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CARCINOGENS Hundreds of chemicals are capable of inducing cancer in humans or animals after prolonged or excessive exposure.

There are many well-known examples of chemicals that can cause cancer in humans. The fumes of the metals cadmium, nickel, and chromium are known to cause lung cancer. Vinyl chloride causes liver sarcomas. Exposure to arsenic increases the risk of skin and lung cancer. Leukemia can result from chemically induced changes in bone marrow from exposure to benzene and cyclophosphamide, among other toxicants. Other chemicals, including benzo[a]pyrene and ethylene dibromide, are considered by authoritative scientific organizations to be probably carcinogenic in humans because they are potent carcinogens in animals. Chemically-induced cancer generally develops many years after exposure to a toxic agent. A latency period of as much as thirty years has been observed between exposure to asbestos, for example, and incidence of lung cancer.

Cancer cells are cells that grow and divide at an unregulated, quickened pace. Although cancer cells can be quite common in a person they are only malignant when the other cells (particularly natural killer cells) fail to recognize and/or destroy them.[1] In the past a common belief was that cancer cells failed to be recognized and destroyed because of a weakness in the immune system. However, more recent research has shown that the failure to recognize cancer cells is caused by the lack of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes.[2]
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1 Causes 2 Pathology 3 Discovery 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

[edit]Causes

By researching stem cells scientists have suggested that "too much SP2 protein" may turn "stem cellcancer cells cells".[3] Other issues thought to

If a cell is under stress. turning into tumors. This is how cancer spreads. where they keep growing and can go on to form new tumors. cancer cells just continue to grow and divide out of control and don't die when they're supposed to. There are billions of cells in each person's body. Sir Rudolf Virchow. Over time. or infected molecules including MICA and MICB are produced to put on the surface of the cell. immune system issuetivity. genetics.[4] However. they also die. a lack of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes can impair the natural killer cells ability and ultimately cause cancer. Normal body cells grow and divide and know to stop growing. including the human body. As Giovanni Morgagni had linked autopsy findings seen with the unaided eye with the clinical course of illness. The spread of a tumor to a new place in the body is called metastasis (say: meh-tas-tuh-sis).[1] These work to detect and kill cancer cells.[6] ancer is actually a group of many related diseases that all have to do with cells. a German biologist and politician.play a role in the spread of cancer include viruses. This can make someone very sick. Cells are the very small units that make up all living things. is generally credited with discovering the first cancer cells. A growing tumor becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumor and damage the body's healthy tissues.[2] [edit]Pathology White Blood cells are thought to use a dual receptor system when they determine whether or not to kill human cells. Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel to other areas of the body.[5] Some descriptions of cancer go back to ancient Egypt as far back as 1600 BC and the understanding of cancer was significantly advanced during theRenaissance period. Unlike these normal cells. However. Cancer cells usually group or clump together to form tumors (say:too-mers). Causes of Cancer . so Virchow correlated the microscopic pathology. Cancer happens when cells that are not normal grow and spread very fast. environment and age.

Based on the results. the better someone's chances are for a full recovery and cure. like an infection. probably only one child in that stadium would have cancer. it's often caused by something less serious. he or she can do tests to figure out if that's the problem. and hug someone with cancer. like colds or the flu are. especially cigarette smoking or drinking too much alcohol every day. like the bone marrow. With medical testing. The sooner cancer is found and treatment begins. Finding Out About Cancer It can take a while for a doctor to figure out a kid has cancer. But you probably don't know any kids who've had cancer. fevers. tests can determine what kind of cancer it is and if it has spread to other parts of the body. They do know that cancer is not contagious. This isn't true! Kids don't do anything wrong to get cancer. You can't catch it from someone else who has it ² cancer isn't caused by germs. One test that an oncologist (or a surgeon) may perform is a biopsy (say: by-op-see). Kids can't get cancer from anything they do either. If the doctor suspects cancer. Some kids think that a bump on the head causes brain cancer or that bad people get cancer. An oncologist is a doctor who takes care of and treats cancer patients. the doctor can figure out what's causing the trouble. The sample that's collected will be examined under a microscope for cancer cells. During a biopsy. the doctor will decide the best way to treat it. can make you a lot more likely to get cancer when you become an adult. Doctors aren't sure why some people get cancer and others don't.You probably know a kid who had chickenpox ² maybe even you. If you packed a large football stadium with kids. play with. The oncologist will likely run other tests to find out if someone really has cancer. That's because the symptoms cancer can cause ² weight loss. But some unhealthy habits. a piece of tissue is removed from a tumor or a place in the body where cancer is suspected. If so. Don't worry ² someone getting this test will get special medicine to keep him or her comfortable during the biopsy. or feeling overly tired or sick for a while ² usually are not caused by cancer. When a kid has these problems. You can talk to. So don't be afraid of other kids ² or anyone else ² with cancer. Treating Cancer Carefully . swollen glands. A doctor might order X-rays and blood tests and recommend the person go to see an oncologist (say: on-kah-luhjist).

