > -1. is a free-stream boundary. This can be particularly important in compressible flow simulations. 3. opposite the wing and coloured pale blue.bnd.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Pre-Processing Boundary Locations and Types In order to obtain a solution as quickly as possible.1-2. The red-coloured region on the left is an inlet The green-coloured region on the right is an outlet The turquoise-coloured region on the wing is a wall The fourth region. 4. This type of boundary allows shock waves produced by supersonic flows to be transmitted out of the domain without reflection. it is advisable to specify a suitable initial flow field. A simple. The Version 4. Free-stream boundaries can only be used in models involving supersonic free streams.1-2 Boundaries displayed on mesh geometry Four boundary regions can be distinguished in Figure T6.Tutorial 6. each of a different type: 1.1 Select B > All Click the Display Boundaries button.1. 2.1-2 Figure T6. . initialisation strategy is to assign the inlet conditions to the entire solution domain: • • • Boundary Locations and Types Open the Fluid Initialization panel Set the U velocity to 650 m/s Click Apply The boundary locations and types have already been specified in the coded file super. but often effective. to display Figure T6.

as described in the next section.Coarse Mesh To perform the analysis interactively. In the Save Problem File dialog. click Save CFD Analysis . as shown below. All remaining external faces of the mesh are assigned to the default boundary region 0 which.Tutorial 6. For further information about the suitability of various boundary region combinations for compressible flow applications see “Compressible Flow” on page 3-10 of the CCM User Guide. The solution should converge within the Version 4. Alternatively. Boundary Conditions To set the desired conditions for the inlet and free-stream regions: • • • • • • • • In the Define Boundaries folder open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select Inlet from the scroll list Change the U velocity to 650 m/s Change the Density to 1.. write the problem and geometry files and exit from pro-STAR. The geometry was created in centimetres.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW CFD Analysis . Analysis Controls Solving the momentum equation in the z-direction is not necessary in this case as the model is two-dimensional.01 Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. you may run STAR interactively. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.01 Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. so set the Geometry Scale Factor to 0.. save all model data. in this case. proceed as follows: • • • • File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder.. turn off the solution of the z-momentum equation by unchecking the W-Momentum option Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete. Therefore: • • • • Final Operations Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Primary Variables panel Under the Equation Status tab. is defined as a symmetry plane.189 kg/m3 Click Apply Select Free Stream from the scroll list Change the U velocity to 650 m/s Click Apply The default settings are suitable for all other boundary regions. The boundary types listed above constitute an appropriate boundary region combination for this problem. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select Other for the Model Units option and enter a Scale Factor of 0.. • • • • • Select File > Save Geometry.Coarse Mesh Boundary Conditions velocity at such boundaries is usually assumed to be the same as that at the inlet.08 6-5 .

08 .1-3 Figure T6.Tutorial 6. Both methods will be demonstrated in this section.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Mesh Refinement Preliminaries specified maximum number of iterations. select options Contour (filled) and None Click Plot to Screen Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button. the current analysis results need to be read into pro-STAR: • • • Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Adaptive mesh refinement can be performed automatically using the Adaptive Refinement pro-STAR Model Guide panel or manually using the Refine Cells option in the Cell Tool. the coarse mesh results show a lot of smearing in the shock waves at 6-6 Version 4. Cell set collection Load the pressure data into pro-STAR using the pro-STAR Model Guide: • • • • • • • • In the Data tab select Data Type Cell and Smooth option On Select Pressure from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. Mesh Refinement Preliminaries In order to perform mesh refinement.1-3 Pressure contours obtained using coarse mesh As expected. Select View > SNormal View to display Figure T6.

the selected cell set should be stored so that it can be recalled for the second refinement: • • Version 4. refinement has to be performed in two stages. ensure Percentage of cells is selected for refinement and enter 40 for the Top Percentage Select Pressure as the Variable to apply criteria Click New Set Turn on mesh plotting by clicking the Display Mesh Lines button.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Mesh Refinement Cell set collection the two wing tips and also in the fan-shaped expansion wave at the wing’s widest point. type to_refine in the Set Name box 6-7 . Prior to this. To improve the resolution of these flow features.1-4 • • • • Figure T6.1-4 need to be refined in the same manner: the main body of cells should be refined in two directions (x and y) but the near-wall cells only need refinement in the direction perpendicular to the wall (x). For this reason. click Store/Recall > Store to open the Store Information dialog Under the Sets Information Type option. the mesh will be refined in the regions exhibiting the greatest pressure gradients: • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Adaptive Refinement panel For the Gradient Criteria option in the Refinement Criteria tab. in the main pro-STAR window Click Cplot to display Figure T6.Tutorial 6. starting with the main body of cells. .1-4 Cells to be refined and corresponding pressure gradient values Not all cells shown in Figure T6.08 In the main pro-STAR window.

click Refine Cells. J and K directions. respectively. respectively Check Cset is selected for the Cells to refine option Check Yes is selected for the Vertex merge option Choose Yes for the Couple option Click Apply and then Close Now create the couples by finding matches for the entire cell set: • • • • In the main window. shown in Figure T6.1-5 • • 6-8 Version 4..08 ..... In the Cell Refine dialog. Click Apply and then Close Click Cplot to display the refined mesh.. to select the near-wall cell set due for refinement..set Click Refresh Select to_refine from the Select Entry list Click Recall Close the dialog Select the Geometry plot option from the drop-down menu in the main window Click Cplot Note that as a result of the refinement just completed. select C > All Select Tools > Couple..Tutorial 6. change the File Name entry to super1. These are refined manually using the Cell Tool: • • • • • • • Select Tools > Cell. read in the previously stored cell set and define a new subset: • • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. In the Couple Tool window. ensure that Set is selected from the Cell Selection and Entire cell set from the Master/Slave Selection menus. In the Create Couple dialog. In the Cell Tool window.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Mesh Refinement Cell set collection • Click Write and then Close the dialog To refine the main body of cells: • • • • Select C > Subset > Type and click on one of the cells near the top of the window Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Refine tab in the Adaptive Refinement panel Change the Case Name entry to super2 Click Update Model to refine the cells Now. 1 and 1 for the Number of divisions in the I. the original main-body cells in the set no longer exist so only the near-wall cells are now displayed. click Store/Recall > Recall to open the Recall Information dialog Under the Sets option. enter 2. click Create Couples.

In the Save Problem File dialog. either at the command line or interactively.. Vertex File and Boundary File options are all 6-9 . Ensure that the Cell File.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Mesh Refinement Final Operations Figure T6. Examination of the analysis results in the post data file (super2. the calculated pressure gradient in such cells is not sufficiently high to trigger their inclusion in the code-selected refinement set.1-5 Geometry plot showing mesh after a single refinement Final Operations Write the geometry and problem files and save the model file: • • • • • Select File > Save Geometry. as a result of the constant pressure defined on that boundary.. save your refined mesh data and terminate the session as follows: • • Version 4. A suitable mesh may be obtained by repeating the mesh refinement process described above until the position of the shock and expansion waves is clear.. once you are satisfied that you understand the process.. In the Save Geometry File dialog click Apply then Close Select File > Save Problem. Some cells adjacent to the free-stream boundary have also been further refined manually. click Save Select File > Save Model Run the case in STAR. You may perform all the refinement operations if desired and.08 Select File > Save As Coded Format.Tutorial 6. as described previously.ccmp) will show that the mesh is still too coarse to fully resolve the shock and expansion waves. The rest of this tutorial will proceed with a mesh that has resulted from a total of four refinement cycles using this method.. This is sometimes necessary because..

you may terminate the session without saving any data and continue instead from the cell.cel. vertex. select File > Model Title. before starting this part of the tutorial.. boundary and problem setup files provided with the STAR-CD installation.vrt.Tutorial 6.. respectively. Therefore. Nosave Alternatively.inp and then click OK This will read all the current model settings from file super_ref. Type 2D SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER A DIAMOND WEDGE in the Title text box Click Apply and Close Select C > All then Cplot to display the mesh shown in Figure T6.08 . select the File name super_ref.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW CFD Analysis .. The cell. 6-10 Version 4. as described in the next section.bnd and super_ref. boundary and problem setup files for the final refined mesh are called super_ref.1-6. vertex. super_ref.inp as well as the problem geometry and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files.. The latter also includes a magnification of the near-wall region so that the details of the mesh structure can be seen more clearly. make sure these files are copied into the tut6-1b directory.Refined Mesh Preliminaries For the second part of this tutorial.Refined Mesh Preliminaries • • enabled Click Apply and then Close Quit pro-STAR by selecting File > Quit > Quit. • • • • In the main window. Start up pro-STAR and enter the new case name and title: • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter case name super_ref Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • Select File > Read Input Coded File.inp. CFD Analysis . In the Read Input Coded File dialog. super_ref. create a new subdirectory called tut6-1b.

.1-6 Mesh geometry.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW CFD Analysis . Refinement is used to a lesser extent near the wing surface and in the expansion wave region. so set the Geometry Scale Factor to 0. • • • • • Running the Analysis Select File > Save Geometry. proceed as follows: • • • • File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. click Save To perform the analysis interactively. Final Operations The model setup for this problem was described earlier in this tutorial and will not be repeated. Alternatively. you may exit from pro-STAR and run STAR from the command line.Tutorial 6.Refined Mesh Final Operations Figure T6.. so it is only necessary to save the model data and write the problem and geometry files.01 Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. The regions upstream and far downstream of the wing do not need to be finely meshed as the flow there will be relatively undisturbed... open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select Other for the Model Units option and enter a Scale Factor of 0. The geometry was created in centimetres. In the Save Problem File dialog.01 Click Start 6-11 Version 4. as shown below. A description of how to run STAR interactively is also given below. All the information necessary to run the case is contained within the files provided. including magnification of the near-wall region It can be seen that the mesh is very fine in places where shock waves are expected to occur.08 .

Postprocessing Display a contour plot of pressure: • • • • • • In the Data tab select Data Type Cell and Smooth option On Select Pressure from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. The solution should converge within the specified maximum number of iterations. The improved results may also be displayed as a Mach number plot: 6-12 Version 4. select Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T6.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Post-Processing Preliminaries The analysis will then start automatically.1-7.1-3.08 .Tutorial 6. The resolution of these flow features is vastly superior to that produced with the unrefined mesh of Figure T6.1-7 Pressure contour plot The rapid changes in pressure that form shock waves at both wing tips and the fan-shaped expansion wave at the wing’s widest point are clearly visible in Figure T6. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis: • • • Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file You are now ready to post-process the results.1-7 Figure T6.

click the Create Graph button 6-13 . choose Data Type Boundary and Smooth option On Select Pressure from the Scalar Data list Choose Absolute from the Reference pressure list Click Get Data Select the Graphs > Extract Data sub-folder and open the Field Data panel Click the Reset Graph button and choose Yes in the dialog box that appears Choose Select data along Entire Cell Set Select Post 4 from the Post data to load menu Select Graph data Vs X-axis To isolate the wall shells.0 -0.Tutorial 6.01 • Version 4.1-8 Mach number contour plot The extent of the solution accuracy improvement can be demonstrated by creating a graph of pressure on the wing and comparing it with similar data produced using the coarse mesh: • • • • • • • • • • In the Load Data panel.08 In the Field Data panel. type the following in the I/O window: CSET NEWS TYPE 13 • Also add some of the shells on the symmetry boundary to the set: CSET ADD GRAN -1.5 12.1-8 Figure T6.processing • • • • Go to the Load Data panel In the Data tab select Mach Number from the Calculated Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot in the main pro-STAR window to display Figure T6.01 0.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Post-Processing Post.

in that order. This is because data are sorted by cell number rather than by position.08 . in the four boxes of the Graph Sort dialog Click Apply and then Close Under the Axis tab. click the Sort button to open the Graph Sort dialog Enter 3. 1. as shown below: • • Click Apply Select the Y-Axis Parameters option and enter the details shown below: 6-14 Version 4.processing The graph that now appears is not particularly useful.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Post-Processing Post. 9 and 1. ensure the X-Axis Parameters option is selected Enter appropriate values in the various text boxes. To sort the data by position on the x-axis and improve the plot appearance change the graph formatting as follows: • • • • • • Open the Customize Graphs panel Under the Registers tab.Tutorial 6.

xy file and click Open Choose xyxyxy for Establish X-Y pairs Click Create Graph to display Figure T6.processing • Click Apply and then click Redraw on the main pro-STAR window The wall pressure data from the coarse mesh are stored in file coarse. To plot both sets of data onto a single graph: • • • • Go to the External Data panel Use the file browser at the top of the panel to locate the coarse.Tutorial 6. This is also provided with the STAR-CD installation and should be copied to your current directory.1-5 Version 4.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Post-Processing Post.08 6-15 .xy.

• Quit pro-STAR by selecting File > Quit > Quit. the improvement in their sharpness is dramatic when compared to those from the coarse mesh. Nosave 6-16 Version 4.1-9 Graph of wall pressure along the wing Even through the results from the fine mesh show some oscillations near the shocks.1 ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT FOR SUPERSONIC FLOW Post-Processing Post.Tutorial 6.processing Figure T6.08 .

08 7-1 . Physical Problem Description The radial fan geometry to be used is shown below: Figure T7. The model’s mesh is saved in three separate Nastran files corresponding to each of the above parts. It uses the multiple rotating frame methodology (implicit formulation). two frames are used to perform the analysis — a spinning one representing the fan and blades and a stationary one representing the fan body and inlet. The rotation speed is 2. The spinning effect of the fan axis will be ignored in the inlet section but will be accounted for in the rotating housing. a steady-state approach involving two or more frames of reference that can be stationary or spinning. Baffle cells are used to represent the 12 equally-spaced blades.000 RPM and the fluid within the fan is air at atmospheric conditions. plus the stationary body section leading to the outlet. In this case. Version 4. the rotating fan body and blades.0-1 Radial fan geometry The fan consists of three parts: the inlet pipe leading into the main solution domain.Introduction Tutorial 7 MULTIPLE ROTATING REFERENCE FRAMES Introduction This tutorial outlines the steps needed to set up and run a rotating radial fan analysis.

open the Analysis Features panel Select option On from the Rotating Reference Frame Status menu Click Apply Note that the folder called Reference Frames is now active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. inlet.. In other words. In the Title text box type: RADIAL FAN SIMULATION USING MULTIPLE ROTATING FRAMES • Click Apply and Close This completes the preliminary steps for this tutorial. fan_mrf) in the Case Name text box Click Continue In the main window. • • • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say. before starting the tutorial. Mesh Import You can now continue with importing the grid to be used in the analysis. corresponding to the three fan regions mentioned earlier. It is assumed that its three parts have been created separately and that there is no continuity between them. the mesh blocks are not joined together with common vertex numbering at the block interfaces. select File > Model Title. To import the Nastran files: • • • • • 7-2 In the pro-STAR Model Guide. make sure that the supplied files are copied into your current directory. select the Grids folder and then open the Import Grids panel Select the Nastran option for Format Select Type in the Option menu (for cell table types) Use the browser button to locate file inlet.08 . fan. The mesh for this case is supplied as three separate Nastran files.nas.Tutorial 7.nas. Therefore.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 7. Setting the Analysis Type The first operation is to set the analysis type for rotating machinery.1 • • • • • ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Import grids from CAD files Create and transform cell couples between mismatched grid regions Define multiple rotating reference frames Define rotating and non-rotating walls Change the coordinate reference frame for vector plots The tutorial aims to show the user how to: Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial..nas for the Bulk Data File and click Open Click Apply in the Import Grids panel Version 4.nas and body. The implicit solution option will be chosen later on using a panel within this folder. as follows: • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.

the I/O window provides the maximum vertex and cell numbers after import is complete.ALL command in the I/O window which results in the output shown below: Figure T7.Tutorial 7. respectively. respectively. These cell types were defined within the Nastran files and represent the following mesh regions: 1. Baffle cells representing the fan blades Version 4. Read in the next part of the mesh: • Enable the Append option. The current maximum values of vertices and cells in pro-STAR after reading in the mesh are also shown — in this case they are the same as for the original mesh. Alternatively.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Mesh Import Following this last operation. the I/O window will indicate that the numbers of nodes (vertices) and elements (cells) that were read in were 7128 and 5760. These parameters are internal functions that provide the current highest value + 1 for the entity of interest.1-1 Cell table listing As can be seen. Fluid cells within the rotating fan body 2. In this case. so that the second part of the mesh does not re-use the vertex and cell numbers assigned to the first part. Note that the Vertex Offset and Cell Offset values are automatically set to mxv and mxc.nas for the Bulk Data File Click Apply This completes the import process. The final part of the mesh is then imported as follows: • • Use the browser button to select file body.nas for the Bulk Data File Click Apply • • Again.08 7-3 . mxv will be interpreted as being equal to 7129 and mxc equal to 5761. • Click the button on the main pro-STAR window to open the Cell Editor dialog and inspect its contents. Use the browser button to select file fan. Fluid cells within the stationary fan body 3. You should check the cell table indices set up during the mesh import. issue the CTLIS. The user can supply alternative values if desired. These values must be used as offsets for the next Nastran file import. there are four cell types defined: three for fluid cells and one for baffle cells.

Cells with index 3 are interpreted as baffles representing the fan blades among the rotating cells. click to open the Cell Editor dialog Check that table entry #1 is selected in the scroll list Version 4. Cells in the stationary body domain have cell table index 2 and those in the inlet pipe index 4.Tutorial 7. To determine what kind of cells have been created by the import process: • Select option Utility > Count > Cells As mentioned in the “Mesh Import” section. as follows: • • 7-4 In the main pro-STAR window. cells in the rotating fan body have a cell table index of 1.1.1-2 Imported grid Cell Type Properties The cells in each part of the mesh must now be correctly defined and named so that each fan component can be clearly distinguished from the others. select C > All Change the mesh orientation by selecting Plot > Up Axis > Z Change to an isometric viewing direction by selecting View > Isometric > 1.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Cell Type Properties 4.08 . this will allow you to see the fan blades inside the mesh.1 Click Cplot Select cell plot type Quick Hidden Line. The desired modifications to the cell type parameters may be done via the cell table editor. Fluid cells within the stationary fan inlet duct You may now inspect the mesh visually as follows: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. as shown in Figure T7.1-2 Figure T7.

These will be defined later as the spinning and stationary frames of reference. change the settings for cell type no. Finally.1-3 Version 4. shown in Figure T7. All other cells will have the default spin index of 1. the inlet pipe (type 4 cells) can be modified: • • • • • Select table entry #4 in the scroll list Change the Color Index to 5 (cyan) Enter INLET in the Name box Click Apply and then Close In the main pro-STAR window. corresponding to the stationary body cells: • • • • Select table entry #2 in the scroll list Change the Color Index to 3 (green) Enter BODY in the Name box Click Apply Note that the spin index is left at a value of 1.08 7-5 . so that the ‘BODY’ cells will remain stationary. respectively. Define the properties of cell type 3: • • • • • Select table entry #3 in the scroll list Select the Baffle Cell Type setting Change the Color Index setting to 4 (blue) Enter FAN_BLADES in the Name box Click Apply Note that the baffle spin index may be left at 1. 2.Tutorial 7. click Replot and notice the change in cell colours in the model.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Cell Type Properties • • • Change the Spin Index value to 2 Enter ROTATING_FAN in the Name box Click Apply The above actions assign a spin index of 2 to the rotating fan body cells. Next. In fact. pro-STAR will not allow you to change the spin index for a baffle-type cell. this is because they are already part of the spinning fan body and thus do not require a spin index setting.

7-6 Version 4. the three mesh parts are not joined together.Tutorial 7.1-4 below.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Mesh Structure Figure T7. the imported mesh is not continuous in the areas where the rotating fan body meets the stationary inlet and body mesh. As mentioned earlier.1-3 Fan model grid showing cell colour changes Mesh Structure In their present form.08 . This can be clearly seen in the zoomed-in view shown in Figure T7.

Tutorial 7. locate the Grids folder and open the Assemble Grids panel Go to the Create Couples tab Begin by joining the rotating region (cell type 1) to the stationary body region (cell type 2). The I/O window feedback should indicate that 720 couples were created along the interface between the two regions.1-4 Mismatched grid areas in the model The three meshes should therefore be joined together using pro-STAR’s cell-face matching and couple creation facilities. • • • • • Check that the Couple By option is set to Cell Set Select Cell Type from the Master/Slave Matching menu Change the Master Cell Type to Specify and enter 1 in the box below Change the Slave Cell Type to Specify and enter 2 in the box below Click Apply.08 . Next. repeat the steps above in order to couple the rotating region to the stationary inlet region (cell type 4): • • Change the Slave Cell Type value to 4 Click Apply. as described below: • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. 7-7 Version 4. The I/O window feedback should indicate that a further 648 couples were created along the second interface.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Mesh Structure Mismatched Grid Areas Figure T7.

where use is made of various cell and vertex set options that help identify their edges. First.1-5 below.. Figure T7. • Boundary Location As well as the normal inlet and pressure outflow boundaries. The I/O window feedback should verify that no couples were found in the model.1-5 Fan model grid display with coupled cells Complete the mesh re-structuring process by using pro-STAR’s couple transformation facility. Click Transform Couples Verify the result of this operation by selecting Cp > All from the main window. This creates additional cell faces at the junction between rotating and stationary regions. a spinning wall condition needs to be applied to those areas of the stationary fan casing that form part of the rotating mesh.Tutorial 7.. as shown in Figure T7.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location • In the main pro-STAR window click Cplot to display the joined-up mesh. An effective way of locating the counter-spinning boundary regions is given below.08 7-8 . • • • In the main window. Close the Couple Tool. select C > Add > Type and click on any of the Version 4. create a new cell set containing just the rotating and inlet cells: • • Select C > New > Type and click on any of the rotating (red) cells Without plotting the new set. Such wall boundaries must be defined as spinning in the opposite direction to the fan rotation in order to produce a stationary wall relative to the flow. resulting in a mesh with one-to-one cell face connectivity and the elimination of all cell couples. select Tools > Couple.

display Figure T7. • • In the main window.1-6 . change the viewpoint to be along the negative Z direction by choosing View > Axis > -Z In the pro-STAR Model Guide. The first stage defines boundaries on the bottom surface of the fan using the ZONE method.08 7-9 . The last three stages use the FIND method to generate boundaries from a starting Version 4.1-6 Inlet and rotating cell types showing edge vertices Next. go to the Locate Boundaries folder and open the Create Boundaries panel Follow the instructions below to specify the wall boundaries in four stages.Tutorial 7. remove the inlet cells from the cell set.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location • inlet (cyan) cells Click Cplot Now isolate the edge vertices of the above cell set and display them on screen: • • Select V > New > Cell Set Edge Turn on the vertex display by clicking the Display Vertices button. also remove vertices that are no longer part of this new cell set from the vertex set: • • • Select C > Unselect > Type and click on any one of the cyan inlet cells Select V > Subset > Cell Set Click Cplot to display the red rotating cells and the set of vertices that describe the edges of the counter-spinning wall boundaries We are now in a position to define a separate region for these boundaries. to Figure T7.

change the view back to isometric using View > Isometric > 1. In the Create Boundaries panel: • • • • • • Select region 3 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall as the boundary Type from the pull-down menu below Click Define Ensure region 3 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Create by Picking a Zone from the Action List and click Apply Draw a polygon around the entire visible mesh. The inlet and pressure boundaries will be defined next. This will define the fan base as part of boundary region 3.08 .1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location seed vertex on the surface. as shown in Figure T7. the core axle will be considered as spinning with the fan. Start by restoring a view of the entire model: • • • • In the main window. select C > All Change the plot type to Hidden Surface Turn off the Display Vertices option button Click Cplot To define the inlet boundary: • • • • • • Go to the Create Boundaries panel and select region 1 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Inlet as the boundary Type from the pull-down menu Click Define Ensure region 1 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Create by Picking Surface based on Edges from the Action List and click Apply Pick a vertex on the top surface of the inlet pipe Define the pressure boundary in a similar way: • • • • • • Select region 2 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Pressure as the boundary Type from the pull-down menu Click Define Ensure region 2 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Create by Picking Surface based on Vset from the Action List and click Apply Pick a vertex on the surface of the outlet plane. Note that in this particular example. 1.1 In the Create Boundaries panel.152 new boundaries should be created by this method. Next: • • • In the main window.1-7 7-10 Version 4.Tutorial 7. so no additional boundaries need to be defined in that location.1. select Create by Picking Surface based on Vset from the Action List and click the Apply button Use the cursor to pick a vertex anywhere between the two concentric rings of vertices at the top of the visible mesh An additional 576 boundaries should be created by the above operation.

1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location Select a Vertex Here Figure T7. The Version 4.1-8 button.08 7-11 .Tutorial 7.1-7 Pressure boundary definition To view all the boundaries created: • Turn on the Display Boundaries option by clicking the result is shown in Figure T7.

We can now specify the implicit solution option and spin parameters for the analysis as shown below.m. this system is correctly aligned and positioned for the model’s purposes.p. cells with a spin index of 1 are to be stationary (ω = 0) while those with a spin index of 2 are to have an angular velocity of 2000 r. a new local cylindrical coordinate system would have had to be defined (via the Coordinate Systems dialog) whose Z-axis would be the axis of rotation.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Spin Parameters Figure T7.08 . Check where the origin of this system is positioned within the model: • • • • • Click the button in the main pro-STAR window to display the Coordinate Systems dialog Select coordinate system number 2 in the scroll list Select Show Triad from the menu at the bottom of the dialog and click Apply Click Close Position the viewpoint above the mesh by selecting View > Axis > +Z The triad for the global cylindrical coordinate system shows that the origin is positioned on the fan axis and that its Z-axis runs parallel to it.1-8 Boundary regions displayed on top of the mesh • Turn off the boundary display by clicking the Display Boundaries button again This completes the boundary set-up stage. Had this not been the case.Tutorial 7. Spin Parameters The rotating frame of reference in this case should be defined with respect to the Zaxis of the global cylindrical coordinate system. Therefore. 7-12 Version 4. For this case.

Frame Treatment menu Select spin index 1 in the Spin Parameters scroll list In the boxes at the bottom of the panel.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Material Properties • • • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.m. This means that the absolute pressure at the boundary is equal to the reference pressure. enter values of 0 for Omega and 2 for Coordinate System Click Apply Select spin index 2 Enter values of 2000 for Omega and 2 for Coordinate System Click Apply The implicit solution method for this multiple rotating reference frame problem has now been set up. Therefore its molecular properties do not need to be altered and you can go directly to setting up the turbulence model.Tutorial 7.Implicit from the Ref. All cells with a spin index of 2 will be treated as rotating at 2000 r.p. with all flow leaving the fan through the pressure outlet.08 Select region 2 Pressure in the boundary regions scroll list Choose the Static Pressure Option Retain the default relative pressure (0) at the boundary.05 and a Length of 0. • Open the Turbulence Models panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide by selecting the Thermophysical Models and Properties and Liquids and Gases folders Select On for the Turbulence modelling option Choose the K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number Model option Click Apply • • • Set up some essential monitoring and reference parameters: • • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Enter 20938 for the Monitoring Cell Number Enter 5669 for the Pressure Cell Number Click Apply An inlet velocity of 5 m/s will be specified. The default fluid for material no. Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu 7-13 . 1 in pro-STAR is air at standard pressure and temperature. Intensity of 0.. while those with the default setting of 1 will remain stationary. go to the Reference Frames folder and open the Rotating Reference Frames panel Select option Multiple Frames . • • • • • • Locate the Define Boundary Regions panel in the Define Boundaries folder Select region 1 Inlet in the boundary regions scroll list Enter a value of -5 for the W-velocity component Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter a Turb. Material Properties Check the properties of the fluid present in the model.001 Click Apply The pressure boundary is defined next: • • • • Version 4.

select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Primary Variables panel In the Solver Parameters tab. the maximum number of iterations to be performed. Alternatively.08 .. Analysis Controls To ensure rapid convergence. define conditions at the counter-rotating wall regions: • • • • Select region 3 Wall in the boundary regions scroll list Enter 2 for the Coordinate System defining the axis of rotation Enter -2000 for Omega Click Apply Turning on the boundary display by clicking in the main window enables you to verify the boundary conditions entered above. Click Apply Finally. select File > Save Geometry.. These values would be used if there is any inflow through the boundary faces.e. Ensure that the Geometry Scale Factor is set to 0. for this case: • • • Go to the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Run Time Controls panel Set the Maximum Number of Iterations to 200 Click Apply The solution should satisfy the convergence criteria within 200 iterations. This can be most easily done by selecting each region in turn and displaying it. the under-relaxation factor for pressure will be increased to 0. Running the Model Set the run time controls. plus a rotational component on each of the boundaries on the counter-rotating part of the wall. Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. i. change the Relaxation Factor for Pressure to 0.Tutorial 7. select the Analysis Output panel Set the solution Output Frequency to 10 Select Additional Output Data item Shear Force and then enable the Post option Click Apply The actions above will tell STAR to update the solution data file every 10 iterations and write wall shear forces as well as the normal flow field variables into it.5: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. Intensity of 0.05 and a Length of 0.001.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • Enter a Turb. • • • 7-14 In the main window.5 Click Apply Options concerned with solution output also need to be modified: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. save all model data. Check that an inflow velocity component is displayed across the inlet plane.001. as the geometry was originally specified in millimetres Click Apply and then Close Version 4. you may run STAR interactively as described in the next section. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR as shown below.. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.

proceed as follows: • • • • Select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. select Velocity Components UVW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab.Tutorial 7.1-9 Version 4. display a plot of the velocity vectors on the mesh surface: • • • • • • • • • Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file In the Data tab. Results may be viewed part-way through the analysis by using the Post-Processing facilities in the pro-STAR Model Guide. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. In the Save Problem File dialog. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Ensure that the Model Units option is set to Millimeters Click Start The analysis will then start automatically and will converge within the 200 iteration limit.. Post-Processing First.1. select options Vector and Edge Click Plot To Screen Select View > Isometric > 1.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS CFD Analysis Final Operations • • • Select File > Save Problem.1 to display Figure T7..08 7-15 .

e. within the rotating mesh region. by default.1-9 Velocity vectors displayed on the mesh surface This plot is not an accurate depiction of the flow field because the reference frame in which the results are presented is. To do this: • • • • • • Select the Coordinate System tab in the Load Data panel. This controls the reference frame in which the solution is viewed. a stationary reference frame needs to be selected prior to any results being loaded into pro-STAR.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T7.Tutorial 7. a component equal to rω is automatically subtracted from the velocity magnitude. This is apparent upon close examination of this region.. This means that. the results are viewed from the perspective of someone spinning with the fan blades. To obtain a velocity vector plot with all velocities measured relative to the same frame. i.08 . Select the Static option Click Apply Go to the Data tab and select Velocity Components UVW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Click Replot in the main pro-STAR window to display Figure T7. the computational frame.1-10 7-16 Version 4.

0.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T7. 0.1-10 Velocity vectors relative to a static reference frame The difference between the plots is apparent in the displayed maximum velocity. Now display contour plots of some scalar flow parameters in a plane bisecting the main flow region (inlet region excluded).08 7-17 .1-11 Version 4. • • • • • • • • • In the Data tab. enter 0. 1 as the Normal parameters Click Apply Click Plot To Screen Select View > SNormal View to display Figure T7. select Smooth option On Select Pressure from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the Section/Clipped tab. select Option Contour(filled) and Edge/Mesh None To define the plane.Tutorial 7. 34 as the Point and 0.

1-11 Pressure contours displayed in a plane parallel to the inlet plane Note that the relative pressure at the pressure boundary is roughly zero. Now display the turbulence kinetic energy distribution: • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T7.08 .1-12 7-18 Version 4.1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T7.Tutorial 7.

1 ROTATING-FRAME FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T7.08 7-19 .1-12 Contours of turbulence kinetic energy Final Operations End the pro-STAR session: • File > Quit > Quit. Nosave Version 4.Tutorial 7.

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08 8-1 . with an intake valve separating the two regions. The air inlet and pressure boundary are shown in Figure T8. Injector Inlet Pressure boundary Figure T8. The model geometry consists of an intake port and part of a cylinder for an idealised internal combustion engine.0-1 Engine intake port geometry Version 4. Also shown is the fuel spray injector.0-1. located between the inlet and the valve.Tutorial 8 LAGRANGIAN TWO-PHASE FLOW The next two tutorials model steady and transient Lagrangian two-phase flow with fuel spray injection.

1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 8.inp Click OK This will read in the mesh geometry and boundary locations. select File > Model Title.vrt.1 • • • • • • • STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Set up a steady-state Lagrangian two-phase problem Choose droplet thermophysical models Model droplet evaporation Define a spray injector Display droplet plots Use the Overlay plotting option Display animated and still plots of particle tracks This tutorial is intended to show the user how to: Physical Problem Description In this tutorial. intake. while the incoming air and heptane fuel are at 400K. injects heptane droplets into the air stream at a mass flow rate of 1e-5 kg/s. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut8-1. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name intake. a constant stream of air flows into the chamber at 3 m/s. A user subroutine is supplied to determine whether droplets evaporate or bounce upon contact with the walls..cel. Outflow occurs through a notional pressure boundary shown in Figure T8.08 . and gravity is assumed to be acting in a direction normal to it. Copy these files into your working directory. plus some basic problem settings. Now name the model: • • 8-2 In the main pro-STAR window. intake. vertex.. The mesh filling the model geometry has already been created and the relevant data may be found in the cell.bnd and intake. Type STEADY FLOW WITH LIQUID SPRAY INJECTION in the Title Version 4. A nozzle. this number is chosen as a reasonable compromise between computational cost and solution accuracy. The droplets are grouped into 50 parcels... Start pro-STAR and enter the case name: • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say intake_ss) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File. All walls in the model are at a fixed temperature of 420K. positioned 5 mm away from the inlet and near the centre of the channel. boundary and problem files supplied for the tutorial (files intake. The nozzle has a diameter of 1 mm and emits the droplets in a spray cone with an angle of 20o.0-1.Tutorial 8.inp).

1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Pre-Processing Mesh Checking • Mesh Checking box Click Apply and Close Check the imported polyhedral mesh visually: • • • Select C > All Change the viewpoint by selecting View > Isometric > -1. so its molecular properties do not Version 4. 0.-1. Material Properties Turn on gravity and specify its magnitude and direction: • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder and then open the Gravity panel Enter a value of 9. select Lagrangian Click Apply. open the Analysis Features panel Under Multi-Phase Treatment. You should notice that the Lagrangian Multi-Phase folder is now active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree.Tutorial 8. -1 Click Apply The default fluid for the continuous phase is air.8 m/s2 in the Acceleration box Check that the Coordinate System is set to 1 and that the Direction of Gravity Force is 0.1-1 Mesh geometry Analysis Features Specify that the problem involves Lagrangian two-phase flow: • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.08 8-3 .1-1 Figure T8.1 Click Cplot to display Figure T8.

heptane vapour.P) for the Density option Click Apply Open the Turbulence Models panel and select On for Turbulence Select k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model pull-down menu Click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel and select Temperature Calculation On Click Apply Specify initial values for the turbulence parameters: • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel Under the Turbulence tab. C7H16 HEPTANE(V) in this case.Tutorial 8. turn On Turbulent Dispersion Version 4.15 Click Apply Open the Droplet Physical Models panel Under the Global Physical Models tab. This cell is adjacent to the pressure boundary.08 8-4 . Enter 4337 for the Pressure Cell Number. Click Apply Assign scalar no. ensure the k-Epsilon option is selected Enter 2 for the Turbulent Energy and 3000 for Epsilon Click Apply Specify the monitoring and pressure reference cells: • • • • Scalar Definition Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Enter 10054 for the Monitoring Cell Number.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Pre-Processing Scalar Definition require alteration. i. 1 to the product of droplet evaporation. from the scalar database scroll list and then choose option Define user scalar from the menu at the top of the panel The physical properties of heptane vapour are read in from pro-STAR’s property database and entered into the appropriate boxes of the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel. and import its physical properties from pro-STAR’s built-in database: • • • • Select the Additional Scalars folder Open panel Molecular Properties (Scalars) Check that the Scalar # option is set to 1 and then choose option Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Select the appropriate physical substance.e. Check that the displayed values are reasonable and then click Apply. This cell is near the valve. However. • Dispersed Phase Models Now specify the properties of the dispersed phase using the Lagrangian Multi-Phase folder: • • • • • Open the Droplet Controls panel Change the Under-Relaxation of Lagrangian Sources value to 0.. turbulence and thermal models still need to be specified: • • • • • • • • Select the Liquids and Gases folder and open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Select Ideal-f(T.

. First. select the Standard Correlation for Momentum Transfer Ensure the Slip Factor is 0 For Mass Transfer Calculation. centred at the injection point: • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. select option Standard Select the Reitz Droplet Break-Up model In the Droplet-Wall Interaction section. a new coordinate system needs to be defined. • • • In the main window.Tutorial 8. These position the coordinate system’s origin at the injector location. 0. so move on to specifying the properties of the spray injector. 19. 0. Select New (Global) from the menu at the bottom of the dialog and click Apply Ensure that coordinate system number 4 is selected in the list then choose Show Triad from the menu and click Apply Close the Coordinate Systems dialog 8-5 • • • Version 4.08 . as described in Chapter 16 of the CCM User Guide. 0. though. click Apply and then Close Go back to the Droplet Physical Models tab and click User Define to write the default droplet-wall interaction subroutine DROWBC to the ufile sub-directory Click Apply Open the Droplet Properties panel Choose option Select material from database from the menu at the top of the panel Choose C7H16_l # HEPTANE(L) as the droplet material from the list Enable the Use Internal Property Calculation option Select Define user material from the menu at the top of the panel to return to the properties panel Specify the previously-defined scalar (HEPTANE(V)) as the product of evaporation by selecting scalar 1 C7H16 for the Evaporates to Scalar option Click Apply • • • • • • • • Injector Properties The droplet thermophysical models and properties are now fully defined. choose the User option Make a local copy of user subroutine DROPRO and put it in a sub-directory called ufile under your current working directory.. 35.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Pre-Processing Injector Properties • • • • • • • • Turn On Gravity Effects Click Apply Under the Droplet Physical Models tab. click the button to open the Coordinate Systems dialog Select number 4 from the list of coordinate systems Select Cylindrical from the pull-down menu at the bottom left of the Coordinate Systems dialog Enter the following values in the seven boxes to the right of this menu: 100. Type ufiles in the text box. -100. select File > System Command. select option Standard For Heat Transfer Calculation.

HEPTANE (L) Click Update Injector Specify the fixed wall temperature: • • • • • Go to the Define Boundaries folder and open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 0 from the boundary regions list Change the Wall Heat option to Fixed Enter 420 K in the Temperature box Click Apply The inlet velocity and temperature also need to be specified: • • • • • • • Select region 1 from the boundary regions list Enter a U velocity of -3 m/s Change the Turbulence Switch option to k/Epsilon Enter 2 m2/s2 for k Enter 0.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Click Cplot The triad for the newly-defined coordinate system should now be visible at the start of the refined mesh region.Tutorial 8. so click Apply Spray Options Change the Injection Temperature to 350 K Change the Hole Diameter to 5e-4 m Enter 4 for the injector Coordinate System Change the Cone Angle to 20o Enter a mass Flow Rate of 1e-5 kg/s Change the Number of Parcels/Injector to 50 Check that the Droplet Type is number 1. The spray cone will be centred around its Z-axis. Now enter the spray injector properties: • • • • • • • • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Spray Injection with Atomization panel The default Spray Options are satisfactory.ccmp Version 4.08 8-6 . check that the Write Solution File option is selected with an Output Frequency of 100 iterations and File Name intake_ss.01 m2/s3 for Epsilon Change the Temperature to 400 K Click Apply The mean temperature and heptane mass fraction at the pressure boundary are estimated on the basis of temperatures and mass flow rates at the inlet and in the injector. To specify these values: • • • • • Analysis Controls Select region 2 from the boundary regions list Change the Turbulence Switch to Zero Grad Change the Temperature Switch to Zero Grad Change the Scalar Switch to Zero Grad Click Apply Set the frequency of data output to the solution file: • • Open folder Analysis Controls in the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Analysis Output panel Under the Post tab.

In the Save Problem File dialog. Alternatively. as shown below. click File > Open. as described in the next section.000 C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* INCLUDE ’comdb.*) Version 4. select File > Edit File.DRQ. enter sub-directory ufile and select file drowbc.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION User Subroutine Run Time Controls • Run Time Controls Click Apply Increase the maximum number of iterations to allow the analysis to converge: • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 200 Click Apply Final Operations The pre-processing task for this tutorial is now complete.001.FY. you may run STAR interactively.EMCO. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. use pro-STAR’s built-in editor to edit subroutine DROWBC (in file drowbc... click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit User Subroutine To introduce the coding needed for the extra source terms.WD. • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. as shown below Click File > Save Click File > Quit to exit from the editor C*********************************************************************** SUBROUTINE DROWBC(BOUNCE. * DEMUCO.f within sub-directory ufile) as follows: • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel.Tutorial 8.FZ. In the Open dialog displayed..FX..f Click OK Edit the contents of the subroutine by adding extra lines of code.04.REMOVE INCLUDE ’usrdat..UD. select File > Save Geometry.REMOVE) C Droplet wall boundary conditions C*********************************************************************** C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* C STAR VERSION 4.inc’ INTEGER NDRCOM_max COMMON /drcomp/ NDRCOM_max COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) LOGICAL BOUNCE.08 8-7 .TD. save all model data. as the geometry was created in millimetres Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. Ensure that the Geometry Scale Factor is set to 0.inc’ DIMENSION EMCO(*). write the problem and geometry files and exit from pro-STAR.DEMUCO(NDRCOM_max..VD. In the Edit File dialog...

WG ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(001).1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION User Subroutine Final Operations DIMENSION WPCO(50). ZD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT07(001). TW ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(059). ED ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(006). PPCO(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(101). SCWALL(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(009). RNDP ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(007). XD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(010). HVCO(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(201). CPCO(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(151). FX. CON ) C----------------------------------------------------------------------C C This subroutine enables the user to specify momentum. DEMUCO.PSCO(50) DIMENSION HPVPSC(50). DEN ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(003).VD. mass C and heat exchange at wall boundaries for droplets striking walls.CPVPSC(50) DIMENSION SCALC(50). DRMAFR(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(001). CPDR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(002). VIST ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(007).HVCO(50). VBL ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(066). SBY ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT01(003).FY.REMOVE C 8-8 Version 4. WBL ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(005). T ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(001). P ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(008).CPCO(50). SBZ ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(005). UBL ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(065). YD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(011).PPCO(50). ICTID ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT01(001). SBX ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT01(002).08 . WB ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(064). C C ** Parameters to be returned to STAR: BOUNCE. W ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(062). VISM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(063). TE ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(059). TD. SCALC(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT08(001). DENDR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(003).WD. U ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(060). IDR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(002). WPCO(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(051). DRM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT07(002). CP ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002). NDRCO ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(001). UD. PSCO(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(251). VB ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(061).SCWALL(50) DIMENSION DRMAFR(50) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001). EMCO.FZ. DRD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(009). UB ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(060). HPVPSC(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT13(301). IDRT ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(001). C DRQ. CPVPSC(1) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(009). V ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(061).Tutorial 8.

0.WNORML C-----CALCULATE VELOCITY AFTER BOUNCING UD=FRACT*UTRANS .FRACN*VNORML WD=FRACT*WTRANS . proceed as follows: • • • • Select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder.1 ) C-----CALCULATE DROPLET VELOCITY MAGNITUDE VDMAG=SQRT(UD**2 + VD**2 + WD**2) IF (VDMAG .VNORML WTRANS=WD .5 ) PARAMETER(FRACT=1. ELSE C-----Droplet bounces from the wall losing 50% of its velocity normal C-----to the wall and 10% in the direction parallel to the wall. 2. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Choose Double Precision and ensure that the Scale Factor is 0.FALSE.LE. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the analysis results: • • • In the Post-Processing folder.FRACN*WNORML BOUNCE=.5) THEN BOUNCE=.TRUE. .001 Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. open the Load Data panel Check that intake_ss. ENDIF C-------------------------------------------------------------------------C RETURN END CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. .08 8-9 . The solution should satisfy the default convergence criteria within the specified maximum number of iterations.Tutorial 8.ccmp is displayed in the Post File box for Steady State Analysis Click Open Post file Version 4.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION CFD Analysis Preliminaries C----------------------------------------------------------------------PARAMETER(FRACN=1.0.FRACN*UNORML VD=FRACT*VTRANS . C-----CALCULATE NORMAL COMPONENT OF VELOCITY AREA=SQRT(SBX**2 + SBY**2 + SBZ**2) S1=SBX/AREA S2=SBY/AREA S3=SBZ/AREA VNMAG = UD*S1 + VD*S2 + WD*S3 UNORML=VNMAG*S1 VNORML=VNMAG*S2 WNORML=VNMAG*S3 C-----CALCULATE TRANSVERSE COMPONENT OF VELOCITY UTRANS=UD .UNORML VTRANS=VD .

Tutorial 8. 0 for the Point and 0.1-2 Velocity vectors on a plane bisecting the valve Now create a temperature contour plot on the same plane: • • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select Data Type Cell Turn On the Smooth option Select Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab. select View > SNormal View to display Figure T8.1-2 Figure T8. choose Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T8. select Vector and Edge Define the cross-section plane by entering 0.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Continuous Phase Continuous Phase Plot velocity vectors on a plane bisecting the valve: • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and select Velocity Components UVW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab.08 . 1. 19.5 Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window.1-3 8-10 Version 4. 0 for the Normal values Click Apply and then Plot to Screen Under the Vectors tab. change the Scale Factor to 0.

1-4 Version 4.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Continuous Phase Figure T8.Tutorial 8.08 8-11 . plot contours of the heptane vapour mass fraction: • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select C7H16 from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T8.1-3 Temperature contours on a plane bisecting the valve In addition.

08 . select a subset of the computed droplet tracks by typing the following command in the I/O window: DSET NEWS DRAN 2 50 3 • • Select Plot > Display > Overlay from the main pro-STAR window’s menu bar to turn on the Overlay option Enter command PLFIX ON in the I/O window to prevent the display from automatically adjusting to the scale of the plot that follows 8-12 Version 4.1 as the Maximum Droplet Diameter Select None from the Vectors pull-down menu Click Apply In the interests of display clarity. open the Particle Tracks sub-folder Open the Plot Droplets panel Choose Load From Track File and accept the default intake_ss.trk file Click Load Data In the Droplet Plot Options section. In this instance.1-4 Contours of heptane vapour concentration on a plane bisecting the valve Dispersed Phase The dispersed phase can be visualised by creating droplet plots.Tutorial 8.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Dispersed Phase Figure T8. the droplet tracks will be plotted on top of the previous contour plot of heptane vapour concentration using the Overlay option: • • • • • • • • • In the Post-Processing folder. select Off under Edge Plot Options Select a Diameter dependent Droplet Size and enter 0.

1-5 Figure T8.Tutorial 8.1-6 Version 4. under the File(s) tab.1-5 Heptane droplets overlaid onto a heptane vapour concentration plot The droplets can also be displayed as particle tracks: • Turn off the Overlay and Plot Fix options by entering the following commands in the I/O window: OVERLAY OFF PLFIX OFF • • • • • • • • Return to the Load Data panel and.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Dispersed Phase • Click Droplet Plot in the Plot Droplets panel to display Figure T8. click Open Post file Select Geometry and Quick Hidden Line as the plot attributes in the main pro-STAR window Click Cplot Go to the Plot Particles panel Check Display option Segments is selected Click Plot Tracks to produce an animated display of the droplet trajectories Select Display option Continuous Click Plot Tracks to display Figure T8.08 8-13 .

08 . ensure Quick Hidden Line plot is selected Click Cplot to display Figure T8.1-5 and Figure T8. select Plot Edge On Enter a Scalar Value of 0. This leads to the cool region of high heptane vapour concentration near the valve and low concentration in parts of the cylinder.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Dispersed Phase Figure T8.1-6 show that most of the droplets evaporate before they reach the cylinder.1-7 Rotate the view to examine the details of the isosurface shape 8-14 Version 4.0001 Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window. The region of high concentration can be shown effectively in three dimensions by plotting an isosurface: • • • • • • • • Click Clear Tracks in the Plot Particles panel Open the Create Plots panel Under the IsoSurf tab.1-6 Particle tracks showing paths of heptane droplets Figure T8.Tutorial 8.

0001 Final Operations End the pro-STAR session: • Select File > Quit > Quit.08 8-15 . Nosave Version 4.Tutorial 8.1 STEADY FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T8.1-7 Isosurface of heptane vapour concentration with mass fraction = 0.

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Start up pro-STAR and open the model file: • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Check that the case name is intake_tr and that the Resume From Existing .1 so the model file. intake_ss. enter TRANSIENT FLOW WITH LIQUID SPRAY INJECTION and click Apply and Close Analysis Features Change to a transient analysis setting: • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. open the Analysis Features panel Select Transient as the Time Domain Click Apply Injector Properties The injector position and droplet properties have already been defined in the previous tutorial. the flow rate profile during the injection period must be created from scratch: • • Select the Lagrangian Multi-Phase folder Open the Spray Injection with Atomization panel 8-17 Version 4.mdl File option is selected Deselect the append to . However. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut8-2.2 TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 8..05 s.mdl. Most of the case set-up has already been performed in Tutorial 8.0001 kg/s.. In the Title box. However. The same pattern is then repeated for the second burst. For the first burst.08 .2 • • • TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Set up a transient Lagrangian two-phase flow problem Produce on-screen animations using command loops Save screen shots for creating animations externally This tutorial is intended to show the user how to: Physical Problem Description The problem geometry and flow conditions in this tutorial are the same as in Tutorial 8.1. The total injection period is 0. the mass flow rate through the injector starts at 0.001 kg/s (the mass flow rate in the steady-state solution) and then falls linearly to 0. with the heptane fuel no longer injected in a constant stream but in two short bursts.Tutorial 8.echo file option Click Continue Now change the model title: • • Select File > Model Title.mdl before continuing. should be copied across to the new working directory and renamed intake_tr. the injection is more complex.

then Graph to display Figure T8.Tutorial 8.2-1 Close the Table Editor In the Spray Injection with Atomization panel. check that intake_tr.tbl is the selected Table in the file name box Change the Number of Parcels/Injector to 1000 /s Click Update Injector Figure T8. select Table from the Mass Flow Rate menu Click the New Table button at the bottom of the panel The Table Editor dialog should now appear.2 TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Pre-Processing Analysis Output • • • • In the Define Injectors section.2-1 Graph showing the mass flow rate profile over the injection period Analysis Output 8-18 Instruct STAR to write the analysis results in the transient post data file (intake_tr. Version 4.ccmt) at every single time step. In addition.08 . specify what cell data (including scalar variable data) are to be written during the run. Enter the data shown below: • • • • • Click Write.

Tutorial 8. this is equivalent to outputting data at every time step.001 sec is entered for the Time step for period Click Set The pre-processing task is now complete. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Ensure Millimeters is selected for the Model Units option Select the Double Precision option for the STAR executable Click Start Inspect the information written in files intake_tr.. save all model data. Alternatively. Version 4. As discussed below.001 seconds. Specify that it is to Controls be covered in steps of 0.. • • • • • Final Operations Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Ensure the Run time control option is set to Run for and type 0. velocity and pressure are already selected by default. i.001. you may continue with the CFD analysis.. • • • • • • Select File > Save Geometry. as shown below.e. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively.08 8-19 .info once the run has finished. 0.. proceed as follows: • • • • • File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. As can be seen in the scroll list. write the problem and geometry files and exit from pro-STAR.001 in the Output interval box. 50 time steps in total. shown in the Geometry Scale Factor text box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. click on the Post option to include or exclude the desired item Click Apply Set Run Time The time interval of interest in this case is 0 ≤ t ≤ 0. Accept the default value.05 seconds.05 in the Time box Click Apply Check that 0. Change this selection by (a) removing Pressure (b) adding Temperature (c) adding the mass fraction of scalar C7H16 • In each case. In the Save Problem File dialog.2 TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION CFD Analysis Set Run Time Controls • • • Go to the Analysis Controls folder and open the Analysis Output panel and then select the Transient tab Specify the frequency of writing data to the transient post file by typing 0.run and intake_tr. This process is described in the next section..

2 TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Preliminaries Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing task by re-plotting the mesh: • • • In the main window. the CSCALE command is used to enable droplet and contour plots to have different colour scales. turn Off Edge Plot Options Specify the displayed Droplet Size to be proportional to the actual droplet Diameter and enter a Maximum Droplet Diameter of 0.ccmt from the Transient list and click Open Transient file Droplet Plots As in Tutorial 8. First. • Enter the following commands: *SET IT 1 1 *DEFINE STORE ITER IT CSCALE 14 USER 0 0.12 Specify the Fill Color to be dependent upon the Mass Change the Vectors option to None Click Apply Set the cell plot characteristics: • • • In the main pro-STAR window.03 GETV CONC 8-20 Version 4. select C > All Click Cplot Select View > Axis > +Y Read in the results of the analysis: • • • • • Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Select the Transient Analysis option Click Add File Select the file intake_tr. select the Particle Tracks folder Open the Plot Droplets panel In the Droplet Plot Options section. It utilises the OVERLAY and PLFIX commands demonstrated in Tutorial 8. Ignore the warning stating that no scalar data are stored Enter the commands: SNORMAL 0 1 0 SPOINT 0 19 0 The command loop used to produce the plots will now be entered into the I/O window.1.Tutorial 8. Also.08 . Select Contour plot option and Section (Surface) plot type. the droplet plots will be overlaid on contour plots of heptane vapour concentration. turn on the Display Edges plot option. The resulting sequence of plots will then form an on-screen animation. set the droplet plot options: • • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.1. A combined plot of this type will be produced for each time step using a command loop.

