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My sincere thanks to Mr.Y.B.Joshi and Mr. Ravi Sharma for allowing me to do training under their guidance. I am grateful for their cooperation.
I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. K.S.Shukla and Mr. Subhajit Sarkar for

providing invaluable support and guidance. My acknowledgement especially to Mr.Vikas kashyap (Process Engineer) who helped me to understand the practical aspects of my project and in giving the useful data necessary for the project. The various guidelines and information given to me by Mr. BARDAN LAMA, Mr. PRATEEK and Mr. GAGAN were of extreme help during project. I would like to appreciate the time taken out by them for clarifying my doubts and helping me at various steps.

RAVI VERMA 08112028







Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. is Indias largest commercial enterprise, with a sales turnover of Rs.2,85,337 crore and a net profit of Rs.2,950 crore for the year 2008 09. Indian Oil is also the highest ranked Indian company in the prestigious Fortune Global 500 listing ( 116 to position in 2008). Indian Oil Company Ltd. established as an Oil marketing entity on 30th June 1959, and was renamed Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. on 1 st September 1964 following the merger of the refining entity ,Indian Refineries Ltd. Since then, the Indian Oil people with their dedication and determination have nurtured the integrated downstream petroleum company into Indias No. 1 company and the countrys largest commercial enterprise . It is the ceaseless efforts of several generations of the Indian oil family that has today placed the corporation firmly among the worlds largest corporate , with the distinction of being 18th largest petroleum company in the world . Set up with a clear mandate for achieving self-sufficiency in petroleum refining ,pipelines transportation and marketing operations for a nascent nation set on the path of economic growth and prosperity , Indian Oil is proud to account for nearly half of Indias petroleum consumption today . Indian Oil and its subsidies account for 49% petroleum products market share , 40.4 % refining capacity and 69 % downstream

Sector pipelines capacity in India. The Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of Indias 20 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 60.2 MMPTA. i.e. 1.2 barrels per day. The Corporations cross country network of crude oil and product pipelines ,spanning about 9,300 km and the largest in the country, meets the vital energy needs of the consumers in an efficient, economical and environmental friendly manner.


To achieve the next level of growth, Indian Oil is currently forging ahead on a well laid out road map through vertical integration upstream into oil Exploration & Production and downstream into petrochemicals and diversification into natural gas marketing, besides globalization of its downstream operations . As the leading public sector enterprise of India, Indian Oil has successfully combined its corporate social responsibility agenda with its business offerings, meeting the energy needs of millions of people everyday across the length and breadth of the country , traversing a diversity of cultures , difficult terrains and harsh climatic conditions . The corporation takes pride in its continuous investments in innovative technologies and solutions for sustainable energy flow and economic viable and environment- friendly products & services for the benefit of its consumers.

Panipat Refinery is the 7th refinery of Indian Oil commissioned in 1998. Referred to, as countrys technically advanced refinery is situated in the village Baholi in Panipat District of Haryana. Built at the cost of Rs.3, 868 crore, it has an installed capacity of 15 MMTPA now. Backed by global, state-of-the-art technologies from IFP-France, Haldor Topsoe-Denmark, UNOCAL/UOP-USA, Stone & Webster-USA, and Delta-Hudson-Canada. The refinery is designed for processing both indigenous and imported crudes. It receives crude oil through the chaksu-Kamal branch pipeline of the Salaya-Mathura pipeline Vadinar Gujarat coast to Panipat through a 1339 km long pipeline. The various products of the refinery are: 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. Liquefied Petroleum Gas Naphtha Motor Spirit Aviation Turbine Fuel Mineral Turpentine Oil Superior Kerosene High Speed Diesel Heavy Petroleum Stock Bitumen Sulphur

Around 66% of these products are transported through environment-friendly pipelines, while both rail and road account for 17% each.

Panipat Refinery meets demands of petroleum products not only of Haryana but also the entire Northwest Region including Punjab, J&K, Himachal, Chandigarh, Western U.P. and part of Rajasthan and Delhi.

Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) at Panipat consists of various units. Among them major once are:
1. Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Unit(AVU) 2. Continuous Catalytic Reformer Unit(CCRU) 3. Visbreaking Unit(VBU) 4. Hydrogen Generation Unit(HGU) 5. Resid Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit(RFCCU) 6. Once Through Hydrocracker Unit(HCU) 7. Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation Unit(DHDS) 8. Amine Regeneration Unit(ARU) 9. Sour Water Stripper Unit(SWSU) 10. Bitumen Blowing Unit(BBU) 11. Recovery Unit(SRU)


Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Unit(AVU)




Unstablised Gasoline

Inter Nap htha Heavy Nap htha Kerosene/ATF Light Gas Oil Heavy Gas Oil SH Steam Atmospheric Residue Non-Condensable Light Vacuum Gas Oil Light Diesel Oil Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil Vacuum Residue Atmospheric Column


Vacuum Column

SH Steam

AVU is designed to process 6.0 MMTPA Bombay High and Arab Mix crudes in blocked out operation. AVU, a fully integrated unit, consists of the following sections. Crude Distillation Unit, Vacuum Treating Units for Fuel Gas, LPG and


Naphtha. The Unit was mechanically completed in February 1998 and trial operation of the various sections started in phases starting from May 1998. The Unit was commissioned on 2nd October 1998

Continuous Catalytic Reformer Unit(CCRU)

Seperator Stripper Purge to ATU

Hydrotreater Naphtha Feed

Reforming Reactors Seperator

Recycle Gas Compressor Hydrotreated Naphtha Storage

Hydrotreater Recycle Gas Compressor

H2 Rich Gas Compressor

H2 Rich Gas Fuel Gas LPG

Recontacting Drum

LPG Absorber



M/s. IFP, FRANCE licenses the CCRU. This unit is designed to process 0.5 MMTPA of SR Naphtha from Arab mix and/or Bombay High crude. This unit consists of Naphtha Hydro Treating, Catalytic Reforming and Catalyst Circulation and

Regeneration Sections. Catalytic Reforming is a major conversion process that transforms low octane Naphtha feed stock to high octane reformate (RON : 98) for use as a gasoline blending component to make lead free petrol (MS). A rich hydrogen gas (about 90% purity) and LPG are obtained as valuable by- products. The reformer can also be run for production of reformate rich in benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX).

