ti ..-



Present Simple
Affirmative I work

Present Continuous

Present Perfect
j have worked

Present Pert connnuous
j have been working

You work
He works Negative ete

! am woti<lng You are worklng He is workinq etc
Negative l'm not working


You have worked He has worked Negative ete

You have been working He hasbeen working ete

t don't work You don't work He doesn't work etc

1haven't worked
You haven't worked

! haven't

beon workinq

You aren't working
He isn't working Interrogative

You haven't been working He hasn't been working ate Interrogative

He hasn't worked ste
Interrogative Have I work ed?

Do I work? Do you work? Does he work? ete

Am I worl<ing?
Are you working? ls he working?


Have you worked? Has he worked? ete

Have I been working? Have you been working? Has he beon working? etc

permanent sltuatlons or states He lives in

temporary sltuatlons She ;s working in Paris

recentty comp!eted acuons.oe fJcvor ..



in the past

a caravan.
permanent truths or laws of nature Water bofls at 1oo·C. repeated/habitual actlons (especlally with

this week.
changing Of developlng sltuatlons Mary ls pult/ng on weight. frequently repeated aetlons with always, constantly,



He hss etA the grasso (The action is comp!ete.
The grass is now cut. evidence complete in the present)

and cOiltinuing up to the present. He has been washing flis bike for an nour. (He started an hour
age and he's stili washing it.)

past actions conneeted te the present

past actlons of certain duratlon naving vislble

often. usually,

annoyance or criticlsm


-.- _~~.,Jnstated·

resunsor effects in the

time reference

always etc) He always
does his homework.

He's always asking stupid questions. (Here "aiways"

He hss sold his car.
(Now he has no car.)

He nas been fighfing. Ittet's why he's gat a black eye.


dramatic narrative

aetlons happenlng at or around the moment of

personal experlences/
changes happeneđ which have

Pavarotti sings wonderfufly in this opere. tlmetabies/programmes
(future meaning)

The baby is sleeping the moment.
. fixed arrangements


I have learnt a tot this year.
emphasis on number

to express anqer, trrnanon, armoyance, explanatlon or criticism Someone has been Iying to me. (annoyance)
Present Pertect Continuou$ or how long to put emphasls on duration is


the near Mure

He has read three novels

normaliy used with for, slnce

The race starls at 3.00. In exclamatory sentences
Here comes the bride!

I'm seeing Rachel tonight.

this week. She has intefViewed seven
students this moming.

She has been waiting since 4 o'cioc«.

Present Simple
every day/week/month(
year, usually, sometlmes,

Present Continuous

Present Perfect & Present Perfeet Contlnuous

now, at the moment, at
present, nowa.days,

just, ever, never, a!ready, yet (negatlons &: questlons),
always, how long, so tar, recently, stnce


from a

always, rarely, never, otten, in the morningl evening/afternoon, at night, on Mondays etc

today, tonlght, always, stil! etc

startlnq point in the past), for (:: over a period of time), today, this weeklmonth etc For and slnce are usual!y used with Prcsent Perfect Continuous to ernphaslse the duration of an action f1ti :J:'" j'~! .:

r .: li t:;~ r-. \...,'to.,.l

'I bz>,
,_ J

D \




: jJJtĐ'~Jf:'


_-'~I..:.' ~


( VAaMA.O -

O/CO ,.~",.~ Past Continuous DU -1<'[\i4.Lo
Affirmative I was working You were workinq He was working ete Negative I wasn't working You weren't working He wasn't worl\ing ete !nterrogative Was J working'? Were you working? Was ile working? etc action In the mlddle of nappening at a stated past time Iwas liv;ng in soein this time fast yaar, .

Past Perteet
Af1irmative ! had workad You had worked

Past Perf. Continuous
Affirmative I had been working You had been working He had been working etc Negative

I worked You worked He worked ete

He had workeo etc
Negative [ hadn't worked You hadn't work ed He hadn't worked etc lnterroqatlve Had I worked? Had you worked? Had he worksd? ete past action which occurred betore another action or before a stated past time

Negative ! didn't work You didn't work He didn't work etc lnterroqatlve Dld I wcrk? Did you work? Did he work? ete past actlons which

I hadn't been working hadn't been working

He hadn't been working etc

lnterroqatlve Had! been working? Had you been wori<ing? Had he been working? etc action continuing over a period up to a speclfic time in the past Sile had been trying to get a visa for months before she gJve up. past action of certain duratlon which had vlstble resutts in the past Her fjngers hurt because she had been playing the
guitar all day_

happened one immediately
after the other He got in the car, started th9 engin,e 81?d drC}ve.QfJ..
b O\iY\\}\.es ~

He had spent alll1is money by the end of the month.
complete past action which had vislble results In the past He was delighted becsuse he had four.d a new job.

past hablt or stale
He use« to wafk}walked to work every day. complete action or event which happened at a stated past time


past action in progress interrupted by another past action, The longer action ls in the Past Contlnuous, the shorter action is in the Past