Tutorial 8. see “Animation Sequence Definition and Display” on page 12-2 of the Post-Processing User Guide. For more details on pro-STAR’s animation capabilities.gif files produced may subsequently be combined into an animation sequence using an external package.08 8-21 .2 TRANSIENT FLOW WITH FUEL SPRAY INJECTION Post-Processing Final Operations CPLOT OVERLAY ON PLFIX ON SCDUMP GIF IT CSCALE 14 USER 0. The . Final Operations End the pro-STAR session: • Select File > Quit > Quit.4e-7 0. Nosave Version 4.2e-5 GETD POST DSET ALL DPLOT OVERLAY OFF SCDUMP OFF *END *LOOP 1 49 PLFIX OFF The SCDUMP command in the above loop saves a screen shot of each combined plot in a file with extension . It is turned on and off again at each time step because otherwise it would save screen shots of the contour plots as well as the combined plots.gif.

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separating the cooling passage from the main combustion area. by mass.0-1 and was created in Tutorial 1. Non-swirling air enters the upper inlet and thence the primary. This liner.8% nitrogen.08 9-1 . both gaseous and liquid fuels are employed in the simulation. Gaseous fuels are supplied through an inlet at the combustor head whilst liquid fuels are injected as droplets from a single injector located on the axis. The physical properties of air and fuel and details of the individual simulations are presented in the corresponding sub-tutorials. its physical properties are assumed to be as follows: Density Molecular viscosity Specific heat Thermal conductivity Ideal gas with pressure dependence Pa s 1.81 × 10–5 1006 J/kg K –2 2.2 of the Meshing Tutorials volume. Swirling air enters the primary combustion zone through the two sets of inlets nearest to the axis of symmetry. Version 4. The problem geometry consists of three sets of air inlets placed circumferentially at the combustor head to promote maximum mixing and flame stabilisation. The mesh used in this case is shown in Figure T9.Physical Problem Description Tutorial 9 COMBUSTION Physical Problem Description A model of an idealised CAN type gas turbine combustion chamber is chosen to familiarise users with STAR-CD’s combustion modelling capabilities and introduce various recommended practices for computing combusting flows. Air is assumed to be composed of 23. Unless stated otherwise. To demonstrate the full combustion capabilities of STAR-CD.0-1).637 × 10 W/m K Only a sixty-degree sector of the combustor is simulated (see Figure T9.2% oxygen and 76. is represented in the model by baffle cells. This is achieved by using STAR-CD’s cyclic boundary option which allows the transmission of information across boundaries of this type. secondary and dilution zones via five injection holes on the liner. and to be at a pressure of 1 bar and temperature of 293 K throughout this tutorial.

Physical Problem Description Figure T9.0-1 Mesh structure for the combustion chamber model 9-2 Version 4.08 .

cel..1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) In this tutorial. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. combustor.. PPDF_ad) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File. Temperature. the physical properties of the fuel (pure propane in this case) are not utilised as no additional transport equations requiring these properties are solved. a propane combustion case is set up using the Presumed Probability Density Function (PPDF) reaction model for unpremixed flames. select File > Model Title. In the Title text box type: PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) • Click Apply and Close Plot the mesh to confirm the data read in: Version 4. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut9-1. The mesh for this problem has already been created in the Meshing Tutorials volume (Tutorial 1. • • In the main window. The main aim is to: • • • • Familiarise users with the adiabatic PPDF model setup Demonstrate the use of the CEA package for calculating polynomial coefficients required by the model Evaluate the accuracy of the analysis results and suggest a way of improving them Illustrate the use of user-defined panels as a way of facilitating post-processing operations For adiabatic PPDF.vrt. vertex.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file combustor. combustor. Therefore. respectively).inp.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 9. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say..inp plus the problem’s cell. boundary and problem setup files are already available (files combustor.2) and the relevant cell.08 9-3 .. before starting the tutorial. The model assumes adiabatic conditions (no heat loss) and a local instantaneous chemical equilibrium. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name combustor.bnd and combustor. density and species mass fractions are evaluated using the β function formulation outlined in the Methodology volume (see “Presumed-PDF (PPDF) Model for Unpremixed Turbulent Reaction” in Chapter 10). make sure that the supplied files are copied into your current directory.Tutorial 9.

-1 Click Cplot Specify the key feature of this case. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Ideal Gas Law density variation (with pressure dependence) Select the standard k-ε turbulence model Turn on the temperature solver Set the initial temperature distribution Choose the monitoring cell location Choose the reference pressure and its location Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Select option Ideal-f(T. chemically reacting flow: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. 1. 3.05 and 0.. go to panel Analysis Features Select option Chemical Reaction from the Reacting Flow menu Click Apply Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties and note that the sub-folder called Reacting Flow is now active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. 6. respectively Click Apply Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Choose a monitoring cell location (say. select Plot > Up Axis followed by X Select C > All Select View > Isometric > 1.Tutorial 9. 5. confirm that a value of 293 is displayed in the Temperature box Go to the Turbulence tab and select option TI/Mixing Length from the Model options Enter 0.P) from the Density menu Click Apply Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On to switch on Turbulence modelling Select option K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu Click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel Turn on the solution of the energy equation by selecting On for the Temperature Calculation option Click Apply Open the Fluid Initialization panel In the Flow Conditions tab.e. This will be used in this and all subsequent sub-tutorials to supply chemical reaction definitions Material Properties Set up material properties and thermofluid models using the appropriate pro-STAR Model Guide panels. i.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Material Properties • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. The required actions are as follows: 1. 4. This may be done by entering a cell Version 4.08 9-4 . half way between the axis and the outer casing and towards the outlet).2 in the Intensity and Mixing Length boxes. 2.

In an adiabatic PPDF model.08 . Continue by using the CEA package to specify the fuel (C3H8) and its combustion products. Click Continue. is 1760 Make the reference pressure cell location the same as the monitoring cell location by entering 1760 in the Pressure Cell Number box. we assume that the chosen cell no. supply the names of all chemical substances involved plus relevant reaction parameters.232 Species Name 2 — N2 Mass Fraction 2 — 0. click the mouse icon and then use the screen cursor to select the required cell on the mesh plot. Note that scheme no. To read these values into pro-STAR. proceed as follows: • • • Open the Reaction System panel Check that option CEA is selected from the Input/Control menu In the Parameter Definition tab. Alternatively. Confirm that 100000 appears in the Pressure box Click Apply Use the pro-STAR Model Guide’s Reacting Flow folder to set up the combustion model as follows: • • • • • • Select sub-folder Reacting Flow followed by Chemical Reactions Open the Scheme Definition panel. as shown below: Pressure — 1e5 Select Stream to Define -> Stream1 (Fuel) and then enter the following data in the table and text box underneath: Species Name 1 — C3H8 Mass Fraction 1 — 1 Temperature — 293 Click Define Stream Select Stream to Define -> Stream2 (Oxidizer) and then enter the following data in the table and text box underneath: Species Name 1 — O2 Mass Fraction 1 — 0. 1 is selected by default for the Chemical Scheme option at the top of the panel Select option Unpremixed/Diffusion from the Reaction Type menu Select option PPDF Single Fuel from the Reaction Model menu Accept the Chemical Equilibrium setting in the Option menu and click Apply A pop-up window will now appear warning you that the default chemical reaction settings will be changed. These are derived separately using an equilibrium calculation for a mixture of pure propane and air at a temperature of 293 K and pressure of 1 bar.Tutorial 9.768 Temperature — 293 Click Define Stream Go to the All Species scroll list and enter the following data by selecting each species line in turn: 1 — C3H8 2 — O2 9-5 • • • • • Version 4.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Combustion Model • • Combustion Model number in the Monitoring Cell Number text box. In this case. only chemical species polynomial coefficients are required.

such as C3H8. temperature and all chemical species involved (CO.1-1 9-6 Version 4.list) supplied under the STAR-CD installation directory.Tutorial 9. Selecting each item in turn will display the corresponding coefficients in the PPDF Polynomial Coefficients scroll list. To check these coefficients graphically: • Click Graph to generate plots of the available data automatically. as shown in Figure T9. N2. H2O. Confirm that there are 20 coefficients each for density.08 . should be entered exactly as they appear in the material names file (material. O2). C3H8. Note that all items in the PPDF Dependent Variables list are initially flagged as ‘Undefined’ Click Apply • Updated items will now appear on the PPDF Dependent Variables scroll list. CO2. Define the basic character of the reaction: • • Go to the Heat Option tab Check that option Adiabatic is selected in the Heat Option menu Start up the CEA application: • • Go to the Integration Control tab Check that option Polynomial is selected in the Integration Method menu.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Combustion Model 3 — N2 4 — CO 5 — CO2 6 — H2O • Click Apply Note that all chemical names.

The reaction scheme is also assigned automatically to the current fluid domain (material no.Tutorial 9.08 . • • Scalar Properties Check the properties of the scalar variables that were automatically set up by the combustion model’s mapping process. Note that as a result of the chemical scheme definition. 1 (the adiabatic PPDF defined above) is assigned to material no.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Scalar Properties Figure T9. described above: • • Select sub-folder Additional Scalars and then open the three panels under it in turn In the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel. use the Scalar number option to inspect the available scalars. 1).1-1 PPDF polynomial coefficient plots Reset the graph registers before proceeding further • • In the main pro-STAR window menu bar. select Graph > Reset Click Yes to confirm your action The CEA output is passed to pro-STAR which in turn generates suitable scalar variables and maps them automatically to the constituents of the reaction scheme. 9-7 Version 4. 1 (the background fluid in the current domain) Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases in the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel. Note that chemical scheme no. the setting of the Density menu has changed automatically to PPDF. To check the results of this operation: • Open the Scheme Association panel.

as can be seen from the formulation of the PPDF model in Chapter 10 of the Methodology volume.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions It will be seen that a total of 8 scalars are present and that. Starting with the fuel inlet: • • • Select region 3 In the boundary regions scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet boundary values for the fuel stream in the appropriate boxes as shown below: 9-8 Version 4. CO2. scalar nos. 1 and 2 (for mixture fraction and variance) have also been created automatically.Tutorial 9. in addition to the species from the PPDF database (C3H8. • • Select folder Define Boundaries Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Specify boundary conditions for the inlet boundaries.08 . O2. Note that all fluid streams except the one flowing through the cooling passage have swirl velocity components on entry into the combustor. choosing the ‘Mixing Length’ option for turbulence parameter input. CO. This is because transport equations for these variables need to be solved. Boundary Conditions Check the current boundary definitions and specify boundary conditions where appropriate. H2O and N2).

08 9-9 .1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Click Apply Specify conditions at the remaining boundaries: • • • Select region 4 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes. as shown below: Version 4.Tutorial 9. as shown below: • • • • Click Apply Highlight region 5 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes.

as shown below: 9-10 Version 4.08 .1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • • Click Apply Highlight region 6 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate text boxes.Tutorial 9.

The default settings for side no.08 . The default settings are acceptable.Tutorial 9. 2 are automatically the same as side no. The default settings are acceptable. 1 Specify a boundary condition for the mixture fraction variable at the fuel inlet: • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region no. The settings for side no. 1 are acceptable. so no further action is required Highlight region 15 in the scroll list. so no further action is required This is also true of the wall boundary conditions assigned to regions 8 to 13. 3 in the Boundary Region scroll list Select MIXTURE_FRACTION in the Scalars scroll list.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Click Apply Check the wall boundary conditions for the first inlet-side wall (region 7) • Select region 7 in the scroll list. Check region 14 (the outlet) and region 15 (the baffle boundaries): • • Highlight region 14 in the scroll list. type 1 in the boundary Value box and then click Apply 9-11 Version 4. so no further action is required.

confirming that this is a run from initial conditions.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) CFD Analysis Control Parameters Modify the air inlet boundary values (regions 4. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. Alternatively. select File > Save Geometry. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. 4 in the boundary regions scroll list Select N2 in the Scalars scroll list. 5 and 6) for the O2 and N2 scalars as follows: • • • Select region no. This process is described in the next section.. Open the Restart panel. In the Save Problem File dialog. save all model data.232 in the boundary Value box and click Apply Repeat the above sequence of steps for regions 5 and 6. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. as shown below. Control Parameters Check the solution control parameters and then change the under-relaxation factor and residual tolerance for the mixture fraction and variance: • • • • • • • • • • Run Time Controls Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select MIXTURE FRACTION in the Scalar scroll list Type 0. you may continue with the CFD analysis.Tutorial 9. type 0...7 in the Under-Relaxation Factor text box Type 0.7 in the Under-Relaxation Factor box Type 0.001 in the Residual Tolerance box Click Apply Select VARIANCE in the Scalar scroll list Type 0.08 . select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder.. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. In the Save Geometry File dialog. it is recommended that STAR is run in double precision mode.768 in the boundary Value box and click Apply Select O2 in the Scalars scroll list. The setting of the Restart File Option menu should be None.001 in the Residual Tolerance text box Click Apply Check the status of the run time control parameters: • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Enter 500 for the maximum number of iterations and then click Apply. type 0. Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. as follows: • • 9-12 In the main pro-STAR panel. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis For flows involving chemical reactions. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Version 4.

Select option Case from the Pgetc panel’s Load menu to get the current case name Select option Load St. Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing task by re-plotting the mesh: • • In the main window.Tutorial 9. to read in the analysis results In the main window. that are specially designed to facilitate post-processing operations. see “Panel Definition” on page 9-18 for a general discussion of the subject and for specific instructions on how to create these particular panels.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Post-Processing Preliminaries • • Select the Double Precision option button. Pgetc and Pgetv. or if you want to practice creating panels. If no items appear in the menu. click the Display Edges plotting button. If the panels are not available. you will need to refer to the section on “Panel Definition” in this tutorial for further instructions.1-2 • • • • • Version 4. depending on whether a local or global panel sub-directory is being used. either the required panel does not exist or it is necessary to specify the name and location of the above sub-directories.08 9-13 . ready-to-use. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations. . select C > All Click Cplot This tutorial employs two user-defined panels. click VM In the main window. to display Figure T9. Leave all other settings at their default values Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. select plot option Contour and plot type Hidden Surface In the Pgetc panel. Use the panels to generate a 3-D display of the velocity magnitude distribution: • Click Panels in pro-STAR’s menu bar to display the available panels and then select Pgetc. “Panels” in the CCM User Guide). In either case. These may already be available to you. in a local or global panel sub-directory (see Chapter 18. Note that the name of the menu item may be L Pgetc or G Pgetc.

1-3 9-14 Version 4. Select a viewpoint at right angles to the section by choosing View > SNormal View Select cell plot type Section (Surface) • • Use the Pgetc panel to create a cell-averaged temperature profile in the section: • • • On the Pgetc panel. This represents the trace of a longitudinal section plane through the middle of the mesh and passing through the axis.1-2 Velocity magnitude plot Define a section whose plane bisects the mesh and passes through the axis of symmetry: • • • In the main window.08 .Tutorial 9.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9. select View > Axis > +X Click the Display Edges button again to turn off edge plotting Click Sect. Slice and then use the screen cursor to draw a vertical line that bisects the visible mesh (mark the end points of the line using the screen cursor). click button TA to display the absolute temperature distribution Average the cell values by selecting Post > Caverage > Cset from the main pro-STAR window Click Replot to display the temperature profile shown in Figure T9.

1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9.Tutorial 9.1-5 Version 4. This implies a heat flow situation that is unrealistic (given that the baffle is adiabatic) and is solely due to the interpolation technique employed by pro-STAR to create a smooth-looking plot.1-3 Temperature distribution Note that the cell-averaged temperature contours continue unbroken across the baffle.1-4 Click button Conc4 to display the carbon dioxide distribution. You should be aware of this when creating smoothed contour plots in geometries containing baffles and solid-fluid interfaces. Close the Pgetc panel: • Select File > Close Open panel Pgetv and plot the vertex-based mass fraction profiles for the fuel and one of the combustion products (CO2) in the section: • • • Select Panels > Pgetv Click button Conc5 to display the propane distribution. shown in Figure T9.08 9-15 . shown in Figure T9.

1-4 Propane distribution Figure T9.08 .Tutorial 9.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9.1-5 Carbon dioxide distribution 9-16 Version 4.

1) and gf its variance (scalar no. It is therefore instructive to consider the likely accuracy of the temperature distribution obtained here.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Post-Processing Analysis of Results As for the cell-averaged temperature plot.= --------f f where f is the mean mixture fraction (calculated as scalar no. go to the Function Category menu and select option Load cell data > Scalar Concentration Accept the default Register 1 as the destination register for the data and type 2 in the Scalar # text box Click Apply In the Function Category menu. This effect could be minimised by using a finer mesh. 2: • • • In the Post Register Operations dialog.08 Change the plot option setting to Contour 9-17 . starting from the axis. Analysis of Results The predicted maximum temperature in the model is lower than would normally be expected from this type of combustor. A good quality measure to use for this purpose is the ratio 2 gf f ′----------. • • • Go to the Function Category menu and select option Multi-register > Divide Choose appropriate register numbers in the Operation section so that the end result is Register 4 = Register 1/Register 2 Click Apply and then Close Now plot the distribution: • Version 4. go to the Function Category menu and select option Load cell data > Scalar Concentration Select Register 2 as the destination register and type 1 in the Scalar # text box Click Apply Calculate the required ratio by dividing the contents of register 1 by those of register 2 and putting the results in register 4 (reserved for scalar data).Tutorial 9. the vertex-averaged CO2 plot shows unrealistic values in the vicinity of the baffle. To display the distribution of the above variable over the combustion region (encompassing approximately the first six cell layers in the radial direction) proceed as follows: • • • Change the plot option setting to Geometry Change the cell plot type to Section (All) Select C > New > Zone and then draw a closed rectangle encompassing the entire mesh in the z-direction and the first six cell layers in the x-direction. select option Single register > Sqrt Click Apply Load the mixture fraction in post register no. 1 and take its square root: • • • • • • In the main window. In the Post Register Operations dialog. select Post > Operate... 2). 1080 cells are selected Load the variance in post register no.

Nosave Panel Definition Panel Pgetc is designed as an aid to post-processing cell-centre based data.08 .1-6 Distribution of quality measure ratio It will be seen that the value of the ratio is generally rather high.Tutorial 9.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results • • Turn off mesh plotting Click Cplot to display Figure T9. proceed as follows: 9-18 Version 4. select File > Quit. shown below. To set up the panel. a considerably finer mesh would be needed to increase confidence in the calculated temperatures.1-6 Figure T9. implying that the predicted maximum temperature is considerably lower than the adiabatic flame temperature. In a realistic modelling exercise. Terminate the session: • In the main window.

PNL Select the panel name in the list and click Open to display the new (blank) panel Specify the basic panel appearance via the panel menu options..08 Click on the first button... as follows: • • • • • In the Pgetc panel. To create the first column: • • • • • • • • • • • Version 4. B0 Type SU in the text box for the Button Name Click in the Definition field and type: getc u v w su$repl Click on button B1 Type SV in the text box for the Button Name Click in the Definition field and type: getc u v w sv$repl Click on button B2 Type SW in the text box for the Button Name Click in the Definition field and type: getc u v w sw$repl Click on button B3 Type VM in the text box for the Button Name 9-19 .. select File > Layout. in a file called Pgetc.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results • • • • Select Panels > Define Panel.Tutorial 9. from the main menu bar Type Pgetc in the Panel Name box Click New. In the Define Panel Layout dialog box. This adds a new panel with that name in the scroll list. Note that the panel definition is placed by default in the present working directory. type 7 in the Number of horizontal buttons text box Type 4 in the Number of vertical buttons text box Click Apply and then move the panel to the screen location where you want it to appear every time you enter pro-STAR Click Close Proceed with the definition of panel buttons.

Tutorial 9. according to the definitions given below: ID= B4 Label= P Command= getc u v w p$repl ID= B5 Label= PA Command= getc u v w p abso$repl ID= B6 Label= Pstat Command= getc u v w pstat$repl ID= B7 Label= PstatA Command= getc u v w pstat abso$repl ID= B8 Label= Ptot Command= getc u v w ptot$repl ID= B9 Label= PtotA Command= getc u v w ptot abso$repl ID= B10 Label= T Command= getc u v w t rela$repl ID= B11 Label= TA Command= getc u v w t abso$repl ID= B12 Label= Ttot Command= getc u v w ttot rela$repl 9-20 Version 4.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results • • Click in the Definition field and type: getc u v w vmag$repl Click File > Save The remaining columns are created in a similar manner.08 .

08 9-21 .Tutorial 9.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results ID= B13 Label= TtotA Command= getc u v w ttot abso$repl ID= B14 Label= K Command= getc u v w te$repl ID= B15 Label= E Command= getc u v w ed$repl ID= B16 Label= Visc Command= getc u v w vis$repl ID= B17 Label= Dens Command= getc u v w dens$repl ID= B18 Label= Conc1 Command= getc u v w conc 1$repl ID= B19 Label= Conc2 Command= getc u v w conc 2$repl ID= B20 Label= Conc3 Command= getc u v w conc 3$repl ID= B21 Label= Conc4 Command= getc u v w conc 4$repl ID= B22 Label= Conc5 Command= getc u v w conc 5$repl ID= B23 Version 4.

08 . Load Tr. “Panels” in the CCM User Guide).ccmt • • Click Apply Close the Define Panel Menus dialog The panel definition is now complete. in the form of a local.case evfi conn load {name}..Tutorial 9.. The definition of this special menu is as follows: • • • In the Pgetc panel. user-defined menu (see Chapter 18.ccmp trload {name}. select File > Menus.1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results Label= Conc6 Command= getc u v w conc 6$repl ID= B24 Label= Conc7 Command= getc u v w conc 7$repl ID= B25 Label= Conc8 Command= getc u v w conc 8$repl ID= B26 Label= Conc9 Command= getc u v w conc 9$repl ID= B27 Label= Conc10 Command= getc u v w conc 10$repl The panel also provides additional facilities for executing common data loading operations. In the Define Panel Menus dialog box. Menu Item Command *get name. • 9-22 Close the Define Panel dialog Version 4. type Load for the Menu Title of Menu 1 Fill in the Menu Item Label and Menu Item Command fields according to the definitions given below: Menu Item Label Case Event Load St.

. If the panel is moved or copied to a local or global directory. you need to make sure that pro-STAR knows the latter’s name and location. The button definitions for this panel are given below: Version 4. preceded by ‘L’ or ‘G’. depending on the location of the panel definition file Click Apply and Close SETENV PANEL LOCAL • • • • • Select Panels > Define Panel. as follows: • • • Select Panels > Set Environment. from the main menu bar Type the full filename path in the PANEL_GLOBAL or PANEL_LOCAL text box.Tutorial 9.08 9-23 . next time you enter pro-STAR you will see the panel name displayed (preceded by ‘L’ or ‘G’. You might do the latter if you want the panel to be available for use by other members of your team (global) or by yourself in all your case directories (local). where it will be available only to the case you are working on at the moment. as appropriate Close the Define Panel dialog Select Panels from the main menu bar to confirm that Pgetc is included as a menu option Note that. In such a case. as appropriate.. or copying/moving it to a local or global panel directory. from the main menu bar Click Re-scan The above operation causes the panel name to be displayed in the scroll list. any new panels you create can be placed directly in that directory simply by prefixing the new panel name with an ‘L’ or ‘G’. in going through this process. as appropriate) when you click Panels in the main menu bar. you have the choice of leaving the panel in your present working directory.. if you are working with a local or global directory. Panel Pgetv is essentially identical to Pgetc apart from the fact that it performs vertex based post-processing operations. This information may be available already in the form of environment variable definitions in your operating system set-up..1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results Note that. it is still possible to supply the required information as part of the current session. If environment variables are not set.

08 .1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results ID= B0 Label= SU Command= getv u v w su$repl ID= B1 Label= SV Command= getv u v w sv$repl ID= B2 Label= SW Command= getv u v w sw$repl ID= B3 Label= VM Command= getv u v w vmag$repl ID= B4 Label= P Command= getv u v w p$repl ID= B5 Label= PA Command= getv u v w p abso$repl ID= B6 Label= Pstat Command= getv u v w pstat$repl ID= B7 Label= PstatA 9-24 Version 4.Tutorial 9.

1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results Command= getv u v w pstat abso$repl ID= B8 Label= Ptot Command= getv u v w ptot$repl ID= B9 Label= PtotA Command= getv u v w ptot abso$repl ID= B10 Label= T Command= getv u v w t rela$repl ID= B11 Label= TA Command= getv u v w t abso$repl ID= B12 Label= Ttot Command= getv u v w ttot rela$repl ID= B13 Label= TtotA Command= getv u v w ttot abso$repl ID= B14 Label= K Command= getv u v w te$repl ID= B15 Label= E Command= getv u v w ed$repl ID= B16 Label= Visc Command= getv u v w vis$repl ID= B17 Label= Dens Command= Version 4.Tutorial 9.08 9-25 .

1 PROPANE COMBUSTION (ADIABATIC PPDF) Panel Definition Analysis of Results getv u v w dens$repl ID= B18 Label= Conc1 Command= getv u v w conc 1$repl ID= B19 Label= Conc2 Command= getv u v w conc 2$repl ID= B20 Label= Conc3 Command= getv u v w conc 3$repl ID= B21 Label= Conc4 Command= getv u v w conc 4$repl ID= B22 Label= Conc5 Command= getv u v w conc 5$repl ID= B23 Label= Conc6 Command= getv u v w conc 6$repl ID= B24 Label= Conc7 Command= getv u v w conc 7$repl ID= B25 Label= Conc8 Command= getv u v w conc 8$repl ID= B26 Label= Conc9 Command= getv u v w conc 9$repl ID= B27 Label= Conc10 Command= getv u v w conc 10$repl 9-26 Version 4.08 .Tutorial 9.

2 • • PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Familiarise users with the eddy break-up model setup Demonstrate a simulation in which the overall combustion reaction is represented by several steps. The physical properties of air (23.5O 2 → H 2 O The mesh set up in Tutorial 1.0 Ideal gas 1.79 × 10–5 8. Thus.08 .2% oxygen and 76. CO.49 × 10–5 C3H8 44.81 × 10–5 8. The nitrogen mass fraction is obtained from its fixed fraction in the inlet air stream.696 × 2.0 CO 28.1 is repeated using a three-step reaction of the following form: C 3 H 8 + 1.Tutorial 9.88 × 10–6 1.62 × 1.27 × 10–5 Polynomial function of temperature Thermal conductivity 2.5O 2 → CO 2 H 2 + 0.27 × 10–6 1. H2O) are assumed to be as follows: Air Molecular weights 28.0 CO2 44. leading reactants (C3H8.96 Density Molecular viscosity Specific heat 1.637 × 1.8% nitrogen. H2) and products (CO2. the simulation performed in Tutorial 9. Additional Modelling Notes • Transport equations are solved for the leading reactants and their mixture fractions (Mixture fraction = Unburnt fuel mass fraction + Burnt fuel mass fraction).5O 2 → 3CO + 4H 2 CO + 0.769 × 2.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Additional Modelling Notes Tutorial 9. 9-27 • Version 4.533 × 10–2 10–2 10–2 10–2 10–2 10–2 It is assumed that both air and fuel enter the combustion chamber at a pressure of 1 bar and temperature of 293 K. The oxygen mass fraction may be obtained from its fixed fraction in the inlet air stream and the amount of fuel burnt.497 × 18.2 of the Meshing Tutorials volume is utilised and boundary conditions that are appropriate for this type of model are applied.0 H2O 18. describing fuel pyrolysis and the subsequent oxidation into combustion products Illustrate the use of the ‘numerical’ scheme for modelling the ignition process The main aim of the tutorial is to: • Thus. by mass).0 H2 2. an internal linear equation is employed to compute this quantity.

The mesh for this problem has already been created in the Meshing Tutorials volume (Tutorial 1. combustor. make sure that the above files are copied into your current directory. Therefore. boundary and problem setup files are already available (files combustor. It is assumed that the combustion rate is controlled by turbulent mixing of fuel and air and is calculated via the eddy break-up model. it is necessary to solve the transport equations for species and enthalpy to a tight solver tolerance. Therefore.2) and the relevant cell. It is expected that the final solution will be independent of the choice of ignition cells.PNL. Cp = ∑ C pi Y i i i where Yi is the species mass fraction and C p ≡ C p( T ) • i for all i In this model.08 . the enthalpy and mixture fraction variables must develop numerically at the same rate as the fuel fraction. therefore.bnd and combustor. A flow domain region lying downstream of the inlets is chosen for this purpose. Small errors in calculating the fuel mass fraction can strongly influence the computed temperature. the fuel mass fraction reduction mentioned above and the duration of the ignition process. the under-relaxation factors for enthalpy and transported species must be identical. The mixture’s specific heat is assumed to be dependent on component specific heats. it is necessary to initiate combustion by an ignition mechanism. • Pre-processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut9-2. These are stored in files Pgetc. • 9-28 Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Version 4.PNL and Pgetv.vrt. Using the chemico-thermal option for enthalpy. i. Using linear equations for oxygen and product mass fractions implies that the molecular diffusivities of all species are assumed to be identical. Numerical Considerations • • The combustion source term in the leading reactant transport equations is large. Also copy the user-defined panels Pgetc and Pgetv defined in Tutorial 9. combustor. respectively).cel.inp.e.1. the fuel mass fraction requires under-relaxation. Therefore.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Numerical Considerations Preliminaries • • • • The mass fraction of products (carbon dioxide and water vapour) is obtained from the amount of burnt fuel and is therefore also computed from a linear equation. vertex. before starting the tutorial. Ignition comprises an artificial reduction of the fuel mass fraction used to determine the combustion rate and is performed over a pre-defined number of iterations.Tutorial 9.

. select Tools > Cell..1 0. Now assign a separate cell type with a different colour to them so that they can be distinguished easily from the rest of this model’s cells: • • • • Version 4. select Plot > Up Axis > X Select C > All Select View > Isometric > 1. an ignition region needs to be defined for this type of model. -1 Click Cplot Specify the key feature of this case.. Select row 4 in the Cell Tool scroll list Click Cell Editor from the menu on the left to open the Cell Editor dialog Enter 5 in the Color Index box 9-29 . This will be used in this tutorial to supply chemical reaction definitions. chemically reacting flow: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.. type command CSET NEWS GRAN 0...51 2 • Click Cplot A total of 90 cells will be selected.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file combustor. To do this. i. collect the cells to be designated as ignition cells as follows: • In the I/O window.-0. select File > Model Title. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name combustor.049 0. In the Title text box type: PROPANE COMBUSTION (3-STEP EDBR) • Click Apply and Close Plot the mesh to confirm the data read in: • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. • • In the main window. EDBR_va) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File.0751.inp plus the problem’s cell. go to panel Analysis Features Select option Chemical Reaction from the Reacting Flow menu Click Apply Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties and note that the sub-folder called Reacting Flow is now active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files..Tutorial 9.08 In the main window.. Ignition Region As explained in the “Additional Modelling Notes” section.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Ignition Region • • • Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say.e.. 1.

Set the initial temperature and turbulence distribution 6. Click OK to close the panel and then click Define Polynomial to open the Polynomial Function Definition dialog Find a substance called N2 in the scroll list on the left-hand side of this dialog. i. and then click Apply Database Substance.96. we assume that the specific heat polynomial for air is virtually identical to that for N2 3. select C > All and then Cplot to see all cells in the model Set up material properties and thermofluid models using the appropriate pro-STAR Model Guide panels.. In this tutorial. pro-STAR will retrieve the corresponding polynomial coefficients and assign them to material no.Tutorial 9. Choose the reference pressure and its location • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. Select the Ideal Gas Law density variation (with pressure dependence) 2.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Material Properties • • • • • • Material Properties Enter Ignition_cells in the Name box Click Apply and then Close In the Cell Tool. select Modify > Modify Type (Cell Set) Click Replot and note the change of cell colour in the ignition region Close the Cell Tool In the main window.P) from the Density menu Select option Polynomial in the Specific Heat menu. A pop-up panel will appear. The required actions are as follows: 1. Note the Molecular Weight box whose default value. assign a polynomial variation to the specific heat of the background fluid (air) as a function of temperature. select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Select option Ideal-f(T.e. the background material. Turn on the chemico-thermal enthalpy equation solver 5. is appropriate for air.08 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9-30 . Select the standard k-ε turbulence model 4. Since this is a high-temperature combustion case. 28. Click Graph Data to display a graph of specific heat versus temperature. Choose the monitoring cell location 7. together with corresponding graphs for normalised enthalpy and entropy Click Close to exit from the dialog Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On to switch on Turbulence modelling Select option K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu Click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel Turn on the solution of the energy equation by selecting On for the Temperature Calculation option Select option Chemico-Thermal from the Enthalpy menu Click Apply Open the Fluid Initialization panel Version 4. warning you that pro-STAR was not able to find the background material name (AIR) in its built-in database and suggesting an alternative action. Click Apply. select it. 1.

Note that scheme no. i. Bmix.5O2 -> H2O in the box Click Apply. Click Continue.08 In the Reactant Parameters list. • • • Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 114 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Choose the same reference pressure location as Tutorial 9. Products and Reactant Parameters) Increment the Reaction setting to 2 and type the second reaction definition. Note that reaction no.5O2 -> 3CO + 4H2.1.05 and 0. select reactant no. confirm the chemical names entered above and enter them in the appropriate lists (Leading Reactants. by entering 1760 in the Pressure Cell Number box. 1 is selected by default for the Reaction option. Confirm that 100000 appears in the Pressure box. in the box Click Apply.. in the box underneath Accept the default settings on the Status.2 in the Intensity and Mixing Length boxes.e. C3H8 + 1.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Combustion Model • • • • In the Flow Conditions tab. respectively Click Apply It is good practice to define one of the ignition cells as the monitoring point. pro-STAR will update the various lists as necessary • • • • Check the treatment to be applied to the ordinary reactant (oxygen): • • • Version 4. 1 Check that option Fixed-Fraction is shown Check that the (fixed) oxygen mass fraction in the incoming air stream is 9-31 . confirm that a value of 293 is displayed in the Temperature box Go to the Turbulence tab and select option TI/Mixing Length for the Model Enter 0.5O2 -> CO2. This makes checking for the onset of ignition easier. 1 is selected by default for the Chemical Scheme option at the top of the panel Select option Unpremixed/Diffusion from the Reaction Type menu Accept the default EBU Standard option from the Reaction Model menu Click Apply A pop-up window will now appear warning you that the default chemical reaction settings will be changed.Tutorial 9. Click Apply • Combustion Model Use the pro-STAR Model Guide’s Reacting Flow folder to set up the combustion model as follows: • • • • • • Select sub-folder Reacting Flow followed by Chemical Reactions Open the Scheme Definition panel. CO + 0. pro-STAR will use default values for parameters Amix. Type the first reaction definition. as temperature and product mass fractions build-up rapidly at that point once ignition begins. pro-STAR will update the various lists as necessary Increment the Reaction setting to 3 and type the third reaction definition. Specify the chemical reaction equations and other basic model parameters: • • • Open the Reaction System panel. half way between the axis and the outer casing and towards the outlet. Tscale and Rate Equation menus and then click Apply. H2 + 0.

Version 4.Tutorial 9. you need to assign a polynomial specific heat function to the scalar variables representing the chemical reaction species and display this graphically for verification purposes. i. Finally. specify the ignition parameters as follows: • • • • • • • Open the Ignition panel Accept the default setting (Numerical) in the Model/Treatment panel Type 4 in the Cell Type box Type 0.. properties) will be created and added to the scalars list.e.. • • Set the Scalar # option to scalar no. This will display the coefficients just retrieved.08 • 9-32 . Inspect each of the remaining scalars in turn to verify that they have been set up as ‘active’. they are found and a message to that effect appears in the I/O window. including three ‘passive’ scalars representing the mixture fractions of the leading reactants.dbs). Note that a solution for this group of scalars is required by the EDBR formulation (see Chapter 10 of the Methodology volume). Click the Define Polynomials button for specific heat to open the Polynomial Function Definition dialog. A stoichiometric check under this condition will fail. If a chemical species cannot be mapped to a scalar variable. from the Interval menu Type 50 and 150 in the Start and End boxes. It will be seen that a total of 10 scalars have been created. air. define their initial conditions and assign physical properties using its built-in database (props.05 in the Fraction Burnt box Accept the default option. Time Step/Iteration.233 This completes the specification of leading reactants and combustion products. 1 (C3H8) Clicking Apply causes pro-STAR to search for the coefficients of this substance in its internal database. In this case. in particular) are not appropriate. a warning will be displayed in the I/O window and a new scalar of that name (but with default. their influence on the flow field will be taken into account through the density calculation. pro-STAR will automatically map scalar variables to the constituents of the reaction scheme. indicating that the assigned properties (molecular weights. i. As a result of the ‘Polynomial’ setting for the background fluid.e. respectively Click Apply Assign the chemical reaction scheme just defined to the model’s fluid domain: • • • Scalar Properties Open the Scheme Association panel Select On for the Associate Chemical Scheme option and check that the default value is 1 for the Chemical Scheme # option Click Apply Check the properties of the scalar variables set up as a result of the scalar mapping described earlier: • Select the Additional Scalars folder and then open the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel Use the Scalar spin box to scroll through the available scalars.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Scalar Properties 0. It is therefore advisable to check the I/O window to confirm that the model and chemical species have been correctly set up.

• • Select folder Define Boundaries Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Specify boundary conditions for the inlet boundaries.vs. Starting with the fuel inlet: • • • Select region 3 In the boundary regions scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet boundary values for the fuel stream in the appropriate boxes as shown below: Version 4.. 6. 3. 1 Boundary Conditions Check the current boundary definitions and specify boundary conditions where appropriate. 4.08 9-33 . Note that all fluid streams except the one flowing through the cooling passage have swirl velocity components on entry into the combustor.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • • • Click Graph Data to display a graph of specific heat . 8 and 10) by selecting them in turn in the Scalar spin box and then following the same procedure as for scalar no. together with corresponding graphs for normalised enthalpy and entropy Click Close to exit from the dialog In the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel. scalar nos. temperature. 5. choosing the ‘Mixing Length’ option for turbulence parameter input.e. retrieve polynomial coefficients for the remaining species (i.Tutorial 9.

Tutorial 9.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • Click Apply Specify conditions at the remaining boundaries: • • • Select region 4 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes. as shown below: 9-34 Version 4. as shown below: • • • • Click Apply Select region 5 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes.08 .

08 9-35 . as shown below: Version 4.Tutorial 9.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • • • • Click Apply Select region 6 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate text boxes.

2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • Click Apply Check the wall boundary conditions for the first inlet-side wall (region 7) • Select region 7 in the scroll list. Check region 14 (the outlet) and region 15 (the baffle boundaries): • • Highlight region 14 in the scroll list. 1 are acceptable. so no further action is required. 3 in the boundary regions scroll list Select MIX_FRAC-FUEL_1 in the Scalars scroll list. 1 Specify scalar boundary conditions at the fuel inlet: • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region no. The default settings are acceptable. The default settings are acceptable. type 1 in the boundary Value box and then click Apply Version 4.08 9-36 . so no further action is required Highlight region 15 in the scroll list. 2 are automatically made the same as side no. so no further action is required This is also true of the wall boundary conditions assigned to regions 8 to 13. The settings for side no. The default settings for side no.Tutorial 9.

This is because. In the Save Problem File dialog. as shown below.. • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. save all model data. confirming that this is a run from initial conditions. Alternatively. It will be seen that they are the same as those for temperature.001 in the Residual Tolerance box for Temperature Type 0. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. This process is described in the next section. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) CFD Analysis Control Parameters • Control Parameters Select C3H8 in the Scalar scroll list. Run Time Controls Check the status of the run time control parameters: • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Enter 500 for the maximum number of iterations and 0. type 1 in the boundary Value box and then click Apply Check the solution control parameter settings and specify new values for under-relaxation factors and tolerances where appropriate: • • • • • • • • Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Primary Variables panel and then select the Solver Parameters tab Type 0. when option Chemico-Thermal is selected for enthalpy. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis As in Tutorial 9. In the Save Geometry File dialog. you may continue with the CFD analysis. Leave all other settings at their default values Click Start Version 4. Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select the Double Precision option button... pro-STAR changes these values automatically to match those for temperature.0001 for the maximum residual tolerance Click Apply Open the Restart panel. The setting of the Restart File Option menu should be None.7 in the Relaxation Factor box for Temperature Type 0.8 in the Relaxation Factor box for Density Click Apply Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select all scalars in the scroll list one-by-one and check the under-relaxation factor and the residual tolerance settings..08 9-37 . This ensures that enthalpy and all transported scalars are developed numerically at the same rate. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. as follows: • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel.1. a double precision STAR executable needs to be employed. select File > Save Geometry.Tutorial 9.

select C > All Click Cplot The user-defined panels.2-1 Figure T9.1 are to be used to generate a 3-D display of the velocity magnitude distribution: • • • • Select Panels > Pgetc In the Pgetc panel. click the Display Edges button to display Figure T9.Tutorial 9.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Post-Processing Preliminaries The analysis will then start automatically. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file EDBR_va.ccmp: • • • Basic Plots Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel and display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Start by re-plotting the mesh:.2-1 Contours of velocity magnitude Close the Pgetc panel • 9-38 File > Close Version 4. • • In the main pro-STAR window. Pgetc and Pgetv. described in Tutorial 9.08 . click VM Select Contour as the cell plot type from the drop-down menu In the main window. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations.

2-2 Figure T9. This represents the trace of a longitudinal section plane through the middle of the mesh and passing through the axis. click button TA to display the absolute temperature distribution shown in Figure T9.08 9-39 . Repeat for the mass fraction profiles of the fuel and one of the combustion Version 4.2-2 Temperature distribution Note that the temperature contours continue unbroken across the baffle. You should be aware of this when creating smoothed contour plots in geometries containing baffles and solid-fluid interfaces. Slice and then use the screen cursor to draw a vertical line that bisects the visible mesh (click the end points of the line). Select a viewpoint at right angles to the section by choosing View > SNormal View Select cell plot type Section (Surface) • • Open panel Pgetv and plot the vertex-based temperature profile in the section: • • Select Panels > Pgetv On the Pgetv panel.Tutorial 9. select View > Axis > +X Click Sect. This implies a heat flow situation that is unrealistic (given that the baffle is adiabatic) and is solely due to the interpolation technique employed by pro-STAR to create a smooth-looking plot. click the Display Edges plotting button again to deactivate it Define a section whose plane bisects the mesh and passes through the axis of symmetry: • • In the main window.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Post-Processing Basic Plots • In the main window.

08 .2-4 Figure T9. This time use panel Pgetc to read in the cell-based values and then obtain the vertex-based values by averaging: • • • • • • • Select Panels > Pgetc Click Conc1 Select Post > Caverage > Cset In the main window. click Replot to display the carbon dioxide distribution shown in Figure T9.2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Post-Processing Basic Plots products (CO2).2-3 Contour plot of C3H8 concentration 9-40 Version 4. click Replot to display the propane distribution shown in Figure T9.Tutorial 9.2-3 Click Conc8 Select Post > Caverage > Cset In the main window.

2 PROPANE COMBUSTION (THREE-STEP EDBR) Post-Processing Basic Plots Figure T9. the CO2 contour plot incorrectly suggests that the scalar concentration is continuous across the baffle.08 9-41 .Tutorial 9. Nosave Version 4.2-4 Contour plot of CO2 concentration As with the temperature plot. To terminate the session: • Select File > Quit > Quit.

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2. as follows: 1.2) and the relevant cell.Tutorial 9. It also introduces participating media radiation (due to the gases within the combustor) in addition to radiative heat transfer between the various boundary surfaces. 5. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say. Lagrangian two-phase and radiation simulation) in building a physically realistic model of a typical combustion problem The importance of user subroutines in enhancing the accuracy of droplet material property models • Pre-processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut9-3. An externally supplied subroutine is used to model the physical process involved in fuel droplet evaporation 3.. RADIATION) In Tutorial 9. combustor. A single-step chemical reaction of the following form is used: C 7 H 8 + 9O 2 → 7CO 2 + 4H 2 O 4. This sub-tutorial employs the same reaction model but under a significantly different set of conditions.2 of the Meshing Tutorials volume where the basic mesh setup is described.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.vrt. make sure that the above files are copied into your current directory. Some boundary condition modifications are made to represent the combustion conditions. vertex.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. The mesh for this problem has already been created in the Meshing Tutorials volume (Tutorial 1.cel.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file combustor. The fuel is toluene (C7H8) and is injected into the combustor in the form of droplets that subsequently evaporate into the combustible vapour. Some preparatory work for this feature. Therefore. in the form of extra boundary region definitions. RADIATION) Pre-processing Preliminaries Tutorial 9. before starting the tutorial.. was done in Tutorial 1. EDBR_dr) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File.inp plus the Version 4. The aim of this tutorial is therefore to demonstrate: • The combination of several advanced STAR-CD features (chemical reaction. respectively).08 9-43 . droplet injection and surface radiation properties. combustor. Radiation effects are introduced. This sub-tutorial makes use of those definitions.bnd and combustor.2.inp. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name combustor. a three-step eddy break-up model was used to simulate propane combustion. boundary and problem setup files are already available (files combustor.

3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.51 2 • Click Cplot A total of 90 cells will be selected. Select row # 4 in the Cell Tool scroll list Click Cell Editor from the menu on the left to open the Cell Editor dialog Enter 5 in the Color Index box Select On from the Radiation menu. In the Title text box type: TOLUENE COMBUSTION (1-STEP EDBR. select Plot > Up Axis followed by X Select C > All Select View > Isometric > 1..-0. 1. • • In the main window.074 0. This will be used in this tutorial to supply chemical reaction definitions Ignition Region Given that an eddy break-up model is to be used here.Tutorial 9..DROPLETS. RADIATION) Pre-processing Ignition Region problem’s cell.. collect together the cells to be designated as ignition cells as follows: • In the I/O window. i.2.101. an ignition region needs to be specified for this model. as explained below Type Ignition_cells in the Name box Click Apply In the Cell Tool. Now assign a separate cell type with a different colour to them so that they can be distinguished easily from the rest of this model’s cells: • • • • • • • • • 9-44 In the main window.e. The folder called Lagrangian Multi-Phase will now appear active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties and note that the sub-folder called Reacting Flow now appears active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree..RADIATION) • Click Apply and Close Plot the mesh to confirm the data read in: • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. select File > Model Title..1 0. -1 Click Cplot Specify the key features of this case. go to panel Analysis Features Select option Lagrangian from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu Select option Chemical Reaction from the Reacting Flow menu Click Apply. This is a necessary setting for performing radiation calculations. type command CSET NEWS GRAN 0.. chemically reacting flow in the presence of droplets: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select Tools > Cell. similar to the one described in Tutorial 9.08 . select Modify > Modify Type (Cell Set) Click Replot and notice the change of cell colour in the ignition region Version 4. To do this.. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files.

This requires the use of beams that can be tracked only through cell types that are explicitly defined as participating in radiative heat transfer. using default gaseous radiation properties. These are used both during view factor calculations and for evaluating the radiative heat transfer. select Plot > Cell Display > Boundary Patches Verify that patches appear in the right places and then deselect the Boundary Patches plot display option Version 4. select option Discrete Transfer Internal VF Calc Enter 100 in the Beams per patch box Select option Participating to include gaseous radiation effects in the calculations Accept the remaining default settings and then click Apply To use the discrete beam radiation model. Since ignition cells have already been prepared for this type of analysis. choosing the Discrete Transfer analysis method in conjunction with the participating media calculation option: • • • • • Radiation Patches Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder and open the Thermal Options panel From the Radiation menu on the panel. it is necessary to subdivide all boundary regions present in the problem (except for cyclic boundaries) into so-called ‘patches’. shown below: typed into the I/O window: • In the I/O window. This can be done most conveniently by means of a pro-STAR command loop.Tutorial 9. select C > All and then Cplot to see all cells in the model The radiation model in this tutorial includes the effects of the intervening gas. Display the patches to confirm that the operation has been carried out correctly: • • In the main window..BYFA BSET ADD REGI NREG *END *LOOP 1 12 The above loop will create 535 patches.08 9-45 . RADIATION) Pre-processing Thermal Options • • Thermal Options Close the Cell Tool In the main window. all cells in the rest of the fluid domain need to be re-set for this purpose: • • • • Go to the Cell Editor and select row # 1 in its scroll list Select On from the Radiation menu Click Apply Close the Cell Editor Turn radiation on.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. Assign a unique patch to every boundary in every relevant region. type the following commands: BSET NONE *SET NREG 3 1 *DEFINE BPATCH NREG. as well as surface-to-surface radiation.

Choose the monitoring cell location 7. assign a polynomial variation to the specific heat of the background fluid (air) as a function of temperature.e. Select the Ideal Gas Law density variation (with pressure dependence) 2. is appropriate for air Click Apply. Since this is a high-temperature combustion case. Turn on the chemico-thermal enthalpy equation solver 5. together with corresponding graphs for normalised enthalpy and entropy Click Close to exit from the dialog Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On to switch on Turbulence modelling Select option K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the model menu Click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel Turn on the solution of the energy equation by selecting On for the Temperature Calculation option Select option Chemico-Thermal from the Enthalpy menu Note that the section of the panel labelled Participating Media is active. select it. A pop-up dialog will appear. warning you that pro-STAR was not able to find the background material name (AIR) in its built-in database and suggesting an alternative action Click OK to close the panel and then click Define Polynomial to open the Polynomial Function Definition dialog Find a substance called N2 in the scroll list on the left-hand side of this dialog. 0. i. the background material Click Graph Data to display a graph of specific heat vs.96. RADIATION) Pre-processing Material Properties Material Properties Set up material properties and thermofluid models using the appropriate pro-STAR Model Guide panels. 0 Click Apply Open the Fluid Initialization panel In the Flow Conditions tab.P) from the Density menu Select option Polynomial in the Specific Heat menu. pro-STAR will retrieve the corresponding polynomial coefficients and assign them to material no. Check the radiative properties assigned to the gas.1. Choose the reference pressure and its location • • • • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel in sub-folder Liquids and Gases Select option Ideal-f(T. we assume that the specific heat polynomial for air is virtually identical to that for N2 3. Select the standard k-ε turbulence model 4.Tutorial 9. The required actions are as follows: 1.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.08 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9-46 . type a value of 500 in the Temperature box Click Apply Version 4. and the Scattering Coeff. Set the initial temperature and turbulence distribution 6. 28. In this case the Radiative Properties setting should be Constant. and then click Apply Database Substance. In this tutorial. temperature. Note the Molecular Weight box whose default value.. the Absorption Coeff. 1.

half way between the axis and the outer casing and towards the outlet. select reactant no. Note that reaction no. select Plot > Number > Cell Zoom in on the mesh shown on-screen to have a closer look at the displayed numbers and confirm cell number 482 as suitable for the monitoring cell Click the Zoom Off button. Products and Reactant parameters) at the bottom of the panel Check the treatment to be applied to the ordinary reactant (oxygen): • • • Version 4. 1 Check that option Fixed-Fraction is selected Check that the (fixed) oxygen mass fraction in the incoming air stream is 9-47 .05 and 0.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.Tutorial 9. pro-STAR will use default values for parameters Amix and Bmix. in the box for Reaction 1 Accept the default settings on the Status.1. confirm the chemical names entered above and enter them in the appropriate list (Leading Reactants. Note that scheme no. 1 is selected by default for the Reaction option Type the required reaction definition. This makes checking for the onset of ignition easier. Click Continue Specify the reaction equation for this scheme and other basic model parameters: • • • Open the Reaction System panel.2 in the Intensity and Mixing Length boxes. Confirm that 100000 appears in the Pressure box Click Apply • Combustion Model Use the pro-STAR Model Guide’s Reacting Flow folder to set up the combustion model as follows: • • • • • Select sub-folder Reacting Flow followed by Chemical Reactions Open the Scheme Definition panel. by entering 1760 in the Pressure Cell Number box. RADIATION) Pre-processing Combustion Model • • • Go to the Turbulence tab and select option TI/Mixing Length for the Model Enter 0.08 In the Reactant Parameters list.. Begin by inspecting the cell numbers in the region of interest: • • • • • • • In the main window. Tscale and Rate Equation menus and then click Apply. as temperature and product mass fractions build-up rapidly at that point once ignition begins.e. C7H8 + 9O2 -> 7CO2 + 4H2O. Select Plot > Number > Cell again to deselect the cell number plot option Go back to the pro-STAR Model Guide and open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 482 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Choose the same reference pressure location as Tutorial 9. 1 is selected by default for the Chemical Scheme option at the top of the panel Select option Unpremixed/Diffusion from the Reaction Type menu Accept the default EBU Standard option from the Reaction Model menu. i. respectively Click Apply It is good practice to define one of the ignition cells as the monitoring point. Click Apply A pop-up window will now appear warning you that the default chemical reaction settings will be changed.