Visbreaking Unit(VBU)
Unstablised Gasoline AR VB Gas Oil Fractionator Soaker



Visbreaking Unit (VBU) is designed to process 0.4 MMTPA Arab mix vacuum residue. This unit is a soaker Visbreaker, which reduces the viscosity of feed at lower temperature. The unit was mechanically completed in March 1998 and the trial operation started in July, 98. The unit was commissioned on 29th

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October 1998.The visbreaker is designed to process 400000 MTPA of Arab mix vacuum residue from a crude mix of 50:50 Arab heavy and Arab light crudes. The unit consists of a two pass heater and separation system. The products from the unit are fuel oil, gasohol, and naphtha and fuel gas.

Products VB Gas VB Naphtha VB Gasohol VB Tar (350 C) Hydrogen Generation Unit 8200 MTPA 13600 MTPA 44800 MTPA 333400 MTPA

Recycle H2

Light Naphtha

HydroDesulp hurisation

Sulphur Absorber 1 & 2

M T-Shift Converter

Tubular Reformer


Product H2 Pressure Shift Adsorber

Off Gases

The Panipat Refinery Hydrogen Unit is designed to produce 38,000 MTPA of high purity (99.99%) hydrogen gas Hydrogen is produced in the unit by Steam

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Reforming of Naphtha based on the technology from M/S Haldor Topsoe A/S, Denmark. The process for hydrogen generation involves the following four major steps. Sulphur removal from Naphtha. Steam reforming of Naphtha Medium and low temperature shift conversions. Hydrogen purification in a PSA unit.

Residue Fluidised Catalytic Cracking Unit

Off Gas Flue Gas to Stack

Sponge Absorber

Primary Absorber

Reactor Com press or RG-2

Rich Oil O/H Receiver LCO

Air Blowe r


HP Receiver LPG

Main Column HCO Slurry + HCO Feed



Naphtha Splitter




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The demand of the petroleum products in the world is shifting more towards light distillates because of increasing demand of LPG and Gasolene as a result of the steady growth in private transportation system and shift towards the cooking gas in the developing countries. The declining market for fuel oil coupled with anticipated changes in the future crude quality and the shift in product demand in favour of light distillate placed and additional emphasis on upgrading the bottom of the barrel i.e. the heavier residues into more and more light distillates

Diesel Hydrodesulphurisation Unit


Feed System

Feed Preheating System

Reactor Heater System

Reactor Section

Recycle gas Compressor Section

M ake up gas Compressor Section

Hydrogen Separation Section Stripper Section Naphtha Stabilizer Section HP Amine Absorber Section

LP Amine Absorber Section

Rich Amine to ARU

Naphtha to Storage Gas Oil to Storage

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The DHDS unit is set up to reduce sulfur content in the diesel and produce diesel with 0.25% Sulphur. The unit treats the following gas-oils fractions.

1. 2. 3. 4.

S.R.Gas oil Vacuum Diesel Vis-Breaker Gas Oil Total Cycle Oil

DHDS unit has been designed to reduce the sulphur content in High Speed Diesel to less than 0.05% wt. The process technology for this unit was built within the record time on LUM SUM TURN key (LSTK) basis by M/s. L&T. The capacity of the unit is 0.7 MMTPA. The unit was mechanically completed in March99 and commissioned on the 12th July.

Amine Regeneration Unit(ARU)

ARU is designed to process Hydrogen Sulfide rich amine from amine Absorption units and recover amine after releasing the acid gas to the Sulphur Recovery Unit. This unit was mechanically completed in February99 and was commissioned on 6th March99.

Sour Water Stripper Unit(SWSU) The unit consists of 2 Sour Water Stripping Units, one for the sour water from the Hydrocracker unit and the other for the sour water from the remaining units. This unit was mechanically completed in December98 and was commissioned on 15th February99.

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Bitumen Blowing Unit (BBU)

Bitumen Blowing Unit (BBU) has been designed to produce 3 grades of Bitumen, viz.: 80-100, 60-70 and 30-49 from vacuum residue of high Sulfur Crudes. The capacity of the unit is 0.5 MMTPA. This unit was mechanically completed in March 1998; trial run of the unit was taken in July 1998 and was commissioned on 12th December 1998.

Sulfur Recovery Unit (SRU) SRU is designed to process Hydrogen Sulfide rich acid gas recover elemental sulfur. The unit was designed by M/s. EIL for a capacity of 84tonnes per day 96% recovery efficiency, which has further been revamped to 115 tonnes per day and 99% recovery efficiency based on the process technology of M/s. Delta Hudson, Canada. This unit was mechanically completed in March99 and was commissioned on 30th March99. Other Facilities: Off sites The off sites facilities at Panipat Refinery are spread over an area of 115 acres. There are 77 Storage tanks having storage capacity of 400,000KL Crude Oil and 830,000KL of Petroleum products. There are 7 nos. of pump stations, a blending station and connecting pipelines. There are 7 nos. of LPG Horton Spheres each of 1500KL capacity. The off sites operation is controlled from the centralized DCS control room of OM&S. The special feature of offsite operation is that Tank Truck loading (TTL) and Tank Wagon Loading (TWL) facilities are provided at the Marketing Terminal, which is adjacent to the refinery. Offsite operation of the Refinery started with the receiving of the first batch of crude oil in Refinery Storage Tanks on 30th November97.
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Thermal Power Station & Utilities

The Power and Steam requirement of the refinery is met from the Captive Power Plant designed and constructed by BHEL in consultation with NTPC. Capacity of the power plant is: Steam Turbine Generator 3 x 25 MW. Gas Turbine Generator 30 MW. Steam boiler 3 x 160 T/hr. Heat Recovery Steam Generator: 125 T/hr. The first boiler was commissioned in May97 and first TG was commissioned in August97.