These medicines are sometimes taken as a pill. Chemotherapy (say: kee-mo-ther-uh-pee) is the use of anti-cancer medicines (drugs) to treat cancer. also called an IV. where it can travel throughout the body and attack cancer cells. if at all) Surgery is the oldest form of treatment for cancer ² 3 out of every 5 people with cancer will have an operation to remove it. a kid might not be able to attend school or be around crowds of people ² the kid needs to rest and avoid getting infections. The catheter is attached to a bag that holds the medicine. During the treatment. usually on the arm. A side effect is an extra problem that's caused by the treatment. vomiting. Many people with cancer find it goes away after receiving radiation treatments. such as the flu.Cancer is treated with surgery. This way. The medicine flows from the bag into a vein. tiredness. or radiation ² or sometimes a combination of these treatments. kids may experience side effects. It can cause tumors to shrink and even go away completely. Chemotherapy is usually given over a number of weeks to months. This can cause problems such as loss of appetite. a permanent catheter is placed under the skin into a larger blood vessel of the upper chest. The choice of treatment depends on: y y the type of cancer someone has (the kind of abnormal cells causing the cancer) the stage of the tumor (meaning how much the cancer has spread within the body. . the doctor tries to take out as many cancer cells as possible. An IV is a tiny plastic catheter (straw-like tube) that is put into a vein through someone's skin. But all these problems go away and hair grows back after the treatment is over. The catheter remains under the skin until all the cancer treatment is completed. Radiation and anti-cancer drugs are very good at destroying cancer cells but. certain medicines can help a kid feel better. a person might have red or irritated skin in the area that's being treated. a person can easily get several courses of chemotherapy and other medicines through this catheter without having a new IV needle put in. Often. Some healthy cells or tissue may also be removed to make sure that all the cancer is gone. when he or she already isn't feeling well. Radiation (say: ray-dee-ay-shun) therapy uses high-energy waves. Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer. unfortunately. they also destroy healthy cells. to damage and destroy cancer cells. such as X-rays (invisible waves that can pass through most parts of the body). With both chemotherapy and radiation. but usually are given through a special intravenous (say: in-truh-vee-nus) line. With radiation. The body may have more trouble fighting off infections because of the cancer or side effects of the treatment. chemotherapy. or hair loss. During surgery. which puts the medicine into the blood. While treatment is still going on.

Cytoplasm: The semifluid substance of a cell containing organelles and enclosed by the cell membrane. then the kid is in remission. After surgery or treatment with radiation or chemotherapy. And luckily. Diploid: Having two sets of chromosomes. Sometimes. . Haploid: Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes. a doctor will then do tests to see if the cancer is still there. It means all signs of cancer are gone from the body. If there are no signs of cancer. Zygote: A diploid cell formed by the union of two haploid gametes. Fragmentation: The regeneration of an entire individual from a broken off piece of an organism. Chromosome: Structures that organize genetic information in the nuclei of cells.Getting Better Remission (say: ree-mih-shun) is a great word for anyone who has cancer. Gamete: A male or female sex cell. Remission is the goal when any kid with cancer goes to the hospital for treatment. continued remission is the very happy end of their cancer experience. Words to Know Budding: A form of asexual reproduction in which a small part of the parent's body separates and develops into a new individual. Mitosis: Process of cell division resulting in the formation of two daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell. Meiosis: Process of cell division by which a diploid cell produces four haploid cells. this means additional chemotherapy might be needed for a while to keep cancer cells from coming back. and transmission of specific traits from one generation to another. for many kids. Gene: A section of a chromosome that carries instructions for the formation. functioning.

while in females. Meiosis is a type of cell division in which the number of chromosomes in a diploid cell (a cell having two sets of chromosomes in its nucleus) are reduced by half following two successive cell divisions. The shuffling of the parents' genetic material that occurs during meiosis allows for new gene combinations in offspring that over time can improve a species' chances of survival. from two different parents to form a fertilized egg called a zygote. hermaphrodites . called gametes. all four daughter cells produced by meiosis become sperm. the normal number of chromosomes are restored in the zygote. the spores develop into gametophytes (or gamete-producing plants) that produce haploid gametes (eggs and sperm) by mitosis. Thus. sexual reproduction is the fusion of a sperm and egg. Alternation of generations. Gametes are produced in the male testes and female ovaries by a process called meiosis. Hermaphroditism is a form of sexual reproduction in which an organism has both male and female organs. having only half the number of chromosomes as the original diploid cell. Hermaphroditism. thus completing the cycle. only one daughter cell develops into an egg. called alternation of generations. The gametes unite to produce a diploid zygote that grows into a sporophyte (spore-producing plant). During the haploid stage.In plants and animals. The four daughter cells that are produced are each haploid. Plants go through two stages in their life cycle. When an egg and sperm fuse at fertilization. in which cells undergoing meiosis produce haploid reproductive cells called spores. One is the diploid stage. In males.