233 This completes the specification of leading reactants and combustion products.05 in the Fraction Burnt box Select option Time Step/Iteration from the Interval menu Type 20 and 120 in the Start and End boxes. including an additional ‘passive’ scalar (no.Tutorial 9. taking into account droplet trajectories and the maximum tracking times: • • • • • • Select folder Lagrangian Multi-Phase and open the Droplet Controls panel Check that option Coupled is set in the Two-Phase Lagrangian Calculations menu Type 100 in the Droplet Trajectory Maximum File Size box Accept the default value (100) for Maximum Tracking Time Select option Explicitly defined parcel injection for the Droplet Mode option Accept all other default settings on the panel and click Apply Activate the turbulent dispersion model and define transport mechanisms and physical properties for the droplets on the basis of: 9-48 Version 4. Note that a solution for this scalar is required by the EDBR formulation (see Chapter 10 of the Methodology volume). • • • Open the Scheme Association panel Select On for the Associate Chemical Scheme option and check that the default value is 1 for the Chemical Scheme # option Click Apply Check the properties of the scalar variables set up as a result of the scalar mapping described earlier: • • Select sub-folder Additional Scalars Open the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel and scroll through the available scalars using the Scalar # spin box at the top of the panel It will be seen that a total of 6 scalars have been defined. Note that appropriate scalar variables already exist for all the chemical species constituents. pro-STAR will automatically map any required scalar variables to the constituents of the reaction scheme. 2) representing the mixture fraction of the fuel. 1) to the model’s fluid domain:.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. RADIATION) Pre-processing Droplet Properties 0. Specify the ignition parameters as follows: • • • • • • • Open the Ignition panel Accept the default setting (Numerical) in the Model/Treatment panel Type 4 in the Cell Type box Type 0. Droplet Properties Check the basic control settings for droplets and then re-define the maximum size of the droplet track file (in Mb). so no additional scalar definitions for them are necessary. respectively Click Apply Assign the chemical reaction scheme defined earlier (no.08 .

as described in Chapter 16 of Version 4. as discussed in section “User Subroutines” of this tutorial: • • • • • Open the Droplet Properties panel Choose Select material from database from the menu at the top of the panel to open the Droplet Properties database Locate item C7H8_l TOLUENE(L) in the database material list and highlight it Choose Define user material from the menu at the top of the panel Check the contents of the Droplet Properties panel.. select Correlation option Standard and accept the default Mass Coefficient and Slip Factor values For Mass Transfer Calculation select option Standard For Heat Transfer Calculation select option Standard For Droplet Break-Up select option Reitz and accept the default values for We(Bag). STAR’s default model for droplet break-up 3. Te(Bag).86 Select option User for both the Heat of Vaporization and Saturation Pressure properties Define scalar no. All property values retrieved from the database are now displayed in the appropriate boxes.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. We(Strip). Droplets bouncing off solid obstacles in the event of a collision The above parameters are set as follows: • • • • • • • • • Open the Droplet Physical Models panel On the Global Physical Models tab. heat and mass transfer between the dispersed and continuous phases 2.0262 Viscosity — 0. 1) is designated as an active scalar. Make a local copy of user subroutine DROPRO and put it in a sub-directory called ufile under your current working directory.00035 Specific Heat — 2107. adjust the values for the actual droplet injection temperature (350 K) as follows: Density — 725 Surface Tension Coefficient — 0. Te(Strip) For Droplet-Wall Interaction select option Rebound Click Apply Specify droplet physical properties corresponding to liquid toluene. STAR’s standard methodology for momentum. the toluene fuel vapour) as representing the product of evaporation by selecting 1 C7H8 for the Evaporates to Scalar option Click Apply • • • • • • • Note that the effect of toluene vapour on the mixture density will be taken into account by virtue of the fact that the scalar variable representing toluene (no. RADIATION) Pre-processing Droplet Properties 1.Tutorial 9.e. Since these are valid for a lower (room) temperature. 1 (i. The heat of vaporisation and saturation pressure is to be defined by user coding in subroutine DROPRO.08 9-49 . turn On the Turbulent Dispersion option and then click Apply Select the Droplet Physical Models tab and check that the Droplet Type # option is set to 1 For Momentum Transfer.

152e-4 kg/s (based on an injection rate of 7e+4 droplets per parcel per second) Number of Parcels/Injection Point — 1 Click Apply • Specify the injection location for 21 parcels. All parcels in this model are to be included in a single injection group. 0. It is therefore convenient to use a cylindrical coordinate system (no.4472. 0.. Z boxes Enter coordinates (0. Define the group’s injection characteristics. Vinit. All subroutines will be included automatically as part of the STAR executable before the model is run. 2: • • • • • • • • 9-50 Open the Injection Points panel Select option Line from the Set Type menu Enter 2 in both of the Coordinate System boxes Enter 21 in the Number of Points box Select option Specify for Point 1 (the first end-point of the circular arc) and enter its coordinates (0. Note that DROPRO in turn calls two auxiliary subroutines. this subroutine should be edited as shown in section “User Subroutines” of this tutorial.8944) in the DX. uniformly distributed over an arc of 50˚ around the injector ring so that the interval between them is 2.005.. RADIATION) Pre-processing Droplet Creation the CCM User Guide. DY. that supply values for the heat of evaporation and saturation pressure. select File > System Command. 2) Temperature — 350 K Mass Flowrate applies to — Each Injection Point Rate — 4. Y. 0. The Version 4. centred around the axis of symmetry and projecting 2 cm into the combustion chamber. Y.005. All parcels are to have identical injection directions given by (0.Tutorial 9. 0. DZ boxes Ensure Add New Set is selected from the Action menu and click Apply. -25.8944) in coordinate system no.02) for Point 2 (the second end-point of the arc) in the other set of X. Droplet Creation Create the required number of parcels (each parcel is represented by a typical droplet) and specify their initial conditions. • • • In the main window. click Apply and then Close Go back to the Droplet Properties tab and click User Define Once you have exited from pro-STAR at the end of this session. CALHVP and CALSVP. 0. 2) when specifying initial parcel positions and velocities.4721 m/s (based on initial velocity components Uinit.02) in the X. 0.4472. The parcels are to be injected into the combustor via an annular slit of radius 5 mm. 0.5˚. 25. These should also be included in the ufile directory. velocity magnitude and temperature of a typical droplet: • • Open the Injection Definition panel Specify injection data as indicated below: Diameter — 250e-6 m Velocity Magnitude — 4.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. including the initial diameter. respectively. Type ufiles in the text box. Winit of 2. 4 in coordinate system no.08 . Z boxes Specify the entrance velocity direction in terms of unit vector components by entering (0.

it is necessary to close off the fuel stream inlet previously defined in Tutorial 1.8 Emissivity — 0. 1) in the injection points list Select Plot Points in Set from the Action menu and click Apply Make the droplet size and colour dependent on particle diameter. For a visual check of particle initial conditions: • • Select the parcel group (set no. RADIATION) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions injection points list at the top of the panel will confirm that a group of 21 injection points has been created.8 Reflectivity — 0.Tutorial 9.08 9-51 .2.2 in the Maximum Droplet Diameter box Select option Diameter in the Fill Color menu Click Apply Click Droplet Plot Check the current boundary definitions and specify boundary conditions where appropriate. • • • • • • Boundary Conditions Select folder Post-Processing followed by sub-folder Particle Tracks Open panel Plot Droplets Select option Diameter in the Droplet Size menu and type in 0. This is done by re-defining region 3 from type ‘Inlet’ to type ‘Wall’. • • Select folder Define Boundaries Open the Define Boundary Regions panel In view of the fact that fuel is injected a short distance into the combustion chamber. including surface radiative data such as emissivity and reflectivity: • • • Select region 4 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes.2 Transmissivity — 0 Click Apply • Specify conditions at the air inlet boundaries.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. select region 3 Select option Wall from the Region Type menu Choose option Fixed in the Wall Heat menu Enter surface temperature and radiation property data in the appropriate boxes as shown below: Temperature — 600 Resistance — 0. Surface temperature and radiation property data should also be supplied: • • • • In the boundary regions scroll list. as shown below: Version 4.

RADIATION) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • • • • Click Apply Select region 5 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate boxes. as shown below: 9-52 Version 4.08 .3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.Tutorial 9.

Tutorial 9.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. RADIATION) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • • • • Click Apply Highlight region 6 in the scroll list Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter inlet conditions in the appropriate text boxes.08 9-53 . as shown below: Version 4.

3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.8 and 0. type the following commands: *SET NREG 7 1 *DEFINE RMOD NREG U U U U U U U U FIXE 600.08 . RADIATION) Pre-processing Boundary Conditions • Click Apply Supply surface radiative data for the outlet (region 14): • • Select region 14 in the scroll list Type 900 in the T Radiation box.0 0.Tutorial 9.8 0. 1 in the Emissivity box and click Apply Specify radiation conditions for the walls (regions 7 to 13) via a pro-STAR command loop.2 9-54 Version 4. Walls are defined as thermally conducting with emissivity and reflectivity of 0. • In the I/O window.2.8 0. respectively.

Alternatively.8 in the Relaxation Factor box for Density Click Apply Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select each scalar in turn and check that the Under-Relaxation Factor and Residual Tolerance values are set to 0..08 . select File > Save Geometry. 9-55 Version 4. as shown below. The setting of the Restart File Option menu should be None. confirming that this is a run from initial conditions. Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. In the Save Geometry File dialog.001 in the Residual Tolerance box for Temperature Type 0. SIDE 2. respectively Run Time Controls Check the status of the run time control parameters: • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Enter 800 for the maximum number of iterations and 0. RADIATION) Pre-processing Control Parameters 0.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.2 Click Apply • • Control Parameters Check the solution control parameters and then change the under-relaxation factor for temperature and density and the residual tolerance for temperature: • • • • • • • • Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Primary Variables panel and then select the Solver Parameters tab Type 0.8 Reflectivity box — 0. define the baffles as thermally conducting boundaries having the same radiation properties as the walls.0001 for the maximum residual tolerance Click Apply Open the Restart panel. 15 in the boundary regions scroll list Choose option Conduction in the Wall Heat menus for both SIDE 1 and SIDE 2 Type 0. as described in the next section.Tutorial 9.7 in the Relaxation Factor box for Temperature Type 0. in the appropriate text boxes. save all model data.7 and 0. you may run STAR interactively.2 Transmissivity box — 0 Enter radiation property data for the reverse side of the baffle. as shown below: Emissivity box — 0. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR..8 Reflectivity box — 0.001..8 in the Resistance box for SIDE 1 Enter radiation property data for SIDE 1 of the baffle in the appropriate boxes as shown below: Emissivity box — 0. • • • • Select region no. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage..0 *END *LOOP 1 6 Finally.

DRMAFR(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT07(001).08 .HV) C. When the Open dialog appears...f. Droplet saturation pressure CALL CALSVP(NDRCO.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.f Click OK Edit the contents of the subroutine so that it looks exactly as shown below • Click File > Save to save the new version of the subroutine C*********************************************************************** SUBROUTINE DROPRO(DENDR.. IDRT ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(004).TD.RON COMMON /FULTYP/ IFTYPE.ICO.CPDR.Tutorial 9...ICO.DRVIS. as follows: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. CPDR. DRM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(005).SFTC. sub-directory ufile should contain a file called dropro.RON DIMENSION DRMAFR(50) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT08(001)..inc’ COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) INCLUDE ’usrdat.. C DRVIS and DRCOND C C----------------------------------------------------------------------C C. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit User Subroutines As explained previously. TD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(009).. NDRCO ) C----------------------------------------------------------------------C C This subroutine enables the user to calculate the droplet C physical properties.HV. RADIATION) User Subroutines Final Operations • • In the Save Problem File dialog. PR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(001).. C C ** Parameters to be returned to STAR: DENDR.TD. XD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(010). YD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT06(011). select File > Edit File... Use pro-STAR’s built-in editor to edit this subroutine and introduce the required code.PS) 9-56 Version 4. IDR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(002). SFTC. click File > Open.inc’ INTEGER IFTYPE. PS.DRCOND) C Droplet properties C*********************************************************************** C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* C STAR-CD VERSION 4. corresponding to subroutine DROPRO. ZD ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(004). Droplet heat of evaporation CALL CALHVP(NDRCO.04 C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* INCLUDE ’comdb. choose sub-directory ufile and then file dropro.PS. HV. ICO ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT05(005).. In the Edit File dialog.

These routines are fuel-specific and should therefore not be used for other chemical species.TCRIT(NDRCL).8000 / DATA PCRIT/ 41.. click File > Open. Two additional files called calhvp..TD.HV) C Droplet heat of evaporation C See Reid pg 228 eqt 7-12.1410 / DATA TBOIL/ 383.ICO.HV.f Click OK Input the contents of the new subroutine exactly as shown below Click File > Save to save the subroutine contents Repeat the above steps for the second subroutine.’(A19.8000 / DATA TCRIT/ 591.f and calsvp.5)’) ’ IP.PCRIT(NDRCL).LT.2I6.HV. Other required data PARAMETER (RCONS=8.. and under sub-directory ufile.3143) DIMENSION TREFL(NDRCL) DATA TREFL/ 450.0 / C C------------------------------------------------------------------------C IF(NDRCO..f containing the necessary code should now be created.*)’ SUBROUTINE CALHVP: NDRCO.Tutorial 9.TDRP.*)’ NDRCO=’. NDRCL STOP ENDIF C IF(TDRP. calsvp. enter a new file name called calhvp. + OMEGA(NDRCL) C.PS C C----------------------------------------------------------------------RETURN END C*********************************************************************** Note that this subroutine calls two auxiliary routines..08 9-57 .ICO. RADIATION) User Subroutines Final Operations C c WRITE(76. as shown below: • • • • • • • In the Edit File dialog.NDRCL ’ WRITE(6. When the Open dialog appears.0000 / DATA OMEGA/ 0. CALHVP and CALSVP.1 C*********************************************************************** INCLUDE ’comdb.GT.*)’ NDRCL=’..TD.TCRIT(ICO)) THEN Version 4.. c + IP..NDRCL) THEN WRITE(6.2630 / C C.TBOIL(NDRCL).f Click File > Quit to exit from the editor C*********************************************************************** SUBROUTINE CALHVP(NDRCO. NDRCO WRITE(6.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. Properties of C7H8 droplet vapour components DATA WTMOL/ 92.GT.inc’ C PARAMETER (NDRCL=1) DIMENSION WTMOL(NDRCL).ICO.PS : ’.1P3E16.

38551.21200.08*(THAW1)**0..82439 / DATA DRFL/ -1.8000 / DATA PCRIT/ 41. Calculated data DIMENSION PVPR(NRFL) C C------------------------------------------------------------------------C IF(NDRCO.72219.TDRP.ICO..78727 / DATA ORFL/ 0.-3.38007..PCRIT(NDRCL). RADIATION) User Subroutines Final Operations TRED1=TREFL(ICO)/TCRIT(ICO) THAW1=1. OMEGA(NDRCL) C.2 C*********************************************************************** INCLUDE ’comdb.-2.50132.-7.91211.GT...0E+3/WTMOL(ICO)) C TRATIO=TBOIL(ICO)/TCRIT(ICO) TTE=(LOG(PCRIT(ICO))-1.-4.0-TRED1 TERM1=7.-8.-3.456 HV1=(RCONS*TCRIT(ICO)*(TERM1+TERM2))*(1.CRFL(NRFL).46673 / DATA CRFL/ -2. 3=Benzene ..8794)**10 TRED2=TDRP/TCRIT(ICO) THAW2=1.15300. 1.0000 / DATA OMEGA/ 0.00264*(DELHVB/(RCONS*TBOIL(ICO))) PN=(TERM+0.33399.08 .0 ENDIF C C------------------------------------------------------------------------RETURN END C*********************************************************************** SUBROUTINE CALSVP(NDRCO.93-TRATIO) DELHVB=1.354 TERM2=10.62863.2630 / C C..33213.98273.NDRCL) THEN 9-58 Version 4.PS) C Droplet saturation pressure C See Reid pg 212 eqt 7-5.-6.0-TRED2 HV=HV1*(THAW2/THAW1)**PN ELSE HV=0.013)/(0. 2=OCTANE .-3.8000 / DATA TCRIT/ 591.ORFL(NRFL) DATA ARFL/ -6..-2.41500 / C PARAMETER (NDRCL=1) DIMENSION TBOIL(NDRCL).Tutorial 9.39800.13868. Properties of C7H8 droplet vapour components DATA TBOIL/ 383. 1.inc’ C C------------------------------------------------------------------------C C..DRFL(NRFL).BRFL(NRFL).05688 / DATA BRFL/ 1.33236. Constants for the reference fluids C 1=PROPANE .093*RCONS*TCRIT(ICO)*TRATIO*TTE C TERM=0. 0. 1.80435. 0.TCRIT(NDRCL). 0.95*OMEGA(ICO)*(THAW1)**0. 4=Pentafluorotolnene PARAMETER (NRFL=4) DIMENSION ARFL(NRFL).3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.

select C > All Click Cplot Activate the user-defined panels Pgetc and Pgetv as described in Tutorial 9.0E+05 ENDIF 200 C C------------------------------------------------------------------------RETURN END CFD Analysis As in Tutorial 9. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. as follows: • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. Leave all other settings at their default values Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations. a double precision STAR executable needs to be employed.5 T3NU=CRFL(JR)*THAW**3.*)’ NDRCL=’.0-TRED DO 200 JR=3.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select the Double Precision option button.TCRIT(ICO)) THEN TRED=TDRP/TCRIT(ICO) THAW=1. open the Post-Processing folder and click on the Load Data panel Click Open Post file In the main window.NRFL T1NU=ARFL(JR)*THAW T2NU=BRFL(JR)*THAW**1.Tutorial 9.LT. RADIATION) CFD Analysis Preliminaries WRITE(6.2 and use them to generate a 3-D display of the velocity magnitude distribution: Version 4.0E+05 ELSE PS=PCRIT(ICO)*1. NDRCL STOP ENDIF C IF(TDRP. Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing task by loading the post file (EDBR_dr.08 9-59 .GT.ccmp) and re-plotting the mesh:.1.0 PVPR(JR)=(T1NU+T2NU+T3NU+T4NU)/TRED CONTINUE OTERM=(OMEGA(ICO)-ORFL(3))/(ORFL(4)-ORFL(3)) PVPRC=PVPR(3)+(PVPR(4)-PVPR(3))*OTERM PS=EXP(PVPRC)*PCRIT(ICO)*1. • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.*)’ SUBROUTINE CALSVP: NDRCO. NDRCO WRITE(6.*)’ NDRCO=’.NDRCL ’ WRITE(6.0 T4NU=DRFL(JR)*THAW**6.

select plot option Contour In the Pgetc panel. click VM In the main window.2 is Version 4.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.3-1 Figure T9. select option Track File Check that file EDBR_dr. respectively.trk is displayed in the File Name box Accept the default option (Particles) in the Plot Option menu and then click Load Data In the Droplet Plot Options section. select After.Tutorial 9. The droplet velocity is not displayed. Unhidden and Cplot from the Edge Plot Options menus Check that Diameter is selected from the Droplet Size menu and that 0. RADIATION) Post-Processing Preliminaries • • • • Select Panels > Pgetc In the main window. • • • • • • • 9-60 In the pro-STAR Model Guide. click the Display Edges plotting button again to deactivate it Plot the steady-state droplet distribution by choosing plot options such that droplet colour and radius depend on temperature and calculated diameter. turn on the Display Edges plotting option to display Figure T9. select folder Post-Processing followed by sub-folder Particle Tracks Open the Plot Droplets panel In the Load From menu.3-1 Cell-centred plot of velocity magnitude Close the Pgetc panel: • • File > Close In the main window.08 .

3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. select Mass in the Fill Color menu Click Apply and then Droplet Plot to display Figure T9.Tutorial 9.3-2 Plot of toluene droplets with the droplets coloured by their temperature Now make the droplet colour dependent on droplet mass and replot: • • In the Droplet Plot Options section. select D > All in the Display Sets toolbar In the Plot Droplets panel. click Droplet Plot to display Figure T9.3-2 Figure T9.3-3 Version 4. RADIATION) Post-Processing Preliminaries • • • • • entered in the Maximum Droplet Diameter box Select Temperature in the Fill Color menu Select None in the Vectors menu Click Apply In the main window.08 9-61 .

RADIATION) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9. select D > None Select plot option Geometry and then click Cplot View > Axis > +X Click Sect. This represents the trace of a longitudinal section plane through the middle of the mesh and passing through the axis.08 .3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR.3-3 Plot of toluene droplets with the droplets coloured by their mass The above plot shows that the vast majority of the droplets have evaporated before they reach the combustor outlet. To view the fuel and combustion product distribution. Slice and then use the screen cursor to draw a vertical line that bisects the visible mesh (click the end points of the line).3-4 9-62 Version 4.Tutorial 9. first define a section whose plane bisects the mesh and passes through the axis of symmetry: • • • • In the main window. click button TA to display the absolute temperature distribution shown in Figure T9. select plot option Contour Select Panels > Pgetv On the Pgetv panel. Select a viewpoint at right angles to the section by choosing View > SNormal View Select cell plot type Section (Surface) • • Open panel Pgetv and use it to plot the vertex-based temperature profile in the section: • • • In the main window.

3-6 below.3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. The same is also true for the CO2 distribution shown in Figure T9. Nosave Version 4.3-5 Click Conc4 Post > Caverage > Cset In the main window. click Replot to display the carbon dioxide distribution shown in Figure T9.3-4 Absolute temperature distribution For the reason described in Tutorial 9. the temperature plot is somewhat misleading as it implies that heat is flowing through the adiabatic baffle. Produce contour plots for the concentration profiles of fuel and carbon dioxide.2.08 9-63 .Tutorial 9. click Replot to display the toluene distribution shown in Figure T9. This time use panel Pgetc to read in the cell-based values and then obtain the vertex-based values by averaging: • • • • • • • Select Panels > Pgetc Click Conc1 Post > Caverage > Cset In the main window.3-6 To terminate the run: • Select File > Quit > Quit. RADIATION) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9.

3 C7H8 DROPLET COMBUSTION (EDBR. RADIATION) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9.3-5 Toluene distribution Figure T9.Tutorial 9.08 .3-6 CO2 distribution 9-64 Version 4.

• • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say.. combustor.. select File > Model Title.2) and the relevant cell. 1. Unlike PPDF models that assume chemical equilibrium. a hydrogen combustion case is modelled using a Laminar Flamelets model for unpremixed flames.cel. The mesh for this problem has already been created in the Meshing Tutorials volume (Tutorial 1. In the Title text box type: HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) • Click Apply and Close Plot the mesh to confirm that the data have been read in correctly: • • • • Version 4. select Plot > Up Axis followed by X Select C > All Select View > Isometric > 1. flamelet) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File.bnd and combustor.inp. • • In the main window. The model also assumes adiabatic conditions (no heat loss). vertex. combustor. this model allows for non-equilibrium effects such as flame stretch and detailed chemical kinetics. -1 Click Cplot 9-65 . boundary and problem setup files are already available (files combustor.. make sure that these files are copied into your current directory. Therefore. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog. before starting the tutorial.inp.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) In this tutorial.vrt. check that the File Name is combustor.dbs) Demonstrate how to set up boundary conditions and analysis controls for scalars used in the simulation Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a new directory for the tutorial called tut9-4.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file combustor.08 In the main pro-STAR window.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 9. The main aims of the tutorial are to: • • • Familiarise users with the Laminar Flamelets model setup Demonstrate the process of specifying chemical species that are not included in pro-STAR’s species database (props. plus the problem’s cell. respectively)..Tutorial 9.

respectively Click Apply Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Specify the Monitoring Cell Number as 1760. 1 is selected by default for the Chemical Scheme option at the top of the panel Select option Unpremixed/Diffusion from the Reaction Type menu Version 4. The necessary actions are as follows: 1. 5. i.Tutorial 9. chemically reacting flow: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the standard k-ε turbulence model Turn on the temperature solver Set the initial temperature distribution Choose the monitoring cell location Choose the reference pressure and its location Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On to switch on Turbulence modelling Select option K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu Click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel Turn on the solution of the energy equation by selecting On for the Temperature Calculation option Click Apply Open the Fluid Initialization panel In the Flow Conditions tab.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Material Properties Specify the key feature of this case. 2.05 and 0. as follows: • • • Select sub-folder Reacting Flow followed by Chemical Reactions Open the Scheme Definition panel.. Material Properties Set up material properties and thermofluid models using the appropriate pro-STAR Model Guide panels. 4.08 9-66 . confirm that a value of 293 is displayed in the Temperature box Go to the Turbulence tab and select option TI/Mixing Length for the Model Enter 0. Make the reference pressure location the same as the monitoring cell location by entering 1760 in the Pressure Cell Number box Check that 100000 appears in the Pressure box Click Apply Combustion Model Use the pro-STAR Model Guide’s Reacting Flow folder to set up the combustion model. Note that scheme no. 3. This is roughly in the centre of the outlet boundary region.e. go to panel Analysis Features Select option Chemical Reaction from the Reacting Flow menu Click Apply Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties and note that the sub-folder called Reacting Flow now appears active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree.2 in the Intensity and Mixing Length boxes.

50E+12 0.500 O+H2=OH+H 5. which requires a listing of all participating elements.61E+14 -0.00E+18 -1.000 HO2+HO2=H2O2+O2 2. This must be written in CHEMKIN format.000 0.000 45500.000 0.000 O+HO2=O2+OH 1. “Laminar flamelet model” in the CCM User Guide.000 47780.000 END • 0.00E+19 -1.000 0.600 H2O/5/ O+O+M=O2+M 1.670 OH+HO2=H2O+O2 7.000 OH+H2=H2O+H 1.000 H2O2+H=HO2+H2 1. Click Continue.000 H2O2+M=OH+OH+M 1.17E+9 1.60E+12 0. For a detailed description of how to specify reaction mechanisms in this format.300 O+OH=O2+H 3.000 1073.000 Click Save.40E+13 0.89E+13 0.20E+16 -0.30E+17 0.000 1073.000 0. Supply the basic data required as follows: • • Open the Reaction System panel In the Reaction Mechanism tab.70E+13 0.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Combustion Model • • • Select option PPDF Single Fuel from the Reaction Model menu Select the Laminar Flamelet Model Option and click Apply A pop-up window will now appear warning you that the default chemical reaction settings will be changed.40E+14 0.000 0.20E+16 -0. see .60E+22 -2.000 H+HO2=2OH 1.000 0.Tutorial 9.000 1800.300 H+HO2=H2+O2 1.000 H2O/5/ H+O+M=OH+M 6.000 H+H+H2=H2+H2 9.06E+04 2. species and reactions.000 3626.000 0.000 6290.08 .000 0. A message will appear at the bottom of the pro-STAR Model Guide panel confirming your combustion model selection The next step is to specify an appropriate reaction mechanism for the Laminar Flamelet model.720 H2O/18.000 0. 9-67 Version 4.6/ H2/2. Confirm that you wish to proceed with this operation in the displayed pop-up warning panel.000 -1788.000 3800.00E+08 1.000 H2O2+OH=H2O+HO2 1. copy the description given below into the displayed box: ELEMENTS H O N END SPECIES H HO2 H2 H2O H2O2 N2 O OH O2 END REACTIONS H+O2+M=HO2+M 3.61E+17 -0.inp01 in a sub-directory called PPDF.25E+13 0.86/ H+H+M=H2+M 1.000 2OH=O+H2O 6. pro-STAR will then store the supplied data in file chemf.250 H+OH+M=H2O+M 1.000 0.00E+13 0.00E+12 0.000 H2+O2=2OH 1.600 H+H+H2O=H2+H2O 6.

Note that Action New is selected by default. Oxidizer and Product streams by selecting each of them in turn from the Stream to Define menu.08 .inp01 • • • • • • • • Flamelet libraries must now be calculated from the above flamelet descriptions and stored in a set of files called flame$$. This will generate a new flamelet description and store it in file flame02.out01. thus generating files flame03. Output information for this calculation is written to a set of corresponding files called flame$$.Tutorial 9. change the Strain Rate of Oxidizer to 0. Click Apply to calculate the corresponding flamelet library.inp01 and flame04. which corresponds to the equilibrium condition Click Apply to store the updated flamelet description in file flame04. the flamelets description needs to be created: • • • In the Flamelet Setup tab.inp01within the PPDF sub-directory Repeat this procedure for Flamelet Numbers 3 and 4.inp01 For Flamelet Number 4. Four flamelets are to be generated for this problem. check that the Set option is Composition Click Generate File to generate and store the first flamelet description in file flame01. Click Apply Select flamelet number 3 from the list Choose Action Restart From Flamelet Number 2 Click Apply Select flamelet number 4 from the list Click Apply Version 4.lib01. The default values displayed are suitable for this case.inp01 within the PPDF sub-directory Examine the Mole Fractions and Valences for the Fuel.inp01 Choose the Flow Conditions option from the Set menu For Flamelet Number 2. Now that the reaction mechanism has been specified.inp01 For Flamelet Number 3. • • • • • • • • • • • 9-68 Select the Flamelet Generation tab Select flamelet number 1 from the list. change the Strain Rate of Oxidizer to 300 Click Apply to store the updated flamelet description in file flame03. as follows: • Select Flamelet Number 2 in the spin box and click Generate File again. This should reduce the computation time because the two flamelets have similar properties. change the Strain Rate of Oxidizer to 200 Click Apply to store the updated flamelet description in file flame02. This process may take a few seconds.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Combustion Model • Click Apply to validate the file contents and create the chemistry libraries needed subsequently by the flamelet calculations. Select flamelet number 2 from the list Choose Action Restart From Flamelet Number 1.

Change the Mixture Fraction Dimension to 40. An error message will appear stating that some of the species included in the mechanism have not been found in pro-STAR’s built-in property database file props.tbl01 in your working directory. 3 and 4. 3 and 4 from the Flamelet No list and use the arrow button.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Scalar Properties The STAR-CD solver requires that flamelet library data should be provided in tabular form. Data for these species must be specified next. and since their molecular weights are needed to calculate polynomial distributions of their mole fractions. As props. Figure T9. to add them to the Selected Flamelet No list Click Apply to create the required look-up table and store it in file flamelet. Change the Mixture Fraction Variance Dimension to 30 Select flamelets 1.4-1 Graphs of flamelet data for flamelet number 1 • • • • • Plot similar graphs for flamelets 2. Scalar Properties The I/O window lists the problem species as OH. O.Tutorial 9.dbs does not contain property data for such species. . There should be a few slight differences between the four graphs. The relevant table is created as follows: • • • Select the Look-up Table tab Check that the Plot Data for Flamelet Number option is set to 1 Click Plot to display graphs of flamelet data for flamelet number 1. This is the number of points used to define the mixture fraction profile in the table. as shown in Figure T9.4-1. HO2 and H2O2. the required properties must be specified explicitly: 9-69 Version 4. 2.dbs. H.08 .

starting with the fluid inlet conditions: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 3. respectively Change the Coordinate System to 2 Select TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Change the Turb. -24 and 42 m/s. V and W velocity components as -11. Fuel_inlet from the boundary regions list Specify the U.1 and the Length to 0.1 and the Length to 0. Intensity to 0.Tutorial 9. V and W velocity components as -28. V and W velocity components as -11. so it can now be assigned to the fluid material in the model: • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Scheme Association panel in the Reacting Flow folder Select On for the Associate Chemical Scheme option and check that the default value is 1 for the Chemical Scheme # option Click Apply The next step is to specify boundary conditions.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Additional Scalars sub-folder from within the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel Select Scalar # 7 in the spin box at the top of the panel Change the Molecular Weight of Scalar # 7 to 17 Click Apply Change the Molecular Weight of Scalar # 8 to 16 Click Apply Change the Molecular Weight of Scalar # 9 to 1 Click Apply Change the Molecular Weight of Scalar # 10 to 33 Click Apply Change the Molecular Weight of Scalar # 11 to 34 Click Apply All the properties and parameters of the chosen chemical reaction scheme have now been specified. respectively Change the Coordinate System to 2 Select TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Change the Turb.19 kg/m3 Click Apply Select region 5.8 kg/m3 Click Apply Select region 4.01 m Change the Density to 1. -60 and 100 m/s. Air_inlet1 from the boundary regions list Specify the U. Air_inlet2 from the boundary regions list Specify the U.08 9-70 . Intensity to 0. respectively Change the Coordinate System to 2 Version 4. -24 and 42 m/s.01 m Change the Density to 1.

01 m Change the Density to 1. set the N2 and O2 boundary Value to 0.79 Click Apply Select O2 from the Scalars list Change the boundary Value to 0.19 kg/m3 Click Apply Select region 6. Air_inlet3 from the boundary regions list Specify the W velocity component as 15 m/s Change the Coordinate System to 2 Select TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Change the Turb.01 m Change the Density to 1.0001 Click Apply 9-71 Version 4.08 .21.79 and 0. Intensity to 0.19 kg/m3 Click Apply The scalar concentrations at the inlet boundaries must also be specified: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region number 3 from the Boundary Region list Select MIXTURE_FRACTION from the Scalars list Change the boundary Value to 1 Click Apply Select region number 4 from the Boundary Region list Select N2 from the Scalars list Change the boundary Value to 0.001 Click Apply Select VARIANCE from the Scalar list Change the Under-Relaxation Factor value to 0.7 Change the Residual Tolerance to 0. respectively.001 Click Apply Run Time Controls The run time controls must also be adjusted: • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Enter 400 for the Maximum Number of Iterations Change the Maximum Residual Tolerance to 0.Tutorial 9.21 Click Apply For regions 5 and 6. as for region number 4 Analysis Controls Some of the analysis controls need to be changed to ensure a reasonably rapid convergence rate: • • • • • • • • • • Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select MIXTURE_FRACTION from the Scalar list Change the Under-Relaxation Factor to 0.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • • • • • • • • • • Select TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Change the Turb.1 and the Length to 0.1 and the Length to 0. Intensity to 0.7 Change the Residual Tolerance to 0.

save all model data.. select File > Save Geometry. click Open Post file Under the Data tab. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. select C > All Click Cplot Now load the solution results and plot velocity vectors on an x-z plane bisecting the model geometry: • • • • • • • • • • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Post-Processing folder Open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab. In the Save Problem File dialog. In the Save Geometry File dialog. Alternatively.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) CFD Analysis Final Operations Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations.08 . This process is described in the next section.Tutorial 9. 0 Click Apply Click Plot To Screen In the main pro-STAR window. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis For problems involving chemical reactions. select View > SNormal View to display Figure T9. Post-Processing Preliminaries Start the post-processing task by re-plotting the mesh: • • In the main window. 1. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. as shown below. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select the Double Precision option button. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder... it is recommended that STAR is run in double precision mode as follows: • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. Leave all other settings at their default values Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. select Velocity Components UVW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab. change the Normal values to 0.. you may continue with the CFD analysis using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively.4-2 9-72 Version 4.

4-4 As explained in Tutorial 9.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9. select Smooth options On and All Select Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab.4-2 Section Clipped plot of velocity vectors Contour plots of temperature and mixture fraction can now be plotted as follows: • • • • • • • • • Under the Data tab of the Load Data panel.Tutorial 9.1. select MIXTURE_FRACTION from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T9.08 9-73 . the contour plot smoothing effect leads to a physically unrealistic temperature profile in the vicinity of the baffle. Version 4. select the Option Contour(filled) Click Plot To Screen to display Figure T9.4-3 Under the Data tab of the Load Data panel.

Tutorial 9.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T9.4-3 Section Clipped plot of temperature contours Figure T9.4-4 Section Clipped plot of contours of mixture fraction 9-74 Version 4.08 .

select File > Quit > Quit.Tutorial 9.4 HYDROGEN COMBUSTION (LAMINAR FLAMELETS) Post-Processing Preliminaries Terminate the session: • In the main pro-STAR window. Nosave Version 4.08 9-75 .

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Version 4. conduction.Introduction Tutorial 10 BUOYANCY AND RADIATION EFFECTS Introduction This tutorial illustrates various STAR-CD facilities for simulating a heat transfer problem involving natural convection. The mesh employed is shown in Figure T10. The example used in the tutorial consists of a heated aluminium alloy fin placed within a rectangular box filled with air (see Figure T10.08 10-1 . T = 293 K T = 293 K 1 10 4 1 2 1 2 T = 343 K 4 Figure T10.0-1).0-1 Heated fin geometry (all dimensions in cm) The problem is simulated in two dimensions for ease of mesh generation and speed of numerical calculation.0-2. solid-fluid heat transfer and radiation.

Material properties for the solid fin and the surrounding air are as follows: Aluminium alloy fin: Density (ρ) = 2800 kg/m3 Specific heat (Cp) = 880 J/kg K Thermal conductivity (λ) = 180 W/m K Surrounding air (incompressible. based on Ideal Gas Law for molecular weight 28.08 . turbulent): Density (ρ) = variable. with different modes of heat transfer applying in each.0264 W/m K Molecular viscosity (µ) = 1.96 Specific heat (Cp) = 1006 J/kg K Thermal conductivity (λ) = 0.81E–5 Pa s 10-2 Version 4.Material Properties Figure T10.0-2 Mesh structure for the heated fin model Material Properties Three variants of this problem are considered.

bnd and fin.Tutorial 10.4.. boundary and problem setup files (fin. This tutorial aims to show the user how to: • • • Model solid-fluid heat transfer Model buoyancy-driven flows Create streamline plots Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut10-1. The mesh for this problem is supplied in advance.0-1. respectively) are available in the STAR-CD installation directories.500 cells were read in Check that Hidden Surface is selected as the cell plot type Click Cplot Change the viewpoint to approximately (0. followed by cell indexing and specification of material properties for the fin and surrounding fluid.. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name fin. fin. 1) by dragging with the left 10-3 Version 4. • • In the main window. i. as shown in Figure T10. select C > All.inp plus the problem’s cell.. fin..inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file fin. vertex.e.cel. fin_bu) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File.5. Heating of the fin is achieved by fixing the temperature at the base to 343 K. uniform two-dimensional mesh to model the shape and size of the solid fin.. 0. The sides of the surrounding box are set to a fixed temperature of 293 K and the remaining wall boundaries are assumed to be either conducting (at solid/fluid interfaces) or adiabatic (at the top and bottom walls of the box). The I/O window output shows that 2.inp. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 10. In the Title text box type: BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN • Mesh Checking Click Apply and Close Verify that the correct mesh has been imported by selecting all cells and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • In the main window. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. Therefore.vrt.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN This sub-tutorial employs a simple. cell. select File > Model Title. before starting the tutorial.08 . make sure that these files are copied into your current directory.

1-1 It will be seen that the mesh matches that shown in Figure T10. select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder and then open the Thermal Options panel Enable the Solid-Fluid Heat Transfer option Version 4. Figure T10.0-2 and that it contains two cell types. colours and names for cell types 2 and 1. fluid and solid cells are displayed in different colours. if necessary. respectively: • • • • • In the main window.1-1 Mesh geometry Cell Type Properties Check and. click the button to open the Cell Editor In the Cell Editor. corresponding to fluid and solid cells.08 10-4 .Tutorial 10. Note that because of the difference in cell type. specify appropriate material property indices. This also has the effect of switching on the temperature solver inside the solid fin: • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Pre-Processing Cell Type Properties mouse button to display Figure T10. representing the solid fin and its surrounding fluid. select row # 1 in the scroll list Type AIR in the Name box Accept the current settings for all other parameters and click Apply Select row # 2 and change the following parameters: Material # — 2 (the solid properties index) Color Index — 4 Name — AL Click Apply and then Close Click Replot to confirm the change (the solid cell colour will change) • • Thermal and Gravity Options Turn on the solid-fluid heat transfer option.

• Select option Ideal-f(T) from the Density menu and click Apply. Note that the temperature calculation has been turned on as a result of selecting the solid-fluid heat transfer option. a fluid whose properties are those of air. by default. It can be seen that material no. Y. This is what is required in this case. and Z boxes Check that option Specify is selected from the Density menu 10-5 . select the k-ε model: • • • Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence option and then choose K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Turbulence menu Click Apply Check the temperature equation setting: • Open the Thermal Models panel.08 Open the Buoyancy panel Enable the Buoyancy option Select option Enter Coordinates from the Location menu Ensure that coordinates 0. Default values are accepted for the remaining properties. The density variation is assumed to follow the Ideal Gas Law.Tutorial 10. Check the current setting: • • • • Fluid Properties Open the Gravity panel Type 9. 0 are entered in the X.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Pre-Processing Fluid Properties • Click Apply In order to take buoyancy effects into account. Assuming the flow is turbulent. 0. the fluid itself is incompressible since the pressure effect on density variations is deemed to be negligible. Choose cell number 927 as the monitoring location for the fluid cells: • • • Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 927 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Click Apply Specify a datum location and density for the purpose of calculating buoyancy effects: • • • • • Version 4.81 in the Acceleration box to specify the gravitational acceleration value to be used for this problem Specify the correct direction of gravity in the model by typing -1 in the Y box and 0 in the Z box Click Apply Check the material properties of the model’s fluid substance: • • • In the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder. you need to specify the gravitational force in the global Cartesian y-direction. 1 is. select the Liquids and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel and check that the material number selected for the Material # option is 1. However.

Tutorial 10.1-2.e. This will display properties for the default solid material. As noted in the pro-STAR Model Guide on-line Help (“Useful Points”).1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Pre-Processing Solid Properties • • Solid Properties Type 1. all other boundary surfaces are allocated to region 0 by default. for material property reference no.e. Click Apply Define properties for the solid cells making up the fin (i. number and type of regions and number of boundaries in each region Select the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button Select B > All and then B > Unselect > Symplane to exclude the symmetry planes from the boundary plot that is about to be produced Click Replot to display Figure T10. it is important to calculate body forces as accurately as possible. Change the property values to those for aluminium as follows: Material — AL Density — 2800 Conductivity — 180 Specific Heat — 880 Click Apply Select the Monitoring and Reference Data (Solids) panel and choose a monitoring location within the solid by typing 924 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Click Apply • • • Checks Check the boundaries by listing their properties and then displaying them graphically: • In the main window... • • • 10-6 Version 4.27588 in the Density box for the required datum density. i. choose Utility > Count > Boundaries and then check the information displayed in the I/O window. hence the high degree of precision for the density value. Only regions 1 and 2 are shown. 2): • • • Select the Solids sub-folder within the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Material Properties (Solids) panel and select Material # 2.08 .

Control Parameters In buoyancy-driven flow calculations there is very strong coupling between the temperature and flow fields. Define fixed temperature boundaries at 293 K for the container’s side walls. those allocated to region 0.e.08 Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Solution Method panel and choose option PISO from the Solution 10-7 .1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions Figure T10. 293.1-2 Boundary region display Boundary Conditions You can now impose the required thermal boundary conditions.. 1 in the scroll list Select option Fixed in the Wall Heat menu Type the required fixed wall temperature. in the Temperature box Accept the default values for the remaining parameters and click Apply Define a fixed temperature boundary at 343 K for the base of the fin: • • • • Select region no. It is therefore advisable to use the PISO algorithm (see the pro-STAR Model Guide on-line Help. i. “Useful Points”) which is more suitable for this type of problem: • • Version 4.Tutorial 10. 343. default to adiabatic walls (at external surfaces) or conducting walls (at solid/fluid interfaces). in the Temperature box Accept the default values for the remaining parameters and click Apply The remaining boundary surfaces. as follows: • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no. 2 in the scroll list Select option Fixed in the Wall Heat menu Type the required fixed wall temperature.

This helps in avoiding potential numerical stability problems. The turbulence Differencing Scheme option should be left at the default setting (UD). saving all model data as shown below. it is generally useful to save additional flow and thermal wall data (in this case.08 10-8 . from the scroll list Enable the Post option Repeat the above for item Heat Flux Click Apply Set the maximum number of iterations to 300: • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder and then open the Run Time Controls panel Type 300 in the Maximum Number of Iterations box Click Apply Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. making sure that the scaling factor for the problem units (centimetres) is specified.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Pre-Processing Run Time Controls • Algorithm menu Click Apply As the model is two-dimensional.5 for the Blending Factor. deselect the W-Momentum option Click Apply Given the strong effect of temperature and density variations on flow development. • • Go to the Differencing Schemes tab Select MARS for the Differencing Scheme options for momentum and temperature Flow Variables. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. 0. Then write the problem file and exit from pro-STAR. For post-processing purposes. heat transfer coefficients at the walls): • • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Accept the default option (enabled) for the Write Solution File option and type 20 in the Output Frequency box In the Additional Output Data section. select item Heat Transfer Coef. we need not solve the W-momentum equation: • • • Open the Primary Variables panel On the Equation Status tab. Accept the default value of 0. in the Density box under the Fluid Properties section (note that this value must equal that for temperature to ensure that the calculated magnitudes for the two variables are in step) Click Apply • Choose the MARS differencing scheme for some of the variables to be solved.Tutorial 10.95. Version 4. it is important to apply some under-relaxation to these variables. • • Go to the Solver Parameters tab Enter a new under-relaxation factor. Click Apply • Choose the type of data output and dumping frequency. This gives an optimum combination of stability and accuracy. write the geometry file.

01 should appear inside the Scale Factor box For simulations involving buoyancy. Change the viewpoint to (0. 0.ccmp: • • • Postprocessing In the pro-STAR Model Guide select the Post-Processing folder Open the Load Data panel Click Open Post file First look at the velocity field in the fluid surrounding the fin: • • • • • • • • In the main window. This process is described in the next section.Tutorial 10. In the Save Problem File dialog. Read in the results of the analysis from file fin_bu.. select File > Save Geometry. Post-Processing Preliminaries Launch pro-STAR (if the analysis was run outside pro-STAR).. • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Check that option other has been selected for the model units. 0.08 . check that Option Vector is selected and then choose 10-9 Version 4. enter 0.01 in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. In the Save Geometry File dialog. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. This prevents relatively small buoyancy source terms which dominate the flow from being discarded as round-off error. 1) by selecting View > Axis > +Z In the Load Data panel. • • Select option Double Precision Leave all other settings at their default values and then click Start The analysis will then start automatically.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN CFD Analysis Preliminaries Alternatively.. it is usually advisable to run STAR in Double Precision mode.. where the plot style will be defined In the 3-D Surface tab. go to the Data tab Select item Velocity Components UV from the Vector Data list and then click Get Data to load the velocity field Go to the Create Plots panel. This run should produce a converged solution within the specified maximum number of iterations. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. you may continue with the CFD analysis. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. proceed as follows: • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. select C > New > Fluid Click Cplot Deselect the Display Boundaries option button.

select Option Contour (line) Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T10.1-3 Figure T10.Tutorial 10.1-4 10-10 Version 4.08 .1-3 Velocity vector plot Now view the streamlines: • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu Select option Stream Function from the Calculated Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Post-Processing Post.processing • Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T10.

first in the surrounding fluid and then in the solid fin: • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the Create Plots panel.08 10-11 .1-4 Streamline plot Examine the temperature profiles.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Post-Processing Post. select C > New > Solid Go to the Load Data panel In the Data tab.Tutorial 10.processing Figure T10.1-5 In the main window.1-6 Version 4. choose Option Contour (filled) Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T10. the cell data are averaged by selecting Post > Caverage > Cset in the main window Click Cplot to display Figure T10. select Data Type Cell Select item Temperature in the Scalar Data list and then click Get Data To plot a smooth distribution ignoring boundary values.

processing Figure T10.1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Post-Processing Post.1-6 Temperature plot in the solid region 10-12 Version 4.Tutorial 10.08 .1-5 Temperature plot in the fluid region Figure T10.

select Data Type Wall Select item Heat Flux from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Collect the shells created by pro-STAR at the walls (i. 1) by selecting View > Isometric > 1. cells of type 5) and plot: • • • • • • • Tools > Cell. select C > New > Type Current Select Post > Caverage > Cset Set the viewpoint to (1. Nosave Version 4..1 BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN Post-Processing Final Operations Heat flux data at the walls can be plotted as follows: • • • In the Data tab.1-7 Figure T10.e. 1 Switch off the edge and mesh plotting facilities by clicking the Display Edges and Display Mesh Lines buttons Select Plot > Wplot to display Figure T10.Tutorial 10. Select cell type 5 in the Cell Tool scroll list In the main window. 1.08 10-13 ...1-7 Wall plot of heat flux Final Operations Terminate the session • File > Quit > Quit. 1.

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2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION This sub-tutorial examines the effect of surface-to-surface radiation on heat transfer and temperature distribution. • • In the main window. it is also necessary to copy the solution files for the non-radiating case (fin_bu. In the Title text box.08 10-15 .1 will act as the starting point of the present analysis.ccmg) to the current directory Start up the pro-STAR GUI interface: • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Accept the default case name (fin_ra) displayed in the Case Name text box Select the Resume From Existing ..mdl and will set up the model as it was at the end of Tutorial 10..1. The boundary conditions remain the same as in Tutorial 10.Tutorial 10. as follows: • • • Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut10-2 and copy the model file generated in Tutorial 10.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 10.1. Since the solution obtained in Tutorial 10. except that radiative surface properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are now added.mdl You will use this as a starting point for a revised model that introduces radiation to the heat transfer calculations. The aim of this tutorial is to show the user how to: • • • • Model radiative heat transfer between walls through non-participating media Use the Initial Field Restart option when resuming from a previous analysis Compare results of different runs Use pro-STAR’s OPERATE utility Pre-Processing Preliminaries A number of initial file copying operations are needed for proper operation of this tutorial. Solid-fluid interface Version 4. select File > Model Title.mdl) into it Rename this file as fin_ra.ccmp and fin_bu.echo File? option Click Continue This will read all data contained in file fin_ra. change the title to: BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED FIN WITH RADIATION • New Boundary Definitions Click Apply and Close In problems where surface-to-surface radiation is being modelled.1 (fin_bu. for all wall surfaces including solid-fluid interfaces. A surface-to-surface mode of radiative heat transfer is assumed. it is necessary to provide radiative boundary information such as emissivity and reflectivity.mdl File? option Deselect the Append to Previous .

0) by selecting View > Axis > -Y Select C > Unselect > Zone and then draw a closed polygon around the (blue) cells belonging to the fin Click Cplot to display only cell faces belonging to the bottom wall In the Regions tab. 4 in the scroll list Select option Wall from the Type menu Enter a region name (S-F_interface) in the Name box Click Define In the main window. ensure region no. change the viewpoint to (-1. 0. ensure region no. change the viewpoint to (1. select folder Locate Boundaries and then open the Create Boundaries panel In the Regions tab. no. extending round the entire fin perimeter. This is because radiation patches (to be defined later) cannot be applied to boundaries assigned to the default wall region 0. 5 in the scroll list Check that option Wall is selected for the Type Enter a region name (T-B_wall) in the Name box Click Define Ensure that region no. change the viewpoint to (0. 0) by selecting View > Axis > -X In the Regions tab.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Pre-Processing New Boundary Definitions This region is currently assigned to the default wall region (no. 1. 0) by selecting View > Axis > +Y Again. select C > All Click Cplot In the Create Boundaries panel. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In the main window. 4 is highlighted in the scroll list. click Apply and draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh In the main window.08 10-16 . 5 is selected in the scroll list. 5 is selected in the scroll list and Create by Picking a Zone is selected in the Action List and then click Apply Draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh Bottom wall • • • • Change the viewpoint to (0. 0. select region no. 0) by selecting View > Axis > +X In the Regions tab. 0). -1. 5. ensure the Display Boundaries option is turned off Select C > New > Solid Click Cplot to display just the solid cells In the pro-STAR Model Guide. click Apply and then draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh Version 4. Top wall • • • • • • • • In the main window. 4 is highlighted in the scroll list. ensure region no. ensure that region no. select Create by Picking a Zone from the Action List and click Apply Draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh In the main window. select region no.Tutorial 10. 4 is highlighted in the scroll list. click Apply in the Regions tab and draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh The top and bottom adiabatic walls also need to be assigned explicitly to a separate region. You therefore need to define a new boundary region for it.

8.8 Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply Similarly.Tutorial 10. • • • • • • Select folder Define Boundaries and open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no.08 Select region no. the top and bottom walls will be adiabatic radiative walls with emissivity and reflectivity of 0. choosing the Discrete Transfer analysis method (DTRM). This is essential for solid-fluid interfaces that are not part of region 0. • • • • • • Select region no.5 Reflectivity box — 0. In this case. use the default number of beams per patch (100) and neglect radiative effects from the intervening gas: • • • • Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties and then open the Thermal Options panel In the Radiation section of the panel. respectively. we have not chosen to track radiation through the solid so we can ignore region 2 (the fin base). 5 in the scroll list Specify the required radiation properties: Emissivity box — 0. Specify the required radiation properties: Emissivity box — 0. 4 in the scroll list Select option Conduction in the Wall Heat menu. In this case. select option Discrete Transfer Internal VF Calc Enter 100 in the Beams per patch box Accept the displayed default settings in the rest of the panel and click Apply For the chosen calculation method.2 Reflectivity box — 0.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Pre-Processing Thermal Options Thermal Options Switch radiation on.5: • • • Version 4.2 and 0. boundary conditions for the side walls need to be updated. surface-to-surface radiation can be tracked only through cell types that are explicitly defined as participating in radiative heat transfer.5 Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply The boundary conditions for the solid-fluid interface should correspond to a conducting wall with emissivity and reflectivity of 0. However. For this case. we assume that the fin is opaque and hence we only track radiation through the fluid: • • • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Cell Editor using the button on the main window Select row # 1 in the scroll list Select On from the Radiation menu Click Apply Close the Cell Editor We must revisit the boundary conditions for all wall regions participating in radiative heat transfer in order to define their emissivity and reflectivity. 1 in the scroll list Specify the required radiation properties by entering the following data: Emissivity box — 0.5 10-17 .