Nitrogen Plant Nitrogen is produce in a cryogenic separation plant by air distillation after liquefying the same. M/s. BHPV constructed the plant on a turnkey basis. The capacity of the plant is 800 NM3/hr. The plant was commissioned on December97.

Miscellaneous One raw water reservoir of capacity 200,000KL Raw water treatment plant of capacity 2100KL/hr. Four chains of DM Water treatment plant Compressed air system with 4 nos. of compressors and 3 nos. air drier. Cooling tower with 5 cells for TPS and 8 cells for process units

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Atmospheric, Vacuum and Naphtha Splitter unit of Panipat Refinery is designed to process 100% Bombay High Crude and 100% Arab Mix Crude (consisting of light and heavy crude in 50:50 proportion by weight) in blocked out operation without loss of throughput @ 7.5 MMTPA. Unit is located in an area of 24800 square meters & was commissioned with 6.0 MMTPA in May 1998 and revamped to 7.5 MMTPA in October 2010. In actual practice various low sulphur crude and high sulphur crude are being processed since commissioning of the plant. AVU is called a mother unit as it provides feed to other secondary units like hydrogen unit, CRU, HCU, FCC, Bitumen unit and VBU. In addition to crude processing, AVU also maintains Fuel Gas amine wash system and LPG vaporiser to maintain refinery fuel gas header pressure.

SECTIONS IN THE UNIT : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Crude Desalting section. Preflash section. Atmospheric Distillation section. Stabiliser section. Naphtha splitters for HGU, CCRU and PX feed Naphtha Caustic wash section. MTO splitter section. Vacuum Distillation section. LPG Amine & caustic wash section. Centralised Sour Fuel gas Amine treatment section. LPG vaporiser section.

CAPACITIES : 1) 2) 3) 4) Crude Distillation Unit Vacuum Distillation Unit. Naphtha stabiliser. Pre-topping column. 7.50 MMTPA 4.125 MMTPA 1.525 MMTPA 1.375 MMTPA
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5) MTO splitter.

0.03 MMTPA

0.03 MMTPA production from ATF/KERO stream of Arab Mix with 4000 Hrs. operation. 6) Naphtha caustic wash C5-90C cut. 90-120 C cut.


S.N O 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


LONG NAME Fuel gas Liquefied Gas Naphtha Heavy Naphtha Kerosene Aviation Turbine Fuel Light Gas Oil

CUT RANGE USAGE C C1-C2 Internal fuel Domestic/Auto fuel MS Component HSD Component Domestic fuel Aeroplanes HSD/ DHDS/DHDT feed HSD/ DHDS/DHDT feed

Petroleum C3-C4 C5-120 120-150 140-270 140-240 240/270-320



Heavy Gas Oil


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Vacuum Diesel



10. 11. 12. 13.


Light Vacuum gas Oil


Heavy Vacuum Gas 425-550 Oil Vacuum Slop Vacuum Residue 550-560 560+

IFO Component/ feed to RFCCU Bitumen/ VBU feed/ DCU feed / RFFCU feed HGU feed/ISOM Feed


C5-90 C cut





SPECIFICATION OF CRUDE : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Gravity Viscosity Pour point RVP Salt content BS & W Total Sulphur Wax Content 30-40 C API 3-24 Cst @ 36 C (-) 30 (+) 30 C 0.34-0.67 Kg/cm2 (max.) 165 ppm (max.) 2.0% vol. (max.) 0.17-2.35 % Wt. 10.68-2.8% wt.

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1) LPG

Confirm to IS-4576 to general and following specifications in particular.

a) Vapour pressure @ 65 C not to exceed 16.87 Kg/cm2 (a) b) Weathering 95% vol. Minimum at 2 C and 760 mm HG pressure. c) Not more than 1% of C5 components. 2) STABILISED NAPHTHA RVP not to exceed 0.7 Kg/Cm2 (a) 3) HN Flash Distillation : : >15 C 120-140 C

4) KERO 1974

Confirm to IS FBP Flash : :


300 C (max.) 38 c (min)

5) ATF

Flash Freezing

: :

38 C (min) (-) 50 C (min) Nil

Silver strip : Corrosion. Density @ :

0.775 to 0.84

6) MTO the

Confirm to BIS-1440 in general and to

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Following specifications in particular. ASTM D-86 IBP : FBP Flash : : 145 C 200 C 38 C

7) LGO

Flash Pour

: :

35 C (min) As per instruction.

8) HGO

Flash Pour Recovery

: : :

35 C (min.) As per instruction 90% @360 C

9) RCO

Flash Density Recovery

: : :

150 C As reported 10% at 370 C


Vac. Diesel

Flash Pour Recovery C

: : :

>125 C (+6) to (+) 18 90% @360


LVGO 0.50wt.%max.


12) HVGO 42 C


(+) 27 to (+)

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A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.