'~:;$l~*~~~~jt~t?tl~~~~t~~t4!-:~;?!~tt*h~1~~f~~~~.;~:l~.~:~ 1.::_-:;,;~~-'i:~~~~;::.;-;:: ':--'';.-~<: .,-'
,,-•. ~-~', •• ;~.~

week ("Whenr "l.es:


week" . stated past time) complete past actions n.W. S2Dnect~d to the present with a stated or Implied time reference Elvis Pres/ey made lots of records. (Elvis is dead; Ile

I was p/aying f6otba/f when I broke myankle.

two or more simuttaneous
past actlons of certatn duration

the Past Pertect is the past equlvatent of the

Present Pertect
There was no pudding tett; lie had eaten it all. (Presen! Peiiect: There 's no pudding tett; he hes eaten it

He was cooking while she
was s!eeping. or background descriptlon to events in a storyI description They were travelling to Swsnsea..


record any more. -

the Past Pertect Cont. is the past equlvalont of the Present Perfeet He stayed in bed that day because he had beef) feeling iii ali week. (Present Petiect: He 's
stay;ng in beo today

period of time now

finished - implied time

becsuse hes been fr~eling
il! all week.)

Time Expressions usually used with Past Forms
Past Simple
yesterday, last week ctc, (how long} ag o, tnen, just now, when, lli 1992

Past Continuous

Past Pertect for, since, aireaoy, after, just, never, yet, betore, by, by the time etc


Pen. Continuous

Whire;;~:-~-~k the
moment that ete

fer, since

Futura Simple (Will)
Affirmative 1will work You will work He will work etc Negative

Bc going to
Affirmative 1am going to work You are going to work He is going to work ete NegaUve

Future conuuocus
Affirmative i will be working You will be working He will be working etc Negative i won't be working You won't be wor~ing He won't be working ete lnterroqatlve Will I be workinq? Wi!i you be workinq? Will he be working? etc

Future Pertect
Aftirmative I wifl have worked etc Negatlve r won't nave worked etc Interroqative

Will I have work ed? etc

1won't work You won't work
He won't work etc

l'rn not going to work You're not going to work
He's not going to work etc Interrogat!ve Arn I going to work? Are you going to work? ls he going to work? ste

Future Perfect Cont.
Affirmatlve ! will have beon working etc Negative ! won't have oeen wor\dng etc

Shall/WiH I work? Will you work? Will he work? etc

Will I have been working'? etc Futllf'C Perfect action finlshed betore a stated tuture time They
will have (inished building their house by May,

deelstons taken at the moment of speaklng (on-the-spot declslons) !t's cold in bere. f'1i tum on the heating.

actlons intended to b{! pertermed in the near future rm going t9 bar sotne new cJothes next week,

actlons in progress at a stated tunrre time l'Ube skiing in the A/ps this Christmas.

hopes, fears, tnreats, onere, promlses, warnlngs, predietions, requests, comments etc, esp. with: expect, hope, believe, I'm sure, I'm afrald, probably

planned actlons or intent!ons Now that she's rich, sbe'» going to travel round the

actlons which are the result of a routtne (instead of Present Continuous)
f'1f be going tomorrow, to the bank

Note: by or not ... until/tili

are used with Puture Peri,
Until/tm are normaUy used with Future Pei1ect only in negative sentences. She will hav€! wr~uen ~t.by next

ff go there every Friday - i(S\p~lrtof my

until tomorrow,
actlons Of predlctlons which may (not) happen In the tuture She'lI probabfy wit». or actions which we cannot control and will evidence that somethlng will definltely happen in the near futura Il tooss. fike
the plane




lake sick!

off now,
I think t'm going

to ne

Inevitab!y happen
The baby wiil IJe bOrTI after Cflri.stmas.

when we ask potitely about people's arranqements to sea if they can do sth for us er because we want to ofter to do sth for thern. you tie driving into town /his

Futura Pertect Cont.
duration of an action up to a certaln time in the future By this time next month he



been studying

the pieno tor 2 years.


Ccm you give me

cl lift?
thlnqs we are not yet sure about or we haven't declded to do yet
Maybe !'lI buy

a car,

thir.gs we are sure about or we have a!ready decidad to do in the near tuture Thev ere going to
otter the job to Ann. (It hes been oecioeo.)

Present Simple with tuture meantnq
The boat

Present Conttnuous with future meaning
fixed arranqernent in the near tuture !'m having dinner with
Jane this eveoina. (tt's oete.)

Note: Shali is used with l/we in questions,
suggestions, otters or


at 8

o 'ctock in the morning.

when askinq for advice
Shali we p!ay tennis?

Shali is used:
with I/we in questions, SU9gestions,offers asking for advlce, Shali we go for a wafk? Who shali f invite? or wnon to express

Will is used:

otters, threats, prornlses, predtctlons,

warnlnqs, requests, hopes, tears, on-the-spot
.declstons, comrnents (mainly with: think, expect, betieve, l'm sure, hope, know, suppose and probably). I'm sure John will pass his drMng test.