Tutorial 10. lying in between the two sections of the bottom wall boundaries.5 Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply Patch All non-symmetry boundary regions need to be divided into radiation patches.e. This removes all base boundaries from the current set. it is computationally reasonable to use the maximum number of patches. these Specification are used both during view factor calculations and for simulating radiative heat transfer.2-1 • • • • 10-18 Version 4. no patches are needed there as this surface does not participate in radiative heat transfer. 1) by selecting View > Isometric > 1. i.08 . 1. • In the main window. The fin base boundaries should now be visible. number and type of regions and number of boundaries in each region. 1 Switch on the edge plotting facility by clicking the button and then click Cplot to display Figure T10. Select B > New > Wall Select C > All Change the viewpoint to (1.. Given the two-dimensional character of the problem. select the Display Boundaries option.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Pre-Processing Patch Specification • • Reflectivity box — 0. choose Utility > Count > Boundaries and then check the information displayed in the I/O window. The number of patches per region can be anything between a minimum of one patch covering the entire region to a maximum of one patch per boundary face. The accuracy of radiation calculations is directly proportional to the number of patches per region. You will need to type c in the I/O window to scroll to the end of the list of boundary patches. with the exception of the fin base. Open the Create Boundaries panel in the Locate Boundaries folder Go to the Patches tab to create patches. Select Automatic for the Define Patches option Check that option Current Boundary Set is selected in the Boundaries to patch menu Select Individual Boundary from the Patch option menu Click Apply • • • • • • • • Checks Check the boundaries by listing their properties and then displaying them graphically: • In the main window. 1. Patches will be defined for all wall boundaries. Select B > New > Wall Select B > Unselect > Region Cursor Select and then click on any boundary belonging to the fin base.

select Plot > Cell Display > Boundary Patches to display Figure T10.2-1 Wall boundary plot Check the patch distribution: • In the main window.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Pre-Processing Checks Figure T10.2-2 Version 4.Tutorial 10.08 10-19 .

click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit Version 4.. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. select File > Save Geometry. In the Save Geometry File dialog.2-2 Radiation patch plot Final Operations It is possible to restart the analysis from the previous non-radiating solution. as shown below.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Pre-Processing Final Operations Figure T10. select file fin_bu.ccmp from the browser dialog and then click Open Check that the Initial Field Restart option is set to New Boundary Types Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete. This process is described in the next section.. save all model data. select the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Restart panel Choose Restart File Option Initial Field Click the browser button next to the Restart File box. • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.Tutorial 10. In the Save Problem File dialog. Alternatively.08 ... • • • • • • 10-20 In the main pro-STAR panel.01 is entered in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. you may continue with the CFD analysis. check that 0. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. but since new boundaries have been added we need to use the ‘initial field’ restart option.

proceed as follows: • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. you can instruct STAR to re-calculate the view factors through the -noskip option. however. Comparisons will be drawn between the two.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION CFD Analysis Preliminaries CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively.01 Select the Double Precision option Select Yes for the Write Geometry File option Click the Start button Note that the starting iteration number is shown as no. If. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. select the Post-Processing folder and open the Load Data panel In the File(s) tab.08 10-21 . Post-Processing Preliminaries Check that both the solution file from this tutorial (fin_ra. Postprocessing First look at the temperature distribution in the fluid: • • • • • • • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. This is because we have chosen the initial field restart option. 1 despite the fact that this is a restart run.vfs.ccmp) are present in your working directory.2-3 Version 4.Tutorial 10. These can be used again in future runs as long as the boundaries and patch definitions have not changed. such changes have been made. 0. select Plot > Cell Display > Boundary Patches to deselect the patch cell plot display option Change the viewpoint to (0. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Accept the default Scale Factor of 0.ccmp) and the one from the previous tutorial (fin_bu. choose plot options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T10. The analysis will start with the calculation of view factors which are then stored in file fin_ra. go to the Data tab Choose Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) as the Data Type Select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data and then go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. click Open Post file In the main window. 1) by selecting View > Axis > +Z Select C > New > Fluid Click Cplot In the Load Data panel.

whose name should appear inside the Post File box Click Open Post file In the Post Register Operations dialog. you will need to use pro-STAR’s OPERATE utility as follows: • • • • In the main window.ccmp and then store them in post register 1: • • • • 10-22 In the File(s) tab..ccmp. select Function Category Load cell data > Temperature Select Load cell temperature into Register 2 Using Absolute Values Click Apply Re-load the results of the radiation case by reading the calculated cell temperatures stored in file fin_ra. select Register 1 from the registers menu Click Apply Version 4.08 ..2-3 Temperature contours in the fluid region To compare the temperatures of the radiation and no-radiation cases.Tutorial 10. whose name should then appear inside the Post File box Click Open Post file To examine the temperature differences.ccmp. first load the no-radiation solution file: • • • • Go to the Load Data panel In the Load Data panel. select the File(s) tab Use the built-in browser to select file fin_bu. select Post > Operate.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Post-Processing Post.processing Figure T10. In the Post Register Operations dialog. use the built-in browser to select file fin_ra.

2-4 Figure T10.1% of the no-radiation temperature value. click Replot to display Figure T10. with the variation less than 0.08 10-23 . • • • • In the Post Register Operations dialog.2 SURFACE-TO-SURFACE RADIATION Post-Processing Final Operations Calculate the required differences by subtracting the no-radiation from the radiation temperatures and putting the results in register 4 (the one normally used for scalar data contour plots).Register 2 Click Apply Close the Post Register Operations dialog Now plot the differences: • • Select Post > Caverage > Cset In the main window.2-4 Contour plot of temperature difference caused by use of radiation model It can be seen that the introduction of the radiation model has a significant effect on the fluid temperature distribution across the domain. they are much less significant.Tutorial 10. Final Operations Terminate the session. select Multi-register > Subtract For the Operation select Register 4 = Register 1 . However. • File > Quit > Quit. Nosave Version 4. The temperature differences in the solid region can be examined in a similar way.

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mdl) into it Rename this file as fin_dorm.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 10.echo File? option Click Continue This will read all data contained in file fin_dorm. DORM does not require radiation patches on the boundaries. Unlike the Discrete Transfer method (DTRM) employed in Tutorial 10.08 10-25 .2. change the title to: BUOYANCY DRIVEN FLOW AROUND A HEATED TRANSPARENT FIN • Click Apply and Close Version 4. This tutorial aims to show the user how to: • • • Model radiative heat transfer in the presence of participating media Specify material properties (including radiative properties) for transparent solid domains Use the Discrete Ordinates method (DORM) to solve the problem.mdl File? option Deselect the Append to Previous .1 will act as the starting point of the present analysis.2. as follows: • • • Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut10-3 and copy the model file generated in Tutorial 10.ccmg) to the current directory Start up the pro-STAR GUI interface: • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Accept the default case name (fin_dorm) displayed in the Case Name text box Select the Resume From Existing . the analysis includes the effects of surface-to-surface radiation on heat transfer and temperature distribution..Tutorial 10. select File > Model Title. Pre-Processing Preliminaries A number of initial file copying operations are needed for proper operation of this tutorial. As in Tutorial 10. the effect of the intervening media (air and transparent solid) on the thermal radiation passing through and being absorbed by them is also investigated. • • In the main window.1 (fin_bu. however.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID This sub-tutorial examines the effect of replacing the aluminium fin present in the previous two tutorials of this set by an identically-shaped fin made of transparent material (Pyrex glass)..mdl and will set up the model as it was at the end of Tutorial 10. Since the solution obtained in Tutorial 10.1.mdl You will use this as a starting point for a revised model that includes the transparent solid. In the Title text box. it is also necessary to copy the solution files for the non-radiating case (fin_bu.ccmp and fin_bu. This time.

You therefore need to define a separate boundary region for the interface. Select the Solids folder Open the Material Properties (Solids) panel and select Material # 2 in the box Type the transparent solid name (Pyrex) in the adjacent box Specify appropriate thermal properties for the solid material as follows: Density — 2230 Conductivity — 1. change the Discrete Ordinate Set option to S2. • In the main window.Tutorial 10. both fluid and solid cells need to be given this property: • • • • • • • • • Open the Cell Editor using the button on the main window Select row # 1 (the Fluid cell type) in the scroll list Select On from the Radiation menu Click Apply Select row # 2 (the Solid cell type) in the scroll list Select On from the Radiation menu Type Pyrex in the Name box Click Apply Close the Cell Editor Specify that both fluid and solid regions will participate in the radiative heat exchange: • • • • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Thermal Options panel Select Discrete Ordinates for the Radiation option In the Radiation section. note that option Solid-Fluid Heat Transfer is already selected Click Apply • • Define relevant material properties: • • • • • • • Select the Liquids and Gases folder Open the Thermal Models panel and ensure that Material # 1 is selected Check the default values for the absorption and scattering coefficients (0. This is the lowest accuracy setting but will ensure that a solution can be reached relatively quickly (see “Capabilities and Limitations of the DORM Method” on page 7-6 of the CCM User Guide).08 10-26 . in order to assign the appropriate radiative surface properties to it. In this panel.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Pre-Processing Radiative and Thermal Properties Radiative and As mentioned in Tutorial 10.4 Click Apply Open the Radiative Properties panel Enter 0 for both the absorption and scattering coefficients of the solid material Click Apply • • • • New Boundary Definitions The top and bottom adiabatic walls as well as the solid-fluid interface are currently assigned to the default wall region (no. radiation can be tracked only through cell types that Thermal are explicitly defined as participating in radiative heat transfer. 0). Since in this case the Properties solid cells are transparent.1 and 0.2. respectively).35 Specific Heat — 837. extending round the entire fin perimeter. These are reasonable for air. ensure the Display Boundaries option is turned off Version 4.

3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select C > New > Solid Click Cplot to display just the solid cells In the pro-STAR Model Guide. 1 in the scroll list Specify the required radiation properties by entering the following data: Emissivity box — 0. 2 in the scroll list Specify the required temperature and radiation properties: Temperature box — 593 Emissivity box — 0. change its temperature to 593 K to compensate for the lower thermal conductivity of the glass: • • Select region no. 0) by selecting View > Axis > -X In the Regions tab. click Apply and draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh In the main window.5 Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply Region 2 (the fin base) Define surface properties for the fin base. 4 in the scroll list 10-27 .Tutorial 10. reflectivity and transmissivity.5 Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply • Region 4 (the fluid-solid interface) The solid-fluid interface’s properties have to be set so as to reflect the fact that the solid is transparent: • Version 4.5 Reflectivity box — 0. click Apply in the Regions tab and draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh Boundary Conditions You must now revisit the boundary conditions of all wall regions in order to define their emissivity. 1. 0. 4 in the scroll list Select option Wall from the Type menu Enter a region name (S-F_interface) in the Name box Click Define In the main window. change the viewpoint to (-1. change the viewpoint to (0. 0) by selecting View > Axis > +X In the Regions tab. change the viewpoint to (1. 0. In addition. select Create by Picking a Zone from the Action List and click Apply Draw a closed polygon around the visible mesh In the main window.08 Select region no. select region no.5 Reflectivity box — 0. select folder Locate Boundaries and then open the Create Boundaries panel In the Regions tab. 0) by selecting View > Axis > +Y Again. Region 1 (side walls) Specify surface properties for the side walls: • • • • • • Select folder Define Boundaries and open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no.

01 Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. In the Save Problem File dialog. select the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Restart panel Choose Restart File Option Initial Field. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. the top and bottom walls will be assigned an emissivity and reflectivity of 0. i. Region 0 (top amd bottom walls) As for the side walls.5 Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply It is possible to restart the analysis from the previous non-radiating solution.Tutorial 10. save all model data.5: • • • • • Final Operations Select region no.. ensure that the Geometry Scale Factor is set to 0. 0 in the scroll list Specify the required radiation properties: Emissivity box — 0. select file fin_bu.e. • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. In the Save Geometry File dialog.reflectivity = 0) is consistent with the absorptivity defined earlier for the new solid material.5 Reflectivity box — 0. the interface is totally transparent Accept the current values for the remaining parameters and click Apply Note that the above values imply that the absorptivity of the interface (1 transmissivity . • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. Click the browser button next to the Restart File box..08 ... select File > Save Geometry.. as shown below. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit 10-28 Version 4. This is essential for solid-fluid interfaces that are not part of region 0.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Pre-Processing Final Operations • • • Change the Wall Heat option to Conduction. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. Alternatively.ccmp from the browser dialog and then click Open Check that the Initial Field Restart menu is set to New Boundary Types Check that the Iteration Counter option is set to Reset Click Apply The pre-processing task is now complete. This process is described in the next section. you may continue with the CFD analysis. Specify appropriate radiation properties: Emissivity box — 0 Reflectivity box — 0 Transmissivity box — 1. but since new boundaries have been added we need to use the ‘initial field’ restart option.

Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file fin_dorm.Tutorial 10. proceed as follows: • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Accept the default Scale Factor of 0. This is due to the initial field restart options specified. go to the Data tab Select item Velocity Components UV option from the Vector Data list and then click Get Data to load the velocity field Go to the Create Plots panel where the plot style will be defined In the 3-D Surface tab. 1 despite the fact that this is a restart run. check that Option Vector is selected and then choose Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T10.01 Select the Double Precision option Select Yes for the Write Geometry File option Click the Start button Note that the starting iteration number is shown as no. 0. select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder. 1) by selecting View > Axis > +Z In the Load Data panel.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID CFD Analysis Preliminaries CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively.ccmp: • • • Postprocessing In the pro-STAR Model Guide select the Post-Processing folder Open the Load Data panel Click Open Post file First look at the velocity field in the fluid surrounding the fin: • • • • • • • • In the main window. select C > New > Fluid Click Cplot Change the viewpoint to (0.08 10-29 .3-1 Version 4.

3-1 Velocity vectors Examine the temperature profiles.Tutorial 10.3-3 10-30 Version 4. select C > New > Solid Go to the Load Data panel In the Data tab. select Data Type Cell Select On and Cset for the Smooth option Select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Cplot to display Figure T10.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Post-Processing Post.08 . choose Option Contour (filled) Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T10.processing Figure T10.3-2 In the main window. both in the surrounding fluid and in the solid fin: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu Select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data and then go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface panel.

3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Post-Processing Post.08 10-31 .Tutorial 10.processing Figure T10.3-3 Temperature contours in the solid region Version 4.3-2 Temperature contours in the fluid region Figure T10.

• File > Quit > Quit.08 . Nosave 10-32 Version 4.Tutorial 10.3 RADIATION THROUGH A TRANSPARENT SOLID Post-Processing Final Operations Final Operations Terminate the session.

The flow around two blunt objects moving in opposite direction in a tunnel 2. Two cases are considered: 1. A radial fan flow simulation Version 4.Tutorial 11 MOVING GRIDS The following tutorials are intended to familiarise users with the process of setting up moving-mesh problems.08 11-1 .

1-1 Geometry outline of passing objects problem The two objects travel at 30 m/s in opposite directions.637 × 10–2 kg/m3 Pa s J/kg K W/m K • • • Pre-Processing Preliminaries The mesh for this problem has already been created in the Meshing Tutorials volume (Tutorial 1. as set up in Tutorial 1.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Physical Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 11. The fluid within the solution domain is air (at atmospheric pressure of 1 bar and temperature of 293 K) and has the following physical properties: Density Molecular viscosity Specific heat Thermal conductivity The following modelling strategy is adopted: • • Moving mesh geometry. employing two such interfaces.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Physical Problem Description This tutorial simulates flow caused by two identical blunt objects passing each other in a tunnel and are shown schematically in Figure T11.205 1.cel). Chapter 13.3) and the relevant cell (movingObjects.3 of the Meshing Tutorials volume STAR-CD’s arbitrary sliding interface (ASI) facilities. 5 30 m/s 30 27 7 30 201 All units in cm (not to scale) Figure T11.bnd) files are 11-2 Version 4. The general methodology of ASI is explained in the CCM User Guide. Dynamic cell removal and addition Transient flow options Standard k-ε turbulence model for the turbulence characteristics 1.0 2.vrt) and boundary (movingObjects.08 .Tutorial 11. vertex (movingObjects.81 × 10–5 1006.1-1.

bnd and that it is of File Type Coded Click Apply The I/O window should tell you that 6. respectively.vrt. select Tools > Cell.. select Cell Editor to open the Cell Editor dialog Select cell table entry 2 and change the Color Index to 3 (green) Click Apply Select cell table entry 3 and change the Color Index to 4 (blue) Click Apply 11-3 .1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Preliminaries already available.068vertices and 3. Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter movingObjects in the Case Name text box Click Continue In the main pro-STAR window.630 boundaries have been imported.08 In the main pro-STAR window.. and that both are of File Type Coded Click Apply The I/O window should tell you that 7.074 cells have been imported. In the Title text box type: FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Click Apply and Close The pro-STAR Model Guide is displayed on your screen.. select File > Model Title.cel and movingObjects. This enables you to set the basic features of your model and ensures that only those panels that are essential for your analysis are activated. using the defauly settings.Tutorial 11. Read in the available boundary data: • • • Select folder Locate Boundaries and then open the Import Boundaries panel Check that the default boundary file is movingObjects.. To aid the visualisation of the geometry. next to the main pro-STAR window. From the Cell Tool dialog. • • • • • • • • Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut11-1 and copy the supplied files into it. Set the basic feature of your model: • • • • Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and open the Analysis Features panel Select option Transient from the Time Domain menu Select option On with Event Processing from the Moving Grid menu Click Apply Read in the available cell and vertex data: • • • • Select folder Grids and then open the Import Grids panel Select pro-STAR as the file Format Check that the default cell and vertex files are movingObjects. Ignore the warnings regarding non-existent cell table numbers as new ones are created during import. change the color of the cell table entries 2 and 3: • • • • • • Version 4.

Therefore. as expected. you need to select an option that switches on one of the turbulence models supplied by STAR. choose C > All Click Cplot Click (Zoom on) and zoom in around the lower object to display the mesh as shown in Figure T11.Tutorial 11.1-2 Geometry mesh • Material Properties Click (Zoom off) to display the entire mesh again Check the current definition of material properties using the pro-STAR Model Guide: • • • Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel The default material properties are those for air and therefore do not need to be changed. For this tutorial. Check the current turbulence settings: • Open the Turbulence Models panel The setting in this panel will be Off. the standard k-ε model will be used.08 .1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Material Properties To display the mesh: • • • In the main pro-STAR window.1-2 Figure T11. • 11-4 Select On to turn on the Turbulence option Version 4.

08 Select region no.Tutorial 11. • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region no. In this tutorial.03 in the Length box Click Apply Select region no. • • • • • • • • • • • • Version 4. one has to supply two parameters: 1. the alternate boundary region number is not important so the system default may be used. Those located at the sliding interfaces must be defined as ‘attachment’ boundaries. for the pressure boundary.3. 1 in the boundary regions scroll list and select option Attach in the Region Type menu Check that the Coordinate System is set to 1 and the Alternate Region is 0 Click Apply Repeat the above steps for region no. 2. The local coordinate system 2. the turbulence intensity is taken as 1% of the object speed. 3 and 4.3 in the Turb. The other boundary conditions are defined below.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • Select option k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu Click Apply Set the reference pressure and monitoring cell locations: • • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 710 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Type 680 in the Pressure Cell Number box Accept the remaining default settings and click Apply Boundary conditions can now be imposed on the regions defined in Meshing Tutorial 1. Note that. 5 in the boundary regions scroll list and select option Pressure in the Region Type menu Select Static from the Pressure Option menu Select TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Type 0.30 m/s by typing -30 in the Wall U box Click Apply 11-5 . and the mixing length as one-tenth of the tunnel width. the alternate boundary region must be of ‘wall’ or ‘inlet’ type. 6 in the boundary regions scroll list and select option Wall in the Region Type menu Set the wall’s U-velocity component to 30 m/s by typing 30 in the Wall U box Click Apply Select region no. An alternate boundary region number The purpose of the latter is to provide a boundary condition if cells on either side of the interface become disconnected. For such boundaries. 7 in the boundary regions scroll list and select option Wall in the Region Type menu Set the wall’s U-velocity component to . Intensity box Type 0.

08 .Tutorial 11. velocity and pressure are already selected by default. independent of the mesh geometry. select File > Save Model Check the solution variables. Since the flow is two dimensional.00025. Select Turb Kinetic Energy and enable the Post option to include this item in the list of data to be output Click Apply • • Run Time Controls In this tutorial. As discussed below. we shall use a value of ∆t = 0. the mesh is made to slide in an arbitrary manner. 11-6 Version 4. the time step chosen can be any reasonable value. 8 in the boundary regions scroll list and select option Symplane in the Region Type menu Click Apply In the main window. • • • • Go to the Analysis Controls folder Open the Primary Variables panel and check the settings of the Equation Status tab Deselect item W-Momentum to exclude it from the calculations Click Apply Choose the U and V velocity components. this is equivalent to output at every fourth time step As can be seen in the scroll list. Therefore. This movement is illustrated in Figure T11.001 in the Output interval box.e. so that four time steps are needed to move the mesh by a (relative) distance of 3 cm.. i. the objects will have moved for a total of 0.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • • Analysis Controls Select region no. Here.1-3. pressure and turbulence kinetic energy as the flow variables to write to the transient post-processing file: • • • Open the Analysis Output panel Select the Transient tab Specify the frequency of writing data to the transient post file by typing 0.04 seconds which is equivalent to a distance of 120 cm. it is sensible to switch off the calculation of the W-velocity component as the run time will be reduced. equal to the cell length in the x-direction. By the end of the analysis.

the moving mesh and ‘event’ options need to be employed. • Check the Events Module status by typing: EVEN STAT Version 4. • Before specifying events.04 seconds Click Apply Type 0.08 11-7 .1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Event Settings 3 cm Stationary mesh Interface Mesh attached to object A (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure T11.00025 in the Time step for period box Click Set Since this tutorial uses a sliding mesh.1-3 Illustration of relative mesh movement • • • • • Event Settings Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Set the analysis to Run for a Time of 0. it is necessary to resize pro-STAR by issuing the following commands in the I/O window: MEMORY MAXEVE 200 MEMORY WRITE Moving mesh operations are grouped under the Events Module and are presently available only in command form.Tutorial 11.

a local coordinate system is used: EDDIR LOCAL 1 1 Local coordinate system no. those Manipulation cells that will be restored progressively during the solution. • Therefore. Cell layers can be removed at time t < 0 so that they can be progressively restored during the course of the solution. The extra cell layers are removed using negative event times whose exact time values are of no importance. Entire layers of cells are removed or added. i. 3. will now be specified through the event steps. for the first cell removal event step. The user needs to ensure that the rest of the mesh geometry is re-arranged so as to take up the space vacated by the removed cells. Mesh Let us first set up events that remove all the extra cells created initially.. • Initialise this file as follows: EVFILE INIT The above initialises a new event history file (. Cell layers must be restored in the reverse order in which they were removed (i. A cell is removed by collapsing intervening faces between two opposite cell sides in a given direction. 2. An event is set up through command EVSTEP which defines ‘event time’. • The direction for the cell removal is now specified using command EDDIR.0 Define event step 1 occurring at time t = –50 seconds The information echoed on your screen will confirm this. Two neighbouring cell layers cannot be removed or added at the same time. the first cell layer added must be the last cell layer removed).1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Mesh Manipulation Events Moving mesh operations are defined in terms of event steps that are stored in a special file. This means that cells to be added must have been previously removed.e. in the x-direction In this first event step two cell layers are removed. As discussed in Chapter Events 13 of the CCM User Guide. The actual mesh-moving operations. it is permissible to remove or add any number of cell layers provided none of them are neighbours.. Cell addition is achieved by restoring removed cells.1-4. Here. However. the main features of cell removal and addition operations are: 1. 1. There are several ways of specifying event time — here it will be defined as the elapsed time. one from the upper and the other from the lower mesh block.08 . type: EVSTEP 1 TIME -50. 4. as illustrated in Figure T11.e. 5. This is necessary in this tutorial but does not represent a fundamental restriction of STAR-CD. Note that it is 11-8 Version 4. and the time at which they are executed. 6.evn file).Tutorial 11.

43 (last) 2 1 (first) (first) 1 2 43 (last) Figure T11. 2 Set starting event time to –49 Set starting cell no.0 1.0 *SET IC1 15 14 *SET IC2 28 14 *SET IC3 3047 -14 *SET IC4 3060 -14 *DEFI Start with event no. cell type or cell group. for block 1 Set starting cell no. • Following that. In this tutorial. • The first event step is now complete and can be saved via command EVSAVE: EVSAVE 1 • Set up the remaining 42 initial cell removal events by making use of pro-STAR’s ‘loop’ facility. The target cell layer set can be specified by cell range. The range can be examined by turning on cell numbering (command NUMBER) and zooming in on the relevant cell layers (command ZOOM). remove the cells by: EDCE ADD CRAN 1 14 1 EDCE ADD CRAN 3061 3074 1 • The removed cells can be listed using command ECLIST: ECLIST DEACT ALL Y Note that it is possible to modify the list of cells to be removed by using options CLEAR (clear all cells marked for removal) or DELETE (delete the selected cells from the removals list) in command EDCELL. as follows: *SET EVNU 2 1 *SET ETIM -49.1-4 Order of cell layer removal Cell layer removal is performed using command EDCELL. it is convenient to use the cell range option since the initial mesh creation operation has generated regular cell numbering.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Mesh Manipulation Events permissible for the layers to be located in different places. Also note that the first cell layer removed in each block will also be the last layer to be added back to the solution domain. for block 2 Define the event loop Include all cells within the range in the deletion list Version 4.08 11-9 .Tutorial 11.

The mesh geometry changes can be performed either by pro-STAR commands (i.cgrd file listing shown below. These commands must be entered and stored in a file called cgrid.Tutorial 11. if desired.e. For this tutorial this file is supplied with the installation. using ‘Change Grid’ operations) or by user coding in subroutine NEWXYZ.. This tutorial employs the pro-STAR commands option.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Mesh Manipulation Events EVSTEP EVNU TIME ETIM EDDI LOCAL 1 1 EDCELL ADD CRAN IC1 IC2 1 EDCELL ADD CRAN IC3 IC4 1 EVSA EVNU *END *LOOP 1 41 1 Execute the loop 41 times With the ASI method. 11-10 Version 4. You can use pro-STAR’s built-in editor (File > Edit File. it is necessary to specify only changes in the mesh geometry..08 . Suppose we want the mesh to move in the way illustrated by Figure T11.cgrd. The program-defined parameters are: ITER — current time step number TIME — current solution time LSTP — current load step number EVEX — last event number executed EVNO — next event number to be executed ETIM — time at which the next event is scheduled YPST — piston position (special case) An example of using such a parameter (TIME) appears in the cgrid.1-3. from the main menu) or an editor of your choice to enter/modify the change grid commands. Note that any pro-STAR command used in a ‘Change Grid’ operation can make use of program-defined as well as user-defined parameters.. changes in cell connectivity are accounted for automatically. The pro-STAR commands needed to change the mesh geometry in this way are shown in the listing below.

660......-1 * DXD VSET. 2325.IADL.. 198 as the first sliding event..332.1 1 VGEN 2 0 VSET.IADL.3061.08 11-11 ...cgrd’ ! pro-STAR commands to change mesh geometry ! ! Comments allowed in lines starting with a “!” ! ! Spaces must inserted either side of arithmetic operators ! ! I000 = total number of cell layers added to mesh block 1 ! I001 = total number of cell layers added to mesh block 2 ! *SET DXD TIME * 30..4744 + IADU. VMOD.0.VSET.602.GRAN.1 * 15 *SET IADU I001 . The sliding events will be considered first. * 100.F VSET.99 VSET ADD VRAN.evn EVFLAG PREP OFF ALL EVLOAD UPTO EVENT EVEX CSET NEWS CRAN 14. one for object A and another for object B.201.-1 -1 VGEN 2 0 VSET.4744. 15 RP15.01 200.202.NEWS. you need to define two separate sliding events..F..6409 + IADU.2325 .NEWS...01 200.1 1 VSET ADD VRAN. Version 4.CODE *SET IADL I000 .14 CSET SUBS ACTIVE *GET I001 NCSET VREAD movingObjects.F.15 RP15. pro-STAR then reminds you to specify the master and slave sliding boundary face lists. plus offsets used to match the two sets.1 * 15 CSET NEWS TYPE 1 VSET NEWS CSET VSET SUBS GRAN 0. 15 RP15. EVFILE CONN movingObjects.14 CSET SUBS ACTIVE *GET I000 NCSET CSET NEWS CRAN 2473.. together with the normal events required for moving mesh operations.F Sliding Events To set up an ASI case for this problem. VMOD.15 RP15..99 VSET ADD VRAN.-130.GRAN.-1..660 .vrt. • In the pro-STAR I/O window type: EVSLIDE 198 This defines event no. it will be referenced later by those events that employ time explicitly.-1 -1 VSET ADD VRAN.DXD CSET NEWS TYPE 3 VSET NEWS CSET VSET SUBS GRAN 0.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Sliding Events ! File ‘cgrid..Tutorial 11.VSET.6409..

Tutorial 11. 1). at some time steps. i. • Provide the necessary definitions as follows: EMSLIDE ADD REGI 1 ESSLIDE ADD REGI 2 • Adds a total of 110 boundaries to the master list This adds 67 boundaries to the slave list The next command.. • In the pro-STAR I/O window type: EVSLIDE 199 EMSLIDE ADD REGI 3 ESSLIDE ADD REGI 4 EOSLIDE 1 0 0 EPSLIDE ON EVSAVE 199 Again. This is necessary because.e. interface I in Figure T1.and y-directions: EOSLIDE 1 0 0 • The final command needed to set up event 198. The next event. EPSLIDE ON • The event can now be saved: EVSAVE 198 The sliding event for interface II can be set up in a similar way. EOSLIDE. (c) and (d) of Figure T11.1-3. The command also specifies that the offset required to match the two sliding regions at the start of the analysis is zero for both the x. this event will be referenced at a later stage by those events that employ time explicitly. the master cells in the lower sliding interface (i. This completes the ASI events required for the case. The slave cells are then those in block 3 (region 2).3) are chosen to be those in block 1 (region 1).cgrd.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Grid-change Events In this model. is now set up for t = 0 as follows: • In the pro-STAR I/O window type EVST 44 TIME 0. number 44. EPSLIDE. The first 43 events defined earlier were concerned with mesh layer removal prior to the actual start of the simulation. turns on the arbitrary sliding interface’s partial boundary option.3-2 of Meshing Tutorial 1. are now read into this event using command EGRID: Version 4.e. This is illustrated by parts (b).. specifies that the boundaries on either side of the sliding interface are to be matched in the global Cartesian coordinate system (no. cell faces at the ends of the arbitrary sliding interface will only be partly matched to faces on the other side of the interface. they occurred at t < 0. Grid-change Events The grid changing events can now be set up.08 11-12 . previously entered in file cgrid.0 • The grid-changing commands for the analysis.

a reference to the arbitrary sliding events (nos. 44 is now complete and can be saved: EVSAVE 44 The initial set up is now complete. given that this motion takes place over four time steps.00025 and the first layer removal at time t = 0. This is done by command EACELL. which also specifies the cell range involved. Add a layer at position (b) 2.1-3 on page 11-7. i. namely: 1. Removal of a cell layer Referring to Figure T11. 198 and 199) defined earlier needs to be created.cgrd C pro-STAR will respond by displaying all commands that change the mesh geometry on the screen. another set of commands needs to be supplied at the appropriate event step.001. Addition of a cell layer 2. 45) is defined as follows: EVST 45 TIME 0. Thus. Remove a layer from the opposite end of the block at position (e) Starting from the beginning of the simulation. These commands will remain active for the entire run.00025 In this event. Layer Removal /Addition Events During the analysis. The strategy adopted here is to: 1. 44 is saved. this means that the first layer addition should occur at t = 0. two mesh transformation operations will be required at regular intervals and for each sliding block. • The next event in the series (no. 45 can now be saved EVSA 45 Version 4.08 11-13 .1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Layer Removal /Addition Events EGRID READ cgrid.1-5. for t ≥ 0. • Before event no. However. two cell layers need to be added as shown in Figure T11.Tutorial 11.e. it is clear that a judgement needs to be made on the precise instant when the layer addition/removal takes place. it can be seen that both these operations should have occurred by the time the mesh slides from position (a) to position (e). since these contain all information on the sliding boundary sets: EASI 198 ENABLE EASI 199 ENABLE • Event no. If it is necessary to stop or change them. • Type EACE ADD CRAN 589 602 1 EACE ADD CRAN 2473 2486 1 • Event no.

• For cell addition events starting at no. i.e. 47. alternating between a cell addition event and a cell removal event.. 46). type EVST 46 TIME 0.001.1-5 Cell layers to be added and removed in events 45 and 46 respectively In the next event (no. • Therefore. This can only be done when the mesh reaches position (e). two cell layers need to be removed. at time t = 0.00125 0. for cell removal events starting at no.08 .1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Pre-Processing Layer Removal /Addition Events remove add add remove Figure T11.001 *SET IA1 575 -14 *SET IA2 588 -14 *SET IA3 2487 14 *SET IA4 2500 14 *DEFI EVSTEP EVNU TIME ETIM EACELL ADD CRAN IA1 IA2 1 EACELL ADD CRAN IA3 IA4 1 EVSAVE EVNU *END *LOOP 1 41 1 • 11-14 Similarly.001 • The direction for cell removal is specified through command EDDIR using the local coordinate system: EDDI LOCAL 1 1 • Cell layer removal is done in the same way as for events 1 to 43: EDCE ADD CRAN 1457 1470 1 EDCE ADD CRAN 1605 1618 1 • The event can now be saved: EVSAVE 46 Definition of further events must continue in a similar fashion. 48: Version 4. The most convenient way of doing this is by using pro-STAR’s ‘loop’ facility. Thus.Tutorial 11. type the following: *SET EVNU 47 2 *SET ETIM 0.

This completes the events specification for the model. Post-Processing Preliminaries Start up pro-STAR and accept the Case Name.. Final Operations Write the geometry and problem files (the events file will be automatically saved when writing the geometry file) and exit: • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. it is necessary to connect the events file to load and Version 4. In the Save Geometry File dialog. Only the first 40 of these will be used because the run time is 0. Accept the rest of the default settings and click Continue. movingObjects.1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS CFD Analysis Final Operations *SET EVNU 48 2 *SET ETIM 0.0020 0. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis Start the CFD analysis by typing star in your STAR-CD session window...Tutorial 11. Ensure the pro-STAR Model Guide is open next to the main pro-STAR window. select File > Save Geometry.001 *SET ID1 1443 -14 *SET ID2 1456 -14 *SET ID3 1619 14 *SET ID4 1632 14 *DEFI EVSTEP EVNU TIME ETIM EDDI LOCAL 1 1 EDCE ADD CRAN ID1 ID2 1 EDCE ADD CRAN ID3 ID4 1 EVSA EVNU *END *LOOP 1 41 1 Note that these command loops specify 43 cell layer removal/addition events. Start the post-processing task by re-plotting the mesh: • • In the main window.04 s. enter 0. In the Save Problem File dialog. The analysis will terminate after 160 time steps..08 11-15 . The model details will be displayed in the I/O window. in the text box of the introductory panel.01 in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. select C > All Click Cplot Before examining the results.

processing execute events.ccmt is displayed in the Post File box of the Transient section Click Add File Select movingObjects. select step number 120. select item Velocity Components UV from the Vector Data list and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Go to the Vectors tab and type 0.1-6 11-16 Version 4. It may be necessary to resize the Load Data panel to view the scroll bar on the right hand side Click Store Time Since the mesh changes with time. in this case step number 120: • • In the Time Step list. select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel Select option Transient from the Analysis menu Select Yes from the Moving Mesh menu Check that file movingObjects. • Enter the following command in the I/O window: EVFI CONN Specify the file containing the transient post data: • • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.Tutorial 11.5 in the Scale Factor box Click Apply Go to the Options tab Select option User from the Range menu and then enter 0 and 30 in the From and To boxes respectively Click Apply Go to the Section/Clipped tab and check that Option Vector and Edge/Mesh None are selected In the Single Plane Plot section.5 in the Point Z coordinate box Click Apply Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T11.ccmt in the Transient scroll list and then click Open Transient file. the time steps at which flow data were stored during the run should appear in the Time Step scroll list Postprocessing Identify the point in time (or time step number) at which results are to be displayed.08 .1 FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS Post-Processing Post. type 0. the vertex coordinates and the velocity vector components have to be read in before plotting: • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab.

Tutorial 11.1

FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS

Post-Processing Post- processing

Figure T11.1-6

Velocity vectors at time step 120

Enter the following command loop to display velocity vectors for all time steps saved on the transient post data file: *SET ITT 4 4 *DEFI STORE ITER ITT GETC U V NONE CSET ALL CPLOT *END *LOOP 1 39

The vertex-based pressure values may be plotted as follows: • • • • • • • • • • •
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In the pro-STAR Model Guide, go to the Load Data panel Go to the File(s) tab Select step number 120 in the Time Step list and then click Store Time Go to the Data tab Select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu Select item Pressure from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Go to the Options tab Select option Local from the Range menu Click Apply
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Tutorial 11.1

FLOW AROUND TWO OPPOSING MOVING OBJECTS

Post-Processing Final Operations

• • •

Go to the Section/Clipped tab and choose Option Contour (filled) In the main pro-STAR window, select C > All Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T11.1-7

Figure T11.1-7

Pressure contours at time step 120

As with the velocity vectors, the pressure contours for all time steps can be displayed using a command loop: • • • Go to the Options tab Select option User from the Range menu and then enter -1200 and 1000 in the From and To boxes respectively and click Apply Enter the following commands in the I/O window: *SET ITT 4 4 *DEFI STORE ITER ITT GETV NONE P CSET ALL CPLOT *END *LOOP 1 39 Final Operations It is essential not to save the file movingObjects.mdl when quitting pro-STAR as the current geometry corresponds to the status of the mesh at time step 160: • Select File > Quit > Quit, Nosave

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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Physical Problem Description

Tutorial 11.2
• • •

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

This tutorial aims to show the user how to: Set up and run a moving-mesh radial fan analysis using the arbitrary sliding interface (ASI) method Employ pro-STAR’s ‘events’ facility to control the motion of the spinning fan and blades Choose the time step for an ASI analysis.

The mesh geometry and boundary conditions are in fact identical to those used in Tutorial 7.1; the difference in this case being that a transient moving mesh approach is employed instead of the steady-state multiple rotating reference frames method. This will enable you to examine the full periodic solution to the problem rather than just a time-averaged result. Physical Problem Description The radial fan geometry to be used is shown below:

Figure T11.2-1

Radial fan geometry

The fan consists of three parts: the inlet pipe leading into the main solution domain, the rotating fan body and blades, plus the stationary body section leading to the outlet. The model’s mesh is saved in three separate Nastran files corresponding to each of the above parts. The spinning effect of the fan axis will be ignored in the inlet section but will be accounted for in the rotating housing. Baffle cells are used to represent the 12 equally-spaced blades. The rotation speed is 2,000 RPM and the fluid within the fan is air at atmospheric conditions.

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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Preliminaries

Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut11-2. The mesh for this case is supplied as three separate Nastran files, inlet.nas, fan.nas and body.nas, corresponding to the three fan regions mentioned earlier. Therefore, before starting the tutorial, make sure that the supplied files are copied into your current directory. • • • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say, radialFan) in the Case Name text box Click Continue In the main window, select File > Model Title... In the Title text box type: RADIAL FAN SIMULATION USING A SLIDING-INTERFACE MOVING MESH • Click Apply and Close

This completes the preliminary steps for this tutorial. Setting the Analysis Type The first operation is to set up pro-STAR for a transient analysis and activate pro-STAR’s moving grid capability: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide, open the Analysis Features panel Select option Transient from the Time Domain menu Select option On with Event Processing from the Moving Grid menu Click Apply

Mesh Import

You can now continue by importing the grid to be used in the analysis. It is assumed that its three parts have been created separately and that there is no continuity between them. In other words, the mesh blocks are not joined together with common vertex numbering at the block interfaces. Prior to importing any kind of grid from an external package, you should check the default cell table indices set up in pro-STAR. • Click the button on the main pro-STAR window to open the Cell Editor dialog and inspect its contents. Alternatively, issue the CTLIS,ALL command in the I/O window which results in the output shown below:

Figure T11.2-2

Cell table listing

It can be seen that there is only one entry in the default cell table (no. 1), corresponding to a fluid cell type. If the cell table entries do not correspond to the cell types defined within the Nastran files, a conflict of cell types may arise. In this
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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Mesh Import

case, however, the files were saved with the following pre-assigned cell types: 1. 2. 3. 4. Fluid cells within the rotating fan body Fluid cells within the stationary fan body Baffle cells representing the fan blades Fluid cells within the stationary fan inlet duct

As there is no potential cell type conflict (cell type no. 1 is a fluid cell type in both the pro-STAR and Nastran files), the cell table entries do not need to be changed or deleted and the Nastran files can be imported as is: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide, select the Grids folder and then open the Import Grids panel Select the Nastran option for Format Select Type in the Option menu (for cell table types) Use the browser button to select file inlet.nas for the Bulk Data File Click Apply

Following this last operation, the I/O window will indicate that the numbers of nodes (vertices) and elements (cells) that were read in were 7128 and 5760, respectively. The current maximum values of vertices and cells in pro-STAR after reading in the mesh are also shown — in this case they are the same as for the original mesh. These values must be used as offsets for the next Nastran file import, so that the second part of the mesh does not re-use the vertex and cell numbers assigned to the first part. Read in the next part of the mesh: • Enable the Append option. Note that the Vertex Offset and Cell Offset values are automatically set to mxv and mxc, respectively. These parameters are internal functions that provide the current highest value + 1 for the entity of interest. In this case, mxv will be interpreted as being equal to 7129 and mxc equal to 5761. The user can supply alternative values if desired. Use the browser button to select file fan.nas for Bulk Data File Click Apply

• •

Again, the I/O window provides the maximum vertex and cell numbers after import is complete. The final part of the mesh is then imported as follows: • • Use the browser button to select file body.nas for Bulk Data File Click Apply

This completes the import process. You may now inspect the mesh as follows: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window, select C > All Change the mesh orientation by selecting Plot > Up Axis > Z Change to an isometric viewing direction by selecting View > Isometric > 1,1,1 Click Cplot Select cell plot type Quick Hidden Line; this will allow you to see the fan blades inside the mesh, as shown in Figure T11.2-3

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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Cell Type Properties

Figure T11.2-3

Imported grid

Cell Type Properties

The cells in each part of the mesh must now be correctly defined and named so that each fan component can be clearly distinguished from the others. To determine what kind of cells have been created by the import process: • Select option Utility > Count > Cells

As mentioned in the “Mesh Import” section, cells in the rotating fan body have a cell table index of 1. Cells in the stationary body domain have cell table index 2 and those in the inlet pipe index 4. Cells with index 3 are interpreted as baffles representing the fan blades among the rotating cells. The desired modifications to the cell type parameters may be done via the cell table editor, as follows: • • • • In the main pro-STAR window, click to open the Cell Editor dialog Check that table entry #1 is selected in the scroll list Enter ROTATING_FAN in the Name box Click Apply

Next, change the settings for cell type no. 2, corresponding to the stationary body cells: • • • • •
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Select table entry #2 in the scroll list Check that the Cell Type is set to Fluid Change the Color Index to 3 (green) Enter BODY in the Name box Click Apply
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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Boundary Location

Set the required properties for the baffle cell type 3: • • • • • Select table entry #3 in the scroll list Select the Baffle Cell Type setting Change the Color Index setting to 4 (blue) Enter FAN_BLADES in the Name box Click Apply

Finally, the inlet pipe (type 4 cells) can be modified: • • • • • Select table entry #4 in the scroll list Change the Color Index to 5 (cyan) Enter INLET in the Name box Click Apply and then Close In the main pro-STAR window, click Replot and notice the change in cell colours in the model, shown in Figure T11.2-4

Figure T11.2-4

Fan model grid showing cell colour changes

Boundary Location

In STAR-CD, attachment boundaries are used to provide a continuous interface between moving and stationary parts of an ASI-type model. In this instance, such boundaries need to be applied to two separate regions in the model, namely the interface between fan and stationary body and the interface between inlet and fan. Attachment boundaries are always applied in pairs and are coupled together using the ASI event commands. Rotating fan body First, apply the master attachment boundaries onto the rotating fan body. Begin by isolating the fan body cells:

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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Boundary Location

• • • • •

Select a Hidden Surface plot type from the main pro-STAR window Select C > New > Type Click on the face of any rotating (red) cell using the screen cursor Change the view by choosing View > Isometric > 1,1,-1 Click Cplot

Next, define the curved surface of the displayed fan-body cell block as an attachment boundary: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide, select the Locate Boundaries folder and then open the Create Boundaries panel Select region 3 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Attach option for region Type Click Define Ensure region 3 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list, select Create by Picking Surface based on Edges from the Action List and then click Apply Choose a vertex on the side of the fan body, as shown in Figure T11.2-5:

Select a vertex here

Figure T11.2-5

Selecting a starting vertex for master attachment boundary definition

This will create 720 ‘master’ attachment boundaries on the outside curved surface of the fan-body cell block. In this particular example, the section of the core shaft lying within the rotating region is considered as spinning with the fan, whereas the section lying within the inlet region is stationary. Therefore, a separate wall boundary region needs to be created for the rotating section in order to assign an angular velocity to it:
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MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Boundary Location

• • • • • •

In the pro-STAR Model Guide, select region 7 from the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall for region Type Click Define Ensure region 7 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list and plot type is Hidden Surface Select Create by Picking Surface based on Vset from the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex inside the shaft as shown in Figure T11.2-6

Select a vertex here

Figure T11.2-6

Selecting the wall boundaries on the rotating shaft

A total of 720 wall boundaries should be created. Before adding the attachment boundaries to the upper surface of the block, you need to redefine the vertex set used above. The new set should contain additional vertices whose effect will be to limit new boundary creation to that part of the upper surface occupied by the attachment boundaries. The easiest way to do this is to use the VSET command with the GRANGE (geometric range) option. • Type the following commands in the I/O window: VSET,ADD,GRAN,45,49,,,83,85,2 VSET,SUBS,CSET Working in coordinate system 2, the first command will add all vertices found in the range 45 — 49 mesh units in the radial direction plus all those found in the range 83 — 85 mesh units in the axial direction. The second command will remove any vertices that do not belong to the current cell set.
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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Boundary Location

Display the upper surface of the block and define the second set of ‘master’ attachment boundaries along the inner ring. These will correspond to the underside faces on the inlet pipe: • • • • • • • Click the Display Vertices button to turn on their display Change back to a Quick Hidden Line plot Choose View > Isometric > 1,1,1 in the main pro-STAR window In the Create Boundaries panel, select region 5 from the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Attach option for region Type Click Define Check that region 5 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list and Create by Picking Surface based on Vset is selected in the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex within the inner annulus of vertices on the upper surface as shown in Figure T11.2-7

Select a vertex here

Figure T11.2-7

Selecting a starting vertex for master attachment boundary definition

A total of 576 master attachment boundaries should be created. This completes the boundary definitions for the rotating fan body. Stationary body We can now move on to the stationary body and create ‘slave’ attachment boundaries that correspond to the fan’s ‘master’ attachment boundaries in region 3. The pressure outflow boundary should also be defined at the appropriate location. Select the body cell block as follows:
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Tutorial 11.2

MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS

Pre-Processing Boundary Location

• • • • •

Click the Display Vertices button to turn their display off Choose C > All from the main pro-STAR window Display all cells in the model by clicking Cplot Select C > New > Type and then click on a body (green) cell Click Cplot to display just the body cells

Define the ‘slave’ attachment region: • • • • • Select region 4 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Attach option for region Type Click Define Ensure region 4 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list, select Create by Picking Surface based on Edges from the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex on the inside curved surface of the body cell block, as shown in Figure T11.2-8

Select a vertex here

Figure T11.2-8

Selecting the fan-body ‘slave’ attachment boundaries

A total of 720 slave attachment boundaries should be created. Next, define the pressure boundary region: • • • • •
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Select region 2 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Pressure option for region Type Click Define Ensure region 2 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list, select Create by Picking Surface based on Vset from the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex on the end face of the outlet pipe as shown in Figure T11.2-9
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08 . The inlet boundary should also be defined at the appropriate location. Inlet Section We can now move on to the inlet section and apply ‘slave’ attachment boundaries that correspond to the fan’s ‘master’ attachment boundaries in region 5. This completes the boundary definitions for the stationary body. • • • • Choose C > All from the main pro-STAR window Display all cells in the model by clicking Cplot Select C > New > Type and then click on an inlet (light blue) cell Click Cplot to display just the inlet cells Define the inlet boundaries: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.2-9 Selecting a vertex for pressure boundary definition A total of 70 boundaries should be created.Tutorial 11.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location Select a vertex here Figure T11.2-10 11-28 Version 4. select Create by Picking Surface based on Edges from the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex on the top surface of the displayed cell block as shown in Figure T11. select region 1 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Inlet option for region Type Click Define Ensure region 1 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list.

2-11 Version 4. Next. select region 6 from the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Attach option for region Type Click Define Ensure region 6 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list.1. define the ‘slave’ attachment boundaries: • • • • • • Select View > Isometric > 1.Tutorial 11.2-10 Selecting a vertex for inlet boundary definition 576 inlet boundaries should be created on that surface. select Create by Picking Surface based on Vset from the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex on the underside of the displayed block as shown in Figure T11.-1 from the main pro-STAR window In the pro-STAR Model Guide.08 11-29 .2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location Select a vertex here Figure T11.

select region 8 from the Boundary Regions scroll list Select the Baffle option for region Type Click Define Ensure region 8 is selected in the Boundary Regions scroll list. click Replot to verify visually that baffle boundaries have been allocated to all 12 baffles Version 4. Isolate the baffles and define the baffle boundary region as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window.1.2-11 Selecting a vertex for slave attachment boundary definition 576 boundaries should be created.Tutorial 11. These are baffle-type boundaries on the spinning baffles and will be used to monitor force and torque values over time. select C > New > Baffle Click Cplot Clear the boundary set by choosing B > None Turn on the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button Change the view by selecting View > Isometric > 1. Baffles The final set of boundaries are added specifically for post-processing purposes.08 11-30 . select Create by Picking Surface based on Edges from the Action List and click Apply Choose a vertex on one of the baffles and check that 60 boundaries have been created correctly Repeat this procedure for each of the remaining 11 baffles by visiting them in turn in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction In the main pro-STAR window.1 In the pro-STAR Model Guide.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Boundary Location Select a vertex here Figure T11. as explained in a later section of this tutorial.

so you can go directly to the definition of the turbulence model.001 11-31 Version 4. • • • • • Locate the Define Boundary Regions panel in the Define Boundaries folder Select region 1 Inlet in the boundary regions scroll list Enter a value of -5 for the W-velocity component Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter a Turb. Material Properties The default physical properties for air will be accepted for this case. • • • • Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties followed by Liquids and Gases and then open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence option Choose the K-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number model Click Apply Set up some essential monitoring and reference parameters: • • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Enter 20938 for the Monitoring Cell Number Enter 5669 for the Pressure Cell Number Click Apply An inlet velocity of 5 m/s will be specified.08 .Tutorial 11. A summary of all boundaries in the model can be seen as follows: • • Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button again Select the Utility > Count > Boundaries option from the main menu The output in the I/O window should be as shown below: Figure T11. with all flow leaving the fan through the pressure outlet.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Material Properties This completes the boundary region specification.2-12 Boundary count output You can now proceed to the physical model description.05 and a Length of 0. Intensity of 0.