A. COLUMNS: 1. Crude Distillation column 2. Heavy Naphtha stripper 3. KERO/ATF Stripper 4. LGO stripper 5. HGO stripper 6. Naphtha stabilizer 7. Naphtha splitter 8. MTO Splitter 9. Vacuum Distillation column 10.LPG Amine Absorber 11.Fuel Gas Amine Absorber VESSELS PUMPS FURNACES (Crude furnace, Naphtha Splitter Furnace and Vacuum furnace) EJECTORS AIR FIN COOLERS AIR FIN COOLER FANS EXCHANGERS REBOILERS DESALTERS (Crude Desalter 1st stage, 2nd stage and 3rd stage)

5. PROCESS DESCRIPTION Crude oil from crude charge pumps is charged to preheat exchanger trains in two parallel streams.

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1st PREHEAT TRAIN The first crude stream passes through Crude v/s vacuum diesel CR and picks up heat from Vacuum Diesel CR coming at 142-166 c. Vacuum Diesel CR is cooled to 91-99 C, whereas crude is getting heated upto 5661 C. Crude outlet from above enters Crude v/s Hy. Naphtha CR exchanger. Crude gets heated upto 87-103 C whereas Hy. Naphtha CR gets cooled from 122-147 C to 94-108 C. After that, Crude enters Crude v/s VR exchanger. Crude gets heated upto 113 C whereas VR gets cooled from 237-242 C to 178-128 C. The second crude steam passes through Crude v/s Kero/ATF where it is picking up heat from Kero/ATF coming at 124-125 c & getting cooled to 95-98 C whereas crude is getting heated upto 55-58 C. After this, crude enters crude v/s Kero/ATF CR exchanger. Crude gets heated upto 107-115 C, whereas Kero/ATF CR gets cooled from 154171 C to 115 C. After that, crude enters crude v/s Kero/ATF exchanger. Crude gets heated upto 132-135 C, whereas Kero/ATF CR gets cooled from 163-174 C to 124-125 C. Crude oil from both streams is combined to average the temperature @ 136141 c and enters crude desalters 03-LD-001 & 03-LD-002 in series. Provision has been kept to inject wash water and demulsifier.

ELECTRIC DESALTING The desalter is an electrostatic coalescer used for purification of crude from sludge, salts and corrosion inducing salts. Sludge and salts like NaCl generally gets deposited on the tubes of exchangers and thus reduce preheat temperature. Salt if not removed will cause corrosion in distillation column. Salts may vary widely in the ratio of metal ions and brine concentration though 75% Na, 15% Mg and 10% Ca are common averages. Chloride is the source of the indices of corrosion potential of the crude. MgCl2 is the most specific producer of HCI with Ca and Na in descending order. In desalting, the electric field is a powerful tool for overcoming the resistance of stabilising films. The collision and coalescence of drops is accomplished by
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an induced dipole attraction between them. That is the electrical charges inherent in each droplet are separated so that positive charges move to one end of the droplet and negative charges move to the other end.

As droplets then approach each other, the force between them becomes very great. The stabilizing films are squeezed between drops and coalescence is rapid. In a 5% emulsion, drops average about two diameters apart; coalescence proceeds almost instantaneously. The distance between drops then increases as drops fall due to gravity. For a 1% emulsion, drops are four diameters apart and coalescence slows. When the emulsion content is 0.1%, drops are eight diameters apart on the average. The forces of dipole attraction, diminished by a factor of 250, are insignificant at this distance and the final emulsion content shall depend on this to about 0.1%.

Crude from second desalter, bypassing crude pump (03-P003 A/B/C) discharge, is divided into parallel heat exchanger trains 2ND PREHEAT TRAIN The first desalted Crude stream passes through Crude v/s HGO where it is picking up heat from HGO coming at 185-194 C and getting cooled to 140-144 C whereas crude is getting heated up to 140-142 C. After this, crude enters Crude v/s LVGO exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 166-174 C whereas LVGO gets cooled from 265-268 C to 147-152 C. Subsequently, crude enters Crude v/s HGO exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 185-194 C. The second desalted crude stream passes through 03-E-021 (Crude v/s Kero/ATF) where it is picking up heat from Kero/ATF coming at 195205 c and getting cooled to 163-174 C whereas crude is getting heated upto 146-153 C. Further, crude enters Crude v/s LGO CR where it is picking up heat from LGO CR coming at 185-190 C and getting cooled to 170-180 C whereas crude is getting heated upto 155-162 C.

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After that, crude enters Crude v/s HVGO where it is picking up heat from HVGO coming at 248-291 C and getting cooled to 204-211 C whereas crude is getting heated up to 173-176 C. Crude oil from both streams is combined to average the temperature @ 179180 C and enters pre-flash drum where 3-4% wt. of light ends are removed. Crude after flashing in the preflash drum is pumped by through 3rd preheat train, after being further divided into two parallels preheat circuits.

3rd PREHEAT TRAIN The first crude stream passes through Crude v/s LGO CR where it is picking up heat from LGO-CR coming at 241-249 C and getting cooled to 185-190 C whereas crude is getting heated upto 210-213 C. Crude then enters Crude v/s HVGO CR exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 218-228 C whereas HVGO CR gets cooled from 259-271 C to 239-258 C. After that, crude enters Crude v/s HGO CR exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 223-249 C whereas HGO CR gets cooled from 302-311 C to 275-303 C. Subsequently, crude enters Crude v/s HVGO CR exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 241-277 C whereas HVGO CR gets cooled from 238-298 C to 239-271 C. Further, crude enters Crude v/s HVGO exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 251-283 C whereas HVGO gets cooled from 298-306 C to 201-248 C. After that, crude enters Crude v/s HGO exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 259-289 C whereas HGO gets cooled from 323-325 C to 291260 C. The second crude stream passes through Crude v/s LGO where it is picking up heat from LGO coming at 226-258 C and getting cooled to 179-197 C whereas crude is getting heated up to 184-198 C. After that, crude enters Crude v/s LVGO CR exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 218-236 C whereas LVGO CR gets cooled from 258265 C to 204-214 C. Further, crude enters Crude v/s VR exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 248-265 C whereas VR gets cooled from 350/350 C to 237-242 C.