. '\C;:o.·t;~·;11~;:~r.lt~~·~:'·.Y:;~f·~ri.~~:~itJt~l,tl;.ns;;:y'~~'~';~i!h;r{f'~.: .:. '

.~ "

Futura S!mple& Be going to tomorrow, tonight, next weekJm<mth,
in two(three etc days, the day after tomorrow,

Futura Pertect before, by, by then, by the time, (until ls used only In negative sentences with
this tense)

Future Pertect Cont.
by ... for

soon, In a weekJmonth ete


COME J?_EE . .. .





~Inlon was born, live in understat'\d ~ossess _~ identity I character






mental"ac_t_iv_it..LY __ travel,....;.f_r_o_m~.


1 .__ __

various activities
behaviour _


perception meosuremenr


act of perception mecsurement


~~!-J~~~:~~:.::~~ .. '.~. ~=~~~"!on' .:_.. ~~ .~!:~~.~~~,tffi!fvrry: .:~':C~

{~~~ ---------- :~fi:~: ... ---... ..-"--j--nove a soff tex+ure ._ object to _~


ex~~~~tnce--·----touch --------4

f-------. MIND

..__~ake care of





!equire .. be t.he..!:!.9~t.E~e._
su~po:,e ._

__ reiy_!:!pon ._



r J.

toke port
be preqncnt



ENJOY - general! specific preference ,
LOOK (cppeoronce)

FEEL (experience)


It has been often said that English dQeS nntJJm a future tense as many other languages do. Instead, there are several forms which express future events, and which one the user selects depends on how he or she sees the avent as much as its certainty or nearness to the present The main forms are given heta in order of frequency:


Future Sjmpl~
i.J(-SS .


1. simple predictions or expectations..e...:1 ljĆ('. +('Ćj j The sun will rise at 6.30 tomorrow morning.

The Queen willopen the new hospital next Thursday.
2. spontaneous or instant decisions and intentions aboot the immediate future. The phone is ringing. I will answer rU

What a lovety shitt! ni buy il


Going to Futura

=:::-------.- \) --!



'+D b(~~ <)C:i\j

l.·; .." ..j~(~

1. ~~~editated intentionsand plans '---.. -, -,: After Christmas, I am going to get a job and save up. I am going to decorate the bathroom this weekend. 2. predictions based on evidence of knowfedge. My nose is tickJing. I am going to sneeze. Theyre looking very angry. I think they are going to start throwing



Present Continuous

The Present Continuous is used to 1refef to Mure actions of event which have already been arranged (usually for the near Mure).
We are spending the summer with our friends in Greece. Are you doIng anything interesnog this weekend?



The Present Continuous cannot be used to express a Mure event that h~Snot<:'j been arranged ~ human beings. <. ~// It is raiRiRg tomorrow The sun ls tising at 5.00 tomorrow morning.


The Present Si!"ple

The Present Simple is used to express a Mure event which is seen as beiog
certain because of a timetable, schedule or calendar, What time does the film start:? My train gets in at 11.00. The Cup Final takes place on April 17.




around a specific time in the future.

Form: S .•.be + Present Participle of the main verb

1. events or actions that

wm be in progress

This time tomorrow. I will be travelling through France. This time next week, we will be thinking about the holidays and not future forms. 2. actions that will occur in the natura' CQUrseof evef!t§.. independentJy of the will ar intention of anyooe directly coocemed. This tense can also be used to predict future trands. developments or tendencies. In a few minutes we will be landlng at pleso Airport. In the 2~ century peop1e will be IlvIng to the age of 130. The bus will be leaving any minute: Hurry upi 3. casual or polite question abou! someone's futura pIans. The speaker is trying
not to impose hislherwiU in anyway. Will you be using the car tonight? ff not. couk1l have it?

Will you be brlnging Kate to the party? (I am just a'Sking.)
[VI. - The Future Perfect Simple and Continuous

Form: S + will + have+-F'asfPaiticiple mahl (SimJlte) -. -.. -.- .. -.s + will + have + been + Present Participle of the main verb (Continuous) The Future Per1ect expresses an action that will have finished before a definite time in the future. .
I will have finished my work by the time you gat back. By the year 2007. you will have left your grammar schooI. On Saturday we will have been livlng hera for ttvee years. HOTES




1. Shali is sometimes used mstead of will after I and we. 2. Shali must be used to start a question which are suggestions and offers, Shali we phone to soo what time the film starts? Shali Icarry that heavy case for you? OTHER WAYS OF REFERRING TO THE FUTURE
1. To be about to + infinitive This is used to talk about acaons ar events which we expect to happen in the imrnediate futura. I must huny - the train is about to leave. 2. To be on the point of + Present ParticipJe of the main verb The train is on the point of Jeaving. CIose the doors!

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