Name Alliteration

Type Poetic

Notes Repeating the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words Form of personification that applies humanlike characteristics to animals or objects Concise statement that contains a cleverly stated subjective truth or observation² aphorisms typically use alliteration, anaphora, and rhyme. The aphorism is considered a compressed poeticgenre in itself. When sentences do not use conjunctions (eg: and, or, nor) to separate clauses, but run clauses into one another, usually marking the separation of clauses with punctuation. An example is when John F. Kennedy said on January the 20th 1961 "...that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty." Character who speaks for the author² sometimes an intentionally or unintentionally idealized version of the author. A well known variation is the Mary Sue or Gary Stu (self-insertion). Story that precedes events in the story being told²past events or background that add meaning to current circumstances Mood that overstates its own pathos or drama. A type of novel concerned with education, development, and maturation of a young protagonist. Essentially, a bildungsroman traces the formation of a
1

Anthropomorphis Personification m

Aphorism

Asyndeton

Stylistic Scheme

Author surrogate Character

Back-story Bathos

Background exposure

Bildungsroman

a god appears and solves everything). to draw the audience back to a future episode for the resolution.g. cut-ups are used to offer a nonlinear alternative to traditional reading and writing. An extended metaphor associated with metaphysical poetry that pushes the imagination's limits to portray something indescribable.protagonist's maturity (the passage from childhood to adulthood) by following the development of his/her mind and character. The narrative ends unresolved. An author or character addresses the audience directly (also known as direct address). or .. Plot Resolving the primary conflict by a means unrelated to the story (e. or may seek to extend the world of the story to provide the illusion that they are included in it. Most commonly. This may acknowledge to the reader or audience that what is being presented is fiction. See foreshadowing and repetitive designation. Forcing the reader to recognize common things in an unfamiliar or strange way. Insertion of an apparently irrelevant object early in a narrative for a purpose only revealed later. to enhance perception of the familiar A romantic relationship not referred to in the current story. This device dates back 2 Breaking the fourth wall Chekhov's gun Plot Cliffhanger Plot Conceit Cut-up technique Defamiliarization Deleted affair Deus ex machina(a machination. The cut-up technique is an aleatory literary technique in which a text is cut up and rearranged to create a new text.

e-mails. This technique appears at least as far back as the Arabian Nights. it refers to the sudden turn of events at the end of a story which result in the protagonist's well-being. A deliberately excessive use of balanced antitheses emphasised by alliteration. or about. but can be a clumsy method that frustrates the audience. Examples 3 Dionysian imitatio Dramatic visualization Descriptive Epiphany Epistolary novel Literary genre Eucatastrophe Euphuism False documents Literary genre . etc. or mimetically rendering gestures and dialogue to make a scene more visual or imaginatively present to an audience. In Ancient Greece was first formulated by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. The Expedition of Humphry Clinker by Tobias Smollett (1771). and the subsequent Latin rhetoricians adopted this literary method instead of Aristotle's mere imitation of nature.) exchanged between characters. Named from Euphues (1579) the prose romance by John Lyly.[1] A sudden revelation or insight²usually with a symbolic role in the narrative²in a literary work. The literary method of copying and improving other writers. Coined by J. Representing an object or character with abundant descriptive detail. Fiction in the form of. apparently real.act of god) to ancient Greek theater. Les Liaisons dangereuses by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos(1782) and Dracula by Bram Stoker (1897). Classic examples include Pamela by Samuel Richardson (1740). Novel in the form of a series of documents (letters. Tolkien. but actually fake documents. R. R.