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After this, crude enters Crude v/s vacuum slop exchanger. Crude gets heated up to 258-288 C whereas vac slop gets cooled from 353/370 C to 298-353 C. Crude is combined to average the temperature @ 259-289 C .This temperature is called preheat temperature or coil inlet temperature (CIT).

FIRED HEATERS : The preheated crude is further heated and partially vaporized in Atmospheric Heater having eight passes. (Four sections with 6 inches sch. 40 tubes).

The atmospheric heater is a box-type vertical furnace with up firing burners, 8 Nos. of burners in each section are provided on the floor with FG and FO firing facilities. A total 32 nos. of burners have been provided in CDU heater. Out of 32 burners, 28 nos. of burners have both FO and FG firing facility and 4 burners, called LP burners have facility to fire off- gas from VDU column and FG (called support burners).

This heater is having two distinct heating sections i.e.

A) Radiant Section: It houses the burners and forms the combustion chamber or fire box. Tubes are arranged in a vertical arrangement along the walls of each cell with tube arrangement itself forming the cell. B) Covection Sections: It receives heat from hot flue gases leaving the radiant section. Tubes are arranged in horizontal bank and positioned above radiant section.

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The column is provided with 56 trays of which 10 are baffle trays in the stripping section. In addition 6 nos. of chimney trays are also provided in the column. Feed to the column is on tray # 10. The vaporized portion of the feed along with the light ends from the Pre-topping Vessel are fractionated on trays above the flash zone to yield liquid side draw products, pump arounds (circulating refluxes) and overhead vapor stream. Heated and partly vaporized crude feed coming from fired heater enters the flash zone of the column at tray no. 10 at 360-370 C (LS crude)/370-380 C (HS crude). Hydrocarbon vapors flash in this zone and get liberated. Non flashed liquid moves down which is largely bottom product, called RCO. Certain degree of over flashing of crude is desirable for proper stabilisation of RCO and fractionation of gas oil components. Over flash is achieved by setting up COT at slightly higher value than actually required. This over flashed material mostly condenses on 11th tray. The condensed liquid withdrawn from 11th tray is put back on 10th tray into the column. Over flash liquid travels down form tray 11 to tray 10. It strips out heavier vapour components coming up from RCO stock collected at column bottom and which otherwise could move and cause coloration of gas oil stream. Flow of over flash liquid could be increased by either increasing COT and condensing more material on 11 th tray or by reducing HGO draw off and dropping more HGO components on 11 th tray. However, this will result is less gas oil yield and higher energy consumption without any advantage. Too large flow of over flash liquid may result in drop in bottom temperature and lighter bottom product, RCO.

The optimum over flash flow is about 4-5 % on crude throughput. MP steam having some degree of superheat is introduced in the column below tray 1, at approximately 3.5 Kg/Cm2 (g) and 290 C for stripping of RCO. Steam stripping helps to remove lighter constituents from the bottom product RCO by reducing their partial pressure and helping them vaporize without requiring additional heat. Hydrocarbon vapours liberated by flashing move up along with steam in the column for further mass transfer at trays in upper section.

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Steam flow to column is regulated based on outgoing RCO quantity to Vacuum Heater. To reduce pressure drops at column entry nozzle and achieve homogenous distribution, steam is introduced through two nozzles. Reduced crude oil product is collected at bottom of the column. Column bottom level control can be done either by manipulating RCO flow to vacuum heater or by manipulating VR+Quench rundown flow (in case of only CDU run when VDU is not operating).

OVERHEAD SECTION : The overhead vapors are totally condensed in Crude Overhead Air Condensers. This condensed overhead product is separated as Hydrocarbon and water in a Reflux Drum. Water is drawn out under inter-phase level control and sent to sour water stripper or to ETP by a pump. Unstabilised naphtha containing Fuel Gas, LPG and Naphtha is partially refluxed and partially pumped to the Stabilizer.

HEAVY NAPHTHA SECTION: Heavy Naphtha is withdrawn as side product from tray # 44 to the Side Stripper. Light ends in Hy. Naphtha is stripped in the Hy. Naphtha Reboiler using LGO as the hot medium. Stripped vapors from the side stripper are routed to tray # 46 of the Atmospheric Column. The bottom product is cooled in Hy Naphtha /BFW Exchangers followed by a trim cooler and sent to storage.

KERO SECTION: Kero is withdrawn as side product from tray # 31 to the Kero side stripper . Light ends in Kero are stripped in the Kero Reboiler using HVGO CR as the hot medium. Stripped vapors from the side stripper are routed to tray # 33 of the Atmospheric Column. The bottom product is routed to MP Steam Generator followed by LMP Steam Generator and Crude Preheat exchanger (to reduce
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vapour pressure & hence increase available NPSH) before being pumped. The discharge of routed to crude preheats exchangers and finally cooled before being routed under flow control to storage.

LIGHT GAS OIL SECTION : LGO is withdrawn as side product from tray # 22 to the LGO side Stripper. Light ends in LGO are stripped using MP steam. Stripped vapors from the side stripper are routed to tray # 24 of the Atmospheric Column. The bottom product is pumped by 03-P-12 A/B under flow control through Hy. Naphtha Reboiler, Crude preheat exchangers and finally cooled in tempered water exchanger, air coolers and trim cooler before being routed to storage. Facility has been provided to supply hot LGO to DHDS.