05 and a Length of 0.e. the global cylindrical coordinate system number) in the Coordinate System box The purpose of the Alternate Region number is to provide a boundary condition if cells on either side of the sliding interface become disconnected. Check that an inflow velocity component is displayed across the inlet plane. Click Apply Repeat the above operations for regions 4 through 6 (they all use coordinate system no. In this tutorial. Click Apply The attachment boundaries are defined next: • • Select region 3 Attach in the boundary regions scroll list Specify the coordinate system in which ‘master’ and ‘slave’ attachment boundaries are to be matched by entering 2 (i. Intensity of 0. Analysis Controls Most of the default control parameters are sufficient for the current analysis. and also to define what variables will be written to the transient post data file.Tutorial 11. This can be most easily done by selecting each boundary region in turn and displaying it. This means that the absolute pressure at the boundary is equal to the reference pressure.001.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • Click Apply The pressure boundary is defined next: • • • • • • Select region 2 Pressure in the boundary regions scroll list Choose the Static Pressure Option Retain the default relative pressure (0) at the boundary. this number is immaterial since no such disconnection can take place so the system default (0) may be retained.. changes will be made to produce engineering data output for the baffle region. Select option TI/Length from the Turbulence Switch menu Enter a Turb. These values would be used if there is any inflow through the boundary faces. However. The boundary set to be displayed is defined using the B button. plus a rotational component on each of the boundaries on the counter-rotating part of the wall. 2) • • • Boundary conditions for the wall region assigned to the spinning shaft is defined next: • • • Select region 7 Wall in the boundary regions scroll list Set the Coordinate System value to 2 and enter a value of 2000 in the Omega box Click Apply Define boundary conditions for the baffles: • • • Select region 8 Baffle in the boundary regions scroll list Set the Coordinate System value to 2 and enter a value of 2000 in the Omega box for both Side 1 and Side 2 Click Apply Using the Display Boundaries option (by clicking the button in the main window) enables you to verify the boundary conditions entered above. Version 4.08 11-32 .

Therefore. for any given time step. All that remains of the pre-processing task is to define the time step parameters and the events needed to move the grid. as described in the “Post-Processing” section of this tutorial. then: ∆ t = 4.p. Transient Settings The choice of time step length is flexible — the only practical constraint being that. It is important to be aware that choosing to write all variable values at every time step will generate a large post data file very quickly. the mesh movement should not be more than one cell length in the direction of rotation.030 / 72 = 4..03 s = 0.03 s. This information can then be displayed graphically. The transient data output is specified next. A suitable time step can be calculated as follows: Number of revolutions per second Time for one complete revolution Time for a rotation of one cell length = 2000 / 60 = 33. Events can be used in time-varying solutions to control when certain actions should happen.3333 = 1 / 33.04167e-4 seconds Click Set This completes the specification of analysis controls.03 seconds Click Apply Set the Time step for period to 1. as the fan is spinning next to two other bodies (the inlet and the stationary body).005 s should be sufficient for a useful analysis: • • • Open the Analysis Output panel and go to the Transient tab Enter an Output interval of 0. additional sliding events have to be included for each of them to describe how the stationary and spinning bodies move past each other. In this case. the total run time will be 0. the fan is spinning at a constant r.166666 × 10-4 / 4 = 1. These 11-33 Version 4. enable the Forces and Torques options Click Apply This will tell STAR to save a history of force and torque values on the baffles at every time step of the analysis. saving velocity and pressure data every 0. In this tutorial. However. Event Settings The fan mesh motion is set up by using pro-STAR’s ‘events’ feature.08 . so only one event is required to set up the motion.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Transient Settings • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.m.005 s Note that the velocity and pressure variables are selected by default and then click Apply This completes the analysis output set-up. select folder Analysis Controls Open the Monitor Boundary Behavior panel Select On for the Monitoring option Highlight Boundary Region 8 in the scroll list In the Monitoring Information group.166666 × 10-4 s If we specify that the mesh should not move more than one quarter of this length per time step.04167 × 10-4 s We will also restrict this analysis to one complete revolution of the fan. These values may be specified as follows: • • • • • Go to the Analysis Preparation folder and open panel Run Time Controls Set the simulation to Run for a Time of 0.Tutorial 11.3333 = 0.

TIME * DPS !-Find current angular position from monitor vertex *GET.cgrd and is supplied with the installation.Y. The change grid commands need to be defined next. Specify the number of events for this problem: • In the I/O window. The mesh geometry changes can be specified either through pro-STAR commands or via user subroutine NEWXYZ.3 The moving mesh events are stored in a special event history file.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Event Settings events automatically maintain mesh continuity between the neighbouring cell blocks at each time step.TOFF.CSET !-Activate coordinate system 2 (cylindrical) CSYS.19385 !-Calculate fan motion in degrees per second *SET.0.Tutorial 11. • Initialise this file by typing: EVFILE.cgrd file contains the following commands: !-File ‘cgrid.CPOS.TANG ..TANG. In this case.0. type MEMORY.GT.3 VSET. if desired.ADD.2.NEWS..2 !-Move the vertex set by TOFF degrees in theta direction VGEN.08 . they are to be executed at every time step in order to move the grid. In this tutorial.0.evn.CPOS !-Collect the cells and vertices to move CSET. The cgrid.VNUM !-Calculate the offset angle to move *SET.1 CSET..TYPE. as already specified by the MVGRID command above.2000 * 360 / 60 !-Only activate commands for TIME greater than zero *IF.NEWS. For this tutorial these commands have already been entered into a file called cgrid.cgrd’ !-Lines beginning with a "!" are comment lines and can be ignored !-Choose a monitor vertex (to calculate current position) *SET. You can use pro-STAR’s built-in editor (File > Edit File. There are no GUI panels for event specification at present so commands must be used instead.TIME.TOFF.VSET.THEN !-Calculate the new angular position for next time step *SET. we will use the commands method.VNUM.0 *ENDIF This method computes the new grid position based on time rather than the previous 11-34 Version 4. Such commands must be stored in a special file (the so-called "change grid" file) and are executed according to the event definition.DPS.TYPE.INITIALISE This will create an event storage file called radialFan.MAXEVE.. from the main menu) or an editor of your choice to enter/modify the change grid commands.

as would occur if the mesh was simply moved by a fixed angle at every time step.3 ESSLIDE.ADD. • In this case.2 Version 4. This is possible because we can make use of a program-defined parameter called TIME which is the current solution time as specified by STAR.ADD. Next..e.Tutorial 11. it is a value of zero in all directions of coordinate system 2 (i. respectively: EMSLIDE. starting with a sliding event • Issue command EVSLIDE to set up a sliding motion between the fan’s ‘master’ attachment boundaries and the stationary body’s ‘slave’ attachment boundaries: EVSLIDE.REGION. specify any coordinate offsets needed to match the two sets of boundaries at the start of the analysis.08 11-35 .2 The above command defines sliding event number 2.4 A total of 720 boundaries should be included for each region.REGION. This method avoids cumulative spatial errors being introduced into the calculations. no offset is needed): EOSLIDE.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Event Settings grid position. The diagram below may also be consulted for a better understanding of the fan grid movement commands: Vertex 19385 TOFF M TI E T IM E+ lt de at TANG CPOS Figure T11.2-13 Parameters used to calculate fan movement The events themselves can now be defined. • Define the master and slave boundary regions associated with this event using commands EMSLIDE and ESSLIDE.

11-36 Version 4.ENABLE Finally. event number 1 will keep being executed until such time as it is deactivated by another event.TIME.ADD.5 ESSLIDE.. • Issue command EVSTEP as follows: EVSTEP. 3) between the rotating fan and the stationary inlet domain.2 EVSAVE.cgrd file} These commands are stored internally as part of the event definition and are echoed in the pro-STAR I/O window every time they are executed.3 This time. You can now set up the actual time event that reads the ‘change grid’ command file and activates the sliding events.cgrd C {only if comment lines were added in the .2 Repeat the above operations for the sliding event (no.READ. a total of 576 boundaries should be included for each participating region. • The ‘change grid’ commands are added in next: EGRID.6 EOSLIDE. save the time event data: EVSAVE.e.3. Note that the numbers chosen (i.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Pre-Processing Event Settings Finally. • Specify sliding event number 3 and save your definition as follows: EVSLIDE. • The sliding events can now be enabled as part of the time event using command EASI: EASI. save the sliding event data: EVSAVE.ENABLE EASI.0 This means that. This completes the sliding event definitions.REGION.ADD.3 EMSLIDE. 2 & 3) for the sliding events are arbitrary and have no time value associated with them.REGION.08 .cgrid. the following command should also be issued: EVPREP This completes the event set-up process.1. for any time equal to or greater than zero.Tutorial 11.2.1 To check the event specification and prepare them for input into STAR.

03 s. The solution results can be viewed while the analysis is still running by using the Post-Processing folder’s panels in the pro-STAR Model Guide. In the Save Problem File dialog.ccmt is displayed in the Post File box 11-37 Version 4.MAXEVE.. check that file radialFan.3 Specify the file containing the transient post data and specify the time step at which results are to be displayed (step no..Tutorial 11.. the equivalent of 0. it is necessary to activate events processing. Note that a periodic solution will not be obtained at the end of the run as this would require additional revolutions before it can be established. The case name (radialFan) will appear automatically in the Case Name text box. select File > Save Geometry. In the Save Geometry File dialog. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis Start the CFD analysis by typing star in your STAR-CD session window. select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel Select option Transient from the Analysis menu Select Yes from the Moving Mesh menu In the Transient section. Ensure the pro-STAR Model Guide is open next to the main pro-STAR window. Click Continue The model details will be displayed in the I/O window.. 192): • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. enter 0.001 in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.08 . Before examining the results.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS CFD Analysis Final Operations Final Operations Write the geometry and problem files (the events file will be automatically saved when writing the geometry file) and exit: • • • • • • In the main window. • Enter the following command in the I/O window: MEMORY. Post-Processing Preliminaries Begin the post-processing session by re-entering pro-STAR: • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl). The analysis will finish after 288 time steps.

192 If you have already run the rotating reference frames case of Tutorial 7.1-10 with the plot above in order to observe the differences between the two analysis methods.08 .1. select View > Isometric > 1. go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and follow the steps below to load the velocity vectors: • • • • • Select item Velocity Components UVW in the Vector Data list Ensure that None is selected in the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. You may now import other flow variables and check the solution at different 11-38 Version 4.1 to set the view Ensure the Display Boundaries option Select C > All and click Cplot is turned off Next. 192 in the scroll list Click Store Time In the main pro-STAR window. choose Vector and Edge then click Plot to Screen to display the plot shown in Figure T11.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Vector Display • • • • • • • Vector Display Click Add File Select the file in the Transient scroll list and then click Open Transient file. the time steps at which post data were stored during the run should appear in the Time Step scroll list Select time step no.2-14 Velocity vectors for time step no.1.Tutorial 11.2-14 Figure T11. you could compare Figure T7.

as shown below: Version 4.2-15 Output from engineering data scan The list shows that force and torque data were saved as shear. containing the force and torque values at each time step. The file radialFan.2-16 This will graph the torque values in the theta direction. To graph the stored torque values: • • • • Select TYTORQ from the Data to graph list Click Add to list Click Create Graph Click Draw All Frames to display Figure T11. A simple animation sequence may also be specified to display all the results.2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Engineering Data Graph time steps to ensure its validity.Tutorial 11.08 11-39 . Engineering Data Graph During the analysis a file called radialFan.erd will be displayed by default in the File Name box Accept the default Boundary File Type and select Region # 8 (the baffles region) in the scroll list. normal and total for each of the three directions. The information shown below will appear in the I/O window: Figure T11. To display the data in graph form: • • • Select folder Graphs followed by Extract Data Open panel Engineering Data.erd was created by STAR.

2 MOVING-MESH RADIAL FAN ANALYSIS Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T11.Nosave 11-40 Version 4. Had the force on each individual blade been required. the solution should be periodic with a period equal to 1/12 of a revolution.Tutorial 11. Figure T11. at any particular time.2-16 Engineering data graph showing total Y-component torque As the fan has 12 identical. Other data for region 8 can be graphed in a similar way. select File > Quit > Quit. Final Operations • In the main window.2-16 shows that the torque is still changing between cycles and therefore running the analysis for just one revolution is not sufficient to produce a periodic solution. Note that the force data produced for region 8 do not represent 12 times the force on each fan blade since. equally-spaced blades. To get such a solution. the run will need to be continued for at least another 0.08 . each blade will feel a different force depending on its spatial location.03 s. a different boundary region would have had to be applied to each baffle in turn during the pre-processing stage.

Tutorial 12 EULERIAN TWO-PHASE FLOW The following tutorials are intended to familiarise users with the process of setting up Eulerian two-phase simulations.08 12-1 . The four cases presented are: 1. Bubbly flow in which bubbles are allowed to escape through the free surface of the liquid 3. Bubble terminal velocity simulation 2. Boiling simulation Version 4. Fluidised bed simulation 4.

44 and substituting the physical properties of the two phases into the above equation. the bubbles are accelerated due to buoyancy but pulled back due to drag from the surrounding water and reach their terminal rise velocity when the drag force is balanced by the buoyancy force.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Tutorial 12. respectively. C D the drag coefficient and u r = u c – u d the relative velocity between the two phases.∆ρ g = -----. ρ the density. carry out an Eulerian two-phase flow calculation and check whether the computed bubble rise velocity agrees with the value given by the equations above.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES In this case.24 m/s. 12-2 Version 4.24 m/s.-----3 ρc C D In this tutorial we will use the following data for the two phases: • • Phase 1 is water with density of 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity of 0. g the acceleration of gravity. air bubbles and water are injected at the bottom of a vertical channel at 1 m/s.ρ c u r --------6 2 4 where d is the bubble diameter. Starting at the inlet.08 . Mathematically. the relative velocity is 0.7d For 2mm bubbles.Tutorial 12.001 kg/m/s Phase 2 is air bubbles of 2 mm diameter with density of 1 kg/m3 and viscosity of 1 × 10–5 kg/m/s Assuming C D = 0. which in this case is also the bubble terminal rise velocity: ur = 4 ∆ρ gd -. the terminal rise velocity of the bubbles is 1.-----. The above equation can be re-arranged to give an expression for the relative velocity between the phases. we obtain: ur = 29. Subscripts c and d denote the continuous and dispersed phase. ∆ρ = ρ c – ρ d the density difference between the two phases. we can express this force balance as: 3 2 CD πd 2πd --------. The main forces acting on the bubbles are buoyancy and drag. We will now set up this case. Since the water phase is moving up the channel at 1 m/s.

. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say.vrt. Therefore. respectively) are available in the STAR-CD installation directories.. In the Title text box type: TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES • Click Apply and Close Version 4.08 12-3 .inp plus the problem’s cell. channel. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files.. select File > Model Title.cel. before starting the tutorial.. make sure that these files are copied into your current directory.e.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file channel.1-1 Schematic of vertical flow channel Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut12-1. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name channel. • • In the main window.0 m Slip wall on all side walls y x Inlet Figure T12.Tutorial 12. The mesh for this problem is supplied in advance. ter_vel) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File. i. cell.bnd and channel.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Pre-Processing Preliminaries 0.. vertex. channel.1 m Outlet gy 1.inp. boundary and problem setup files (channel.

A 2D mesh corresponding to Figure T12.001 Click Apply Move the slider to the Phase 2 position Assign appropriate property values for phase 2 as follows: Material — Air Density — 1 Molecular Viscosity — 1e-5 Click Apply • • • • Initialise phase 1 field values as follows: • • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is in the Phase 1 position Set the V velocity to 1 m/s Click Apply Initialise phase 2 field values as follows: • 12-4 Move the slider to the Phase 2 position Version 4. 1.Tutorial 12.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Pre-Processing Material Properties and Thermofluid Models Verify that the correct mesh has been imported by selecting all cells and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • In the main window. -1.1-1 should appear on your screen Select View > Axis > +Z Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide displayed on your screen. 1 Click Cplot. the following special settings are required: • • Material Properties and Thermofluid Models Select option Eulerian from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu Click Apply We now assign physical properties to the two phases: • • • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Gravity panel and change the Direction of Gravity Force to (0. For this tutorial.08 . next to the main pro-STAR window. Thermal properties are not relevant in this case so they may be left at their default values: Material — Water Density — 1000 Molecular Viscosity — 0. 0) Click Apply Select the Liquids and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is set to Phase 1 Assign appropriate property values for phase 1. • Open the Analysis Features panel This enables you to set the basic features of your model and ensures that only those panels that are essential for your analysis are activated. select C > All Check that Hidden Surface is the default cell plot type Select View > Isometric > 1.

001 Click Apply Select locations for the pressure reference and monitoring cells as follows: • • • • Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon next to the Monitoring Cell Number box and then pick the top middle cell in the main window (or enter 150 in the box) Click the mouse icon next to the Pressure Cell Number box and then pick the top right hand corner cell in the main window (or enter 250 in the box) Click Apply Turn on the buoyancy force as follows: • • • • • Open the Buoyancy panel Select the Buoyancy option Select option Centroid of pressure reference cell for the datum Location Select Use reference and initial values for the datum Density option.002 in the Mean Diameter box Click Apply First we re-define all walls as ‘slip’ walls: • • • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 0 for Wall in the scroll list Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the Phase 1 position Select Yes for the Slip option Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Select Yes for the Slip option Click Apply We now define the inlet conditions: • • • Version 4.Tutorial 12.08 Select region 1 in the scroll list Move the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel to the Phase 1 position Enter 1 m/s for the V velocity and 1000 kg/m3 for the Density 12-5 .44 Click Apply Set the bubble diameter to 2 mm: • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Particle Size panel Enter 0. together with the Reference pressure and temperature values Click Apply We now define the interaction between the two phases: • • • • Select the Eulerian Multi-phase folder followed by the Interphase Momentum Transfer sub-folder Open the Drag Forces panel Select Constant for the Drag Coefficient Model and accept the default Coefficient Value of 0.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • Set the V velocity to 1 m/s Set the Volume fraction to 0.

. saving the model data as shown below: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel.08 ..1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES CFD Analysis Analysis Controls • • • • Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Enter 1 m/s for the V velocity. Analysis Controls We will now specify various solver parameters required for this case: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Run Time Controls Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Equation Status tab of the Primary Variables panel Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the Phase 1 position Deselect item W-Momentum since we are solving a 2D flow in the x-y plane only Check that item Pressure is selected Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Deselect item W-Momentum Click Apply Go to the Solver Parameters tab Move the Phase slider to the Phase 1 position Change the Relaxation Factor to 0. select File > Save Geometry. you may run the CFD analysis (in double precision) by typing 12-6 Version 4. 1 kg/m3 for the Density and 0.1 for Volume Fraction Click Apply Set the residual tolerance for this case: • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Residual Tolerance to 1e-5 Click Apply Final Operations If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.3 for Momentum and 0. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR.001 for the Volume Fraction Click Apply No extra input is needed for the Outlet boundary.3 for Momentum and 0. In the Save Problem File dialog... Alternatively. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively without quitting pro-STAR.Tutorial 12. In the Save Geometry File dialog. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis You can now continue with the CFD analysis.1 for Pressure Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Change the Relaxation Factor to 0. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.

1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Post-Processing Final Operations star -dp in your session window.Tutorial 12.24 m/s.1-2 V-velocity history plot for phase 1 Version 4. This can be done very effectively by plotting the monitored value for the V velocity as follows: • • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation Open the History of Analysis panel Choose Monitor History from the Plot menu Select item V-Velocity and ensure that the Phase slider is at the phase 1 position Click Apply to display monitored values for the V-velocity component of phase 1 By default. the graph frame fills only half the screen. To make it larger: • Select the Graphs sub-folder in the Post-Processing folder • Open the Customize Graphs panel • Under the Display tab. as calculated by equation above.08 12-7 . set the frame Location to Default • Click Apply • Click Redraw to display Figure T12.1-2 Figure T12. Post-Processing Examine the velocities of the two phases at the channel exit: the water velocity (phase 1) should remain close to 1 m/s and the bubble velocity (phase 2) should be around 1.

Nosave Figure T12. Terminal velocity of solid particles Another exercise you may want to perform is to simulate the terminal velocity of a falling solid sphere.0e-4 Substituting these parameters into equation . you can simply change the gravity vector direction to (0.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Suggestions for Further Exercises Final Operations • • • On the History of Analysis panel. To re-use the setup described above.Tutorial 12.0e-5.1-3 In the main window. change the density of the fluid or use a different bubble diameter. density = 1000. 0). Recalculate the terminal velocity using equation and compare the answer with the simulation results. density = 8000. for example. Try this exercise with the following parameters: • • Phase 1 is water. In this case. 1. we get: 12-8 Version 4.001 Phase 2 is steel spheres.1-3 V-velocity history plot for phase 2 Suggestions for Further Exercises Other bubble rise cases You may wish to repeat this tutorial with different input parameters.08 . select File > Quit > Quit. move the Phase slider to the phase 2 position Click Apply to display monitored values for the V-velocity component of phase 2. diameter = 1. viscosity = 0. as shown in Figure T12. viscosity = 1. both phases are moving in the same direction as gravity (downwards).

0e-4m diameter.1 TERMINAL VELOCITY OF BUBBLES Suggestions for Further Exercises Final Operations ur = 208.1d For steel spheres of 1. The terminal velocity relative to the background fluid is 0.08 12-9 .144 m/s with the background fluid moving at 1 m/s.144 m/s.Tutorial 12. the terminal velocity is 1. Version 4.

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vrt.. • • Version 4. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name tank. The mesh for this problem is supplied in advance. vertex. before starting the tutorial. tank. An example of this is the transfer of oxygen from air bubbles to a liquid for oxidation reactions.08 In the main window. make sure that these files are copied into your current directory.2 AERATION TANK Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 12. Therefore. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files.. select File > Model Title..Tutorial 12. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say. i.. In this tutorial.cel.2 AERATION TANK Aeration is used in many process industries.2-1 Outline of an aeration tank Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut12-2. boundary and problem setup files (tank. 2m Degassing outlet gy 1m y x Air inlet Figure T12.inp plus the problem’s cell.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file tank. aer_tank) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File.e.inp. respectively) are available in the STAR-CD installation directories.bnd and tank. we consider an aeration tank commonly used in the treatment of waste water. cell. Air or gas bubbles are injected into a liquid to promote mixing and mass transfer of chemical species between the phases. In the Title text box type: 12-11 . tank..

1.2-1 should appear on your screen Select View > Axis > +Z The pro-STAR Model Guide is displayed on your screen. -1. It will be seen that option Eulerian is already selected from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu so no further adjustment is necessary. Thermal properties are not relevant in this case so they may be left at their default values: Material — Water Density – 1000 Molecular Viscosity – 0. 1 Click Cplot.Tutorial 12. • • • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Gravity panel and change the Direction of Gravity Force to (0. select C > All Check that Hidden Surface is the default cell plot type Select View > Isometric > 1. 0) Click Apply Select the Liquids and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Make sure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is in the Phase 1 position Assign appropriate property values for phase 1.001 Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the phase 2 position Assign appropriate property values for phase 2 as follows: Material — Air Density – 1 Molecular Viscosity – 1e-5 Click Apply • • • • Specify that the flow is turbulent and set up the turbulence drag force: • • • • 12-12 Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence option and then click Apply Go to the Multiphase Options tab Select option Bubble-Eddy Interaction from the Ct Model menu Version 4. A 2D mesh corresponding to Figure T12. Click Apply • Material Properties and Thermofluid Models We now assign physical properties to the two phases. next to the main pro-STAR window. This enables you to set the basic features of your model and ensures that only those panels that are essential for your analysis are activated.2 AERATION TANK Pre-Processing Material Properties and Thermofluid Models AERATION TANK • Click Apply and Close Verify that the correct mesh has been imported by selecting all cells and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • In the main window. • Open the Analysis Features panel and check the current settings.08 .

Tutorial 12.1 for Turb. Intensity 12-13 Version 4.001 Click Apply Select locations for the pressure reference and monitoring cells as follows: • • • • Go to the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon next to the Monitoring Cell Number box and then pick a cell above the air injector in the top row of cells (or enter 650 in the box). Click Apply Turn on the buoyancy force as follows: • • • • • Open the Buoyancy panel Select the Buoyancy option Select option Centroid of pressure reference cell for the datum Location Select Use reference and initial values for the datum Density option.08 .003 in the Mean Diameter box Click Apply We now define boundary conditions at the inlet: • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 1 in the scroll list Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the phase 1 position Change the Turbulence Switch option to TI/Length Enter 0. since the default values are all acceptable.2 AERATION TANK Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Select On for Turbulence Drag and then click Apply Initialise phase 1 field values as follows: • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel Move the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel to the phase 1 position Click Apply. Initialise phase 2 values as follows: • • • Move the Phase slider to the phase 2 position Set the Volume fraction to 0. together with the Reference pressure and temperature values Click Apply We now define the interactions between the two phases: • • • • Select the Eulerian Multi-phase folder followed by the Interphase Momentum Transfer sub-folder Open the Drag Forces panel Select Bubbles for the Drag Coefficient Model Click Apply Set the bubble diameter to 3 mm: • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Particle Size panel Enter 0. Click the mouse icon next to the Pressure Cell Number box and then pick the top right hand corner cell in the main window (or enter 5000 in the box).

2 AERATION TANK Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • • Enter 0.000 for this case: • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 6000 and the Maximum Residual Tolerance to 1e-4 Click Apply Final Operations If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. select File > Save Geometry.1 for Volume Fraction Click Apply Set the maximum number of iterations to 6. 1 kg/m3 for Density and 0.25 m/s for the V velocity. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. saving the model data as shown below: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. In the Save Problem File dialog.08 . Check that item Pressure is selected Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the phase 2 position Deselect item W-Momentum Click Apply Go to the Solver Parameters tab Move the Phase slider to the phase 1 position Change the Relaxation Factor to 0. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit 12-14 Version 4.3 for Momentum and 0. Analysis Controls We will now specify appropriate solver parameters for this case: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Run Time Controls Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Equation Status tab of the Primary Variables panel Move the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel to the phase 1 position Deselect item W-Momentum since we are solving a 2D flow in the x-y plane only.Tutorial 12. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR.5 for the Volume Fraction Click Apply No user input is needed for region 2 in the scroll list which is already defined as the Degassing outlet.01 m for Length Enter 1000 kg/m3 for Density Click Apply Define the injection of air bubbles (phase 2) at the inlet: • • • Move the Phase slider to the phase 2 position Enter 0...1 for Pressure Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the phase 2 position Change the Relaxation Factor to 0..3 for Momentum and 0.. In the Save Geometry File dialog.

select Vector from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T12. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively without quitting pro-STAR.2-2 Version 4.08 12-15 .ccmp: • • • Postprocessing Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file First.2 AERATION TANK CFD Analysis Preliminaries CFD Analysis You may continue with the CFD analysis.Tutorial 12. you may run the CFD analysis (in double precision) by typing star -dp in your session window. Alternatively. examine the velocity of phase 1: • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected Ensure the Phase slider is in the Phase 1 position In the Vector Data list. select item Velocity Components UV to load the two velocity components in the plane of analysis for phase 1 Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. Post-Processing Preliminaries Use pro-STAR to check the analysis results by first reading in the data stored in file aer_tank.

08 . select item Velocity Components UV to load the two velocity components in the plane of analysis for phase 2 Click Get Data In the main window click Replot to display Figure T12.Tutorial 12.2-2 Velocity vector plot for phase 1 Next.2-3 12-16 Version 4. plot velocity vectors of phase 2: • • • • • Go back to the Load Data panel Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position In the Vector Data list.2 AERATION TANK Post-Processing Post.processing Figure T12.

2-4 Version 4. select plot options Contour (filled) and Edge Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T12. select option Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) from the Data Type menu In the Vector Data list.2 AERATION TANK Post-Processing Post.Tutorial 12.2-3 Velocity vector plot for phase 2 Finally. select None In the Scalar Data list. select item Volume Fraction and then click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. display a contour plot of the phase 2 volume fraction: • • • • • • In the Data tab.08 12-17 .processing Figure T12.

2 AERATION TANK Suggestions for Further Exercises Post. Gas-liquid mixing vessels Adding a rotating impeller to the tank results in a model for a gas-liquid mixing vessel (see Tutorial 11.2-4 Phase 2 volume fraction contour plot It will be seen that bubbles rise from the injection point to the top surface.2 describing the setup of a moving-mesh case involving a rotating impeller). Suggestions for Further Exercises Bubble columns Changing the geometry of this tutorial to a cylindrical tank results in a model for a bubble column. The rising bubbles also lift the water around them and create an up-flow of liquid above the injector.08 . the flow turns horizontally to the right and then downwards on the right-hand-side of the tank. Under the top surface. some being carried downwards again by the down-flow on the right-hand-side. The bubbles are carried by the flow and spread across the top surface. 12-18 Version 4.processing Figure T12.Tutorial 12.

vertex. in the main pro-STAR window 12-19 . The particle motions are random and constantly changing with time. A gas is blown through the bottom inlet boundary and through the particles. riser. In this tutorial. make sure that these files are copied into your current directory.bnd and riser. cell. gasification and burning of coal particles and in fluidised catalytic crackers (FCC’s).Tutorial 12. before starting the tutorial. the gas moves through the particles in the form of large gas pockets called ‘bubbles’. riser.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 12. fcc_riser) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • Version 4. lifting and moving them by virtue of drag forces.15m × 0.vrt.e.08 Select File > Read Input Coded File. respectively) are available in the STAR-CD installation directories. Often. around 63% in volume fraction.cel.3-1 Outline of a FCC riser Free board Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut12-3. i.inp. 0. The mesh for this problem is supplied in advance. Fluidised beds are used in many process industries for drying.15m Pressure outlet gy 1m Fluidised bed y x Air inlet Figure T12. Usually the lower portion of the equipment is loaded with solid particles.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER This tutorial is intended to familiarise users with the process of setting up an Eulerian two-phase calculation for fluidised beds. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say. boundary and problem setup files (riser.. we consider a simple fluidised bed similar to the riser of a fluidised catalytic cracker unit. The particle concentration is close to the maximum packing limit. Therefore.. hence it is necessary to model fluidised beds in transient mode.

For this tutorial.205 Molecular Viscosity — 1. 0) Click Apply Select the Liquid and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Assign appropriate property values to phase 1. 1 Click Cplot. • • Make sure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is in the Phase 1 position Enter the following values: Material — Air Density — 1. • • In the main window.81e-5 Click Apply Version 4..08 • 12-20 . • Open the Analysis Features panel This enables you to set the basic features of your model and ensures that only those panels that are essential for your analysis are activated. Thermal properties are not relevant in this case so they may be left at their default values.3-1 should appear on your screen Select View > Axis > +Z The pro-STAR Model Guide window is displayed on your screen. next to the main pro-STAR window.inp plus the problem’s cell. A 2D mesh corresponding to Figure T12.Tutorial 12.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER Pre-Processing Material Properties • • In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name riser. the following special settings are required: • • • Material Properties Select option Transient from the Time Domain menu Select option Eulerian from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu Click Apply We now assign physical properties to the two phases: • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Gravity panel and change the Direction of Gravity Force to (0. select C > All Check that Hidden Surface is the default cell plot type Select View > Isometric > 1. In the Title text box type: FLUIDISED BED RISER • Click Apply and Close Verify that the correct mesh has been imported by selecting all cells and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • In the main window. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. select File > Model Title.. -1.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file riser. 1.

the particles are initally situated in the lower half of the riser. • Initialisation Open the Turbulence Models panel and verify that the Turbulence option is turned Off As can be seen in Figure T12. which is then used to calculate the effective viscosity. In this case.Tutorial 12. in order to ensure the stability of the numerical solution algorithm.3-1. 0. say 0. However. from the main window Type ufiles in the text box. Other Model Settings Select locations for the pressure reference and monitoring cells as follows: • • • • Go to the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon next to the Monitoring Cell Number box and then pick a cell in the lower half of the model geometry (or enter 1121 in the box). as shown below: • • • • • • Signal to pro-STAR that this case requires a user subroutine by choosing File > System Command. Click the mouse icon next to the Pressure Cell Number box and then pick the top right hand corner cell (or enter 2000 in the box). Click Apply Turn on the buoyancy force as follows: • Version 4.001. click Apply and then Close Open the Fluid Initialization panel Move the Phase slider at the bottom of this panel to Phase 1 position Select User from the Options menu and then click User Define Accept the default values in the rest of the panel by clicking Apply The complete contents of INITFI for this case are shown in the “User Subroutine” section below.. all cells in the model below 0. the Kinetic Theory model will be used to calculate solid-phase forces and this employs an internally calculated solid-phase viscosity.58 in this case.5m level..08 Open the Buoyancy panel 12-21 . the panel’s phase viscosity should to be set to a very small value. the only relevant property is the particle density. Therefore the only valid turbulence model option in this case is the (default) laminar setting.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER Pre-Processing Initialisation Assign appropriate property values to phase 2. in the “Other Model Settings” section. Since the value supplied in the current panel is added to the calculated one and in order not to affect the latter. the volume fraction has to be set to a small value. • • Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Enter the following values: Material — Solid Density — 2600 Viscosity — 1e-6 Click Apply • Note that the Kinetic Theory approach solves a transport equation for the turbulence kinetic energy in terms of the grannular temperature. Therefore. Above the 0. The above initialisation is performed using subroutine INITFI.5m in the vertical (y-direction) need to be assigned a value for the initial particle volume fraction.

35 m/s for the V velocity Click Apply Now define particle (phase 2) conditions at the inlet: • • • Move the Phase slider l to the Phase 2 position Enter 2600 kg/m3 for Density and 0 for Volume Fraction Click Apply Finally.Tutorial 12. define boundary conditions at the pressure outlet: • • • • Analysis Controls Select region 2 in the scroll list Check that the Phase slider is at the Phase 2 position Select option Volume Frac from the VF Switch menu and enter 0 in the Volume Fraction box Click Apply Specify various solver parameters relevant to this case: • • • Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Equation Status tab of the Primary Variables panel Move the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel to the Phase 1 position Version 4.08 12-22 .3 mm: • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Particle Size panel Enter 0. then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 1 in the scroll list Ensure that the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the Phase 1 position Enter 0. set the particle diameter to 0. leaving the default values unchanged Click Apply Open the Other Forces panel Select option Kinetic Theory Model from the Solid Particle Stress menu Accept the defaults shown for Maximum Volume Fraction and Restitution Coefficient Click Apply Finally. Click Apply Define boundary conditions at the inlet: • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • Select the Buoyancy option Check that option Centroid of pressure reference cell is selected for the datum Location and option Specify is selected for the datum Density Accept the default settings by clicking Apply We now define the interaction between the two phases: • • • • • • • • Select the Eulerian Multi-Phase folder followed by the Interphase Momentum Transfer sub-folder Open the Drag Forces panel Select option High Particle Loading for the Drag Coefficient Model.0003 in the Mean Diameter text box.

click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit User Subroutine Introduce the user code needed to initialise particle volume fractions and gas velocities via pro-STAR’s built-in editor. In the Edit File dialog. As can be seen on the panel.. enter 0..3 FLUIDISED BED RISER User Subroutine Output Controls • • • • • Output Controls Deselect the W-Momentum option since we are only solving a 2D flow in the x-y plane Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Deselect the W-Momentum option Click Apply Set the frequency of outputting calculated transient data during the analysis: • • • • Open the Analysis Output panel In the Post tab. select File > Save Geometry. select File > Edit File.f Click OK Edit the contents of the subroutine by adding extra lines of code after the explanatory section. which selects this item (along with the phase velocity) for output to the transient post file Click Apply • • • Run Time Controls Set the run duration to 2 seconds and the time step to 1 x 10-4 seconds: • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Set the analysis to Run for a Time of 2 seconds Click Apply Enter 1e-4 in the Time step for period box Click Set at the bottom of the panel Final Operations If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. enter sub-directory ufile and select file initfi. In the Open dialog.. In the Save Geometry File dialog. enter 1000 for both the Output Frequency and Backup Frequency Click Apply In the Transient tab.Tutorial 12.08 ..f. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. velocity and pressure data will be written by default at the above frequency Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position and select item Volume Fraction from the list of data items shown Enable the Post option. saving the model data as shown below. edit subroutine INITFI (in file initfi.025 (seconds) in the Output interval box.. for Phase 1. as shown below 12-23 Version 4... For this purpose. sub-directory ufile) as follows: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. In the Save Problem File dialog. click File > Open.. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.

LE. VISM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(063). Y ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(069)..3 FLUIDISED BED RISER User Subroutine Final Operations • • • Click File > Save In the Save dialog.T. ICTID ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(001).EQ.PR.XVF2 to arbitrary C values.TE..inc' COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) DIMENSION SCALAR(50) INCLUDE 'usrdat.XVF2) C Initialise fields C************************************************************************* C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* C STAR-CD VERSION 4.ED.W.SCALAR. VIST ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(067).HBED) THEN XVF2=VFSOL ELSE XVF2=VFMIN END IF ENDIF 12-24 Version 4. C C-------------------------------------------------------------------------C C.0 V=0. Z ) C------------------------------------------------------------------------C C This subroutine enables the user to initialise the following C dependent variables: U.PR.T.f as the save location of the modified subroutine and click Save Click File > Quit to exit from the editor C************************************************************************* SUBROUTINE INITFI(U..T.5 C. C C ** Parameters to be returned to STAR: U. C SCALAR.0 W=0..ED..001 C U=0.V. X ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(068).04 C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* INCLUDE 'comdb.W.V.58 C..XVF2 C C The returned velocity components (U. re-specify ufile / initfi.ED..SCALAR. CON ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(001).inc' EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001).. DEN ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(062).SOLID VOLUME FRACTION IN BED VFSOL=0.08 ..PR.TE.TE.MINIMUM VOLUME FRACTION VFMIN=0. CP ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002).0 IF (IPHA.2) THEN IF (Y.. V and W) are in the C coordinate system requested for initialisation.HEIGHT OF FLUIDISED BED HBED=0..Tutorial 12.W.V..

using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively without quitting pro-STAR. Post-Processing Use pro-STAR to display the results stored in the . as shown in Figure T12.1 seconds) Click Store Time Go to the Data tab and select Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) in the Data Type menu Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position and select item Volume Fraction from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data at the bottom of the panel Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab select Contour (filled) for Option and Edge for Edge/Mesh Click Plot to Screen to display the particle volume fraction at the chosen time step.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER CFD Analysis Final Operations C RETURN END CFD Analysis You may continue with the CFD analysis.ccmt appears in the Post File box in the Transient section and then click Add File Select file fcc_riser. the time steps at which analysis results were stored during the run should appear in the Time Step scroll list In the Time Step list.ccmt from the Transient list and then click Open Transient file. select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Select option Transient from the Analysis menu Check that file fcc_riser.08 12-25 ..e.3-2 • • • • • • • • Version 4. you may run the CFD analysis (in double precision) by typing star -dp in your session window. Alternatively.Tutorial 12.ccmt file and check the volume fraction of the second phase: • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. select the fourth step at which data are available (i. at time 0.

3-2 Phase 2 volume fraction at time 0. select User from the Range menu and enter 0 in the From box and 1 in the To box Click Apply In the main graphics window. the best way of displaying these is by instructing pro-STAR to loop over the entire post file. However.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T12. click Replot The above process may be repeated for each of the results calculated every 0.08 . The flow is rather random and chaotic. To do this. type the following commands in the I/O window: *set itno 250 250 *define stor iter itno egev 2 none vf cset news fluid cplot *end *loop 1 79 1 Examine the volume fraction plots in the time sequence of your outputs.025 seconds in the analysis. The maximum particle volume fraction should be around the maximum packing value set in the model 12-26 Version 4.Tutorial 12. You should see ‘gas bubbles’ rise through the particle bed. with particles pushed around by the gas flow.1s Now fix the colour scale to a range between 0 and 1: • • • • Go to the Options tab in the Create Plots panel In the Color Scale section.

Tutorial 12. Version 4.3 FLUIDISED BED RISER Post-Processing Final Operations (typically 0. From time to time a higher maximum volume fraction can occur in one or two spots.08 12-27 .63).

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. Therefore.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file channel2. before starting the tutorial. i.4 BOILING SIMULATION Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 12.4-1 Outline of flow channel with boiling Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for the tutorial called tut12-4. • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name (say..08 12-29 . Version 4. boil) in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • Select File > Read Input Coded File. channel2.Tutorial 12. The flow regime consists of superheated water entering the channel at the bottom.inp.bnd and channel2. some of the water evaporating into steam bubbles. and a water/steam mixture emerging from the pressure boundary outlet at the top. 0.vrt. vertex and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files. respectively) are available in the STAR-CD installation directories.4 BOILING SIMULATION This tutorial is intended to familiarise users with the process of setting up an Eulerian two-phase model for boiling problems.e.inp plus the problem’s cell. boundary and problem setup files (channel2.cel. vertex.1m × 0.1m Steam/water outlet gy 2m Steam bubbles y x Superheated water Figure T12. cell. channel2. The solution domain is a vertical channel whose geometry is shown below. make sure that these files are copied into your current directory. The mesh for this problem is supplied in advance. in the main pro-STAR window In the Read Input Coded File dialog select the File name channel2.

-1.08 • • • 12-30 . For this tutorial. 1. • Open the Analysis Features panel This enables you to set the basic features of your model and ensures that only those panels that are essential for your analysis are activated. • • • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Gravity panel and change the Direction of Gravity Force to (0.Tutorial 12..4 BOILING SIMULATION Pre-Processing Material Properties and Thermofluid Models • • In the main window.000283 Specific Heat – 4218 Conductivity – 0. 1 Click Cplot. select C > All Check that Hidden Surface is the default cell plot type Select View > Isometric > 1. A 2D mesh corresponding to Figure T12.4-1 should appear on your screen Select View > Axis > +Z The pro-STAR Model Guide is displayed on your screen.2e-5 Specific Heat – 2034 Conductivity – 0.681 Molecular Weight – 18 Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Assign appropriate property values for phase 2 as follows: Material – Steam Density – 0. next to the main pro-STAR window. In the Title text box type: CHANNEL FLOW WITH BOILING • Click Apply and Close Verify that the correct mesh has been imported by selecting all cells and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • In the main window. the following special settings are required: • • Material Properties and Thermofluid Models Select option Eulerian from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu Click Apply Assign physical properties to the two phases.6 Molecular Viscosity – 1.. select File > Model Title.0248 Version 4. 0) Click Apply Select the Liquid and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the Phase 1 position Assign appropriate property values for phase 1 as follows: Material – Water Density – 958 Molecular Viscosity – 0.

so the Nusselt Version 4. together with Reference pressure and temperature values for the datum Density value Click Apply Define the interactions between the two phases: • • • • Select the Eulerian Multi-Phase folder followed by the Interphase Momentum Transfer sub-folder Open the Drag Forces panel Select Bubbles for the Drag Coefficient Model Click Apply Interphase heat transfer will be defined later via a user subroutine. Check that 273 is entered for Temperature Click Apply Turn on the buoyancy force as follows: • • • • • Open the Buoyancy panel Select the Buoyancy option Select option Centroid of pressure reference cell for the datum Location Select option Use reference and initial values.5 m/s Temperature – 375 Accept the default values for the remaining parameters and then click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Enter the following values: V velocity – 0.4 BOILING SIMULATION Pre-Processing Material Properties and Thermofluid Models • Molecular Weight – 18 Click Apply Turn on the solution of the energy equation: • • Open the Thermal Models panel For each of the two phases: Select On for the Temperature Calculation option Click Apply Initialise field values as follows: • • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel Ensure the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the Phase 1 position Check that Options is set to Constant and then enter the following values: V velocity – 0.Tutorial 12.08 12-31 . Click the mouse button next to the Pressure Cell Number box and then pick the top right hand corner cell in the main window (or enter 100 in the box).01 Temperature – 373 Accept the default values for the remaining parameters and then click Apply • • • • Select locations for the pressure reference and monitoring cells as follows: • • • • • Go to the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Click the mouse icon button next to the Monitoring Cell Number box and then pick a cell in the lower half of the geometry (or enter 44 in the box).5 m/s Volume Fraction – 0.

First.Tutorial 12.08 ..01 Click Apply • • • • Define boundary conditions at the pressure outlet: • • • 12-32 Select region 2 in the scroll list Move the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel to the Phase 1 position Select Zero Grad for the Temperature Switch Version 4.6 Temperature – 373 Volume Fraction – 0.5 Density – 958 Temperature – 375 Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Enter the following values: V velocity – 0. User Coding and then click Apply Define boundary conditions at the inlet: • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 1 in the scroll list Ensure that the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel is at the Phase 1 position Enter the following values: V velocity – 0. from the main window Type ufiles in the text box. you need to create a ufile sub-directory in your working directory to store the subroutines: • • Signal to pro-STAR that this case requires user subroutines by choosing File > System Command. Choose to Define Source by User Coding and then click Apply For the Enthalpy Source Term. set the State to On.5 Density – 0. select On.001 m is entered for the Mean Diameter Click Apply The boiling heat and mass transfers are to be defined as source terms via user subroutines.. click Apply and then Close Prepare the user subroutines for mass and energy sources as follows: • • • Boundary Conditions Select the Sources folder and then open the Source Terms panel For the Mass Source Term.4 BOILING SIMULATION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions Number shown in the pro-STAR Model Guide may be set to zero: • • • Open the Interphase Heat Transfer panel Check that Constant is selected for the Model and enter 0 in the Nusselt Number box Click Apply Set the bubble diameter to 1 mm: • • • Open the Particle Size panel Check that 0.

3 for Momentum. The mass transfer rate due to evaporation is defined in subroutine UBOIL.3 for Temperature Click Apply Run Time Controls Set the number of iterations to 1000 for this case: • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 1000 and the Maximum Residual Tolerance to 3e-5 Click Apply Final Operations If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.f.1 for Volume Fraction. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR..3 for Temperature Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Change the Relaxation Factor to 0.f. For further details of the boiling model.. so this subroutine should also be resident in file fluinj.4 BOILING SIMULATION User Subroutines Analysis Controls • • • • • Analysis Controls Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Select Zero Grad for the Temperature Switch Select Zero Grad for the VF Switch Click Apply Specify various solver parameters required for this case: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select folder Analysis Controls Open the Primary Variables panel and go to the Equation Status tab Move the Phase slider at the bottom of the panel to the Phase 1 position Deselect item W-Momentum since we are solving a 2D flow in the x-y plane. Version 4..3 for Momentum.Tutorial 12. of sub-directory ufile.. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. called from FLUINJ. These are located in files fluinj. 0. respectively. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit User Subroutines The boiling model is implemented in user subroutines FLUINJ for interphase mass transfer and SORENT for interphase heat transfer.f and sorent. Click Apply Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position Deselect item W-Momentum Click Apply Go to the Solver Parameters tab Move the Phase slider to the Phase 1 position Change the Relaxation Factor to 0. In the Save Problem File dialog.08 12-33 . 0. 0. saving the model data as shown below: • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel. select File > Save Geometry. see the Eulerian Multiphase Flows Training Notes.1 for Pressure. 0. In the Save Geometry File dialog.

. CP ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002).f the appropriate code is as follows: C******************************************************************* SUBROUTINE FLUINJ(FLUXI.VFG.SLIP.WI..QLATEN REAL SMASS. VISM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(063). only the mass flux (FLUXI) can be specified..UI.CPL. For file fluinj. turbulence.08 .inc' DIMENSION SCINJ(50) COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) C C. C C ** Parameters to be returned to STAR: C (Sink) FLUXI (<0) C (Source) FLUXI (>0). VIST ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(007).04 C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* INCLUDE 'comdb. PR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(008).H2SAT.. In C the case of mass addition (source).H1SAT.IPMASS C 12-34 Version 4. X ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(068). ICTID ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(001).Tutorial 12.VISL.WR COMMON/UBOIL1/ DENL.UI.SLIP.DIAP.VFG.H1SAT. V ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(061). VOLP ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(001).VR.TL.CPL.TI. ED ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(005).inc' DIMENSION SCALAR(50) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001). Y ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(069).H2SAT. U ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(060).TEI. temperature and C concentrations). Z ) C------------------------------------------------------------------------C C This subroutine enables the user to specify fluid injection C (addition or removal) into live cells. the fluid will bring all its C user-specified properties (momentum.VI. DEN ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(003). SCALAR(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(059).VI.TKL.IPMASS) C Fluid injection C******************************************************************* C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* C STAR-CD VERSION 4.TL.VISL. CON ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(019).TKL.4 BOILING SIMULATION User Subroutines Final Operations • Replace the default contents of both files with the code shown below. C SCINJ.TG COMMON/UBOIL2/ TSAT.EDI. Zero will be assumed for omitted properties.TEI. T ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(067). using pro-STAR’s built-in editor or any other editor.SCINJ.UR. TE ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(009). W ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(062).TG REAL TSAT.DIAP.QLATEN C INCLUDE 'usrdat. In the case of mass C removal (sink).EDI.TI.USER'S ADDITIONAL DEFINITIONS REAL DENL.WI.

C The default value.0 C ELSE IF(ICTID. C C------------------------------------------------------------------------C C Sample coding: Fluid injection and removal C C IF(ICTID.the mass sources specified C in FLUINJ are independent for each phase.1) THEN FLUXI=-SMASS UI=UCEL2 VI=VCEL2 WI=WCEL2 TI=TSAT ELSE IF(IPHA.the mass source specified C is directed from one phase into the other phase.3) THEN CC Injection C FLUXI=0.EQ.EQ.Tutorial 12. is always zero. C IPMASS=1: the phases are exchanging mass .2) THEN FLUXI=SMASS UI=U VI=V WI=W TI=TSAT ENDIF IPMASS=0 C Version 4.SET INTERPHASE MASS FLUX IF(IPHA.0 C SCINJ(1)=1. C IPMASS=0: no interphase heat transfer ..EQ. please refer to the E2P sections of the C manuals.05 C ENDIF C-------------------------------------------------------------------------C C DENL=DEN VISL=VISM CPL=CP TKL=CON UR=U-UCEL2 VR=V-VCEL2 WR=W-WCEL2 SLIP=SQRT(UR*UR+VR*VR+WR*WR) DIAP=DIAM TL=T TG=TCEL2 VFG=VFCEL2 C CALL UBOIL(SMASS) C C. C For more information..05 C TI=373.4 BOILING SIMULATION User Subroutines Final Operations C IPMASS is an interphase mass transfer indicator used in C Eulerian two-phase (E2P) simulations only..08 12-35 .1 C WI=0. passed from STAR to FLUINJ..4) THEN CC Removal C FLUXI=-0.EQ.

I.PRT..SET ADDITIONAL MODEL DATA HERE C TSAT = SATURATION TEMPERATURE (K) C H1SAT = SATURATION ENTHALPY OF PHASE 1 (J/KG) C H2SAT = SATURATION ENTHALPY OF PHASE 2 (J/KG) C TSAT=100.HTCGAS..SMASS C COMMON/UBOIL1/ DENL.. CONDENSATION.SIMPLE BULK BOILING/CONDENSATION MODEL C (ASSUME GAS PHASE AT SATURATION TEMPERATURE.TL.O-Z) C REAL DENL...... SUB-COOLED LIQUID. C IF T(LIQ) < TSAT.DIAP..0 H1SAT=419.. SUPER-HEATED LIQUID.H1SAT..REYNOLDS NUMBER REY=DENL*SLIP*DIAP/VISL C C.QLATEN REAL AI.HTCOEF. MASS GOES FROM PHASE 2 TO PHASE 1 C IF SMASS > 0..CPL..QLIQ.TKL..TL.E..TG COMMON/UBOIL2/ TSAT.....QLIQ..CPL..VFG.E.DIAP..QGAS C C****************************************************************** CHAPTER 1 MODEL DATA C C.. I..H2SAT..NUSSELT NUMBER C RNU=2. WE HAVE EVAPORATION C C COMPUTE MASS TRANSFER RATE SMASS C PHASE 1 IS LIQUID AND PHASE 2 IS VAPOUR C IF SMASS < 0. MASS GOES FROM PHASE 1 TO PHASE 2 C C C.08 .VISL.5*PRT**0.PRANDTL NUMBER PRT=CPL*VISL/TKL C C.4 BOILING SIMULATION User Subroutines Final Operations RETURN END SUBROUTINE UBOIL(SMASS) C============================================================ C C CALCULATE EVAPORATION/CONDENSATION RATE C C CREATED BY SIMON LO 27/04/04 C C============================================================ C C IMPLICIT DOUBLE PRECISION (A-H.HTCGAS.0+273.HTCOEF..SLIP.TG REAL TSAT.3 12-36 Version 4.VFG.RNU. EVAPORATION.H2SAT.TKL.2E3 H2SAT=2676.Tutorial 12..6*REY**0. WE HAVE CONDENSATION C IF T(LIQ) > TSAT.0E3 QLATEN=H2SAT-H1SAT C C****************************************************************** CHAPTER 2 MASS TRANSFER RATE C C...H1SAT.0+0...QGAS REAL REY.QLATEN COMMON/UBOIL3/ AI.SLIP..VISL.

UR....HEAT TRANSFER FROM GAS TO INTERPHASE QGAS=HTCGAS*AI*(TG-TSAT) C C...08 ICTID ) CON ) VOLP ) CP ) DEN ) ED ) HP ) P ) 12-37 ....QGAS REAL SMASS.TKL. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(019).H1SAT...Tutorial 12.TL.04 C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* INCLUDE 'comdb..f the appropriate code is as follows: C******************************************************************* SUBROUTINE SORENT(S1P...QLIQ....VFG......HEAT TRANSFER ACROSS INTERPHASE QLIQ=HTCOEF*AI*(TL-TSAT) C C.USER'S ADDITIONAL DEFINITIONS REAL DENL... EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(001).WR COMMON/UBOIL1/ DENL..H2SAT..QLIQ.VISL.SLIP.HTCGAS...0 FOR SIMPLICITY RNU=2.0 C C.DIAP....TG REAL TSAT.TG COMMON/UBOIL2/ TSAT.0*VFG/DIAP C C..CPL.0 C C..INTERFACIAL AREAM IN CELL AI=6....H1SAT. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(003).4 BOILING SIMULATION User Subroutines Final Operations C. Version 4.QLATEN COMMON/UBOIL3/ AI.HTCOEF. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(006).....DIAP.GAS-SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT HTCGAS=10.VFG..TL...H2SAT. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002)....VISL.HTCGAS.USE CONSTANT RNU=2.QGAS INCLUDE 'usrdat.....LIQUID-SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT HTCOEF=RNU*TKL/DIAP C C..inc' COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) C. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(001).QLATEN REAL AI..VR. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(004).TKL...SLIP.CPL...inc' DIMENSION SCALAR(50) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001)..MASS TRANSFER RATE SMASS=(QLIQ+QGAS)/QLATEN C RETURN END • For file sorent..S2P) C Source-term for enthalpy C******************************************************************* C--------------------------------------------------------------------------* C STAR-CD VERSION 4..HTCOEF...