[1] and is also used in Romeo and Juliet.include Robert Graves's I. and the Flashman series by George MacDonald Fraser. repetitive designation. Rigorously organizing events. Framing A main story that organizes a series of shorter stories. actions. Flashforwards often represent events expected. but soon will in greater detail. The short stories ofJorge Luis Borges are often written as summaries or criticisms of imaginary books. General term for altering time sequences. an interjected scene that temporarily jumps the narrative forward in time. A more modern 4 Flashforward Foreshadowing Formal patterning Frame story. See also formal patterning. This has been highly popularized by the television series Lost. or imagined to occur in the future. a fictional autobiography of the Roman emperor. See also foreshadowing. This technique dates back at least to Arabian Nights. and gestures that constitute a narrative and shape a story. or astory within a story . for instance Also called prolepsis. Lovecraft'sNecronomicon. Plot Hinting at events to occur later. Claudius.Arabian Nights and The Decameron. When done well. H.P. First Person Narration Flashback (or analeptic reference) A text presented from the point of view of a character (esp. projected. Early examples include Panchatantra. taking characters back to the beginning of the tale. and Chekhov's gun. They may also reveal significant parts of the story that have not yet occurred. the protagonist) and written in the first person. formal patterning helps the audience discern and anticipate the plot structure as it unfolds.

where a situation features a 5 In medias res Narrative hook Irony Contextual . setting. The character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall.example is Brian Jacques The Legend of Luke. (The so-called "As you know. often in the form of a conversation Infodumping (als Setting::Backgrou between two characters. into the story. especially making use of the human senses. all at once. The latter work begins with the return of Odysseus to his home of Ithaka and then in flashbacks tells of his ten years of wandering following the Trojan War. scene. Beginning the story in the middle of a sequence of events. Imagery Incluing The author puts a concentrated amount of background material. Framing device Hamartia Hyperbole Framing A single action. plot dump) nd exposure should already know the material under discussion. Gradually exposing the reader to background information about the story's world²to Setting::Backgrou subtly clue the readers into the world the nd exposure author is building²such in as Brave New World. Exaggeration used to evoke strong feelings or create an impression which is not meant to be taken literally. Bob" conversation) This is the opposite of Incluing. It's the opposite of Infodumping. event. Forming mental images of a scene using descriptive words. This discrepancy between expectation and reality occurs in three forms: situational irony. The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer are prime examples. both of whom o. or any element of significance at the beginning and end of a work.

characters. Salman Rushdie's work provides good examples. Word or phrase in a figure of speech in which an attribute of something stands for the thing itself. This dates back at least to the Arabian Nights. The difference between verbal irony and sarcasm is exquisitely subtle and often contested. as used by G. meaning "the queerness 6 Leitwortstil Poetic Magical realism Literary genre Metonymy Mooreeffoc (also written Moor . phrases. K. in which a part of the whole stands for the thing itself (Metonomy: The boxer threw in the towel. Synecdoche: She gave her hand in marriage.) Coined by Charles Dickens and. Chesterton. words.[1] Describing events realistically. contrast. Juxtaposition Contextual Using two themes. and the term tragedy. and verbal irony.discrepancy between what is expected and what is actualized. See the Usage controversy section underirony. The concept of irony is too often misunderstood in popular usage. This is not to be confused with synecdoche. where one states one thing while meaning another. Elsewhere. but in a magical haze of strange local customs and beliefs²particularly popular with Latin American authors like Gabriel García Márquez. or situations together for comparison. dramatic irony. where a character is unaware of pivotal information already revealed to the audience (the discrepancy here lies in the two levels of awareness between the character and the audience). Unfortunate circumstances and coincidences do not constitute irony (nor do they qualify as being tragic). or rhetoric Purposefully repeating words that usually express a motif or theme important to the story.

e. Reflecting a character's (usually the protagonist) mood in the atmosphere or inanimate objects²for example.Eeffoc) Narrative hook Overstatement Onomatopoeia Poetic Narrative hook of things that have become trite. "boom" or "squish" A term made of two words that deliberately or coincidentally imply each other's opposite. or similar to what the word means.. one of the three modes of persuasion in rhetoric that the author uses to inspire pity or sorrow towards a character² typically does not counterbalance the target character's suffering with a positive outcome. as in MAD Magazine Using forms and styles from another author. it was the worst of times." (A Tale of Two Cities) Ridicule by overstated imitation." Story opening that "hooks" readers' attention so they will keep reading Exaggerating something. e. Contextual Pastiche Genre Pathetic fallacy Pathos Personification . generally as an affectionate tribute. such as the many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes not written by Arthur Conan Doyle. "It was the best of times.g.. when they are seen suddenly from a new angle.g.g. "terrible beauty" A phrase that describes an idea composed of concepts that conflict. Personification Using comparative metaphors and similes to give living characteristics to non-living 7 Oxymoron Contextual Paradox Contextual Parody Genre. as in Tragedy. or much of theCthulhu Mythos. usually humorous. e. which mirrors Lear's mental deterioration. the storm in William Shakespeare's King Lear. Emotional appeal. often for emphasis (also known as hyperbole) Word that sounds the same as.