HEAVY GAS OIL SECTION: HGO is withdrawn from tray # 15 to the HGO side stripper 03. Light ends in HGO are stripped using MP steam. Stripped vapors from the side stripper are routed to tray # 18 of the Atmospheric Column. The bottom product is routed to preheat exchangers, tempered water exchanger and coolers before being finally routed to storage on Flow Control to DHDS/DHDT feed tanks through blending station at OM&S. Facility has been provided to supply hot HGO to DHDS.

REDUCED CRUDE OIL : Stripped RCO drawn from the bottom is pumped to the Vacuum heater of vacuum Distillation Unit on Level control. Single pump will operate during turndown operation for both AM/BH operations. Starts up lines connect RCO to VR pump discharge line. Provision to route RCO to VR, and to route RCO through HVGO PDT & CR circuit and finally through VR product cooler is also provided to cater to short period of operation of CDU without VDU operation.

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CIRCULATING REFLUXES In order to maximize heat recovery and balance tower loadings, heat is removed by way of circulating reflux (or pump around) from each of the sections. These pump around are withdrawn and pumped through preheat train for maximum heat recovery, thus cooling these streams. Duty controllers are provided for removing the requisite duty. HGO CR is used to reboil the Stabilizer Bottom. LGO CR is used for generating LP Steam. For turndown operations single pump will operate for HN/Kero/LGO/HGO CR pumps.


Unstabilised Naphtha from Crude Column overhead is pumped to the Naphtha Stabilizer after preheating with stabilizer bottoms in the Feed/Bottom exchanger. A bypass has been provided to maintain NSU feed temperature in the range of 85-90 C and stabiliser feed temperature about 125- 128 C. This column has 40 trays with feed entering on the 21st tray. Necessary heat to reboil is provided by HGO-CR to the Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler on Flow control (opposite acting). Temperature on tray # 3 regulates HGO CR flow through the reboiler.

A. LPG: Stabiliser overhead vapors are condensed in the overhead condenser and then flow into the reflux drum. The stabilizer works either on partial condensation mode or total condensation mode. During full condensation is under control action and under control operation. Any water present with the overheads and separated in the Reflux drum and part of Hydrocarbons is refluxed. The balance (LPG) is pumped to Caustic & Amine treating Unit for treatment on LIC/FIC control by pumps provided with double mechanical seal with methanol as seal fluid releasing to flare on pressurization.
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Fuel Gas generated during BH/AM operation is routed to Amine Treatment Unit (located within CDU/VDU unit) to remove H2S before being routed to the Fuel gas KO Drum and then to the plant Fuel Gas Distribution Header. B. STABILIZED NAPHTHA: Naphtha from stabiliser bottom after exchanging heat with feed Naphtha is routed to the Naphtha Splitter Unit. In case naphtha splitter is shutdown, the stabilized naphtha is cooled and sent to rundown through CRU naphtha caustic wash system. Provision is also made to divert unsterilized Naphtha to slop header during start up.


In the Naphtha Splitter, stabilized Naphtha is split to C5-65/90 C and 115/165 C cuts as overhead and bottom product respectively. This column has four packing beds with single feed entering above the 2nd bed.

A) NAPHTHA SPLITTER OVERHEAD PRODUCT : The overhead vapour is condensed in Air cooler and the condensed product flows to the reflux drum from where a part is refluxed back to the column. This overhead product is further cooled to 40 C before being routed to storage via Caustic Wash. Min. flow bypass has been provided for pumps for turndown operations. Provision of partial or total C5-90 Naphtha diversion has given to caustic and water wash (as no need of caustic/water wash of bottom stream). This is done due to high production of C5-90 Naphtha and inadequate capacity of the vessel.
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B) NAPHTHA SPLITTER BOTTOM PRODUCT : The bottom product is cooled in two air coolers, to 40 C before being routed to storage via a separate caustic wash. Two control valves were provided in parallel to cater to the wide variations in flow between the various operations.

C) NAPHTHA SPLITTER REBOILER (FURNACE) : The heat for reboiling is provided by a fired heater 03-F-002. The heater can be fired with FO/FG or combination fuel. Vacuum heater and Naphtha Splitter fired reboiler share a common Air preheating system. Firing is controlled by temperature on the 3rd tray. For better control Coil Outlet Temperature, the principles of pass balancing is used. This is a vertical cylindrical Heater having six flows passes. The radiant section is provided with 6 Sch. 40 tubes having two 8 Sch. 40 tubes as last and second last tubes at the outlet of each pass while the pass while the connection section is provided with 6 Sch. 40 tubes. The radiant section tubes are disposed in a vertical arrangement along the walls of the combustion chamber. The heater is provided with 12 forced drafts, low NOx combination fuel fired burners (fuel oil & Refinery fuel gas). These burners are arranged in a circle and are fired vertically upward from the floor. The convection section of Naphtha Splitter Reboiler has 8 Nos. of soot blowers, which are controlled by automatic sequential control panel provided at grade level. A combined air preheater system containing one cast Air preheater and one Glass Air preheater along with two forced draft fans and one induced draft fan is provided for both Vacuum Heater and Splitter Reboiler.

The turndown factors are as follows: For AM, C5-90 C overhead product with max. Reflux, 75/55/65% on FO/FG/Comb Fuel is possible with vacuum Heater also in operation. With NSU heater operating in isolation no turndown is possible.
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For BH, C5-90 C overhead product, 50% turndown is achievable with or without Vacuum Heater in operation.