VISM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(063). X ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(068). VIST ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(007). T ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(067). C S2P=GREAT C ENDIF C------------------------------------------------------------------------C DENL=DEN VISL=VISM CPL=CP TKL=CON UR=U-UCEL2 VR=V-VCEL2 WR=W-WCEL2 SLIP=SQRT(UR*UR+VR*VR+WR*WR) DIAP=DIAM TL=T TG=TCEL2 VFG=VFCEL2 C CALL UBOIL(SMASS) C 12-38 Version 4. Z ) C----------------------------------------------------------------------C C This subroutine enables the user to specify a source term (per unit C volume) for enthalpy in linearized form: C C Source = S1P-S2P*T.S2P C C------------------------------------------------------------------------C C Sample coding: Fix temperature to the value of 300 K in solid C No 3 (IMAT=-3) C C IF(IMAT.EQ. V ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(061). (W/m3) C C in an arbitrary manner.08 . U ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(060). then the C following may be used: C C S1P=GREAT*T C S2P=GREAT. TE ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(009).4 BOILING SIMULATION User Subroutines Final Operations EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(008). SCALAR(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(059). C C If temperature is to be fixed to a given value T. C C where T can be a constant or an arbitrary function of the C parameters in the parameter list. W ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(062). C C ** Parameters to be returned to STAR: S1P. Y ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(069).Tutorial 12.-3) THEN C S1P=GREAT*300.

EQ..08 12-39 . you may run the CFD analysis (in double precision) by typing star -dp in your session window.. select Contour (filled) from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T12.4-2 Version 4.1) THEN S1P=HTCOEF*AI*TSAT S2P=HTCOEF*AI ELSE IF(IPHA.4 BOILING SIMULATION CFD Analysis Final Operations C.EQ. Alternatively.. Post-Processing Use pro-STAR to check and examine the results.Tutorial 12. • • • Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the Files(s) tab Click Open Post file Plot the volume fraction for phase 2 as follows: • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected Set the Smooth option to On Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position and select item Volume Fraction from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab. using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively without quitting pro-STAR.SET HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN PHASE AND INTERFACE IF(IPHA..2) THEN S1P=HTCGAS*AI*TSAT S2P=HTCGAS*AI ENDIF C RETURN END CFD Analysis You may continue with the CFD analysis.

4-2 Contours of phase 2 volume fraction The steam volume fraction at the exit should be about 0.85.Tutorial 12.4 BOILING SIMULATION Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T12. Now plot the temperature as follows: • • • • Go back to the Load Data panel Select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main pro-STAR window click Cplot to display Figure T12.4-3 12-40 Version 4.08 .

4-4 Version 4.08 12-41 .4-3 Phase 2 temperature contour plot Note that the steam temperature remains within its saturation value of 373 K throughout the solution domain.Tutorial 12.4 BOILING SIMULATION Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T12. Repeat the above steps to obtain a phase 1 temperature plot: • • • Move the Phase slider to the Phase 1 position and select item Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main pro-STAR window click Cplot to display Figure T12.

Finally.08 .4-5 12-42 Version 4. obtain a V-velocity component plot for the second phase: • • • Move the Phase slider to the Phase 2 position and select item Velocity Component V from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main pro-STAR window click Cplot to display Figure T12.4 BOILING SIMULATION Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T12.Tutorial 12.4-4 Phase 1 temperature contour plot Note that the water temperature drops to the saturation value (373 K) in the upper part of the solution domain.

4-5 Contour plot of velocity component V Discussion of Results In Figure T12.4 BOILING SIMULATION Discussion of Results Final Operations Figure T12.4-2.99 and inlet velocity is 0.4-4 we can see that water enters at approximately 375 K. As energy is lost due to steam generation. Figure T12.e.Tutorial 12. The volume fraction for water is 0. two degrees above saturation).425 and peaks at 0.08 12-43 . the volume fraction of steam shows an immediate increase from its inlet value of 0. Validation Check According to the inlet boundary conditions. liq ( T liq – T sat ) ˙ ˙ The water flow rate is: m liq = α liq ρ liq A v liq ˙ Substituting appropriate values into the above formulae.5 m/s. When the water temperature reaches saturation no further steam is generated. we obtain Version 4.01 to 0. the water temperature drops gradually to the saturation value of 373K.852. The amount of thermal energy above saturation can be calculated as: q liq = m liq c p.4-3 shows that the steam temperature remains at the saturation value of 373 K. water enters the channel with a two degrees superheat (i. In Figure T12.

8522 and the V-velocity equals 3. We can check this result against the exit conditions of steam shown in the plots above.1m Water outlet gy 2m Steam bubbles y x Sub-cooled water + steam Figure T12. The steam generation rate is therefore 0. in this case 2256. the volume fraction equals 0. Suggestions for Further Exercises Condensation The same model can be used to study condensation. the latter’s generation rate is: q liq ˙ m g = ------˙ h fg where h fg is the latent heat. re-using the model settings of tut12-4.Tutorial 12.0176 kg/s. 0.01 m2.1m × 0.4 BOILING SIMULATION Suggestions for Further Exercises Final Operations q liq = 40 kJ/s ˙ Assuming that all this excess energy is used in generating steam.7 kJ/kg.4-6 Outline of flow channel Start by copying the entire working directory for boiling tutorial tut12-4 to another directory.08 .445 m/s. From these plots. say tut12-4b.6 kg/m3 and the channel cross-sectional area of 0. the mass flow rate of steam calculated from these results is 0.0177 kg/s. Using the specified density value of 0. Now make the following changes: • 12-44 Initial and inlet conditions: Version 4. as follows: cp -r tut12-4 tut12-4b Enter the tut12-4b directory and start a pro-STAR session as normal.

Version 4.08 12-45 .1 • • Save the problem and model files Run STAR and post-process the results as described above.4 BOILING SIMULATION Suggestions for Further Exercises Final Operations Water temperature = 372 K (i.Tutorial 12.e. one degree subcool) Steam volume fraction = 0.

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inflow Figure T13.08 13-1 . for simplicity.000.15 m and the inlet velocity is 5 m/s.81 x 10-5 Pa s. More detailed aeroacoustic analyses may be performed using STAR-CD in conjunction with CD-adapco’s es-acoustics tool. The circle representing the cylinder has a diameter of 0. based on the cylinder diameter.Introduction Tutorial 13 AEROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS Introduction The tutorials in this group illustrate STAR-CD’s facilities for performing an aeroacoustic analysis. is modelled as a two-dimensional problem.0-1 Flow around a cylinder The features demonstrated in these tutorials provide only basic data on the aeroacoustic properties of a flow system. The mesh employed is refined in the vicinity of the cylinder and also in the region where the wake is expected to appear. Version 4. These values are chosen to produce a flow with a Reynolds number of 50.205 kg/m3 and 1. The air density and laminar viscosity are 1. respectively. The problem analysed is air flow around a cylinder which.

. Thus. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a directory for the tutorial named tut13-1.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 13.vrt.. In the Read Input Coded File dialog. select File > Read Input Coded File. select File > Model Title. select the File name cyl.inp as well as the problem geometry and boundary location definitions from the remaining three files.cel.. This scalar is useful in identifying those areas of the problem geometry where shear noise dominates and hence can assist in design modification to minimise noise. cyl. In the Title text box type: AEROACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER • • • • 13-2 Click Apply and Close Select C > All Select B > All Select B > Unselect > Symplane Version 4. vertex.. Therefore. respectively). cyl.08 . Start up pro-STAR and enter the case name and title: • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type aac in the Case Name text box Click Continue Read in the available problem data: • • • In the main pro-STAR window.inp Click OK This will read default problem settings from file cyl. being a steady-state method.1 • • STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER This tutorial aims to demonstrate: The application of an aeroacoustic model in a steady-state problem Methods for determining whether an analysis has converged to a steady-state solution The aeroacoustic properties of the flow will be analysed by calculating a Lilley source term representing broadband shear noise (see “Aeroacoustic Analysis” on page 18-7 of the Methodology volume).bnd and cyl. it cannot be expected to capture the acoustic effects of large-scale transient features such as vortex shedding. However.inp. make sure these files are copied into your current directory. the method can only assist in a qualitative examination of the acoustic features of the flow system. The mesh to be used has already been created and the relevant cell. Turbulence is modelled using the low-Reynolds number k-ε model (see “Standard low Reynolds number two-equation k-ε models” on page 2-14 of the Methodology volume). boundary and problem setup files are supplied with STAR-CD (files cyl.Tutorial 13. before starting the tutorial. • • In the main window.

• Go to this folder and open the Aeroacoustic Analysis panel. All default settings and parameter values shown are appropriate for this case. obtained from calculated or derived values of k and ε using the “Synthetic turbulence” method described in Chapter 18 of the Methodology volume. so no changes are needed here. the low-Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model. Material Properties The aeroacoustic source term calculation depends upon a fluctuating velocity.1-1. which calculates both these quantities directly. In this case. as shown in Figure T13. these quantities would be derived indirectly by STAR prior to performing 13-3 Version 4.Tutorial 13. Figure T13. The symmetry boundaries omitted from the plot are placed on the two surfaces lying in the plane of view. If a model that does not calculate k and ε directly is chosen.08 .1-1 Mesh geometry Turn on the aeroacoustic analysis option: • • • Open the Analysis Features pro-STAR Model Guide panel Select On for the Aeroacoustic Analysis option Click Apply Note that the Aeroacoustics folder now appears active in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. will be used.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Material Properties • • Enable the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button Click Cplot to display the mesh and the inlet and pressure boundaries.

as set below) and specify the monitoring and pressure reference cells: • • • • • • • • • • Boundary Conditions Open the Fluid Initialization panel Specify the U velocity as 5 m/s Click Apply Under the Turbulence tab. The former is set such that. select option TI/Mixing Length for the Model Set the Intensity and Mixing Length values to 0. select the Hybrid Wall Function Click Apply Initialise the flow field (the initial velocity is chosen to match that at the inlet boundary. To turn this off and activate a second-order differencing scheme for the other two momentum equations: • • • • • • Select the Analysis Controls folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Primary Variables panel Under the Equation Status tab.05 m Click Apply Analysis Controls Since the flow is two-dimensional. region 1.005. Intensity of 0. deselect the W-Momentum option to make the analysis two-dimensional Click Apply Under the Differencing Schemes tab.08 .001 Enter a Length of 0. respectively Click Apply Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Enter 6275 as the Monitoring Cell Number Enter 7213 as the Pressure Cell Number Click Apply Specify the velocity and turbulence parameters at the inlet.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions the aeroacoustic analysis. change the momentum Differencing Scheme to MARS Click Apply 13-4 Version 4. from the list Enter 5 m/s as the U velocity Change the Turbulence Switch to TI/Length Enter a Turb. the Reynolds number is 50.01 and 0.000: • • • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select the inlet. • • • • • • • Go to the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder and select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open the Turbulence Models panel Select On for the Turbulence option Select k-Epsilon/Low Reynolds Number from the Model menu Click Apply Under the Near-Wall Treatment tab.Tutorial 13. solving the momentum equation in the z-direction is unnecessary. based on the diameter of the cylinder.

To evaluate this possibility. examine the flow field by displaying the velocity vectors: • • • • • • Under the Data tab of the Load Data panel. In the Save Geometry File dialog.. check that the Write Solution File option is selected with an Output Frequency of 100 iterations and File Name aac.. check that Data Type Cell is selected Select Velocity Components UV from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab. In the Save Problem File dialog. proceed as follows: • • • File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER CFD Analysis Run Time Controls Set the frequency of data output to the solution file: • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Under the Post tab. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. The reason for this will be discussed in the post-processing section. click Save CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. note that the normalised residual sums will not have satisfied the convergence criterion within the specified maximum number of iterations.ccmp Click Apply The run time controls must also be adjusted as follows: • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Enter 600 for the Maximum Number of Iterations Click Apply Final Operations Write the geometry and problem files: • • • • Select File > Save Geometry.Tutorial 13. At the end of the run. open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Leave all settings at their default values and click Start The analysis will then start automatically. select options Vector and Edge Click Plot To Screen 13-5 Version 4.08 .. the results may not represent a true steady-state.. Post-Processing Preliminaries Begin by reading in the results of the analysis: • • • Flow Field Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Given that the analysis has so far failed to satisfy the convergence criterion.

0.Tutorial 13.1-2 Figure T13.1-2 Plot of velocity vectors near to the cylinder The flow field is clearly not symmetrical despite the geometry being so. Monitor Examining history plots of the monitored flow variables is a good way to reveal History Plots whether a steady-state solution has been reached and.1.25. This suggests that a converged steady-state solution has not been reached. the graph frame fills only half the screen. change the frame Location to Default Click Apply Version 4. if not. why not. 0 and the viewing Distance approximately 0. To create a suitable history plot: • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the History of Analysis panel Select Monitor History for the Plot option Enable the U-Velocity option box Click Apply By default.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Monitor History Plots • • Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button In order to be able to see the flow field details. The resulting plot should resemble Figure T13. To make it larger: • • • • 13-6 Select the Graphs sub-folder in the Post-Processing folder Open the Customize Graphs panel Under the Display tab. zoom in using the middle mouse button until the values at the bottom of the display window show the plot Center to be approximately 0.08 .

08 13-7 . a transient analysis would need to be run. . select Data Type Cell and Smooth option On Select Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab.Tutorial 13.1-3 Figure T13.2. Such an analysis is the basis of Tutorial 13.1-3 History plot for the U velocity component The oscillating graph shows that a steady-state solution was not reached and suggests that the real solution to this problem is periodic. In order to obtain a full solution.1-4 Version 4. Turbulence Energy A plot of the turbulence kinetic energy will show the shape and position of the wake downstream of the cylinder: • • • • • • • • Open the Load Data panel Under the Data tab. Despite the absence of a steady-state solution. select options Contour (filled) and None Click Plot To Screen Click the Zoom Off button. the results obtained from this run (which effectively show the instantaneous solution at a point within the periodic cycle) can be used to discuss some aspects of an aeroacoustic analysis. to display Figure T13.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Turbulence Energy • Click Redraw to display Figure T13.

Therefore.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Aeroacoustic Source Term Figure T13. check that Data Type Cell and Smooth option On are selected Select Aeroacoustics Source from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T13. a contour plot of it can be produced as follows: • • • • • Open the Load Data panel Under the Data tab.Tutorial 13.1-5 13-8 Version 4.1-4 Contour plot of the turbulence kinetic energy Aeroacoustic The aeroacoustic Lilley source term is loaded from the results file in the same way Source Term as any other scalar.08 .

1-4.2) will analyse the same case as a transient problem and with a finer mesh.1 STEADY FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Aeroacoustic Source Term Figure T13. Therefore. This is due to the Lilley source dependence on the turbulence parameters k and ε.1-5 shows that the shear noise produced by the flow is primarily in the wake of the cylinder.Tutorial 13.000 Hz to be captured. enabling frequencies of up to about 1. the next tutorial (Tutorial 13.08 13-9 . Nosave Version 4. Quit pro-STAR by selecting: • File > Quit > Quit. The shape of the noise wake is similar to that of the turbulence wake shown in Figure T13. A separate analysis using the es-acoustics tool shows that the mesh provided for this case is only capable of resolving noise resulting from turbulent eddies for frequencies of up to about 500 Hz.1-5 Contour plot of the aeroacoustic Lilley source term Figure T13.

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67Hz To produce a well-resolved waveform for these oscillations. and the mesh within is refined. Due to the hybrid nature of DES. vortex shedding at Reynolds number 50. it is possible to estimate the vortex shedding frequency as f = 6.000 occurs at a Strouhal number fd St = ----u of ~0.1. high-lift devices and landing gear) are performed with boundary conditions mapped from a coarser global simulation. 1.2. mesh and boundary conditions.2 • • • • • • TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER This tutorial aims to demonstrate: The application of a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) turbulence model How to monitor cell behaviour using an . This should enable oscillations with frequencies of up to 2. the solution domain extent is reduced to cover only the important flow regions in the vicinity of the cylinder and wake.000 Hz to be resolved faithfully. Given a cylinder radius of 0. i.Tutorial 13. The analysis restarts from the steady state solution of the previous tutorial which is mapped onto the new mesh.. but this time as a transient simulation. using such a model rather than full LES also benefits from not having to resolve the boundary layer fully. the only other change in the problem specification is the use of the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) option based on the low-Reynolds number k-ε model employed in Tutorial 13.15 m.08 13-11 . As a demonstration of these techniques. for flow around a cylinder. so a value of 5 x 10-5 seconds is chosen. wing mirrors.e.ecd file The solution mapping (SMAP) process The specification of boundary conditions based on mapped solution data How to check a transient analysis for stability How to create animations using the animation utility and a neutral plot file Such techniques are typically used in external aerodynamics problems where analyses involving refined meshes around individual components (for example.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Tutorial 13. Stability considerations based on the Courant number require the time step to be much smaller than this. a bulk flow velocity of ~5 m/s and the knowledge that. Examination of the time-dependent pressure profile at specified locations will allow for assessment of the acoustic and structural excitation via the frequency and amplitude of the unsteady pressure fluctuations. To reduce the computational cost.5 x 10-2 seconds. This means that the results can include large eddy structures that would not appear if a RANS model was used. Version 4.1. this tutorial models the same two-dimensional flow around a cylinder as Tutorial 13. spoilers. The conditions on the inlet and pressure boundaries are also mapped from the steady state result using user subroutines. Besides the above changes to domain. the time step should be at least one tenth of the inverse of the frequency. wiper blades.

inp Click OK The next step is to change the analysis type to transient: • • • Open the Analysis Features panel Change the Time Domain option to Transient Click Yes in the dialog that appears..08 .2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Preliminaries Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a directory for the tutorial named tut13-2 and copy the model and results files created in Tutorial 13.echo File option Click Continue To give the case a new title: • • In the main pro-STAR window. vertex. select File > Model Title. warning that aeroacoustic modelling cannot be performed in a transient analysis. select the File name cyl_ref. In the Title box type ANALYSIS OF AEROACOUSTIC EFFECTS IN TRANSIENT FLOW • Click Apply and Close Read in the refined mesh and the problem data: • • • Analysis Features In the main pro-STAR window. cyl_ref. Start up pro-STAR: • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter aac_tr as the Case Name Deselect the Resume From Existing . In the Read Input Coded File dialog. The mesh from Tutorial 13.mdl.Tutorial 13.. Therefore.vrt. This cell is at one end of the Version 4. cyl_ref.ccmg) into it..cel.1 has already been refined and is contained within the cell.1 (aac. copy these into your current directory also. Click Apply • Material Properties Switch on the DES variant of the current turbulence model: • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Select the Liquids and Gases sub-folder and open the Turbulence Models panel Check the DES box Click Apply The monitoring and pressure reference cells must be redefined. select File > Read Input Coded File. which is a steady state feature.ccmp and aac. boundary and problem setup files supplied with STAR-CD (files cyl_ref.bnd and cyl_ref. as those used in the steady-state analysis no longer exist: • • • 13-12 Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Change the Monitoring Cell Number to 9419 Change the Pressure Cell Number to 6232.inp. respectively). This refers to the calculation of the Lilley source term.mdl File option Deselect the Append to Previous . aac..

5 cylinder radii downstream of the cylinder and the monitor data stored in an . enter pmon as the Set Name Click Write and then Close Specify which data are to be stored in the . Type ufiles in the text box. click Apply and then Close In the pro-STAR Model Guide. click Store/Recall > Store In the Store Information dialog. Click Apply The mapping of the inlet and pressure boundary conditions is performed via user subroutines.. the pressure boundary.08 13-13 . These must be activated as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • In the main window. select the Define Boundaries folder Open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 1.. ready for editing later Click Apply Select region 2. The data will be used to create an animation in the “Post-Processing” part of this tutorial Check the Post box Click Apply • • • • • • Pressure data will be monitored at a location about 1.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • Boundary Conditions pressure boundary.ccmt file and how often: • • • Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Primary Variables panel and select the Differencing Schemes tab Change the momentum Differencing Scheme to CD.015 seconds Select Turb Kinetic Energy from the Data to Write scroll list. set the Output interval to 0.Tutorial 13. from the boundary regions list Select User from the User Option menu Click User Define to write the default version of subroutine BCDEFI in sub-directory ufile.set file: • • • In the main pro-STAR window. Define the location by creating a cell set containing a single cell: • Enter the following command in the I/O window: CSET NEWSET CLIST 9419 Store the location in a . the MARS gradient limiter has been shown to be diffusive when used with LES sub-grid scale turbulence models Click Apply Open the Analysis Output panel Under the Transient tab.ecd file: Version 4. ready for editing later Click Apply Analysis Controls Specify what transient data will be written to the .ecd file. choose File > System Command. This should provide greater accuracy as. from the boundary regions list Select User from the User Option menu Click User Define to write the default version of subroutine BCDEFP in sub-directory ufile. despite being second-order. the inlet.

ccmp file Save the new model file Resume the original model file and load the corresponding solution file Perform the solution mapping (SMAP) operation Resume the new model file View and check the restart solution data Set up the run to start from the mapped solution Write the new geometry and model files and load the model and results files from Tutorial 13.. select Utility > Solution Mapping.000 time steps Click Apply Solution Mapping The solution mapping process involves the following stages: 1. This is equivalent to 30.08 .5 seconds. In the Save Geometry File dialog. In the Solution Mapping dialog.. select aac.1 To perform the solution mapping: • • In the main pro-STAR window. select File > Save Geometry. 6.ccmp Click Open Post file to load the results from Tutorial 13.mdl Click OK Select the Post-Processing folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Load Data panel to display the File(s) tab Change the Post File name to aac. 7.. In the Resume Model From dialog. click Apply then Close Select File > Save Model Select File > Resume Model From. open the Monitor Cell Behavior panel Select On for the Monitoring option Check that the file aac_tr. 5.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Run Time Controls • • • • • • Run Time Controls In the Analysis Controls folder. 3. specify the options shown below: 13-14 Version 4..set is displayed in the Set File box Select pmon from the Monitoring Information scroll list Select Pressure from the list of Monitoring Information variables Click Apply Specify the time step size and the length of the run: • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Time step for period to 5e-5 seconds Click Set Change the run Time to 1. Save the new mesh geometry created above in its corresponding ..1: • • • • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window.. 2. 4.Tutorial 13.

select options Contour (filled) and None Click Plot to Screen to display Figure T13.ccms Change the State Name to smap Click Open Post file to load the mapped results Under the Data tab.. In the Resume Model From dialog.Tutorial 13. depending upon the speed of your computer.mdl Click OK Select C > All In the pro-STAR Model Guide select the Load Data panel In the File(s) tab change the Post File name to aac_tr. Once it is complete.2-1 Version 4. select Velocity Magnitude from the Calculated Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab..08 13-15 . enter aac_tr. click Close The new model file can now be resumed and the mapped results displayed: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select File > Resume Model From.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Pre-Processing Solution Mapping • Click Apply. The solution mapping operation may take a few minutes.

you may edit the default subroutines so that they match those shown below.Tutorial 13. Alternatively.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER User Subroutines Final Operations Figure T13. replacing the default subroutines.. one for the inlet boundary and one for the pressure boundary.08 .ccms as the Restart File In the Initial Field Restart section. select Smapped Check that the State Name is smap and then click Apply This completes the solution mapping process.f and bcdefp. These are supplied in files bcdefi. 13-16 Version 4. In the Save Problem File dialog.2-1 Velocity magnitude profile resulting from the solution mapping You must now specify that the transient run should restart from the above mapped solution: • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Restart panel Select Initial Field as the Restart File Option Enter aac_tr. click Save User Subroutines The boundary mapping process requires two user subroutines. Final Operations The geometry file has already been written but it is also necessary to write the problem file: • • Select File > Save Problem.f which should be copied into the ufile directory..

VSTORE. TC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(008). SCALC(01) ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(007). VC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(061).WSTORE. WC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(064). DENC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(003).ED.WSTORE(MAXPB).EDSTORE.DEN. PRC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(009).OPENED=LOG1) IF(.Tutorial 13. X ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(071).NOT. * TESTORE(MAXPB).inc’ DIMENSION SCALC(50) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001). UC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(060). ICTID ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002).TURINT) C Maps inlet boundary conditions from cell data C************************************************************************* C C STAR VERSION 4. UCL ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(065).LOG1) THEN IUNIT=II GOTO 1103 ENDIF CONTINUE CONTINUE 13-17 1101 1103 Version 4. Y ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(072).ITFLAG.TE. VCL ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(066).-1 INQUIRE(UNIT=II.inc’ COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) DIMENSION SCALAR(50) LOGICAL TURINT INCLUDE ’usrdat.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER User Subroutines Inlet Boundary Inlet Boundary The user subroutine mapping the inlet boundary data is BCDEFI. WCL ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(070).EDSTORE(MAXPB) SAVE USTORE. EDC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(005).W.08 C C************************************************************************* INCLUDE ’comdb.VSTORE(MAXPB).1. PR ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(005).U.TESTORE.IFILEFLAG LOGICAL FILEEXIST c-inclusion_1 end -----------------------------------------------------C----------------------------------------------------------------------c-inclusion_2 start ---------------------------------------------------LOGICAL LOG1 INTEGER II DO 1101 II=199. TEC ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(059).08 .V. given below: C************************************************************************* SUBROUTINE BCDEFI(SCALAR.T. Z ) c-inclusion_1 start ---------------------------------------------------PARAMETER(MAXPB=209528) DIMENSION USTORE(MAXPB).

*) ’ *** WARNING: Reading inlet profile’ * // ’ from inlet.inp file’ INTFLG(3) = 1 ENDIF USTORE(IBP)=UC VSTORE(IBP)=VC WSTORE(IBP)=WC TESTORE(IBP)=TEC EDSTORE(IBP)=EDC call freeunit(iunit) OPEN (iunit.END=13) IBPR.VR.0) THEN INTFLG(1) = 1 ITFLAG = ITER END IF IF(IREG. EXIST=FILEEXIST) IF (FILEEXIST) THEN IFILEFLAG = 1 ELSE IFILEFLAG = 0 END IF END IF IF (IFILEFLAG.*.VC. * STATUS=’unknown’) 12 CONTINUE READ(iunit.FILE=’inlet.EDR IF (IBP.POSITION=’APPEND’) c 10 CONTINUE c READ(iunit.*) ’ *** WARNING: Setting inlet boundary ’ * // ’to near cell value and writing inlet.EQ.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER User Subroutines Inlet Boundary c IF (INTFLG(1).WR.WC.0) THEN WRITE(*.UR.END=11) TMP c GO TO 10 c 11 CONTINUE WRITE(iunit.FILE=’inlet.EDC CLOSE (iunit) ELSE IF (INTFLG(4).TER.MAXPB)STOP’BCDEFI:MAXPB too small’ IF (INTFLG(2).inp’.IBPR) THEN GO TO 12 ELSE USTORE(IBP)=UR VSTORE(IBP)=VR WSTORE(IBP)=WR TESTORE(IBP)=TER EDSTORE(IBP)=EDR END IF CLOSE (iunit) 13-18 Version 4.GT.inp’.FORM=’formatted’.*.0) THEN INTFLG(2) = 1 INQUIRE(FILE=’inlet.EQ.NE.EQ.TEC.FORM=’formatted’.inp’ INTFLG(4) = 1 END IF OPEN (iunit.EQ.EQ.Tutorial 13.1) THEN IF (ITER.UC.0) THEN WRITE(*.08 .ITFLAG) THEN IF (IBP.0) THEN IF (INTFLG(3).inp’.EQ.EQ.*) IBP. * STATUS=’unknown’.

ED.*) ’ ***ERROR: Could not find pro-STAR boundary ’. * IBP.205 c-spot check if(ibp.u.ibp=’.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER User Subroutines Pressure boundary END IF c-spot check if(ibp.w. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(060).w. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(061).’u. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(007).v. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(066).ibp=’.SCALAR.ibp END IF c-inclusion_2 end -----------------------------------------------------RETURN 13 CONTINUE WRITE(*. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(064).ibp END IF U=USTORE(IBP) V=VSTORE(IBP) W=WSTORE(IBP) TE=TESTORE(IBP) ED=EDSTORE(IBP) T=293.T.08 ICTID ) DEN ) DENC ) EDC ) PRC ) SCALC(01) ) TC ) TEC ) UC ) VC ) WC ) UCL ) VCL ) WCL ) X ) 13-19 . EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(059).w.TURINT) C Maps pressure boundary conditions from cell data C************************************************************************* C C STAR VERSION 4.eq.TE.w.690)print*. ’ in file inlet. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(005). EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002). Version 4.u. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(065).inc’ COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) DIMENSION SCALAR(50) LOGICAL TURINT INCLUDE ’usrdat.690)print*.v.Tutorial 13.’startu.inc’ DIMENSION SCALC(50) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001). EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(008).VB. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(002). given below: C************************************************************************* SUBROUTINE BCDEFP(UB.v.WB.08 C C************************************************************************* INCLUDE ’comdb.PR. ’ in file inlet. * IBP.0 DEN=1. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(003).v.*) ’ ***ERROR: Could not find pro-STAR boundary ’.inp’ WRITE(60.eq.inp’ CALL STQUIT(1) END Pressure boundary The user subroutine mapping the pressure boundary data is BCDEFP. EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(009). EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(070).

inp does not exist write warning message to screen. EXIST=FILEEXIST) IF (FILEEXIST) THEN IFILEFLAG = 1 ELSE IFILEFLAG = 0 END IF END IF C C If file pressure. IFILEFLAG LOGICAL FILEEXIST PARAMETER (MAXPB = 209528) DIMENSION PSTOR(MAXPB).EQ.1. Z ) SAVE PSTOR.inp’.2) THEN C C Check is array pstor has been sized correctly C IF (IBP. TESTOR(MAXPB).MAXPB) STOP ’BCDEFP: MAXPB TOO SMALL’ C C If in the first iteration of run C IF (ITER.0) THEN INTFLG(41) = 1 C C set the starting iteration C ITFLG = ITER END IF IF (IREG.0) THEN INTFLG(43) = 1 WRITE(*. EDSTOR(MAXPB) LOGICAL LOG1 INTEGER II DO 1101 II=199.LOG1) THEN IUNIT=II GOTO 1103 ENDIF CONTINUE CONTINUE IF (INTFLG(41). C IF (IFILEFLAG.-1 INQUIRE(UNIT=II.OPENED=LOG1) IF(. ITFLG.EQ.EQ.0) THEN IF (INTFLG(43).08 1101 1103 c .2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER User Subroutines Pressure boundary EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(071).EQ.Tutorial 13.ITFLG) THEN IF (INTFLG(42).*) ’ ***WARNING: Setting pressure boundary ’ * // ’to near cell value and writing pressure.0) THEN INTFLG(42) = 1 C C check if file containing pressure data exists C INQUIRE(FILE=’pressure.EQ. Y ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT02(072).inp file’ END IF C 13-20 Version 4.GT.EQ.NOT.

0) THEN INTFLG(44) = 1 WRITE (*.*) ’ *** WARNING: Reading pressure boundary’ * // ’ profile from file pressure.END=11) TMP c GO TO 10 c 11 CONTINUE WRITE(iunit. TEC.08 13-21 . you should also run the analysis on multiple CPUs to minimise the elapsed run time. * STATUS=’unknown’.NE. EDCR IF (IBPR.IBP) THEN GOTO 12 ELSE PSTOR(IBP) = PRCR TESTOR(IBP) = TECR EDSTOR(IBP) = EDCR END IF CLOSE (iunit) END IF END IF END IF PR = PSTOR(IBP) TE = TESTOR(IBP) ED = EDSTOR(IBP) T = 293.*) IBP. on two local CPUs and in double precision.inp’.Tutorial 13. TECR.FILE=’pressure.*.POSITION=’APPEND’) c 10 CONTINUE c READ(iunit.FORM=’formatted’.END=13) IBPR.inp’ END IF OPEN (iunit. * STATUS=’unknown’) 12 CONTINUE READ(iunit. PRC. To run the analysis in parallel. type: star -dp 2 Version 4.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER CFD Analysis Pressure boundary C Get pressure from cell value and store C PSTOR(IBP) = PRC TESTOR(IBP) = TEC EDSTOR(IBP) = EDC call freeunit(iunit) OPEN(iunit. EDC CLOSE (iunit) ELSE IF (INTFLG(44).PRCR.FILE=’pressure.FORM=’formatted’.*) ’ ***ERROR: Cannot find pressure boundary in file’ CALL STQUIT() END C CFD Analysis The description in the next two sections assumes that STAR will be run from the command line whilst leaving pro-STAR running in the background.inp’.0 RETURN 13 CONTINUE WRITE (*.*. If possible.EQ.

The animation may be defined by writing a sequence of plots to a neutral plot file.000).0 but.15 to 0.info file contents Examine the Maximum Courant number and the Mean Courant number at a selection of time steps through the run. it will take at least a few hours to complete. select Data Type Cell & Wall/Bound (Smooth) Select Turb Kinetic Energy from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Options tab of the Create Plots panel. which are then played back via pro-STAR commands as follows: • • • • • • • • Under the File(s) tab of the Load Data panel. Ideally. This should be either 2. In our experience.Tutorial 13. change the Range option to User and specify a range of 0 to 4 Click Apply. • Begin the post-processing session by opening the transient post data file: • • • • • Animated Plots In the pro-STAR Model Guide. 3 or 4.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Preliminaries To run the analysis sequentially. Post-Processing Preliminaries Before post-processing the results.8Ghz running under Linux. in this case. the Courant number should not exceed 1. respectively.08 13-22 . This will fix the legend scale for all animation frames Version 4. it is reasonable to assume that large Courant numbers are found only in a few very small cells near the cylinder surface. the run takes 9 hours on a dual-processor Pentium 4 Xeon 2. in double precision mode. select the first time step from the Time Step list Click Store Time Under the Data tab. type: star -dp However you choose to run the analysis. Long run times are typical for DES cases as they require very fine meshes and a large number of time steps (in this case 30. select the Post-Processing folder and open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab. select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the History of Analysis panel Click Browse Additional Output File to display the .ccmt from the Transient list Click Open Transient file An animation of turbulence kinetic energy contours will now be created to help visualize the unsteady character of the flow. A stable transient calculation will not regularly exceed 4 PISO correctors. it is advisable to check the performance of the run by examining the information in the .info file: • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.0 to 9.0 and 0. select Transient as the Analysis option Click Add File Select file aac_tr. Examine the NUMBER OF PISO CORRECTORS at a selection of time steps through the run. You should see that these two quantities stay within the ranges 1.5.

plot. Pressure Trace The vortex shedding irregularity can also be seen in a plot of pressure at the monitoring point: • Increase the maximum number of available graph register locations by typing MEMORY MXSTOR 1000000 • • • • • • • • • • • at the command line Select the Post-Processing folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select the Graphs folder followed by the Extract Data folder Open the Engineering Data panel Change the File Type option to Cell Click Open File to display the contents of the .15 and Number of Ticks to 2 Check that the Numbers option is Real Change the Title to Time (s) Click Apply Select Y-Axis for the Parameters option 13-23 . PMAX = PMIN = PVAV = PMAV Click Add to List Click Create Graph Click Yes when asked if you wish to continue Select Draw Current Frame The default graph setting does not show the profile clearly enough.1.015 seconds A command sequence is now used to set up. This is due to the random fluctuations introduced by the DES model.. As there is only one cell in the set. Enter the following commands in the I/O window for the animation: nfil.1 You should notice that the vortex shedding in the wake of the cylinder is quite irregular.x play. check Xmin is 0.plot term. change Xmax to 1. Xmajor to 0. write and play back the animation sequence..Tutorial 13.100.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Pressure Trace • Ensure that Contour is selected from the Plot Option menu and click Replot to display a contour plot of turbulence kinetic energy at time = 0.file. resize the graph and adjust the axes: • • • • • • Version 4.08 Open the Customize Graphs panel in the Graphs folder Under the Axis tab.1.rast REPL *set cnt1 1 1 *defi store next getv te REPL *end *loop 1 98 term.aac_tr.aac_tr.ecd file Select Set # 1 PMON from the set list Select PMAX in the Data to graph section. To obtain a better view of this profile.5.

The tutorial is now complete.Tutorial 13. By measuring the time between pressure peaks on the graph.2 Hz.Pa Click Apply Click Redraw to display Figure T13.2 TRANSIENT FLOW AROUND A CYLINDER Post-Processing Pressure Trace • • • • Change Ymin to -80 and Ymax to 20 Change the Title to Pressure . For example.2-2 Pressure profile at the monitoring point Figure T13. es-acoustics may be used to perform a Fourier Transform on the pressure profile to derive a frequency profile for the aeroacoustic noise. the frequency of these oscillations is found to be around 6.⎞ ⎝ p ref ⎠ Using ∆p = 45Pa (the approximate average amplitude of the pressure –5 oscillations) and P ref = 2 × 10 Pa (the lower limit of human perception). It is also possible to calculate the sound pressure level (volume) of these fluctuations using the following equation: ∆p 2 SPL = 10 log ⎛ -------.08 . this gives a sound pressure level of 127 dB.2-2 Figure T13. To exit from pro-STAR: • 13-24 Select File > Quit > Quit.2-2 shows that the frequency of pressure fluctuations due to vortex shedding is regular even though the amplitude is not. Nosave Version 4. Further analysis of the results may be performed using a specialised acoustics package. This is fairly close to the value predicted in the introduction to this tutorial.

two-dimensional. and initially stationary liquid blob flowing under gravity down a vertical wall.08 14-1 .Tutorial 14 LIQUID FILM SIMULATION The following tutorials are intended to familiarise users with the process of setting up liquid film simulations. 3D film formation and transport due to spray impingement 3. Evolution of a rectangular. and comparison with the analytical solution 2. The three cases presented are: 1. Film stripping and re-entrainment at a sharp edge Version 4.

which is long enough for the similarity condition given by the above equation to be satisfied.1-1 Schematic of vertical film flow and CFD mesh In the problem we assume that the initial 2D blob has a film thickness of 1 mm and covers a wall length of 250 mm.⎞ 1⁄2 ⎝ gρf ⎠ t where µ is the film viscosity. [1] D. film thickness and wall area covered at the start of the calculation.e.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Physical Problem Description Tutorial 14. i.08 .. we consider the evolution of a rectangular. The calculation is compared with an analytical solution for film thickness δ as a function of position x and time t given in [1]: µ 1⁄2 x --------δ = ⎛ -------.1-1. two-dimensional and initially stationary blob of liquid flowing down a vertical wall under the action of gravity and forming a liquid film in the process. as shown in Figure T14.A. Heat and mass transfer simulations are deactivated.1-1. y Initial blob 1⁄2 x 2m Air Wall Gravity Film Figure T14. The solution domain is 2 m long in the vertical direction and 50 cm wide in the wall-normal direction.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Physical Problem Description In this tutorial. The solution is independent of initial values. The case is run for a simulated time of 10 seconds. 1992 14-2 Version 4. it is valid regardless of initial film profile. A uniform mesh is used. ρ f the film density and g the value of gravity. as shown in Figure T14. Acheson.Tutorial 14. “Elementary Fluid Dynamics”. Oxford University Press.

blob. 1 to display the grid shown in Figure T14. The thickness of the mesh is set to 5 cm but will have no effect on the result.. respectively.ccmg supplied with the STAR-CD installation into it. Enter liquid_film.Tutorial 14. In the Title text box type: TRANSIENT 2D FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL • Mesh Import & Checking Click Apply and Close The mesh used in this case is two-dimensional. in the Case Name text box Click Continue Make sure that the pro-STAR Model Guide is displayed on your screen. extending 2 m in the x-direction of the global Cartesian coordinate system and 50 cm in the y-direction and has 120 and 20 cells in each direction. select C > All to put all cells into the current cell set Check that the Geometry plot option and Hidden Surface plot type are selected Click Cplot Click View > Isometric and select 1. given the two-dimensional nature of the simulation.ccmg as the Geometry File name Check that the State Name entry is set to default Click Apply In the main window.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Pre-Processing Preliminaries Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut14-1 and copy file liquid_film. 1. In this directory: • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name.08 14-3 . select File > Model Title.1-2 Version 4. next to the main pro-STAR window: • • • • • • Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select Transient from the Time Domain menu Select On from the Liquid Films menu Click Apply In the main window. To import and display the mesh: • • • • • • • • • • Select the Grids folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Import Grids panel Select the CCM option from the Format list..

of which no.1-2 2D hexahedral mesh Boundary Locations In addition to mesh data. 1 is that part of the wall where film is initially present. select B > New > Wall and B > Add > Pressure and click Replot to display the boundaries shown in Figure T14. The latter can be displayed on the grid plot as follows: • • • Select the Locate Boundaries folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Create Boundaries panel Select each entry in the boundary Regions scroll list in turn (except no. file liquid_film.08 . 2 the part where film appears at a later time once the analysis begins.1-3 Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button 14-4 Version 4. 0) and click Plot Region to display its location Note that the wall boundary is split into two regions. This subdivision is necessary purely for the purposes of specifying film initial conditions (see “Initial and Boundary Conditions”) Display the location of all the key boundaries in the problem: • • In the main window.Tutorial 14.ccmg also contains information on boundary region locations.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Pre-Processing Boundary Locations Figure T14. and no.

08 Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Enter 501 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Enter 501 in the Pressure Cell Number box Click Apply 14-5 . 0) in coordinate system 1 Click Apply Select the Liquids and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel. The gas phase is ambient air with a density of 1.81 m/s2 Change the Direction of Gravity Force to (1. the displayed defaults are appropriate for this case so no input is needed Select locations for the pressure reference and monitoring cells as follows: • • • • Version 4. The liquid phase is pure water with a density of 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity of 0.205 kg/m3 and viscosity of and Physical 1.1-3 Wall and pressure boundaries Material The following properties are used for the two phases: Properties 1.00089 Pas Define the direction of gravity and assign physical properties to the two phases: • • • • • • • • Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Gravity panel Change the Acceleration due to gravity to 9. 0.Tutorial 14.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Pre-Processing Material Properties and Physical Models Figure T14.81 × 10-5 Pas Models 2. Again. The displayed default properties of air are acceptable so no input is needed for this panel Open the Fluid Initialization panel.

1 and 2) are set up for liquid film support by scrolling the Region # slider at the bottom of the panel Open the Film Physical Models and Properties panel On the Film Models tab.001 in the Thickness box (leaving all other initial conditions at their defaults) and click Apply Set the Region # slider to 2 (the rest of the wall region) and enable the Initialize check box Enter 0 in the Thickness box (leaving all other initial conditions at their defaults) and click Apply.00089 for Viscosity. Before doing this. This signifies that initially there is no film on this part of the wall Define film boundary conditions for all wall regions. to remind yourself of the relevant region numbers and locations: • • Open the Film Boundaries panel and check that the Condition # slider at the bottom of the panel is set to 1 Enter 2 (the wall region where a film will form at a later stage) in the Film Region # box and 6 (the pressure region next to it) in the Adjacent Region # box and check that Region Type Outlet is selected for the film boundary condition Click Apply • Analysis Controls Specify various solver parameters and output controls required for this case: • • • Select folder Analysis Controls and open the Primary Variables panel On the Equation Status tab. select On for the Liquid Film Activation option and then click Database to select In the droplet properties database list. as done in section “Boundary Locations”. you may want to review all boundaries again. The rest of the property values displayed are not used in this case Click Apply Define the film’s initial conditions: • • • • • Open the Film Initialization panel Ensure that the Region # slider is set to 1 (the region initially occupied by the film) and enable the Initialize check box Enter 0.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Pre-Processing Initial and Boundary Conditions Define liquid film physical properties and model controls: • • • • • • • • • • • Initial and Boundary Conditions Select the Liquid Films folder and then open the Film Controls panel Select On for the Gravity Force option Click Apply Ensure that both wall regions (nos.08 14-6 . select H2O_l [WATER (L)] and click Select WATER(L) is now displayed in the First Component Name box and thus defines the film material to be used in this problem Check that Off is selected for the Evaporation and Condensation option and then click Apply On the Film Properties tab enter 1000 for Density and 0.Tutorial 14. deselect option W-Momentum since we are solving a 2D flow in the x-y plane only Click Apply Version 4.

In the Save Problem File dialog. this will result in transient post data being saved every 10 time steps Enable the Wall option in the Data to Write section Locate Film Thickness in the variable scroll list and check that the Post option is enabled for this item Repeat this process for Film Velocity Click Apply Run the analysis for a total of 10 seconds using two time periods.001 s in order to ensure computational stability. check that option Write Solution File is selected with an Output Frequency of 100 time steps Click Apply Select the Transient tab. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis Check that you are in the current working sub-directory (tut14-1) and run the CFD analysis in double precision by typing star -dp at the command line. it is more common to run (lengthy) transient cases from the command line.01 for the Time step for period entry and click Set again These settings will be listed in the scroll list. However..001 for the Time step for period entry Click Set Now enter 1 for the Period start time and 0. The first period covers 1 s and uses a time step of 0. check that 1 is entered as the Geometry Scale Factor Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem.Tutorial 14.01 s.. Final Operations You can run this simulation from the pro-STAR Model Guide.1 in the Output interval box. Version 4. select File > Save Geometry. Check that 0 is entered in the Starting at time box and enter 0..08 14-7 . • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Check that Run for is selected for the Run time control option. In view of the time step size chosen below.. In the Save Geometry File dialog. Write the geometry and problem files and save the model file: • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window. check that 0 is entered for the Period start time and 0. The second period covers the remaining 9 s and uses a time step of 0. enter 10 in the Time box and click Apply In the Time Step Option section.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL CFD Analysis Run Time Controls • • • • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Output panel Under the Post tab.

5.echo File? option Click Continue Open the file containing the transient post data (blob. appears in the Case Name text box Select the Resume From Existing . Angle -90) 14-8 Version 4. select Transient as the Analysis option Click Add File Select file blob. select plot option Contour Click Plot > Wplot Ensure the Display Boundaries option is off Turn mesh plotting Off by clicking the Display Mesh Lines button.mdl File? option Select the Append to Previous . Rotate the plot using the mouse controls so that it is displayed approximately as shown in Figure T14. select the Post-Processing folder and then open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab. select item Film Thickness Click Get Data In the main window. select step number 1900 and click Store Time Go to the Data tab and select Wall for the Data Type In the Scalar Data list.ccmt from the Transient list and then click Open Transient file.08 .Tutorial 14. blob.1-4 (View 0. 0. -1.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Post-Processing Preliminaries Post-Processing Preliminaries When the simulation is complete and whilst in the tut14-1 sub-directory: • • • • • • Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Check that the case name.ccmt): • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. scroll to the end of the list. All the stored transient time step data will now be displayed in the Time Step window Basic Plots Read in the last set of results and make a contour plot of film thickness: • • • • • • • • • In the Time Step list.

.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Post-Processing Animations Figure T14. enter anim as the macro Name Type the following commands in the Command window: store first *define noex store next getw lfthk bset news regi 1 bset add regi 2 vset news bset cset news name wall cset subs vset any wplot *end *loop 1 99 Version 4. as described in Tutorial 8. from the menu bar on the main pro-STAR window In the Define Macro panel.2 and Tutorial 12.3.. Before proceeding further. ensure that film thickness contours are displayed as shown above.1-4 Film thickness contour at t=10 seconds Animations pro-STAR loops can be used to produce on-screen animations.08 14-9 . in this tutorial we will use pro-STAR’s macro facility (see Chapter 18. However. “Macros” in the CCM User Guide) to produce an animation of the film thickness development.Tutorial 14. • • • Select Panels > Define Macro.

ytick. it is more convenient to save the relevant commands in a pro-STAR macro file: • • • Select Panels > Define Macro. The file graph.init.2.yrange.0.58 Film thickness (m) frame.9.anim in the Macro List and click Execute on the Define Macro panel The resulting animation shows the movement of the film from rest over a 10 second period.1.legend.1 ! *** save the data in a ASCII file named fthick.65.real.noindent.2.1.xtitle.coded close fthick.left frame.real.locate.0.MAC will be saved to your local directory On the Define Macro panel select .none frame.1.bottom frame.wall.0.MAC will be saved to your local directory Select . Again. 2.xrange.legend.1.1.1.0 ! *** draw the graph frame.1.cset.xreg.0.graph in the Macro List and click Execute to display the graph shown in Figure T14.init. frame.2 frame.3 Distance (m) frame.1.45 frame.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Post-Processing Graphs • • Click Save.fthick.2..0.wall.1.wall.10.28.none frame.grf sdata. Enter graph as the macro Name Type the following commands in the Command window: ! *** select the wall film cells bset news region 1 bset add region 2 vset news bset cset news name wall cset subs vset all ! *** reset the graph properties greset y ! *** load x value gload.grf.Tutorial 14.70.g.1.1.5e-05.08 14-10 .1.0 frame. 4.25. Graphs The spatial distribution of film thickness at a particular time (e.4.x.ytitle.1. The file anim. at 10 seconds) can be plotted using pro-STAR’s graph facilities.0.1.1.1 gvalue.grf • • Click Save.0.5.yreg.2.1. gdraw.0.2.7.9.2.xtick.2 ! *** load film thickness gvalue..pst4.1-5 Version 4.

1-5 Spatial distribution of film thickness The data saved in file fthick.Tutorial 14. Version 4.grf may then be used for comparison against analytical solutions. Nosave Suggestions for Further Exercises The agreement between model predictions and the analytical solution can be improved further if a smaller time step is used.08 14-11 . • Select File > Quit > Quit. The user may also wish to test the theory that the similarity solution for film thickness is independent of the initial film profile by setting up a film covering the full length of the wall at the start of the simulation.1 2D FILM FLOW DOWN A VERTICAL WALL Suggestions for Further Exercises Graphs Figure T14.

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2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Problem Description Preliminaries Tutorial 14. in the Case Name text box 14-13 .Tutorial 14. impinge. The mesh data for the problem. the total fuel injected is approximately 5. say tut14-2. The injection point is a nozzle with its axis perpendicular to the bottom of the box and located 24 mm above it. The nozzle diameter is 0.2-1 (dimensions 16 × 16 × 44 mm).2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Problem Description In this tutorial. Liquid film is formed on the bottom wall due to spray impingement.vrt.0 × 10–5 s.cel and impinge. 20 mm 24 mm 16 mm Figure T14. make sure that the supplied files are copied into your current directory. The Huh atomisation and Reitz-Diwakar break-up models are used for the spray simulation.6 mg and the fuel temperature is 293 K.3 mm. inter-droplet collisions and spray-wall interactions are taken into account. The fluid in the box is quiescent air at room temperature (293 K) and at an elevated pressure of 15 bar. are supplied ready-to-use in files impinge. before starting the tutorial.8 ms.08 Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Enter the case name.2-1 16 mm Problem geometry Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for this tutorial. • • • Version 4. a diesel fuel spray (n-Dodecane. The case will be set up as a transient liquid film simulation and run for 100 time steps with a time step size of 2. Therefore. C12H26) is injected into the closed box shown in Figure T14. in the form of cell and vertex definitions. The injection lasts for 0. Furthermore.