literal words agreed on apply. and smothered in mud. Plot device Plot twist Plot Plot Object or character whose sole purpose is to advance the plot Unexpected change ("twist") in the direction or expected outcome of the plot. Plot device based on an argument that an agreement's intended meaning holds no legal value. this provides a sense of exaggeration designed to wear down the audience. A rhetorical tactic of diverting attention away from an item of significance. who limped. and stung by nettles. and glared and growled. and lamed by stones. and torn by briars. or vice punished. by an ironic twist of fate related to the character's own conduct Time travel paradox where a time traveler is caught in a loop of events that "predestines" them to travel back in time Polysyndeton is the use of several conjunctions in close succession. For 8 Poetic justice Predestination paradox Plot Plot Polysyndeton Stylistic Scheme Quibble Plot device Red herring Plot device . but no blood. and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin". so Shylock can collect only if he sheds no blood. Virtue ultimately rewarded. See also twist ending. and that only the exact. and shivered.objects. An example of this is in the first chapter ofGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens: "A man who had been soaked in water. For example. and cut by flints. William Shakespeare used a quibble in The Merchant of Venice: Portia saves Antonio in a court of law by pointing out that the agreement called for a pound of flesh.

Doctor Who and The Matrix A story told within another story. Applied use of symbols: iconic representations that carry particular conventional meanings. Distributing recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among various incidents and frames of a story. Early examples include the legend ofOedipus. but later suddenly intrudes in the narrative. taste. Examples include Mahabharata. Gundam. an innocent party may be purposefully cast as highly suspicious through emphasis or descriptive techniques to divert attention from the true guilty party. Prediction that. Technique where the author writes down their thoughts as fast as they come. in mystery fiction.example. to Arabian Nights. typically to create an interior monologue. sound. There is also an example of this in Harry Potter. by being made. Descriptive Imagery.[2] See alsoforeshadowing and Chekhov's gun. characterized by leaps in syntax and punctuation that trace a character's fragmentary thoughts and sensory feelings. and the story of Krishna in the Mahabharata. a technique that dates back. at least. makes itself come true. touch. smell Background narrative that explains the world of the main story. Repeated references to a character or object that appears insignificant at first. sight. See also frame story.Ramayana. In a skillfully crafted 9 Repetitive designation Plot device Self-fulfilling prophecy Sensory detail Side story Story within a story(Hypodieges Framing is) Stream of consciousness Literary genre Symbolism Thematic patterning .

may help create the overall tone. or introduces a bias in his narration and possibly misleads the reader. especially in a discrete section.tale. Combination of the various structural aspects of an author's writing style. The tone of a whole work is not itself a literary technique. Strictly speaking. Alienating or distancing the audience from a play's emotional content²popularized by 20th century playwright Bertolt Brecht. or motivations. tone is generally an effect of literary techniques. hiding or minimizing events. Tone Understatement Unreliable narrator Plot device Verfremdungseff Literary ekt technique Word play Writer's voice 10 . effect. Sounds of words used as an aspect of the work. while The Sorrows of Young Werther takes its protagonist's suffering very seriously. The narrator of the story is not sincere. thematic patterning may emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea disparate events and disparate frames have in common. Examples include The Informers and Norwegian Wood. characters. However. Ticking clock scenario Threat of impending disaster²often used in thrillers where salvation and escape are essential elements Overall attitude an author appears to hold toward key elements of the work²the novel Candidemakes fun of its characters' suffering. the tone of a work. on the level of a work's overall meaning or effect. Contextual A diminishing or softening of a theme or effect. or meaning of the work.

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