D) NAPHTHA CAUSTIC WASH SYSTEM : The Naphtha Splitter overhead Product & the Bottom product are Caustic washed to remove H2S, phenols and mercaptans in two separate wash facilities. Caustic wash consists of mixer settler unit with 12-15% caustic followed by mixer settler unit of water wash with Service water to remove Caustic traces. The Naphtha cuts flow separately from the Splitter to the Caustic wash vessels through mixing valves where it is mixed with 25 vol. % of 12-15 wt % circulating Caustic on flow control. The thorough mixing given in the mixing valve transfers the H2S, part of phenols (from stripped sour water through the desalter), and part of mercaptans from Naphtha cuts to the caustic. The mixture is given adequate residence time in the vessels for the Hydrocarbon and Caustic phases to separate. The Hydrocarbon phase leaves at the top of the vessel and the Caustic phase from the bottom. As the circulation goes on, the strength of the Caustic goes down and when Caustic is 75% spent the entire Caustic is drained out.. Shorter batch times may be required with heavier feed mercaptans. The Hydrocarbon phase is then sent for water wash in vessels to remove entrained Caustic, water is circulated by pumps for the overhead and bottom products, and the hydrocarbon is thoroughly mixed with water in the mixing valve upstream of the wash water vessel. Here again 25-vol. % of service water is circulated on flow control. The washed Naphtha cuts are routed to storage. Presently both naphtha splitter streams go to rundown without caustic and water circulation.

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Part of Kero/ATF, upstream of the Product Rundown Control Valve is pumped to the MTO Splitter after exchanging heat with MTO bottom product (Hy. Kero). The balance heat required is provided by HVGO CR in the Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboiler on flow control (opposite acting). Temperature on the 3rd tray regulates HVGO CR flow through the Reboiler. The column is designed with 26 trays with feed entering on the 10 th tray. Provision to route the feed to the 8th tray is also provided. A.MTO SPLITTER OVERHEAD: The overheads are condensed in tempered water Exchanger and routed to the Reflux Drum from where a part of the condensed products is refluxed and the rest pumped to Kero/ATF rundown line after cooling.

B.MTO PRODUCT: This product is drawn from a total draw tray below tray # 19. A part is refluxed and the balance cooled, before being rundown to storage. During BH operation this stream is blended with Kero/ATF rundown line.

C.HEAVY KERO (MTO SPLITTER BOTTOM): The bottom product is pumped by and finally cooled and routed to storage on flow control. During AM operation this product is blended with Kero/ATF in the rundown line. One provision is made to route Light Kero, MTO and Heavy Kero together to route to ATF R/D at MEROX ATF R/D.

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VACUUM FURNACE: Hot RCO from the atmospheric column bottom at 355/365 C is mixed with slop recycle from Vacuum Column, heated and partially vaporized in the 8-pass Vacuum Furnace and introduced to the flash zone of the Vacuum Column. The flash zone pressure is 57MM. Velocity Steam (MP) is injected into individual passes and regulated manually. 3-injection points have been provided on each pass. This is to maintain required velocities in the heater passes and to prevent coking at high coil outlet temperatures. The heater can be Fuel Gas, Fuel Oil or Combination fuel fired. This is a twin cell cabin heater provided with eight flow passes. The radiant sections of 5: sch. 40 tubes having 8 Sch. 40 tubes as last tubes and 6 Sch. 40 as second last tube at the outlet of each pass while the convection section is provided with 5 Sch. 40 tubes. The radiant section tubes are arranged horizontally along the side walls and arch of each cell of combustion chamber. The common convection section has horizontal bank of tubes positioned above the combustion chamber.

The heater consists of 24 forced draft, low NOx combination fuel fired burners (both fuel oil and refinery fuel gas). Each cell is provided with 12 burners fired vertically upshot from furnace floor along the centreline of the cell. Convection section is provided with 16 nos. of soot blowers, which are controlled by automatic sequential control panel from grade level. A combined air preheating system has been envisaged for Vacuum heater and Naphtha Splitter Reboiler Furnace for maximum energy recovery. Turndown restrictions of furnace are governed by burner and FD fan limitations. Turndown facilities are as follows: -

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50% turndown for operation of AM with or without Naphtha Splitter Reboiler operating. For BH operation the turndown possible are 80/60/70% for FO/FG/Comb Fuel with NSU heater also in operation and max. Slop recycle. For Vacuum Heater operation without NSU heater 60% is possible with max. slop recycle

VACUUM COLUMN: The vaporised portion entering the flash zone of the column along with stripped light ends from the column bottoms, rise up in the Vacuum column and is fractionated into four side stream products in 5 packed sections. The Hydrocarbon vapours are condensed in the HVGO, LVGO, and Vac. Diesel sections by circulating refluxes to yield the side draw products. One utility provision is made at VDU column to evacuate Oxygen by Nitrogen during startup of the unit to save the unit start-up time. The column has been provided for achieving low-pressure drop. Random packings have been provided inside the column with combination bed in the slop (wash) section. Demister pads have been provided above the wash zone to prevent asphaltenes carry over and at the top, to minimise carryover of hydrocarbons to the ejector section. The stripping section is provided with 10 baffle trays. The following features have been incorporated to ensure quality of Hydrocracker Unit feed stock: Provision of de-entrainment baffles in the bottom section. Maintaining reasonable vapour velocities in the flash zone (corresponding to vapour capacity factor of 0.2-0.3). Providing adequate vapour of stages in the wash zone.

Providing adequate vapour of stages in the wash zone.

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Ensuring adequate liquid flows in the wash section. Providing suitable metallurgy to ensure that iron pick up on account of corrosion is less than 1PPM.