. 1 (Cartesian) Select Show Triad from the menu at the bottom of the dialog and click Apply Version 4.vrt) Close the Read Vertices panel Close the Vertex Tool In the main window.....vrt. to open the Cell Tool Click Read Cells. select Plot > Up Axis > Z Check that the Geometry plot option and Hidden Surface plot type are selected Click Cplot Select View > Isometric > 1 1 1 Check the coordinate system used to create the mesh: • • • 14-14 In the main window. to open the Read Vertices panel Accept the default values and click Apply (pro-STAR will read in vertex data from file impinge. select Tools > Cell. In the Title box type SPRAY WALL IMPINGEMENT AND LIQUID FILM • In the Subtitle Line 1 box type Impingement distance: 24 mm • Click Apply and Close The pro-STAR Model Guide should be displayed on your screen. collect all cells into a set by selecting C > All Collect all vertices into a set by selecting V > All Define the z-axis as the vertical axis and then display the imported mesh: • • • • In the main window.. to open the Vertex Tool Click on Read Vertices. click the button to open the Coordinate Systems dialog Select coordinate system no.cel) Close the Cell Read panel Close the Cell Tool In the main window.Tutorial 14.. select File > Model Title.cel and impinge. These can be imported using pro-STAR’s GUI panels as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • In the main window. • • • • • Mesh Creation Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select option Transient from the Time Domain menu Select option Lagrangian from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu Select On from the Liquid Films menu Click Apply The computational mesh data are stored in files impinge. next to the main pro-STAR window. to open the Cell Read panel Accept the default values and click Apply (pro-STAR will read in cell data from file impinge.08 .2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Mesh Creation • • • Click Continue In the main window... select Tools > Vertex..

as shown in Figure T14. 10 Select Cylindrical from the drop-down menu on the bottom left and enter the following values in the adjacent boxes: xc = 0 yc = 0 zc = 0 Rxy = 0 Ryz = 0 Rzx = –180 • • • Version 4. What is now needed is to define a local cylindrical coordinate system with the same origin and with its z-axis along the injection direction: • • • In the Coordinate Systems dialog.2-2 Figure T14.2-2 3D Cartesian mesh It can be seen that the origin is already at the desired location (the injector nozzle tip).Tutorial 14. click Replot to display the location of this system. choose Hide Triad from the menu and click Apply Select system no.08 Select New (Local) from the menu at the bottom of the dialog and click Apply Ensure system no. 10 is selected then choose Show Triad from the menu and click Apply In the main window. ensure system no. 14-15 .2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Mesh Creation • Change the plot type to Quick Hidden Line to display the mesh. 1 is selected.

select View > Axis > -Z In the Create Boundaries panel ensure region 1 is selected. 10 is selected.08 . The bottom Specification wall is the only region that can support a liquid film.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Boundary Specification • • • shown in Figure T14. 1.2-3. 0. • • • • • • • • • • • • 14-16 Select the Locate Boundaries folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the Create Boundaries panel Select region 1 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall for Type and enter Film_Wall-Z in the Name box Click Define In the main window. choose Create by Picking Surface based on Edges from the Action List and click Apply Click on any bottom-wall vertex displayed in the main window Select region 2 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall for Type. then choose Hide Triad from the menu and click Apply Select system no.2-3 3D Cartesian mesh with the injector location at 0. 0. enter Side_Wall+X in the Name box Click Define In the main window. in local coordinate system number 10 Boundary We next define the bottom and side walls as distinct boundary regions. The side walls are defined as separate regions only in order to facilitate the film boundary specification. then choose Set Active from the menu and click Apply Close the Coordinate Systems dialog Figure T14. and confirm that it has been defined correctly Ensure system no. select View > Axis > +X Version 4.Tutorial 14.

08 Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder Open the Gravity panel Check that the Direction of Gravity Force is set to (0.Tutorial 14. Assign physical properties to the two gaseous components (air and fuel vapour) in the solution domain: • • • • • • Version 4. select View > Axis > -Y In the Create Boundaries panel. and their surrounding gas. ensure region 3 and Create by Picking Surface based on Edges are selected and click Apply Click on any side-wall vertex displayed in the main window Select region 4 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall for Type. 0. This is done purely in order to prepare the model in advance for a more general simulation in which heat and mass transfer occur between the spray droplets. -1) in coordinate system number 1 and then click Apply Select the Liquids and Gases folder Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel and check that the Material # selected at the top of the panel is set to 1 Select Ideal-f(T.P) as the Density option and then click Apply 14-17 .2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Material Properties and Physical Models • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In the Create Boundaries panel. select B > All Click to enable the Display Boundaries option and check the boundaries that have just been defined Click the Display Boundaries button again to turn off boundary plotting The mesh set-up is now complete. the liquid film. select View > Axis > -X In the Create Boundaries panel. the model set-up described below is for a non-isothermal case. ensure region 2 and Create by Picking Surface based on Edges are selected and click Apply Click on any side-wall vertex displayed in the main window Select region 3 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall for Type.1. select View > Axis > +Y In the Create Boundaries panel. ensure region 5 and Create by Picking Surface based on Edges are selected and click Apply Click on any side-wall vertex displayed in the main window Select View > Isometric > 1. enter Side_Wall-Y in the Name box Click Define In the main window. ensure region 4 and Create by Picking Surface based on Edges are selected and click Apply Click on any side-wall vertex displayed in the main window Select region 5 in the Boundary Regions scroll list Select Wall for Type. enter Side_Wall+Y in the Name box Click Define In the main window. enter Side_Wall-X in the Name box Click Define In the main window. Material Properties and Physical Models Although the problem in this case is essentially isothermal.1 In the main window.

1 to be the product of droplet evaporation and import its physical properties from pro-STAR’s built-in database: • • • • • In the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder.Tutorial 14.5e+06 in the Pressure box and then click Apply Define scalar no.08 . select the Additional Scalars sub-folder Open the Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel and check that the Scalar # option at the top of the panel is set to 1 Choose option Select scalar from database from the menu at the top of the panel Select C12H26 DODECANE (V) from the scalar database scroll list and then select option Define user scalar from the menu at the top of the panel The physical properties of dodecane vapour are read in from pro-STAR’s property database to the appropriate panel boxes. Check that the displayed values are reasonable and then click Apply Droplet Properties The maximum number of droplet parcels required for this case (10.35 Check that option Use Gradient is selected in the Interpolation Method menu Accept the default value of 0. All defaults are acceptable Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Enter 1.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Droplet Properties • • • • • • • • Activate the turbulence calculations by opening the Turbulence Models panel and selecting On for the Turbulence option Choose k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number from the Model menu in the Turbulence tab and then click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel and select On for the Temperature Calculation option Check that option Thermal is selected in the Enthalpy menu Click Apply Open the Fluid Initialization panel and check the values in the Flow Conditions tab.35 for the Under-Relaxation of Lagrangian Sources term Type 10000 in the Maximum Number of Parcels box Check that Spray injection with atomization is selected for the Droplet Mode option Click Apply Activate the turbulent dispersion model and define transport mechanisms and physical properties for the droplets: • 14-18 Open the Droplet Physical Models panel Version 4.000) is above the default maximum allowed by the code. so it is necessary at this point to resize pro-STAR by issuing the following commands from the I/O window: MEMORY MAXDRP 10000 MEMORY WRITE Check the basic control settings for droplets: • • • • • • • Select folder Lagrangian Multi-Phase and open the Droplet Controls panel Check that option Coupled is selected in the Two-Phase Lagrangian Calculations menu and keep the default Courant number 0.

1 (i.0003 Coordinate System — 10 Ensure that option Fixed is selected for the fuel Mass Flow Rate. select option Bai for the Droplet Behavior and accept the default values of the model constants Click Apply Specify droplet physical properties for n-Dodecane. activate the Turbulent Dispersion and Gravity Effects options Select option Standard for the Collision Model Click Apply Select the Droplet Physical Models tab In the Momentum Transfer section. select Standard for the Correlation option and accept the default Mass Coefficient and Slip Factor values Select option Standard for the Mass Transfer Calculation Select option Standard for the Heat Transfer Calculation In the Droplet Break-Up section.Tutorial 14. which in this case are to be calculated by STAR using its internal fuel property functions: • • • • • • Open the Droplet Properties panel Choose option Select material from database from the menu at the top of the panel to open the droplet properties database Select item # DODECANE(L) and check the Use Internal Property Calculation box Click the Select button Define scalar no.007 (kg/s) in the Flow Rate box Check that 0 is entered in the Start of Injection box Enter 0. the dodecane vapour) as representing the product of evaporation by selecting 1 C12H26 for the Evaporates to Scalar option In the Droplet Properties panel.e. and then enter a value of 0.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • • • • • • • • In the Global Physical Models tab.08 Specify thermal boundary conditions for the spray impingement plane at the bottom of the box: 14-19 .. Its geometric and physical properties can now be specified: • • • • Open the Spray Injection with Atomization panel Check 3 Dimensional is selected for the Domain and select Huh for the Atomization Model Accept the rest of the default settings in the Spray Options section and click Apply Spray Options In the Define Injectors section. enter the following parameters: Injection Temperature — 293 Hole Diameter — 0. click Apply The injector location was specified earlier using local coordinate system 10. select option Reitz for the Break-Up Model and accept the default values of the model constants In the Droplet-Wall Interaction section.0008 in the End of Injection box Enter 1e+06 in the Number of Parcels/Injector box Check that the value in the Droplet Type # box is 1 and the name DODECANE(L) appears next to it Click Update Injector • • • • • • Boundary Conditions Version 4.

to remind yourself of the relevant region numbers and locations: • • Open the Film Boundaries panel and check that the Condition # slider at the bottom of the panel is set to 1 Enter 1 (the wall region where a film will form at a later stage) in the Film Region # box and 2 (Side_Wall+X) in the Adjacent Region # box and select Region Type Outlet for the boundary condition to be applied to the film Click Apply Set the Condition # slider to 2 Enter 1 in the Film Region # box and 3 (Side_Wall-X) in the Adjacent Region # box and select Region Type Outlet for the film boundary condition Click Apply • • • • Repeat the above process for the adjacent regions 1 and 4 (Side_Wall+Y) for Condition # 3. This signifies that initially there is no film on this wall Define film boundary conditions for all wall regions. Before doing this. select option Fixed from the Wall Heat menu and enter 293 for the boundary Temperature and 0 for its thermal Resistance Click Apply Now define the liquid film model controls.5 Click Apply Version 4.08 14-20 . you may want to review all boundaries again. Note that since the film is formed entirely from wall-impinging droplets. select On from the Liquid Film Activation menu Click Apply Define the film’s initial conditions: • • • Open the Film Initialization panel Check that the Region # slider is set to 1 and enable the Initialize check box Enter 0 in the Thickness box (leaving all other initial conditions at their defaults) and click Apply. • • • Select the Film Physical Models and Properties panel Under the Film Models tab. Analysis Controls Specify various solver parameters and output controls required for this case: • • • Select folder Analysis Controls and open the Solution Method panel Change the Under-Relaxation for Pressure Correction value to 0. its physical properties will be inherited from those droplets and therefore do not need to be specified explicitly.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Pre-Processing Film Model Controls • • • • Film Model Controls Select the Define Boundaries folder and then open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 1 (named Film_Wall-Z) in the scroll list In the Wall Parameters section. • • • Select the Liquid Films folder followed by the Film Controls panel Select On for the Gravity Force option Click Apply The liquid film now needs to be activated. as done in the “Boundary Specification” section. and 1 and 5 (Side_Wall-Y) for Condition # 4 to complete the liquid film boundary condition set-up.Tutorial 14.

01 and set the Differencing Scheme to MARS.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL CFD Analysis Run Time Controls • • • • • • • • Open the Primary Variables panel Go to the Differencing Schemes tab and select MARS for all Flow Variables... it is recommended that STAR is run in double precision mode. saving the model data as shown below: • • • • • • Select File > Save Geometry.08 14-21 . deselect the Cell data option and then select Wall data Select items Film Thickness and Film Velocity in the data scroll list and check that the Post option is enabled for both Select items Film Temperature and Film Mass Fractions and enable the Post options for both Click Apply • • • • • Run Time Controls Set the run time control parameters: • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Check that Run for is selected for the Run time control option and then enter 0.. Check that 0 is entered in the Starting at time box and enter 4e-5 in the Output interval box. check that 0 is entered in the Period start time box and enter 2e-5 in the Time step for period box Click Set Final Operations If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.002 in the Time box Click Apply In the Time Step Option section. Check that 1 is entered in the Geometry Scale Factor box Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. Click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis For flows involving sprays. accepting the default value of the compression level for all equations Click Apply Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel and ensure that C12H26 is selected in the Scalar list.. by typing star -dp Version 4.Tutorial 14. write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR. These settings will ensure that post data will be saved every 2 time steps Select item C12H26 in the data scroll list and enable the Post option In the Data to Write section. accepting the default value of the compression level Click Apply Open the Analysis Output panel Select the Transient tab. Change the Residual Tolerance to 0.

respectively Select None for the Vectors option Click Apply In the main window.ccmt every 2 time steps. select the droplet display option by choosing Plot > Cell Display > Droplets In the pro-STAR Model Guide.5 and 0. select D > All to collect all droplets in the domain into a set Click Plot > Wplot 14-22 Version 4. All stored transient time step data will now be displayed in the Time Step window Plot the film thickness formed at the 20th time step: • • • • • • • • In the Time Step list. select Transient as the Analysis option Click Add File Select file impinge. Post-Processing Open the file containing the transient post data (impinge. select the 10th entry and click the Store Time button Go to the Data tab. select the Particle Tracks folder Open the Plot Droplets panel Ensure that Current Post Data File is selected for the Load From option Click Load Data In the Droplet Plot Options section.-1 Deselect mesh plotting by clicking off the Display Mesh Lines button Select edge plotting by clicking on the Display Edges button Add droplets to this plot: • • • • • • • • • • • In the main window. select item Film Thickness Click Get Data In the main window.08 .ccmt from the Transient list and click Open Transient file. The simulation should run for 100 time steps and save flow field data to file tut. select plot option Contour and plot type Hidden Surface Select View > Isometric > 1.1. Select Wall for the Data Type and On for the Smooth option In the Scalar Data list. The analysis will then start automatically.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Post-Processing Final Operations in your session window.Tutorial 14.001 in the Maximum Droplet Diameter and Droplet Reference Value boxes.ccmt): • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select Off for the Edge Plot Options Select Diameter for the Droplet Size option and enter 0. select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab.

. transient results for spray and liquid film problems are best viewed by means of an on-screen animation.Tutorial 14. Again.2 SPRAY IMPINGEMENT ON A WALL Post-Processing Animations Figure T14. enter anim as the macro Name Type the following commands in the Command window: store first *define noex store next getd post dset all getw lfthk cave all bset news regi 1 vset news bset cset news name wall cset subs vset all wplot *end *loop 1 49 Version 4. “Macros” in the CCM User Guide) to produce an animation of the film and droplet development. • • • Select Panels > Define Macro.1.2-4 Droplet and liquid film thickness contour plot The above steps may be repeated for other times and variables of interest.08 14-23 .. Animations As pointed out in Tutorial 14. from the menu bar on the main window In the Define Macro panel. use pro-STAR’s macro facility (see Chapter 18.

Final Operations • • Click Close on the Define Macro panel Select File > Quit > Quit.• • • Click Save.MAC will be saved to your local directory Ensure .Nosave . The file anim.anim is selected in the Macro List and click Execute on the Define Macro panel Click Close on the Define Macro panel The above executes all commands within the loop 50 times to produce successive snapshots of the spray and liquid film state at every saved time step.

The edge stripping model is used to calculate the film stripping effect from the sharp edge at the beginning of the sloping section and the characteristics of the droplets formed subsequently.Tutorial 14. The relevant boundary conditions for this case are as follows: Inlet velocity: 30 m/s Pressure at the pressure boundary: 1 bar Initial film thickness: 0. the solution domain comprises three sections: a straight inlet section.08 14-25 .3 Introduction LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT This tutorial demonstrates the following liquid film modelling features: • • Liquid film stripping and re-entrainment at a sharp edge ‘Freezing’ the gas flow field (velocity and pressure) obtained from a steady-state analysis and using it to drive the droplet and film motion in a transient calculation where only the droplet and film transport equations are solved.5 mm Initial film velocity: 0. As the film is transported downstream due to the gas shear forces. As shown in Figure T14. This technique has the significant advantage of speeding up the transient run but is valid only for cases where the film and droplet behaviour does not significantly influence the gas flow. stripping takes place and re-entrained droplets are formed and transported out of the solution domain through the pressure boundary. Once the film thickness reaches a critical value. This steady-state field is the agent that drives the liquid film and droplet motion in a transient simulation where only the droplet and film transport equations are solved.5 m/s Inlet (#3) Wall (#6) Pressure (#2) Wall (#5) Initial film wall (#1) Figure T14.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Introduction Tutorial 14.3-1. is obtained from a steady-state analysis using the k-ε turbulence model. it accumulates at the top end of the slope.3-1 Wall (#5) Schematic of the problem geometry Version 4. At the start of the transient calculation. Physical Problem Description The tutorial simulates liquid film flow in a channel together with stripping and droplet re-entrainment at the edge of a slope. which separates at the beginning of the slope. The gas flow field. a liquid film of uniform thickness is placed on the lower wall of the inlet section. a sloping section and a straight outlet section.

mdl) that defines the model and a solution file (strip_ss. you are then ready to set up a transient liquid film simulation: • • • • • • • • • • Analysis Features Start up pro-STAR by typing prostar at the command line Specify your preferred graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type strip_tr in the Case Name box Deselect the Resume From Existing . These files are a pro-STAR model file (strip_ss. In the Resume Model From dialog. the Lagrangian multi-phase calculation must also be activated: • • • • • Open the Analysis Features panel Select option Transient from the Time Domain menu Select option Lagrangian from the Multi-Phase Treatment menu Select option On from the Liquid Films menu Click Apply Droplet Properties Although no droplets are present at the start of the calculation.08 • 14-26 . Physical properties must also be set for the re-entrained droplets: • At the pro-STAR command line.MAC) supplied with the STAR-CD installation. and in the Subtitle 1 box. suitable settings must be made to allow for their formation later on in the simulation due to film stripping. copy the relevant files into your current directory.. As the tutorial starts from a pre-existing steady-state solution. type MEMORY MAXDRP 10000 MEMORY WRITE • • • • • Select the Lagrangian Multi-Phase folder Open the Droplet Controls panel Select Uncoupled for the Two-Phase Lagrangian Calculations Type 10000 in the Maximum Number of Parcels box Choose User Subroutine from the Droplet Mode menu.. so that neither Spray injection with atomization nor Explicitly defined parcel injection will be selected. With these files in place.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Pre-Processing Preliminaries Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a sub-directory for this tutorial called tut14-3.Tutorial 14. even though the DROICO user subroutine will not be used Accept the defaults for all other parameters and click Apply Version 4. For film stripping and droplet re-entrainment.echo File? option Click Continue Select File > Resume Model From. select File name strip_ss.mdl File? option Deselect the Append to Previous .ccmp) containing the analysis results..mdl and click OK Select File > Model Title.. Also copy the macro file (combi. type Transient Click Apply and Close to close the Model Title dialog The transient film calculation option is selected in the Analysis Features folder of the pro-STAR Model Guide.

select option Standard and accept the default Mass Coefficient and Slip Factor values Select option Bai for the Droplet-Wall Interaction and accept the default values of the model constants Click Apply Open the Droplet Properties panel Choose Select material from database from the pull-down menu at the top of the panel Select H2O_l [WATER(L)] from the list and click Select Accept default values for the relevant properties and click Apply Define the liquid film model controls and properties and activate the edge stripping model for film stripping from sharp edges: • • • • • • Select the Liquid Films folder Open the Film Controls panel Set the Stripping from Edge option to On Check that the default Droplet Type is 1 (water) and accept all other default values Select region number 1 (Film_Wall-Y) using the Region # slider bar Click Apply Activate the liquid film model for the specified film material (water): • • • • • • Select the Film Physical Models and Properties panel Under the Film Models tab. Version 4. select On from the Liquid Film Activation menu Click Database to open the Droplet Properties Database and select H2O_l [WATER(L)] from the list Click Select Click Apply on the Film Models tab Under the Film Properties tab.e. This signifies that initially there is no film on this wall.5 m/s in the U box.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Pre-Processing Film Model Controls • • • • • • • • Film Model Controls Open the Droplet Physical Models panel and select the Droplet Physical Models tab For Momentum Transfer. leave all other initial conditions at their defaults and click Apply. accept default values for the relevant properties and click Apply Specify liquid film initial conditions on the inlet section’s lower walls (boundary regions 1 and 5): • • • • • Open the Film Initialization panel Check that the Region # slider is set to 1 and enable the Initialize check box Enter 0.5 mm) in the Thickness box and 0. Leave all other initial conditions at their defaults and click Apply. a thickness of 0. no film boundaries need to be defined.Tutorial 14.0005 (i. As there are no walls adjacent to regions 1 (the initial film region) and 5 (the wall region where a film may form at a later stage).08 14-27 . Set the Region # slider to 5 and enable the Initialize check box Enter 0 in the Thickness box.

02 seconds in the Output interval box. Check that 0 seconds is shown in the Starting at time box and enter 0. The steady state solution strip_ss.ccmp from the list and click Open Click Apply Final Operations Write all files needed to run the STAR solver and then quit pro-STAR: • • • • • • Select File > Save Geometry from the main pro-STAR menu bar In the Save Geometry File dialog. p.08 . select strip_ss. The post data will be saved every 4 time steps since we will set the time step size to be 0.005 in the Time step for period box Click Set Open the Restart panel Select Initial Field from the Restart File Option menu Click the browser icon to the right of the Restart File box. k. deselect all flow variables and properties (u. check that 1 is shown for the Geometry Scale Factor Click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem In the Save Problem File dialog. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit 14-28 Version 4.Tutorial 14. w. ε and viscosity) Click Apply Open the Analysis Output panel Select the Transient tab. select items Film Thickness and Film Velocity and check that the Post option is enabled for both Select Film Mass in the list and enable the Post option Click Apply • • • • Run Time Controls Here we set the time step size to 0.005 seconds and run for a total of 1 second. v.005 seconds (see “Run Time Controls” below) Deselect option Cell and select option Wall in the Data to Write section In the variables scroll list.ccmp is used as an initial flow field for the restart run: • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Analysis Preparation folder Open the Run Time Controls panel Select the Run for option from the Run time control menu and type 1 in the Time box Click Apply Check that Constant is selected from the Time Step Method menu Check that 0 is shown in the Period start time box and enter 0.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Pre-Processing Analysis Controls Analysis Controls Deactivate the solution of all gas flow variables so as to freeze the gas flow field: • • • • • • Open the Analysis Controls folder Select the Primary Variables panel Under the Equation Status tab.

select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel Under the File(s) tab.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT CFD Analysis Load the Transient Data File CFD Analysis Run the case in double precision in your session window: star -dp The analysis will start automatically. 1 from the View/Zoom toolbar to display Figure T14. -1.ccmt every 4 time steps.ccmt): • • • • • • Start pro-STAR and accept the default Case Name strip_tr In the pro-STAR Model Guide tree.ccmt from the Transient list and then click Open Transient file. select time step number 200 and click Store Time Go to the Data tab and select Wall for the Data Type In the Scalar Data list.08 14-29 . scroll to the end of the list. select plot option Contour Click Wplot Turn mesh plotting Off by clicking the Display Mesh Lines button.Tutorial 14. select the Transient Analysis option Click Add File Select file strip_tr. All the saved transient time steps will now be displayed in the Time Step window Read in the last set of results and make a contour plot of film thickness: • • • • • • • • • • • In the Time Step list. Post-Processing Load the Transient Data File Open the file containing the transient post data (strip_tr. Turn on the Display Edges option Go to the Options tab of the Create Plots panel and select User for the colour scale Range Enter 1. select item Film Thickness Click Get Data In the main window.4E-3 in the To box and then click Apply Select View > Isometric > -1. The simulation runs for 200 time steps and solution data will be saved in file strip_tr.3-2 Version 4.

select D > All to collect all droplets in the domain into a set Click Plot > Wplot to display Figure T14.Tutorial 14. select the Particle Tracks folder Open the Plot Droplets panel Check that Current Post Data File is selected for the Load From option Click Load Data In the Droplet Plot Options section.08 .3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Post-Processing Load the Transient Data File Figure T14.3-3 14-30 Version 4. select the droplet display option by choosing Plot > Cell Display > Droplets In the pro-STAR Model Guide. select Off for the Edge Plot Options Select Diameter for the Droplet Size option and enter 0.3-2 Film thickness contour plot at t=1 second Add the droplet display to this plot: • • • • • • • • • • • In the main pro-STAR window menu bar.2 in the Maximum Droplet Diameter box Select None for the Vectors option Click Apply In the main window.

• • • Select Panels > Define Macro.1. enter anim as the macro Name Type the following commands in the Command window: store..Tutorial 14.. transient results for spray and liquid film problems are best viewed by means of an on-screen animation.3-3 Droplet and liquid film thickness plot Animation The above steps may be repeated for other times and variables of interest.MAC will be saved to your local directory Select . Again.08 14-31 . use pro-STAR’s macro facility (see Chapter 18.itst.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Post-Processing Animation Figure T14.anim in the Macro List and click Execute on the Define Macro panel The above executes all commands within the loop 50 times to produce successive Version 4. As pointed out in Tutorial 14.4 *define noex store next getd post dset all getw lfthk wplot *end *loop 2 50 1 • • Click Save. The file anim. “Macros” in the CCM User Guide) to produce an animation of the film and droplet development. from the menu bar on the main window In the Define Macro panel.

3-4 Film distribution. Nosave from the main menu bar Version 4. rotation and translation operations can be performed on the layered plot.3-4 Figure T14. droplets and gas flow field at 200 time steps All the usual zoom.MAC) is used to produce a plot that shows the gas flow field’s influence on the droplets formed due to film stripping at 200 time steps. Final Operations • • Click Close on the Define Macro panel Finally. “Layering Images” in the Post-Processing User Guide). on the main window’s toolbar Select .3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Post-Processing Advanced Post. Advanced PostProcessing A pro-STAR macro (combi.Processing snapshots of the droplets and liquid film state at every saved time step. The extended mode option for graphics plotting must be employed to work with layers: • • Click the Extended Mode On/Off button.Tutorial 14. . The droplets that are formed are carried along by the gas flow field without becoming trapped in the recirculation region. exit from pro-STAR by selecting File > Quit > Quit. Layers are used to show a geometry plot combined with several post data plots (see Chapter 4.08 14-32 . Particle ribbons have been employed to illustrate the ‘frozen’ gas flow field driving the film and re-entrained droplets.combi from the Macro List on the Define Macro panel and click Execute to produce Figure T14. It can be seen that some of the liquid film that has built up at the end of the straight inlet section is stripped from the edge.

Tutorial 14.05 particle.690 0..-0.0.0.0.5 repl layer all dele ! *** ribbons *** ! we will create the ribbons and then export them as shells and vertices ! which allows us to plot them as geometry elements.flow.0.0.0..0 5.2 ! seed particles in the recirculation zone *set nofr 4 *get mxvs mxve *set mxvs mxvs + 1 *set mxvb mxvs + nofr .line.1 vpcreate.0.reverse $repl trload.steady.noadj.257 angle 0 distance 1.2167..-1 .176 0.1 particle.add.0001.rast hrsd image edge off plme.mxvh.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Post-Processing Final Operations Post-processing Macro (combi.mxvl. .itst..05 particle.1.strip_tr. term.nofp.54.off view -0.add.07129.trk.2 !create the particle tracks ptrack.45.05.0.0. ! seed particles from the inlet *set nofp 10 *get mxvl mxve *set mxvl mxvl + 1 *set mxvh mxvl + nofp .0.0. .0. exte.1.762 0.group.350 0. c store.0.0..1.coordinates.0.nomvgr.flow..line..MAC) resu.1.0.nofr.0.mxvs.1 particle.0.1.group.200 load.1 vpcreate. which makes the use ! of the layer option easier.coordinates. memo maxdrp 300 ! *** general *** clrm.1.633 center 0.mxvb.-1.-0.0.08 14-33 .strip_tr. getv all !determines the min and max ctypes for the shells Version 4.49.0.ccmt.

part..1.cel vread ribbons. 0 $replot bset dele gran.5 repl bset add inlet bset add pressure bset add regi 1 vset.01 view -0.690 0..no ptplot.350 0.cset vset news cset vwrit ribbons.cel.cel clos ribbons.1. news..0.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Post-Processing Final Operations that will be reimported *get mxcl mxct *set mxcl mxcl + 1 *set mxch mxcl + nofp + nofr .1 !plot the ribbons ptoption.0e30.contour.0. name.1.0. 0.on.-0.1 !export the ribbons as shells and vertices cset news type mxcl mxch cwri.633 center 0.vrt !clear the particle tracks and wall cells ptplot clear clrw !read the ribbons shells back into the model crea ribbons.1.0. news.vrt cset news type mxcl mxch popt geom cplo layer ribb store layer ribb hide ! *** geometry *** !get some wall data to create shells on the model *get mxcl mxct getw LFTHK cset none popt geom cset.vrt. -1.ribbons.257 angle 0 distance 1..762 0...176 0.08 .novr.999999. 02.-1. bset 14-34 Version 4.ribbons.clear ptplot.vset clos ribbons..plot.Tutorial 14.bregion $replot view... wall cset add name symmetry bset news symp cdis.

LFTHK popt cont bset news region 1 vset news bset cset news name wall cset subs vset all caver cset wplo layer film stor layer film hide clrt default ! *** layer layer layer layer repl Version 4.diameter.0 dopt.vect.0.vecm.1 dopt.edge.0.34.1 dopt.0 dopt.peri.off.off dopt.0.fill.0 cset none popt cont csca auto getd post dset all dplot layer drop store layer drop hide ! *** film *** cset none cscale 14 user 1.0.0e-4 4.Tutorial 14. gray ctab.3 LIQUID FILM STRIPPING AND RE-ENTRAINMENT Post-Processing Final Operations cset.0.0.radm.5e-4 getw.34.0.0.mxcl + 2.0.1.0.color.0. vset.bregion cplo clrt.0 ctab.1.mxcl + 1.none.off. face cdis.3-4 *** geom show ribb show drop show film show 14-35 .shell.0 lswi smooth noedge repl layer geom store layer geom hide ! *** droplet *** cdis on droplet dopt.off.04 $dopt.08 figure 14. dele.radi.shell.

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2) Run the model using the Two-Competing-Steps Devolatilisation and Eddy Break-Up gaseous combustion models (Tutorial 15.0-1.Physical Problem Description Tutorial 15 COAL COMBUSTION Physical Problem Description The following tutorials describe in detail how to set up. located at one end.3) Using this type of modelling strategy to achieve a solution in three stages is the Version 4. The primary inlet also acts as a pulverised coal carrier. as shown in Figure T15. Primary Inlet Outlet Furnace Wall Secondary Inlet Tertiary Inlet Figure T15. Flow exits the domain through an outlet situated at the opposite end of the furnace. and this is provided with the STAR-CD installation.08 15-1 .1) Run the model using the Constant Rate Devolatilisation and Eddy Break-Up gaseous combustion models (Tutorial 15. run and post-process a simple CFD problem involving coal combustion. The problem geometry represents a furnace with three concentric air inlets. a primary (inner).0-1 Coal combustion furnace mesh geometry Modelling Strategy The following modelling strategy was adopted: • • • Perform an initial run in non-reacting and isothermal mode (Tutorial 15.ccmg format file. The mesh was previously generated and stored as a . Air enters the solution domain through the tertiary inlet and has a swirling velocity component. a secondary (middle) and a tertiary (outer) one. A hexahedral mesh is used to model the problem.

However. for very simple problems. 15-2 Version 4. both. or even. it may be possible to reach a good solution by missing out the first or second stages.Modelling Strategy recommended method for all coal combustion cases.08 . for some problems.

select File > Model Title.1 ISOTHERMAL..ccmg Click Apply The following information should appear in the I/O window: Verify that the mesh has been imported correctly by selecting all cells and boundaries and plotting the mesh in ‘Hidden Surface’ mode: • • • • • Version 4. Therefore. In the Title text box type COAL COMBUSTION .0-1. make sure that this file is copied into your working directory. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Create a working directory for the tutorial named tut15-1. NON-REACTING FLOW Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 15. This will allows a stable flow field to be obtained before the coal combustion models are introduced.ccmg. Start up pro-STAR in this directory and begin the modelling task by specifying the case name and problem title: • • • • • • Type prostar at the command line Specify the graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type coal_iso in the Case Name text box Click Continue In the main pro-STAR window. next to the main Mesh pro-STAR window..ISOTHERMAL ANALYSIS • Click Apply and Close Importing the Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide displayed on your screen.Tutorial 15. For this problem. This tutorial gives a detailed account of how to set up the isothermal.08 In the main window. the mesh geometry data are supplied in file furnace. • • • • Select folder Grids and then open the Import Grids panel Select CCM as the file Format Change the Geometry File name to furnace. select C > All to select all cells Select B > All to select all boundaries Check that Hidden Surface is the default cell plot type Click to enable the Display Boundaries option Click Cplot 15-3 . non-reacting coal case for the furnace shown in Figure T15.1 ISOTHERMAL. before starting the tutorial. NON-REACTING FLOW For most coal combustion simulations it is advisable to run the case initially as an isothermal problem.

NON-REACTING FLOW Pre-Processing Model Specification • • • Change the viewpoint to approximately (-1. Figure T15.Tutorial 15. check that Steady State is selected. 1 and verify that the Material # value is 1 Click Close to exit the Cell Editor Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder followed by sub folder Liquids and Gases Open the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Version 4.1-1 Note the positions of the three concentric inlet boundaries. click to display the Cell Editor Select cell type no.0. -1. 0.08 .5. Check this via the Cell Editor: • • • • • 15-4 In the main pro-STAR window.1 ISOTHERMAL. This is essential because coal combustion simulations are not feasible in transient mode • Click Apply Material Assignment and Thermal Options All fluid cells should already be assigned to material number 1 by default.0) using the orientation cube’s slider controls Remove the wall boundaries from the display by selecting B > Unselect > Wall and clicking Replot Zoom in on the red inlet boundaries to create a plot resembling Figure T15.1-1 Furnace inlet boundaries Model Set up the basic models used in the isothermal case: Specification • Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide • Under Time Domain.

06 m Enter a value of 1 kg/m3 in the Density box Enter a value of 353 K in the Temperature box Click Apply Select region 2 . Intensity of 0. The flow is compressible and without pressure dependency so select Ideal-f(T) for the Density option Select Polynomial for the Specific Heat option and click on Define Polynomial In the Polynomial Function Definition dialog. select N2 from the CHEMKIN Database scroll list Click Apply Database Substance Close the dialog and then click Apply at the bottom of the Molecular Properties (Fluids) panel Open the Turbulence Models panel and select On for the Turbulence option Choose the k-Epsilon/High Reynolds Number Model Leave all settings as their default values and click Apply Open the Thermal Models panel and select On from the Temperature Calculation menu Click Apply Open the Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel The default monitoring location (cell number 1) is suitable. select region 1 .1 and a Length of 0. Enter 2 in the Coordinate System box Enter an axial velocity component of 20 m/s in the W box and a tangential velocity component of 10 m/s in the V box Select TI/Length for the Turbulence Switch option 15-5 • • Version 4. outlet and wall boundary regions. Change the reference Pressure Cell Number to 8279 and the Pressure to 101325 Pa Click Apply The model consists of inlet. Intensity of 0.Inlet.08 . NON-REACTING FLOW Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions • • • • • • • • • • • • • Boundary Conditions The default material is air. The velocity. the velocity components need to be entered in the global cylindrical coordinate system. This is the tertiary air inlet To specify a swirling flow at this inlet.01 m Enter a value of 1 kg/m3 in the Density box Enter a value of 353 K in the Temperature box Click Apply Select region 3 . which is suitable for this case.Tutorial 15. then open the Define Boundary Regions panel In this panel.1 and a Length of 0.1 ISOTHERMAL. This is the primary air inlet Enter an axial velocity value of 10 m/s in the W box Select TI/Length for the Turbulence Switch option Enter a Turb.Inlet. thermal and turbulence boundary conditions need to be specified for these: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Define Boundaries folder. This is the secondary air inlet Enter an axial velocity value of 10 m/s in the W box Select TI/Length for the Turbulence Switch option Enter a Turb.Inlet.

In the Save Problem File dialog. non-reacting flow field which will help to achieve a stable flame and flow field once coal combustion is turned on. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. Analysis Controls The solution and output controls need to specified next: • • • • • • Run Time Controls Open the Analysis Controls > Primary Variables panel In the Solver Parameters tab. as shown below.1 ISOTHERMAL.. you may continue with the CFD analysis using the pro-STAR Model Guide facilities for running STAR interactively. which is suitable for this case so no changes are necessary for boundary regions 5 and 6. check that the Relaxation Factor is 0. Therefore.001: • • • • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Type 1000 in the Maximum Number of Iterations box Check that the Maximum Residual Tolerance is 0.001 Click Apply Open the Restart panel The setting of the Restart File Option menu should be None as this run starts from the default initial conditions Click Apply Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete.. no-slip and stationary. This can be achieved by setting the maximum iteration number to 1000 and the residual error tolerance to 0.1 and a Length of 0. Alternatively. click Save Select File > Quit > Save & Quit 15-6 Version 4. the solver must perform a sufficiently large number of iterations to reach a converged isothermal flow field.3 for Pressure and 0.01 m Enter a value of 0.Tutorial 15. • • • • • In the main pro-STAR panel.. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage.. save all model data. NON-REACTING FLOW Pre-Processing Analysis Controls • • • • • • Enter a Turb.Outlet and enter a value of 1 in the Flow Split box Click Apply The default conditions for wall boundaries are adiabatic. select File > Save Geometry. In the Save Geometry File dialog.616 kg/m3 in the Density box Enter a value of 573 K in the Temperature box Click Apply Select region 4 . write the geometry and problem files and exit from pro-STAR.08 .7 for Momentum and Turbulence Click Apply Open the Monitor Numeric Behavior panel Enable the Iteration Residuals and Conservation Check option in the Print section Leave all other options at their default values and click Apply The aim of this tutorial is to establish a stable. Intensity of 0.

NON-REACTING FLOW CFD Analysis Preliminaries CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively. Click Sect.08 15-7 . Click Start The analysis will then start automatically. Leave all other settings at their default values.1 ISOTHERMAL.Tutorial 15. Convergence should be achieved within the specified maximum number of iterations. select plot option Contour Select View > Axis > -Z Turn off the Display Boundaries option by clicking the button Click the Zoom Off button. Post-Processing Preliminaries Read in the results of the analysis from file coal_iso.ccmp: • • • PostProcessing Select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel and display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file Begin by displaying a temperature contour plot to show the mixing of the two inlet streams: • • • • • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel Check that Cell is selected from the Data Type menu Select On and All for the Smooth option Select Temperature from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data In the main pro-STAR window. Slice and draw a horizontal cross-section trace through the centre of the furnace Select View > SNormal View Select plot type Section (Surface) to display Figure T15.1-2 Version 4. proceed as follows: • • • • • Select File > Save Model In the Analysis Preparation folder open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Check that the units in which the model was built are correctly selected (option button Meters) Select Double Precision.

5 -1.Processing Figure T15.1-3 15-8 Version 4.1 ISOTHERMAL. NON-REACTING FLOW Post-Processing Post.0 • at the pro-STAR command line in the I/O window Click Replot to display Figure T15.Tutorial 15.08 .0 0.1-2 Temperature contours through the centre of the furnace Next. plot velocity vectors on the surface of the furnace to show the swirling nature of the flow: • • • • • • • • • Return to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and check that Cell is selected from the Data Type menu Turn Off the Smooth option Select item Velocity Components UVW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel In the 3-D Surface tab select Option Vector Select Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen Type VIEW -1.

1-3 Velocity vectors shown on the furnace surface Final Operations • Exit from pro-STAR by choosing File > Quit > Quit.08 15-9 . Nosave from the main window menu. Version 4.1 ISOTHERMAL. NON-REACTING FLOW Post-Processing Final Operations Figure T15.Tutorial 15.

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• • Version 4. Rename the model file coal_const. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Before running pro-STAR. it is necessary to activate the Lagrangian Two-Phase and Coal Combustion models.Tutorial 15. In the Title text box type COAL COMBUSTION WITH CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION • Click Apply and Close As part of setting up a coal combustion case.1 (coal_iso. To do this: • • • • Open the Analysis Features panel in the pro-STAR Model Guide Select Lagrangian for the Multi-Phase Treatment option Select Coal Combustion for the Reacting Flow option Click Apply and then click Yes to proceed. it is generally necessary to employ the constant rate devolatilisation model to establish the combustion conditions and a stable flame and flow field.ccmg) into it. the strategy in this case is to use the following sub-models: • • • Constant rate devolatilisation First-order char oxidisation Eddy break-up two-step gas combustion The model can then be changed to the Single-Step or 2-Competing-Steps devolatilisation model (as described in Tutorial 15. Start up pro-STAR and begin the modelling task by specifying the problem title: • • • • • • Check that coal_const is shown in the Case Name box Select the Resume From Existing . When running a large-scale simulation.1.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION This tutorial gives a detailed account of how to set up and run a coal combustion model. The folders named Lagrangian Multi-Phase and Thermophysical Models and Properties > Reacting Flow will be activated in the pro-STAR Model Guide tree. Therefore.mdl File? option Deselect the Append to Previous .mdl. coal_iso. The problem geometry and flow conditions are as described at the beginning of Tutorial 15 and the analysis is run from the non-reacting solution produced in Tutorial 15.echo File? option Click Continue Select File > Model Title...ccmp and coal_iso.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Preliminaries Tutorial 15.08 15-11 . create a directory for the tutorial named tut15-2 and copy the model and solution files obtained in Tutorial 15.3) and the analysis continued from the Constant Rate solution.mdl. Select C > All and then click Cplot Click the Zoom Off button to display the mesh.

. 15-12 Version 4. and of surface-to-surface radiation. shown below.08 . Display the patches to confirm that the operation has been carried out properly: • In the main pro-STAR window. using default gaseous radiation properties.BYFA BSET ADD REGI NREG *END *LOOP 1 5 The above loop will create 1. radiation beams are only tracked through those cells that are explicitly defined as participating in radiative heat transfer.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Thermal Options Thermal Options An important element in an accurate coal combustion simulation is radiation modelling. The radiation model in this tutorial includes the effects of the intervening gas. The radiation patches should appear as shown in Figure T15. In STAR-CD. of particle radiation. This can be done most conveniently by means of a pro-STAR command loop.984 patches. it is necessary to subdivide all boundary regions into radiation patches. select option Discrete Transfer Internal VF Calc Enable the Participating option to include gaseous radiation effects in the calculation Change the Under-relaxation for wall temperature to 1 Accept the remaining default settings and click Apply To use the Discrete Transfer model.2-1. select Plot > Cell Display > Boundary Patches. choosing the Discrete Transfer solution method in conjunction with the internal view factor and participating media calculation options: • • • • • Radiation Patches Select the Thermophysical Models and Properties folder and open the Thermal Options panel In the Radiation section of the panel.Tutorial 15. Assign a unique patch to every boundary in every relevant region. To specify that radiation should be tracked through all cells in the furnace interior: • • • • • Click in the main pro-STAR window to open the Cell Editor Select row 1 in the scroll list Select On from the Radiation menu Click Apply Close the Cell Editor Turn radiation on. typed into pro-STAR’s I/O window: BSET NONE *SET NREG 1 1 *DEFINE BPATCH NREG. These are used both during view factor calculations and for evaluating the radiative heat transfer.

Start by inspecting the cell numbers in the region of interest: • • • • • • • In the main window.2-1 Radiation patches on mesh surface The entire surface of the mesh is coloured. We will define cell number 5918 as the monitoring cell Open the Thermophysical Models and Properties > Liquids and Gases > Monitoring and Reference Data (Fluids) panel Type 5918 in the Monitoring Cell Number box Click Apply Select Plot > Number > Cell again to deselect the plot cell number option Click the Zoom Off button.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Other Settings Figure T15.Tutorial 15.08 15-13 . Coal The next stage is to define the coal composition: Combustion • Open the Thermophysical Models and Properties > Reacting Flow > Coal Model Set-up Combustion > Coal Composition panel Version 4. This eases the task of checking for the onset of combustion as temperature and product concentrations build up rapidly at that point once combustion begins. • Select Plot > Cell Display > Boundary Patches again to deselect the patch cell plot display option Other Settings It is good practice to define one of the cells near the expected centre of the flame as the monitoring point. select Plot > Number > Cell Zoom in on the mesh shown on-screen to have a closer look at the displayed numbers. There is also one radiation patch on each boundary face. indicating that radiation patches are present everywhere.

8 Click Apply Open the Control/Printout panel Enter a value of 0. A warning message will appear telling you that pro-STAR will delete any existing scalars and reaction mechanisms and will create new ones. 10000.8% Fixed Carbon and 11. 1.5 is displayed in the Q-factor box (see equation (8-3) in Chapter 8 of the CCM User Guide for the Q-factor definition) Enter a Net Calorific Value of 3. select the Eddy Break-Up Scheme and the 2-step Combustion Mechanism Click Apply.3% Ash Click Apply Select the Ultimate tab to enter data for the coal’s ultimate analysis Enter 84.67% N Click Apply Select the Miscellaneous tab Check that a value of 1. Enter 34. check that the 1st Order Effect Scheme is selected Leave all options at their default settings and click Apply Under the Gas Combustion tab. 7.3 Select On for the Particle Radiation option in the Radiation section and enter a Particle Emissivity of 0. A low temperature is specified to ensure that combustion is initiated successfully.08 • • • • • • 15-14 . 52.5% Volatile Matter.g.4% Moisture.444 E+7 J/kg Check that the Fraction of Total N in Volatiles value is set to 1 Click Apply The combustion models are specified next: • • • Open the Sub Models panel Check that the Constant Rate Scheme is selected under the Volatiles tab Enter a Devolatilisation Time of 0. If required. the NOx solver can be turned on once the analysis is near convergence and the analysis restarted. This is not done in this run but is done for the Two-Competing-Steps case presented in Tutorial 15. Particle averaging is no longer recommended for use with Lagrangian multi-phase calculations in STAR-CD Click Apply Version 4. This is not done in this run but is done for the Two-Competing-Steps case presented in Tutorial 15. in the Iteration Number to Begin Averaging box.1 in the Under-Relaxation Factor for Particle box Enter a very large value. Click Yes • • • • • The NOx and particle radiation model options and coal particle solution controls are specified next: • • Open the NOx/Radiation panel Ensure that Off is selected for the NOx Model option.06% H.6% O and 1.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Coal Combustion Model Set-up • • • • • • • • • • Under the Proximate tab.6% C. This ensures that particle averaging does not occur in the calculation.3 Click Apply Under the Char tab. 5. enter data for the coal’s proximate analysis. For most cases.01 seconds and a Devolatilisation Temperature of 353 K.Tutorial 15. e. the temperature should be increased to a more realistic value once a stable flow field is reached.

O2 from the list and enter 0. the Heat of Vaporization (Hfg) for each of the seven components should be zero. change the value for Hfg to 0 for all 7 components Change the Density to 1200 kg/m3 under the Bulk Properties section 15-15 .08 Go back to the Coal Combustion folder and select the NOx/Radiation panel Select On for the NOx Model option and click Apply Go back to the Lagrangian Multi-Phase > Droplet Properties panel In the Component Properties section. However. For the Eddy Break-Up gas combustion scheme with the 2-Step combustion mechanism selected in this tutorial.WRITE • • • • • Return to the Droplet Controls panel and enter a value of 2400 in the Maximum Number of Parcels box Click Apply Open the Droplet Physical Models panel Turn On Turbulent Dispersion under the Global Physical Models tab Click Apply The component properties shown in the Droplet Properties panel are set internally in STAR and should not normally be altered. the number of scalars depending on the reaction scheme chosen.767 in the Initial Mass Fraction box Click Apply Particle The following steps define the particle properties and the injection rate and location: Properties • Select folder Lagrangian Multi-Phase and Injection • Open panel Droplet Controls Location • Check that Use Gradient is selected for the Interpolation Method and that Explicitly defined parcel injection is selected for Droplet Mode at the bottom of the panel • To increase the maximum allowable number of droplets. all scalars associated with that model are automatically set up by pro-STAR.233 in the Initial Mass Fraction box Click Apply Select scalar number 8 . If any of them do not have this value: • • • • • Version 4.MAXDRP. • • Open the Thermophysical Models and Properties > Additional Scalars > Molecular Properties (Scalars) panel Use the Scalar # spin box to check that 11 scalars have been defined.N2 from the list and enter 0. type the following commands in the I/O window: MEMO.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Particle Properties and Injection Location When a coal combustion model is selected.2400 MEMO.Tutorial 15. There is no need to change any of the molecular properties for these scalars Specify that the initial flow field consists entirely of air: • • • • • Open the Additional Scalars > Scalar Initialization panel Select scalar number 5 . 11 scalars are created.

select Off for the NOx Model option and click Apply Next.1 in the Droplet Plot Options section Click Apply In the main window.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Particle Properties and Injection Location • • Click Apply Go back to the NOx/Radiation panel.02 at Z = -0. DY=0.1 kg/s in the Rate box Enter a value of 300 in the Number of Parcels/Injection Point box Click Apply Open the Injection Points panel Select Set Type Circle Select Specify for the Circle option Check that the Cylindrical Coordinate System value is 2 and the Injection Direction Coordinate System is 1 Define a circle of Radius 0. click Droplet Plot Zoom in on the injection points to display Figure T15. specify the coal particle injector locations and injection rate: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Select the Injection Definition panel in the Lagrangian Multi-Phase folder Check that the Group Number option at the bottom of the panel is set to 1 Enter a value of 1e-4 m in the Diameter box and a value of 10 m/s in the Velocity Magnitude box Enter a value of 353 K in the Temperature box Check that the Mass Flowrate applies to the Injection Group Enter a value of 0.2-2 15-16 Version 4. DZ=1) Check that Add New Set is selected from the Action menu at the top of the panel and click Apply • • To display the particle injection locations: • • • • • • • • Select the Post-Processing > Particle Tracks > Plot Droplets panel Select Droplet Initial Conditions for the Load From option Click Load Data Change the Maximum Droplet Diameter to 0. type 1 for R (number of rows) and 8 for Theta.02 near to the primary inlet Check that Constant is selected for the Entrance Direction Vector and type 1 in the DZ box (DX=0. This will produce a circle of 8 injection points with a radius of 0.19 For the number of points.Tutorial 15.08 . choose D > All on the Display Sets toolbar In the Plot Droplets panel.

thermal and radiation boundary conditions still need to be specified: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In the pro-STAR Model Guide.08 .Inlet from the list Enter 353 K in the T Radiation box Enter a value of 1 in the Emissivity box Click Apply Select region 3 .Outlet Enter 1000 K in the T Radiation box Enter a value of 1 in the Emissivity box Click Apply 15-17 Version 4. However.2-2 Particle injection positions Boundary Conditions Many of the boundary conditions for inlet.Inlet from the list Enter 353 K in the T Radiation box Enter a value of 1 in the Emissivity box Click Apply Select region 2 .1. outlet and wall boundaries have already been set in Tutorial 15. select folder Define Boundaries and open the Define Boundary Regions panel Select region 1 .2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Boundary Conditions Figure T15.Inlet from the list Enter 573 K in the T Radiation box Enter a value of 1 in the Emissivity box Click Apply Select region 4 .Tutorial 15.

g. This constrains the scalar concentrations to values between 0 and 1 Check that a value of 0.N2 from the Scalar list and enter 0.O2 from the Scalars list Enter 0.Tutorial 15. 10000 appears in the C24 box. This is the maximum allowable particle temperature Enter 283 in the C89 box. This is the maximum allowable gas temperature Click Apply at the bottom of the panel Version 4.767 in the boundary Value box Click Apply Specify exactly the same scalar boundary conditions for region 2 . To run a case involving coal combustion.Wall Change the Wall Heat option to Fixed and enter a value of 400 K in the Temperature box Enter a value of 0.72 and the Reflectivity to 0. it is also necessary to set some pro-STAR Constants that help control the analysis: • • • Open the panel Analysis Controls > Switches and Real Constants Select the Real Constants tab Check that a large value.Inlet from the Boundary Region list Select scalar 5 . Although these defaults are suitable for this tutorial.08 • • • • • • 15-18 .2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Pre-Processing Scalar Boundaries • • • • • • • • • • Scalar Boundaries Select region 5 .Wall Change the Wall Heat option to Fixed and enter a value of 400 K in the Temperature box Enter a value of 0.Inlet and region 3 . This is the particle emissivity value Enter 3000 in the C88 box. e. This high value prevents particle averaging taking place.Inlet Control Parameters Default values for analysis controls such as under-relaxation factors and differencing schemes are set when the models are selected.72 and the Reflectivity to 0. This is the minimum allowable gas temperature Enter 3000 in the C90 box.233 in the boundary Value box Click Apply Select scalar 8 .8 is shown in the C82 box. as discussed in the “Coal Combustion Model Set-up” section Enter 2 in the C64 box.3663 m2K/W for Resistance Set the Emissivity to 0.02 m2K/W for Resistance Set the Emissivity to 0.28 Click Apply Specify that only air enters through the inlet boundaries: • • • • • • • • Open the Scalar Boundaries panel Select region 1 .28 Click Apply Select region 6 . the under-relaxation factors for other cases may need to be changed or a second-order differencing scheme may be required.

the screen output will show information about the coal combustion reaction at every iteration..001 Click Apply Open the Restart panel Select Initial Field for the Restart File Option Enter coal_iso. as described in the next section.. • • • • • In the main window.08 In the main window.. saving all model data in file coal_const. In the Save Geometry File dialog.ccmp as the Restart File Click Apply Final Operations The pre-processing task is now complete. The run should converge within the specified maximum number of iterations.Tutorial 15.1: • • • • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Run Time Controls panel Change the Maximum Number of Iterations to 500 and check that the Maximum Residual Tolerance is set to 0. No ignition model is required File > Quit > Save & Quit CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively proceed as follows: • • • • • Select File > Save Model Select the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select option Double in the Precision section Select Yes for the Write Geometry File option Click Start As well as the usual residual and monitoring data. choose File > Save Geometry.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION CFD Analysis Run Time Controls Run Time Controls Check the status of the run time control parameters and specify that the analysis should restart from the solution obtained in Tutorial 15.. select folder Post-Processing 15-19 .8 GHz Linux machine with 2 GB of RAM) and that the run time cannot be decreased by running in parallel since cases involving the discrete transfer radiation method with participating media cannot be run in this mode. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage. Post-Processing Preliminaries Enter pro-STAR and start the post-processing task by re-plotting the mesh:. • • • Version 4. Alternatively. as shown below. write the geometry and problem files and exit.mdl. select C > New > Fluid Click Cplot In the pro-STAR Model Guide. Note that the analysis will take some time to run (over 1 hour on a 2. click Save. In the Save Problem File dialog. you may run STAR interactively. click Apply and then Close File > Save Problem. Ignore the warning shown in the I/O window.

2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Post-Processing Preliminaries • • Open the Load Data panel and display the File(s) tab Click Open Post file First. select item Velocity Components UVW In the Scalar Data list.5 -1. ensure that the setting is None Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel On the 3-D Surface tab check that Vector is selected from the Option menu and choose Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen Type: VIEW -1. plot the absolute temperatures on a section through the centre of the furnace and normal to the Y axis: • • • 15-20 Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and check that Data Type Cell is selected Choose On and All for the Smooth option In the Scalar Data list.2-3 Figure T15. check the solution obtained by inspecting the velocity plot: • • • • • • • • Go to the Data tab and check that Data Type Cell is selected In the Vector Data list.2-3 Velocity vectors inside the furnace Next. select item Temperature Version 4. to display Figure T15.Tutorial 15.0 0. .08 .0 • in the pro-STAR I/O window Click the Zoom Off button.

2-4 Temperature contours on a section bisecting the grid Next.Tutorial 15. then use the cursor to draw a section trace through the centre of the furnace and parallel to the X axis Select plot type Section (Surface) Select View > SNormal View to display Figure T15. plot the CO2 mass fraction contours on the same section through the centre of the furnace: • • • Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and select item CO2 from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T15.2-5 Version 4.2-4 Figure T15.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Post-Processing Preliminaries • • • • • • • Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel and choose Contour (filled) from the Option menu in the 3-D Surface tab Click Plot to Screen Select View > Axis > -Z in the main pro-STAR window Select Sect.08 15-21 . Slice.

specifying that the displayed particle colour and radius is to depend on temperature and calculated diameter.08 .2 in the Maximum Droplet Diameter box Select Temperature in the Fill Color menu Select None in the Vectors menu Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window.0 0. select the Particle Tracks sub-folder of the Post-Processing folder Open the Plot Droplets panel Select option Track File from the Load From menu Check that file coal_const. respectively.0 • • • • • • • • • • • • 15-22 in the pro-STAR I/O window In the pro-STAR Model Guide.2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T15.2-5 CO2 contours on a section bisecting the grid Plot the steady-state coal particle distribution.trk is shown in the File Name box Accept the default option (Particles) for the Plot Option menu and then click Load Data In the Droplet Plot Options section. select After. Also choose not to display particle velocity vectors: • Type VIEW -1. Unhidden and Cplot from the Edge Plot Options menus Select Diameter in the Droplet Size menu and enter 0.2-6 Version 4.5 -1.Tutorial 15. select D > All on the Display Sets toolbar Click Droplet Plot at the bottom of the Plot Droplets panel to display Figure T15.

2 CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION Post-Processing Preliminaries Figure T15.2-7 Version 4. select Mass from the Fill Color menu Click Apply Click Replot to display Figure T15.2-6 Coal particles coloured by temperature Now make the droplet colour dependent on droplet mass and replot: • • • In the Droplet Plot Options section.Tutorial 15.08 15-23 .

Tutorial 15.2

CONSTANT RATE DEVOLATILISATION

Post-Processing Final Operations

Figure T15.2-7

Coal particles coloured by mass

Figure T15.2-6 and Figure T15.2-7 show that the coal particles have essentially burnt out well before reaching the furnace outlet. This burn-out accounts for all the char and volatiles in the fuel. By default, STAR stops coal particle tracking once more than 99.9% of char has been burnt out. By setting Constant 116 to 1 you can continue tracking the remaining (ash) particles through the rest of the solution domain but at the expense of additional computation time. Remember that all results presented in this tutorial were generated with the devolatilisation temperature set at the unrealistically low value of 353 K. In Tutorial 15.3, the devolatilisation temperature is raised to 550 K and the Two-Competing-Steps devolatilisation model is used instead of the Constant Rate model. NOx modelling is also turned on and the analysis is restarted from the solution obtained in this tutorial. Final Operations • Exit from pro-STAR by choosing File > Quit > Quit, Nosave from the main window menu

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Tutorial 15.3

TWO-COMPETING-STEPS DEVOLATILISATION

This tutorial gives a detailed account on how to set up and run a coal combustion model using the Two-Competing-Steps devolatilisation model. It should also be instructive to users wishing to employ the Single-Step devolatilisation model as the required set-up is very similar. The Two-Competing-Steps model is based on a pair of competing first-order reactions occurring uniformly throughout the particle. The rates of these reactions are calculated as described in Chapter 10, “Two-competing-steps model” of the Methodology volume. The modelling strategy in this tutorial is to use the following sub-models: • • • Two-competing-steps devolatilisation First-order char oxidisation Eddy break-up two-step gas combustion

NOx modelling is also activated. The analysis restarts from the Constant Rate devolatilisation case set up in Tutorial 15.2, the problem geometry for which is shown in Tutorial 15. As a result, this tutorial only requires a brief specification of the options for the Two-Competing-Steps devolatilisation and NOx generation models. Pre-Processing Preliminaries Before running pro-STAR, create a directory for the tutorial named tut15-3 and copy the model and solution file obtained in Tutorial 15.2 (coal_const.mdl and coal_const.ccmp) into it. Rename the model file coal_2step.mdl. Start up pro-STAR and begin the modelling task by specifying the problem title: • • • • • • Check that coal_2step is shown in the Case Name box Select the Resume From Existing .mdl File? option Deselect the Append to Previous .echo File? option Click Continue Select File > Model Title... In the Title text box type COAL COMBUSTION WITH THE TWO-COMPETING-STEPS DEVOLATILISATION MODEL • Coal Combustion Model Setup Click Apply and Close

The next stage is to change the devolatilisation model to the Two-Competing-Steps model: • • Open the Thermophysical Models and Properties > Reacting Flow > Coal Combustion > Sub Models panel In the Volatiles tab, select the 2 Competing Scheme

In the 1-Step section: • •
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Enter a value of 2e+05 in the Pre-exponential Factor box Enter a value of 1.047e+08 in the Activation Energy box
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Pre-Processing Analysis Controls

Set the Mass Stoichiometric Coefficient to 0.3

In the 2-Step section: • • • Enter a value of 1.3e+07 in the Pre-exponential Factor box Enter a value of 1.67e+08 in the Activation Energy box Set the Mass Stoichiometric Coefficient to 0.7

To complete the model specification: • • Enter a value of 550 K in the Devolatilisation Temperature box Click Apply

Now activate NOx modelling: • • • • Open the Thermophysical Models and Properties > Reacting Flow > Chemical Reactions > Emission panel Turn On the NOx Model. Note that this has the same effect as turning on NOx modelling in the Coal Combustion > NOx/Radiation panel Turn On the Prompt NOx and Fuel NOx options Ensure that the Thermal NOx Model is On and change the Tuchin setting to 10. This is the number of integration steps used to generate the beta function PDF and so increasing it will lead to a more accurate solution Click Apply

• Analysis Controls

To aid convergence, the under-relaxation factor for the energy equation will be reduced: • • • • Open the Analysis Controls > Primary Variables panel Select the Solver Parameters tab Change the Relaxation Factor for Temperature to 0.5 Click Apply

The under-relaxation factors for all active scalars should have changed automatically when the temperature factor was changed, ensuring that the scalar and energy equation solutions remain in synchronisation. To check that this has happened: • • • Run-time Controls Open the Additional Scalars (Controls) panel Select scalars 1 - 8 from the list and check that their Under-Relaxation Factor settings are all 0.5 Click Apply

Check the status of the run-time control parameters and specify that the analysis should restart from the solution obtained in Tutorial 15.2: • • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation and open the Restart panel Change the Restart File Option to Standard Restart. This can be used because this analysis solves the same variables as the one for Tutorial 15.2. Enter coal_const.ccmp as the Restart File Click Apply

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CFD Analysis Final Operations

Final Operations

The pre-processing task is now complete. If you wish to terminate the session at this stage, write the geometry and problem files and exit, saving all model data in file coal_2step.mdl, as shown below. Alternatively, you may run STAR interactively, as described in the next section. • • • • • In the main window, choose File > Save Geometry... In the Save Geometry File dialog, click Apply and then Close File > Save Problem... In the Save Problem File dialog, click Save. Ignore the warning shown in the I/O window. No ignition model is required. File > Quit > Save & Quit

CFD Analysis To perform the analysis interactively proceed as follows: • • • • • Select File > Save Model Select the Analysis Preparation folder and open the Run Analysis Interactively panel Select option Double in the Precision section Select Yes for the Write Geometry File option Click Start

As well as the usual residual and monitoring data, the screen output will show information about the coal combustion reaction at every iteration. Note that the analysis will take some time to run (over 1 hour on a 2.8 GHz Linux machine with 2 GB of RAM) and that the run time cannot be decreased by running in parallel since cases involving the discrete transfer radiation method with participating media cannot be run in this mode. The run will not converge within the specified maximum number of iterations. However, the only residual that fails to fall below the convergence criterion is that for HCN (scalar number 10). The very low values of the HCN scalar (less than 0.01 throughout the domain) mean that lack of convergence is not a concern for this tutorial. Post-Processing Preliminaries Enter pro-STAR and start the post-processing task by re-plotting the mesh: • • • • • In the main window, select C > New > Fluid Click Cplot In the pro-STAR Model Guide, select folder Post-Processing Open the Load Data panel On the File(s) tab click Open Post file

First, plot the absolute temperatures on a section through the centre of the furnace and normal to the Y axis: • •
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Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and check that Data Type Cell is selected Choose On and All for the Smooth option
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Post-Processing Preliminaries

• • • • • • • • •

In the Scalar Data list, select item Temperature Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel and choose Contour (filled) from the Option menu in the 3-D Surface tab Click Plot to Screen Select View > Axis > -Z in the main pro-STAR window Click the Zoom Off button to display the whole mesh, Select Sect. Slice, then use the cursor to draw a section trace through the centre of the furnace and parallel to the X axis Select plot type Section (Surface) Select View > SNormal View to display Figure T15.3-1

Figure T15.3-1

Temperature contours on a section bisecting the grid

Next, plot the O2 mass fraction contours on the same section through the centre of the furnace: • • • Go to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and select item O2 from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T15.3-2

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Figure T15.3-2

O2 contours on a section bisecting the grid

Next, plot the NO mass fraction contours on the same section through the centre of the furnace: • • • Go back to the Data tab and select item NO from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Click Replot to display Figure T15.3-3

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Figure T15.3-3

NO contours on a section bisecting the grid

Plot the steady-state coal particle distribution, specifying that the displayed particle colour and radius is to depend on temperature and calculated diameter, respectively. Also choose not to display particle velocity vectors: • Type MEMO,MAXDRP,2400 MEMO,WRITE VIEW -1.0 0.5 -1.0 • • • • • • • • • • •
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in the pro-STAR I/O window In the pro-STAR Model Guide, select folder Post-Processing followed by sub-folder Particle Tracks Open the Plot Droplets panel Select option Track File from the Load From menu Check that file coal_2step.trk is shown in the File Name box Accept the default option (Particles) for the Plot Option menu and then click Load Data In the Droplet Plot Options section, select After, Unhidden and Cplot from the Edge Plot Options menus Select Diameter in the Droplet Size menu and enter 0.2 in the Maximum Droplet Diameter box Select Temperature in the Fill Color menu Select None in the Vectors menu Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window, select D > All from the Display Sets toolbar
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Click Droplet Plot at the bottom of the Plot Droplets panel to display Figure T15.3-4

Figure T15.3-4

Coal particles coloured by temperature

Note that there are significant differences between the results shown above and those in Tutorial 15.2. These changes are partly due to the change in devolatilisation model and the introduction of NOx modelling. However, the greatest change is due to increasing the devolatilisation temperature to a more realistic value. The last plot created in this tutorial combines a contour plot of CO2 concentration with a plot showing the coal particles using the OVERLAY utility. • • • • • • • • Return to the Data tab of the Load Data panel and select item CO2 from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Under the Section/Clipped tab, select the Contour (filled) and Edge options Change the Normal vector to (1, 0, 0) Click Apply Click Cplot to display the CO2 contours Type VIEW -1.0 0.3 -0.7 • • in the pro-STAR I/O window Turn on edge plotting by selecting the Display Edges button, Use the mouse to zoom out slightly so that the edges of the problem geometry fit in the display window
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• • • • • • •

Return to the Plot Droplets panel Turn Off the Edge Plot Options In the Droplet Plot Options section, change the Maximum Droplet Diameter to 0.05 Change the Fill Color option to Color and choose Color 1 Click Apply In the main pro-STAR window, select Plot > Display > Overlay Click Droplet Plot in the Plot Droplets panel to display Figure T15.3-5

Figure T15.3-5

Coal particles displayed over CO2 contours

Final Operations

Finally, exit from pro-STAR by choosing File > Quit > Quit, Nosave from the main window.

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Physical Problem Description

Tutorial 16 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF FULLY-DEVELOPED CHANNEL FLOW
Physical Problem Description This tutorial presents an example of applying the Large Eddy Simulation turbulence model to a fully-developed, isothermal, incompressible channel flow. A 2-D cross section through the problem geometry is shown in Figure T16.0-1, illustrating the primary direction of flow. The dimensions for the channel are taken from the work of Moser et al. [1] and correspond to a length, width and height of 2π m, π m and 2 m, respectively.

Channel Walls

2

y 2π x
Figure T16.0-1 2-D cross section through the channel

The problem geometry represents a section of the channel and therefore cyclic boundary conditions are applied in both the streamwise (x-) and spanwise (z-) directions. Calculations are carried out at standard pressure and temperature (1 bar, 293K) for a Reynolds number (Reτ) of 395. The latter is based on the friction velocity, uτ , and half-channel height and is given by ρu τ Re τ = -------µ where uτ = τw ----ρ

and τ w is the wall shear stress. The fluid is assumed to have constant physical properties, as shown below: Density Molecular viscosity 1.0 kgm-3 1.0/Reτ Pa-s

These numbers have been chosen so as to give a value of uτ = 1.0 ms-1. The flow in the channel is driven by an imposed pressure gradient whose value
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Modelling Strategy

is determined by balancing the pressure force in the streamwise direction with the shear force at the top and bottom walls of the channel, yielding ∆ pH = 2τ w L The wall shear stress is obtained from the friction velocity definition and has a value of 1.0 Nm-1. This is then combined with the channel height and length to give a pressure drop along the channel of 2π Pa. Modelling Strategy The major elements of the modelling strategy are: • Computational grid — non-uniform hexahedral mesh comprising 90,000 cells (see Figure T16.0-2). Cells in the y-direction are refined so as to yield a higher resolution near the channel walls. This is achieved using an expansion ratio of 1.1096 Wall and cyclic boundary conditions Isothermal, incompressible, steady and transient flow options

• •

The tutorial is divided into two parts. The first, a steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation, is used to verify the mesh suitability for capturing the large-eddy turbulence structures as measured by the integral length scale, l = f(k/ε). The second part illustrates the recommended numerical settings for LES, including pre- and post-processing, and includes comparison of results with those obtained from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) [2].

Figure T16.0-2

The computational mesh.

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STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS

Pre-processing Preliminaries

Tutorial 16.1
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STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS

To obtain accurate results using LES it is essential that: The computational mesh is sufficiently refined in key areas to resolve the mean flow and large-eddy turbulence structures present The time step for the analysis is small enough to capture the cascade of energy over a wide spectrum, down towards the dissipative scales

These assessments can be made by examining the integral length and time scales for the problem. This tutorial shows how to obtain these quantities from a steady-state analysis using a Low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model. The mesh provided in this case is much coarser in the streamwise direction than the full 90,000 cell mesh used in Tutorial 16.2, having only 9,000 cells. This is a reasonable simplification as the steady-state result should have no streamwise velocity gradient. The LES case will, of course, exhibit such a gradient and hence mesh refinement in the streamwise direction is also necessary. Pre-processing Preliminaries For convenience, the problem set-up for this tutorial is performed by executing a command macro, given in full in a separate section (“Macro”). The macro is supplied in a file called RANS.MAC which contains instructions for mesh set-up, boundary conditions, fluid properties and solution control settings. Create a directory for this tutorial named tut16-1 and ensure that the above macro file has been copied into it. Start pro-STAR, enter the tutorial name and make the appropriate choices for an initial run: • • • • • • Problem set-up Type prostar at the command line Specify the graphics driver (mesa or gl) Type channel_ss in the Case Name text box Check that the Resume from Existing .mdl File? option is deselected Check that the Append to Previous .echo File? option is deselected Click Continue

Execute the command macro and save the model file: • • • • Open the macro panel by selecting Panels > Define Macro... in the main pro-STAR window Highlight RANS in the Macro List in the Define Macro panel and click Execute Click Close in the Define Macro panel Save the model and exit from pro-STAR by selecting File > Quit > Save & Quit from the pro-STAR menu

CFD Analysis If your machine has more than one processor, performing this analysis in parallel can be very beneficial. Running on two CPUs instead of one, for example, should roughly halve the run time. To run the analysis in parallel, on two local CPUs and in double precision, type:
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Post-Processing Problem set-up

star -dp 2 For a description of how to run problems in parallel across a network, see “Running a STAR-CD Analysis” on page 2-2 of the CCM User Guide. If your machine has only one processor, you will need to run sequentially. To perform this type of run in double-precision mode, type: star -dp The convergence criteria for this case are very strict and so the run will not converge within the specified 3,000 iterations. The reason for running the analysis for this number of iterations will be explained in the “Post-Processing” section. Post-Processing The nature of this problem makes the normalised residual sums a poor method for judging convergence. Instead, the justification for stopping the run after 3,000 iterations can be provided by examining the monitor history data: • • • • • Start up pro-STAR and resume from the channel_ss.mdl model file Select the Analysis Preparation folder in the pro-STAR Model Guide Open the History of Analysis panel Select Monitor History for the Plot option Check the U-Velocity box and click Apply to display Figure T16.1-1

Figure T16.1-1
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Monitor history plot of the U-component of velocity
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Post-Processing Problem set-up

Figure T16.1-1 shows that the U-velocity at the monitoring point has converged to a steady value. The results will now be analysed to yield information about the integral length (l) and time (t) scales, defined as: Cµ k k l = ---------------------- , t = -ε ε • Read in the analysis results file by typing the following command in the pro-STAR I/O window: LOAD channel_ss.ccmp • The next step is to load the relevant data into the post registers and perform the appropriate calculations. For the integral length scale l , this is achieved by typing the following commands: oper oper oper oper oper getc getc v**s smul divi te 5 ed 6 1.5 5 5 0.1643 5 5 5 6 4
0.75 1.5

Since we are trying to establish whether or not the mesh resolution in the wall-normal direction (y-axis) is adequate for LES, it is useful to display the ratio l/∆y (∆y being the cell height) for which a value greater than 1 should be observed. Since all cells in the grid have the same ∆x and ∆z, we can calculate ∆y from the cell volume by V ∆y = ----------------∆x ⋅ ∆z which, for this mesh, means ∆y = 7.6V • Therefore, the ratio l/∆y is found by entering the following commands: oper getc volu 5 oper smul 7.6 5 5 oper divi 4 5 4 Now display the data as a contour plot: • • • •
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In the pro-STAR Model Guide, select the Post-Processing folder and open the Create Plots panel Under the 3-D Surface tab, select Contour (filled) from the Option dropdown menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh drop-down menu Click Plot To Screen Select View > Axis > +Z in the main pro-STAR window to display Figure T16.1-2
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Post-Processing Problem set-up

The resulting plot shows that, except in the cells immediately adjacent to the wall, the ratio l/∆y is greater than 1.0. This confirms that the resolution of the mesh is sufficient for use in LES, although there may be some inaccuracy close to the wall.

Figure T16.1-2

Contour plot showing the ratio l/∆y

It is also useful to check whether the cells adjacent to the wall are fine enough to satisfy the criterion that y+ should be ~1. • To find out the ∆y for the near-wall cells, enter the following command: summ cset The information given in the output window includes the minimum value in post register 5, which contains the ∆y values. The minimum value is 5.0639x10-3 m, which corresponds to a y+ of ~2 according to the following equation: ρu τ ∆ y y + = --------------µ • The integral time scale is calculated and displayed by entering the following commands: oper getc te 5 oper getc ed 6 oper divi 5 6 4 repl
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Post-Processing Problem set-up

The resulting plot is shown in Figure T16.1-3.

Figure T16.1-3

Contour plot of the integral time scale t

Figure T16.1-3 shows that the integral time scale, t, decreases from 1.21 s in the centre of the channel to 1.28x10-3 s near the wall. It is also possible to determine time scales associated with the turbulent eddies. Based on the cell sizes in the y- and z-directions, and fluctuating velocities determined from the turbulent kinetic energy predicted by the RANS analysis, time scales of 6.36x10-3 s (y-direction) and 0.0438 s (z-direction) are obtained. The chosen time step for an LES run should thus be sufficiently small to capture the turbulence structures in the vicinity of the wall i.e., < 1.28x10-3 s, whilst satisfying the numerical scheme’s stability criterion. To obtain a time step that satisfies the latter, the Courant number (Co) definition is rearranged to yield: Co ∆x ∆t = ------------U The quantities U and ∆x denote characteristic velocity and length scale, respectively. For LES it is recommended that the value of Co should not exceed 0.3. Using the channel dimensions and streamwise velocity shown in Table 1, a time step value of 3.2x10-3 s is obtained.

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STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS

Macro Problem set-up

Table 1: Parameters used to obtain time step for numerical stability Parameter Value Channel length (m) 2π Number of cells in streamwise direction 30a ∆x (m) 0.20944 -1 U (ms ) 19.61
a.This number relates to the refined mesh used for the LES case

A time step of 1x10-3 s is used in the LES tutorial (Tutorial 16.2), satisfying both criteria mentioned above. Having completed the calculations for mesh suitability and choice of time step, exit pro-STAR as follows: • Macro
!=============================================== ! Macro 16.1-1: Setting up the RANS analysis !=============================================== ! User-defined parameters: ! H - half-height of channel ! RETAU - Friction Reynolds number (Utau*H/nu) ! YPLS - Target y+ in near-wall cell ! COUR - Target Courant number ! NCX - Number of cells in streamwise direction ! NCY - Number of cells in normal direction ! NCZ - Number of cells in spanwise direction !=============================================== *set H 1.0 *set RETAU 395.0 *set YPLS 1.0 *set COUR 1.0 *set NCX 3.0 *set NCY 60.0 *set NCZ 50.0 !=============================================== ! Generate Mesh *set PI 3.141592654 *set LX 2.0 * H * PI *set LY 2.0 * H *set LZ H * PI ! Generate a uniform mesh vc3d 0.0 LX NCX -0.5 * LY 0.5 * LY NCY -0.5 * LZ 0.5 * LZ NCZ ! Define the ! directions *set NVX NCX *set NVY NCY *set NVZ NCZ number of vertices in each of the coordinate + 1 + 1 + 1

Select File > Quit > Quit, Nosave

! Iterate for the expansion factor. Based on a geometric ! progression with the initial cell height estimated from a balance 16-8 Version 4.08

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Macro Problem set-up

! between the definition of y+ and the Reynolds number based on the ! wall shear velocity. Perform an iterative calculation to ! determine the expansion factor. *set Q RETAU / 2.0 / YPLS *set G 2.0 / NCY *set R 1.01 *def noex *set F R - 1.0 * Q + 1 *set R F ** G *end *loo 1 100 !============================================================ ! Locate boundaries. cset news flui plty ehid cplo view -1 0 0 bzon 1 all rdef 1 cycl$ $ $ $ $ view 1 0 0 bzon 2 all rdef 2 cycl$ $ $ $ $ view 0 0 -1 bzon 3 all rdef 3 cycl$ $ $ $ $ view 0 0 1 bzon 4 all rdef 4 cycl$ $ $ $ $ cyma 1 2 LX 0.0 0.0 cyma 3 4 0.0 0.0 LZ ! Make mesh non-uniform to achieve desired y+. vfil 1 NVY NVY - 2 2 1 NVX * NVZ NVY -1.0 * R !============================================================ ! Define common control parameters time steady nodefa iter 3000,1e-10 moni 8911 algo simple nodefa,,, solu scalar CG !============================================================ ! Define properties and models pmat 1 flui dens cons 1.0 lvis cons 1.0 / RETAU turb ke 1 stan lowre on coke,0.09,1.44,1.92,1.44,-0.33,0.419,1,1.219,0.9 nwall hybrid twol off init stan 21 0.0 0.0 1 0.0 0.0,keps,0.4,0.01 !============================================================ Version 4.08 16-9

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Macro Problem set-up

! Define boundaries at either end in the streamwise direction as ! cyclic with a prescribed pressure drop across them. ! Define boundaries at either end in the spanwise direction as ! regular cyclic. rdef 0 wall stan nosl stan 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 0.0 rdef 1 cycl stan 1 part regu inte pdro LX / H / H / H rdef 2 cycl stan 1 part regu inte pdro -1.0 * LX / H / H / H rdef 3 cycl stan 1 all regu inte rdef 4 cycl stan 1 all regu inte !============================================================ ! Additional control parameters solve,y,y,y,y,y,y,n,y,n,n,n,n, relax,0.7,0.3,0.7, ,1, , , , , , , , , sweep,100,100,100,1000,100,100, , , , , , , , , , , , resid,0.1,0.1,0.1,0.05,0.1,0.1, , , , , , , , , , , , dsch,ud,uvw,,stan prch ,,, conv ! Write geometry file, problem file and save geom,, prob,, save,,

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LARGE EDDY SIMULATION

Pre-Processing Preliminaries

Tutorial 16.2

LARGE EDDY SIMULATION

This tutorial illustrates the steps required to set up and perform a Large Eddy Simulation for channel flow. The focus will be on the specifics related to LES and thus the model set-up of Tutorial 16.1 will be used as the starting point. Pre-Processing Preliminaries The following files are required for this tutorial: • • • • • • • REFINE.MAC DATA_AVERAGING.MAC MEAN_U.MAC REY_STRESS.MAC chan395.means chan395.reystress channel_demo.ccmp

Create a directory called tut16-2 and ensure that the above files are copied into it. In addition, copy the model file channel_ss.mdl from Tutorial 16.1 to the new directory and rename it channel_les.mdl. Once all the files are in place, you may start a pro-STAR session: • • • • • • Mesh refinement Type prostar at the command line Specify the graphics driver (mesa or gl) Check that channel_les appears in the Case Name text box Check that the Resume from Existing .mdl File? option is selected Deselect the Append to Previous .echo File? option Click Continue

To refine the mesh in the streamwise direction to make it suitable for the LES calculation: • • • • Select Panels > Define Macro... from the main menu in pro-STAR Highlight REFINE in the Define Macro panel Click Execute Select View > Isometric > 1,1,1 to display the mesh shown in Figure T16.0-2

LES settings

The calculation is no longer steady-state and so it is necessary to change the analysis type: • • Open the Analysis Features panel and select Transient from the Time Domain menu Click Apply

Next, change the turbulence model and set the appropriate parameters, including the point at which statistical averaging will begin. The current simulation will be run for a total of 50 s, equivalent to approximately 160 passes through the domain. The flow is allowed to develop in the initial 25 s (25,000 time steps), after which the statistical averaging of flow variables will begin. •
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Select folder Thermophysical Models and Properties
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Tutorial 16.2

LARGE EDDY SIMULATION

Pre-Processing Flow initialisation

• • • • • •

Select sub-folder Liquids and Gases Open panel Turbulence Models Select the LES/Smagorinsky Model from the menu on the Turbulence tab Check that option Provide Statistically Averaged Values is enabled and then type 25000 in the Time Step box Set the model constants to match those shown below Click Apply

Flow initialisation

In order to reduce the run time, the simulation can start from a flow field that will encourage the development of turbulence. The appropriate initial conditions may be specified through user subroutine INITFI as follows: • • Open the Fluid Initialization panel Enter the following commands in the pro-STAR I/O window: SYSTEM UFILES • • • • Select User from the Options menu in the Fluid Initialization panel Click User Define Click Apply Use pro-STAR’s built-in text editor or an external editor to change the contents of the default initfi.f file (written by pro-STAR into the ufile sub-directory) to match the subroutine listing given in section “User Subroutine”

The effect of the user-defined initial flow field is to introduce vorticity into the domain. This is achieved by defining a region in the centre of the channel in which all three velocity components are set explicitly. In particular, the wall-normal component is set to a value greater than the streamwise component to encourage the development of turbulence. Solution controls To obtain the best results from an LES model, the use of second-order schemes is recommended for both the temporal and spatial discretization. When using the SIMPLE solution algorithm, the residual tolerance for the outer iterations and the maximum number of outer iterations for each time step need to be set so that convergence is achieved at every time step. This can be judged by examining the residual and monitor information output during the run. • • •
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Select the Analysis Controls folder Open the Solution Method panel Change the Solution Algorithm to SIMPLE
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LARGE EDDY SIMULATION

Pre-Processing Final operations

• •

Change the Maximum Number of Outer Iterations to 3. This may not be large enough for the algorithm to achieve convergence at every time step but should be sufficient for obtaining a good-quality overall solution. Select the Three Time Level Implicit scheme from the Temporal Discretization menu Click Apply

Next, change the solver parameters and change the spatial discretization scheme for the momentum equations to CD, ensuring that the blending factor is set to 1.0: • • • • • • • • • Open the Primary Variables panel Select the Solver Parameters tab Change the Relaxation Factor for the U-Momentum, V-Momentum, W-Momentum equations to 0.9 and the Number of Sweeps to 200 Change the Residual Tolerance to 0.001 for the three momentum equations For Pressure, change the Relaxation Factor to 0.5 and the Residual Tolerance to 0.0001 Click Apply Select the Differencing Schemes tab Select the CD scheme from the drop-down menu for the Differencing Scheme of the momentum equations and check that the blending factor is set to 1 Click Apply

Velocity data for a cell near the wall will be monitored throughout the run. The data will then be used to check whether the statistical averaging specified in the “LES settings” section starts after allowing a reasonable time for the flow to develop. • Select the desired cell by typing the following command in pro-STAR’s I/O window: CSET NEWSET CLIST 89105 • • • • • • • • • Final operations In the main pro-STAR window, click Store/Recall > Store In the Store Information dialog, enter monitor for the Set Name Click Write and then Close Go to the pro-STAR Model Guide and open the Monitor Cell Behavior panel Select On for the Monitoring option Ensure the Set File name is channel_les.set Select monitor from the Monitoring Information scroll list Enable the Velocity Data option Click Apply

At this point, the basic problem definition is complete. The next step is to set the transient controls for the run. Set the calculation run time to 50 seconds with a time step of 0.001 seconds, as determined in Tutorial 16.1 on the basis of the integral time scale and Courant number. • • • Select folder Analysis Preparation Open the Run Time Controls panel Check that Run for is selected for the Run time control option and enter 50 in the Time box
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XVF2) C Initialise fields C**************************************************************** C----------------------------------------* C STAR VERSION 4.mythree.Mypone. VISM ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(063). F2 ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(021).04.000 * C----------------------------------------* INCLUDE ’comdb.0 Myone=-1. check that the Time Step Method is set to Constant and that 0.Mypfive.0 Mypone=1.TE.inc’ COMMON/USR001/INTFLG(100) DIMENSION SCALAR(50) INCLUDE ’usrdat..PR.. In the Save Problem File dialog. DEN ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(062).Uprime.5 Myzero=0.mdl) is saved for possible future modification.Vprime.ED. F4 ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(022).inc’ EQUIVALENCE( UDAT12(001).SCALAR. Y ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(069).T. • Select File > Quit > Save & Quit.myfour Ubulk=20.myzero.W.Tutorial 16.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION User Subroutine Final operations • • • Click Apply In the Time Step Option section.Myppfive.0 16-14 Version 4. make sure that the model file (channel_les. CON ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(020). Z ) C------------------------------------------------------------------------real*8 Ubulk.08 . CP ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(002).Wprime real*8 Myone. F6 ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(001).001 is entered in the Time step for period box Click Set Write and save the geometry and problem files: • • • • Select File > Save Geometry. click Save Finally.. In the Save Geometry File dialog..5 Myppfive=0. click Apply and then Close Select File > Save Problem. before exiting from pro-STAR.V. ICTID ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT03(001).0 Mypfive=-0. VIST ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(067). as shown below: C**************************************************************** SUBROUTINE INITFI(U. User Subroutine User subroutine INITFI is used for setting the initial flow field. X ) EQUIVALENCE( UDAT04(068).

Mypfive.Mythree.and.45 Vprime=-52. * z.Myppfive) then u=Uprime v=Vprime w=Wprime endif RETURN END CFD Analysis To run the analysis in parallel. Moreover.Tutorial 16. Rename this file channel_les.Myfour.ccmp before post-processing.Myzero. type: star -dp No matter how you choose to run the analysis. Initialise channel flow u=Ubulk v=0..ccmp which was copied into your working directory at the start of this tutorial.2-1 shows a plot of the cross-stream velocity components at the prescribed monitoring point.0 if (x. * y.532 mythree=3. If you choose not to run the analysis.ge. In the present example.0 myfour=4.le.ge. component values are oscillating about a mean value (in this case zero) and thus it is appropriate to begin averaging Version 4.and. or 25.le.000 time steps. Post-Processing Convergence The transient nature of LES makes it necessary to average the data over some period and of time.and.and.0 w=0.000).08 16-15 . It can be clearly seen that after 25s.0 c. it will take at least a few days to complete. on two local CPUs and in double precision..36 Wprime=5. The choice of this period will affect the quality of the results and should averaging therefore be sufficiently large to be statistically meaningful. type: star -dp 2 To run the analysis sequentially in double precision.z.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION CFD Analysis Convergence and averaging Uprime=32. Figure T16. averaging should begin only when the flow is fully developed. Such long run times are typical for LES cases as they require refined meshes and a large number of time steps (in this case 50.and. The point at which averaging should begin can be judged by examining the velocity components at a suitable monitoring location.le.Myppfive. this point is located near the wall where turbulence generation is greatest and was set up as described in the “Solution controls” section.. the results are supplied in file channel_demo.ge.y.x.

results Start up pro-STAR and resume from the channel_les.08 16-16 . containing the analysis results: • • • • Inst. which is roughly equivalent to 33 passes. Begin by displaying contours of the streamwise velocity component: • • • • • • Open the Data tab Select On and All from the pull-down menus next to the Smooth option Select Velocity Component U from the Scalar Data list Click Get Data Open the Create Plots panel Select Contour(filled) from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Version 4. Figure T16.Tutorial 16. In fact. given in the “LES models” section of the On-line Help. This is much greater than the recommended number of passes before averaging. with the benefit hindsight. This is because the use of periodic boundary conditions delays the establishment of a fully developed flow.2-1 Monitoring-point velocity components throughout the simulation Preliminaries The first post-processing task is to load file channel_les.000 time steps. select the Post-Processing folder Open the Load Data panel Click Open Post file Before analysing the averaged data. it would have been reasonable for such averaging to begin after only 10.ccmp.mdl model file In the pro-STAR Model Guide. an example is shown of the instantaneous results representing a snapshot of the flow in time.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Preliminaries data.

with a predicted peak velocity of 24 m/s. select View > Isometric > 1. results • • • Select C > All in the main window Click Plot to Screen in the Create Plots panel In the main window.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Inst. The eddy structure can be viewed in more detail by creating a plot of the secondary flow field. To do this.2-2 Figure T16.Tutorial 16. create a vector plot of the V and W velocity components: • • • • • • • • Go to the Load Data panel Select Off from the Smooth option menu Select Velocity Components VW from the Vector Data list Click Get Data Go to the Create Plots panel Select Vector from the Option menu and Edge from the Edge/Mesh menu Click Plot to Screen In the main window.08 16-17 .1 to display Figure T16.2-3 Version 4. select View > Axis > +X to display Figure T16.1.2-2 Contour plot of the instantaneous streamwise velocity The snapshot shows the flow field non-uniformity generated by the presence of eddies.

The plot is similar to that obtained from a simulation using a RANS turbulence model.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Averaged results Figure T16.2-4 shows a contour plot of the mean streamwise velocity component. 16-18 Version 4. indicating that the averaging window is sufficiently large for the data to be statistically meaningful.2-3 Vector plot of the instantaneous secondary flow field Averaged results Having looked at the structure of the instantaneous flow field. attention is turned to the time averaged data.08 . Figure T16.Tutorial 16.

[2]. create a plot of the normalised time-averaged mean velocity: • Highlight MEAN_U and click Execute.2-5 shows the resulting plot of U+ against ln(y+). Prior to generating any graphs.Tutorial 16. It should be noted here that LES post-processing is casedependent and that the macros provided are specifically for channel flow. the velocity at the centre of the channel is over-predicted by about 10% when compared to the DNS data. only half of the profile is shown.. the time-averaged LES data must also be spatially-averaged..08 16-19 . It can be observed that whilst the qualitative behaviour is reproduced by the LES model. The plots are produced using the ready-made macros supplied with the tutorial files of your STAR-CD installation and listed in the “Macros” section. Due to the problem symmetry about y = H.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Averaged results Figure T16.2-4 Contour plot of the average streamwise velocity Profiles of the mean and fluctuating components are now generated and compared to the DNS data of Moser et al. from the main menu in pro-STAR Highlight DATA_AVERAGING in the Define Macro panel Click Execute Next. Figure T16. Version 4. To do this: • • • Select Panels > Define Macro.

For instance.2-6.2-6) whilst under-predicting the cross-stream fluctuations (Figures T16. as shown in Figure T16.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Averaged results Figure T16.2-7 and T16.2-5 Graph of mean streamwise velocity component • Reynolds stress profiles are produced by selecting REY_STRESS in the macro panel and clicking Execute To view these plots: • Select Graph > Gdraw and then the appropriate frame number from the main pro-STAR window. v’v’ and w’w’. In addition. non-dimensionalised with the friction velocity.2-8). selecting Graph > Gdraw > Frame1 will produce a plot of u’u’.2-6. respectively. These profiles represent the turbulence intensity and show good qualitative agreement with the DNS data. Figures T16. T16.2-8 show profiles of u’u’. Under-prediction of v’v’ and w’w’ is common in LES calculations where a large part of the turbulence spectrum lies in the subgrid scales. against ln(y+).08 . non-dimensionalised by the friction velocity uτ = 1.Tutorial 16.2-7 and T16. Closer agreement with the DNS results can only be obtained through further mesh refinement. It can be observed that the LES model over-predicts the streamwise fluctuations (Figure T16. 16-20 Version 4. they highlight the anisotropic nature of the flow.

Tutorial 16.2-6 Graph of streamwise fluctuating component u’u’ Figure T16.2-7 Graph of cross-stream fluctuating component v’v’ Version 4.08 16-21 .2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Averaged results Figure T16.

both qualitatively and quantitatively.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Post-Processing Averaged results Figure T16. It can be observed that the u’v’ component is well predicted by the LES model.2-9. Figure T16.08 .2-8 Graph of cross-stream fluctuating component w’w’ The u’v’ Reynolds stress profile is shown in Figure T16.2-9 16-22 Graph of Reynolds stress u’v’ Version 4.Tutorial 16.

Kim and Mansour.news.edge $bfin.3001. bset. bset.1.regular.bran.4. !SCRN.vx.cyclic 1.on $vset.6749 !BFIN.vx.1. !SCRN. Nosave Bibliography [1] Kim. These are not shown here but may be viewed by displaying the contents of graph frames 5 and 6.1. 177.edge $bfin.add.vx.1. Moin and Moser.partial.1. bset.regular. 0 8.10.edge $bfin.on $vset.4724 8. 943-945.2.add. Final operations As there were no changes to the model geometry or solution parameters. there is no need to save file channel_les.mxb surf.Tutorial 16.partial.1.cyclic 1. J Fluid Mechanics.add.bran.6620. !SCRN.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Bibliography Final operations Components u’w’ and v’w’ are up to two or three orders of magnitude smaller and are therefore less important. Physics of Fluids.mxb view reve replot surf.-1.8543 3.on $vset.4801.vx.on $vset. 0 1.mxb rdef.3632. bset.edge $bfin.0000 5.3. Macros Mesh refinement in the Xdirection ! ============================================== ! Macro 16.9788 !BFIN. ‘Turbulence Statistics in Fully Developed Channel Flow at Low Reynolds Number’.293 rdef.28319.2.integral pdrop. 11.335356.integral 16-23 Version 4. 1999.mxb surf.2-1 Refining mesh in X direction ! ============================================== curs file CREF. 1987. 133-166.6.bran.news.news. !SCRN.bran.add.08 .mdl • Select File > Quit > Quit. ‘DNS of Turbulent Channel Flow up to Ret=590’.4.2.ALL *set NCX NCX * 10 BSET ALL BDEL BSET cyde all cset all view.2870 6.3. [2] Moser.7801. 0 2.15772. 0 6.1 cplot surf.1.2650 !BFIN.news.0035 !BFIN.

4.0001 rdef.0.dat syst rm -f V.dat syst rm -f P.9001 Spatial averaging of LES data ! ====================================== ! Macro 16.dat .getc.dat .Spatially averaging LES data ! ====================================== ! The script produces 12 files: ! U.28319.dat .08 .dat syst rm -f VIST.Mean W against y/H ! VMAG.28319.e+05.regular.dat .Mean u’u’ against y/H ! vv.0001 bset none moni.dat .1.VIMN.dat .getc.Mean u’v’ against y/H ! uw.0.regular.dat .dat syst rm -f W.6 *set IC 0 10 *def noex cset none *set CC1 IC .dat .0.2.dat .SVMN.Mean VIST against y/H ! uu.dat .0.3.dat syst rm -f VMAG.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Spatial averaging of LES data pdrop.cyclic 1.getc.5 oper.cyclic 1.0.-3.Mean u’w’ against y/H ! vw.all.1.dat .1 oper.ccmp oper.2 oper.integral rdef.SUMN.getc.Mean U against y/H ! V.Mean V against y/H ! W.Mean w’w’ against y/H ! uv.Mean VMAG against y/H ! P.6.Tutorial 16.14159.3 oper.-6.integral cymatch.channel_les.Mean v’v’ against y/H ! ww.4 oper.Mean P against y/H ! VIST.3.10 16-24 Version 4.dat files syst rm -f U.getc.SWMN.dat !========================================================= load.293 cymatch.0.vmag.Mean v’w’ against y/H ! ======================================= ! Clear old .9001 pres.PMN.4.all.2-2 .dat .

0.. 0. 0. 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 ! Divide the *set R1 R1 / *set R2 R2 / *set R3 R3 / *set R4 R4 / *set R5 R5 / *set R6 R6 / ! Replace register 1 chan cset .2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Spatial averaging of LES data :lab ! Setting the current cell set to a layer in the geometry cset add cran CC1 + 9001 CC1 + 9010 1 *if CC1 ge 88800 + IC *goto done *endif *set CC1 CC1 + 600 *goto lab :done ! Total *get R1 *get R2 *get R3 *get R4 *get R5 *get R6 each rtot rtot rtot rtot rtot rtot variable in the cell set and store in registers 1-6 1 2 3 4 5 6 total NCX / NCX / NCX / NCX / NCX / NCX / by the number of cells in the layer NCZ NCZ NCZ NCZ NCZ NCZ with the new values for register 1 etc.0 R4 chan cset . 0..0 R6 *end *loo 1 NCY ! Make current cell set equal to 1 Y-column of cells cset none *set CC2 9001 10 *defi noex cset add clis CC2 *end *loo 0 NCY .0 R1 chan cset .08 16-25 .....0 R5 chan cset ..Tutorial 16.. 0.0 R3 chan cset . 0.0 R2 chan cset .0 to the value (shift to match DNS ! position) Version 4. 1..0 / H ! Operate on y and add 1..1 ! loads current cell set numbers into graph register 1 gloa 1 cell cset ! Loads the y values of cells corresponding to graph register 1 ! into graph register 2 gval 2 1 cell y 1 ! Operate on register 2 to make the data y/H rope add 2 2 ....

0.dat VMAG.dat 2 2 3 VMAG.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Spatial averaging of LES data roper.1.dat syst rm -f vv. gval gval gval gval gval sdat sdat sdat sdat sdat sdat clos clos clos clos clos clos 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 cell cell cell cell cell pst2 pst3 pst4 pst5 pst6 U. ! Load values from post register 1 (mean U) into graph register 3 gval 3 1 cell pst1 ! Operate on u velocity to make it positive !roper.dat W.08 .3.dat 2 2 2 W.dat VIST.dat oper oper oper oper oper oper getc getc getc getc getc getc SUP 1 SVP 2 SWP 3 UPVP 4 UPWP 5 VPWP 6 *set IC 0 10 *def noex cset none *set CC1 IC .dat 2 2 6 U.dat 2 2 5 VIST.dat 2 2 1 V.1.1.dat syst rm -f uw.dat V.dat syst rm -f vw.3.dat 2 2 4 P.Tutorial 16.3..absolute.dat !======================================================= syst rm -f uu.0.10 :lab cset add cran CC1 + 9001 CC1 + 9010 1 *if CC1 ge 88800 + IC 16-26 Version 4.dat syst rm -f uv.add.2.add.2.dat P.dat syst rm -f ww.

.dat Version 4...08 16-27 .. 0..0 R6 6 1 NCY R1 1 1 R2 2 2 R3 3 3 4 5 6 cset none *set CC2 1 9010 *defi noex cset add clis CC2 *end *loo 0 NCY . 0. 0.1 gval gval gval gval gval gval sdat sdat sdat sdat sdat sdat clos clos clos clos clos clos 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 cell cell cell cell cell cell 2 2 2 2 2 2 pst1 pst2 pst3 pst4 pst5 pst6 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 uu.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Spatial averaging of LES data *goto done *endif *set CC1 CC1 + 600 *goto lab :done *get *get *get *get *get *get *set *set *set *set *set *set chan chan chan chan chan chan *end *loo R1 rtot 1 R2 rtot 2 R3 rtot 3 R4 rtot 4 R5 rtot 5 R6 rtot 6 R1 R1 / NCX / NCZ R2 R2 / NCX / NCZ R3 R3 / NCX / NCZ R4 R4 / NCX / NCZ R5 R5 / NCX / NCZ R6 R6 / NCX / NCZ cset .. 0.dat uv.0 R4 4 cset ..dat vw.. 0.0 R5 5 cset .0 R1 * cset .dat ww.dat uv..0 R2 * cset ..dat uw..dat uw.Tutorial 16.dat vv.dat vv. 0.dat uu..dat vw.0 R3 * cset .dat ww.

dat.coded. ! Transform y axis to log scale roper.on.ww.1$rtab.5 Mean U frame.0.5.xreg.2-4 Producing profiles of the Reynolds stresses ! ============================================== ! Reset graph parameters and set the number of registers at 40 greset y numr 40 ! Load fluctuating components for Cs = 0.1.coded.1.4 frame.reystress.2.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Mean streamwise velocity profile Mean streamwise velocity profile ! ============================================== ! Macro 16.coded.0.uw.1.dat.5 6.1 ! Transform y axis to log scale roper.coded.y.90.2.loge.4.1 roper multi.1.chan395.0.add ! GRAPH DATA frame 1 xreg init 1.5 frame..2.1.y.2.1.dat. !Load DNS data gdata.3.on $LES rlabel.5.2.xrange.U.2.5.2.vv.01 gdata.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.8.2.0.5.dat.1.means.8.15 frame 1 yreg init 2.1 gdata.coded.1.1.0.1.10.reve gdraw.add.add.15.8.1 symt. 2.Tutorial 16.2.1.0 U+ symt.395.y$bart..1 !Load DNS RMS data gdata.uu.6 grlabel.17 16-28 Version 4.2.1.2-3 Producing a mean streamwise velocity profile ! ============================================== greset y ! Load mean u velocity gdata.0.1 Reynolds stress profiles ! ============================================== ! Macro 16..1.1..5.n rlabel.2.1.dat..4..chan395.2.1.2.2. 1.2.legend.vw.9.1.1 gdata.1$rtab.1.on.uv.dat.coded.5.7.8.init.5 ln(y+) grlabel.08 .init.1.1 gdata.11.5.2.coded..loge.2.1.dat.1.6.1.3.0 12.2.1 gdata.4.coded.coded.1.5.2.4.0.1 gdata.1$lint.1.yreg.1$lint. !Plot the mean velocity in frame 1 frame.1.

5.8.on.1$rtab.0.5.2.8.2..0..legend.1 symt.4.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.1..0.0.5.5 6.15 frame 3 yreg init 6.18.17.reve ! GRAPH DATA frame 3 xreg init 5..5.4.400 grlabel.1..18 gdraw 2 frame.1$lint.1.y.0 12.1.5.2.2.8..5.on.4.10.1$lint.4.2.6.2.xrange.15 frame 2 yreg init 4.legend.5.on.3.on.1$rtab.5.y.4.2.1$rtab.18..0.0.xrange.4.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Reynolds stress profiles gdraw 1 frame.5 ut^2 frame.6.2.2..18.2.10.400 grlabel.1.0.0.2.1$lint.5 6.2.1 symt.5.on...19 gdraw 3 frame..y.5 w’w’ frame.2..2.2.5 y+ grlabel.5.17.on $LES rlabel.17.1$rtab..5.1 symt.4.2.on.2.on $LES rlabel.2.on.0.1..3.xrange.1.4..1.xrange.0 v’v’ grlabel.1.0.on.0 w’w’ grlabel.3.400 grlabel.2.3.on.5 y+ grlabel.1.2.3..0 u’u’ grlabel.5.1.2.1 symt.reve ! GRAPH DATA frame 2 xreg init 3.6.0.1.5.5 6.3.2.5.on.2.2.0.y$bart..5 y+ grlabel.1.2.9 ___ Version 4.08 16-29 .9 ___ grlabel.90.5 v’v’ frame.legend.0.n rlabel.0.90.xrange.0 12.5 u’u’ frame.5.0.4.5.8...n rlabel.0.0 12.5.4.1$lint.5.3.3.Tutorial 16.y..2..2.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.10.18.on.5.2.5 ut^2 frame.5.9 ___ grlabel..y$bart.4.

90.19.4.1 symt.90.xrange.5.2.8.y.2.19.5.4.4.6.5 ut^2 frame.3.20.on.5 6.4.8.5 ut^2 frame.5 y+ grlabel.21.on.xrange.5.19.0.0 12.2.on.0.8.8.xrange..y..10.1$lint.5.10.8.legend.2.4.6.2.y$bart.15 frame 5 yreg init 10.2.5 u’v’ frame.5..n rlabel..6.10.20.reve ! GRAPH DATA frame 4 xreg init 7.2.legend.on.4.5.on $LES rlabel.5.1.6.on.19.400 grlabel..0.5.6.5.3.400 grlabel.10.5.0.20.8.1$lint.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Reynolds stress profiles grlabel.5 6..n rlabel.y$bart.6.20.1 symt.5.2.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.on.0.0..1.1$rtab.90.4.0 12.0.2.2.4.1 symt.8.1 symt.5.0.y.2.1$rtab.5.0.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.21.08 .10.n rlabel.2.reve 16-30 Version 4.5.4.20 gdraw 4 frame.1.0.2.y$bart.on.8.0.2..5.2..9 ___ grlabel.0.10.15 frame 4 yreg init 8.1$lint.5 y+ grlabel..2..4.4.8.5.5.2.1$lint.21.5 u’w’ frame.5.on.5 ut^2 frame.on.1 symt.0..1$lint.8.8.5.3.1$lint.10.2.Tutorial 16...on $LES rlabel.5.1$rtab.4.21.1.xrange.y..4.0 u’w’ grlabel.xrange.2.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.1$rtab..0.on $LES rlabel.4.21 gdraw 5 frame.6.0 u’v’ grlabel.4.5.4.5.3.reve ! GRAPH DATA frame 5 xreg init 9..9 ___ grlabel..1$rtab.1$rtab.y.5.1 symt.y.

6.1 symt.2.5 6.8.2.5 v’w’ frame..2.6.400 grlabel.1$rtab.5.3.6.22 gdraw 6 frame.1$lint.5 ut^2 frame.6.xrange.0.8.xrange.22..5.y.12.on $DNS ! Reverse background colour clrm.on.2.0.on.1$lint.1 symt.reve Version 4.y.5.0.5.22.12..2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Reynolds stress profiles ! GRAPH DATA frame 6 xreg init 11.2.12.6.6.y$bart.90...legend.0.0 12.22.4.2.9 ___ grlabel.5.10.on.6.1.2...22.15 frame 6 yreg init 12.0 v’w’ grlabel.08 16-31 .on $LES rlabel.12.1.n rlabel.0.Tutorial 16.4.6.1$rtab.0.5.5 y+ grlabel.4.on.12.5..

08 .Tutorial 16.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION Macros Reynolds stress profiles 16-32 Version 4.

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