VACUUM DIESEL: Vac. Diesel is drawn from the top most packed section along with Circulating Reflux (CR) and internal Reflux (IR) from Chimney tray below the Bed # 1 .IR is returned to the LVGO section (bed#2) through spray nozzle distribution. The CR is returned to the top of the Vac. Diesel packing (Bed#1) after exchanging heat with crude to maintain overhead temperature of 60-65 C. Higher overhead temperature would lead to high Hydrocarbon carry over to ejector. Vac Diesel product exchanges heat with a tempered water exchanger and water cooler before going to storage on flow control. Slop oil from hot well is also joining to the vacuum diesel at rundown. Facility has also been provided to route hot vac. diesel to DHDS feed.

LIGHT VACUUM GAS OIL: This section comprises of two beds # 2, and # 3, for fractionation and heat transfer respectively. LVGO is drawn along with CR and IR from Chimney tray # 2. It is combined with HVGO CR & routed to the HVGO packing bed # 4 through spray nozzle distributor. CR is returned to the top of the bed # 3 after exchanging heat with Crude.

HEAVY VACUUM GAS OIL: HVGO is drawn from the Chimney tray # 3 below bed # 4 along with CR and IR. The IR is returned to the wash zone (Bed#5) through spray distribution nozzles, on flow control to maintain the required irrigation rate of 0.7-0.3 gpm/ft2 on the wash bed. The CR is used to reboil MTO and kero stripper and crude preheat train exchangers, before being returned to the top of HVGO
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section on flow control.HVGO product goes through crude preheat exchangers and TW exchanger before being routed to storage.

VACUUM SLOP: This section is a combination bed with demister pad provided above the wash zone to prevent asphaltenes carry over. Slop distillate is withdrawn from chimney tray # 4 below bed # 5 along with slop recycle. Slop recycle is routed to Vacuum Heater. The slop product and quench is routed through crude preheat exchanger and MP stream generator and tempered water exchanger. A part of this stream is routed to the slop quench vessel and remaining portion is routed to final storage. Two controls valves in parallel provided to eater to wide variations in flow between AM/BH operations. Provision to run down slop product to FCCU feed tanks or blend with HVGO or VR in run down lines is also provided. One provision is made to route Vac slop partly or fully to FCC feed surge drum directly.

VACUUM RESIDUE: The liquid portion of the feed drops into the bottom section of the tower and is withdrawn as Vacuum Residue. MP Steam is used for stripping. In view of steam requirement for BH operation being very low, separate control valves are provided in parallel for AM and BH operations. The tower bottom temperature is kept at 350 C to reduce possible cracking during holdup in the tower by quenching with cooled VR. Quenching is achieved by returning a quench stream to the tower at a temp of 250 C after heat exchanges with crude in preheat train on TIC/FIC cascade. Two parallel Control Valves are provided for proper controllability during BH and AM operation due to wide variations in flow.

Vacuum Residue is withdrawn and sent for heat exchange with incoming crude in the crude preheats train. Split range Control Valve TIC-1106 is bypassed during AM operation. During BH operation it ensures rundown temperature of
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120 C. VR is used to generate LP Steam, before being cooled in TW exchangers and finally sent to storage.

One stream after is routed to Vacuum Column as VR quench whose flow is cascaded with bottom temperature.

VACUUM COLUMN OVERHEAD SYSTEM: Vacuum is maintained by a 3-stage ejector system with surface condensers. The Vacuum column overhead vapours are routed to the 1 st stage ejectors. The outlet from the 1st stage goes directly to the 1st stage inter condenser. Uncondensed vapours from 1st stage inter condenser are routed to 2nd stage ejector. The outlet from the 2nd stage ejector is routed to the 2nd stage inter condenser from where the uncondensed vapours are sent to the 3 rd stage ejector system. The discharge of the 3rd stage goes to the after condenser.

The condensed portion from the condensers are routed to the hot well from where the non condensable are sent to the Crude furnace low pressure burners or vented to the atmosphere. Condensate from the hot well is pumped to the sour water stripper unit or to WWTP. Any oil which is carried over along with the steam condensate is pumped to the Vacuum diesel run down line, after removing any traces of water in the coalesce. Provision has also been provided to route the hot well slop oil to DHDS feed tank.


LPG AMINE SECTION: Straight run LPG is fed to the 1st tray of 19-C-001.Lean amine ex LPG Merox (strength @15-25% wt.) is fed through 19-FIC -1101 at the 10th tray. Both the streams follow counter current operation.

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Maximum RSH content in LPG to be considered for LPG Caustic wash is 1000 Mole PPM From the bottom of, Rich Amine goes to Amine Regeneration Unit. LPG goes out ex top to Caustic wash section. Carried over Amine is drained. Pressure & Temp. in the column is maintained @ 16.0 Kg/cm2 (g), and 40 C respectively.

LPG CAUSTIC WASH SECTION: It is carried out in two-stage batch operation. Fresh Caustic (Strength=15% wt) enters the 2nd stage drum where as the LPG enters the 1st stage drum. Spent Caustic is sent to spent Caustic drum. Caustic inventory is replenished by 15% wt. fresh Caustic. Caustic from second stage drum is pumped to 1st stage drum. Treated LPG which contains less than 5 PPM (wt) RSH (mercaptans) is passed through a sand filter to remove entrained caustic. Under Back Press C/V 19-PV-2101 @ 13.5 Kg/Cm2 (g), LPG is sent to storage in Horton Spheres.

12. FUEL GAS TREATMENT SECTION: The unit is having absorber column, which is designed to absorb H 2S/CO2 from sour gases of Crude Distillation unit, Visbreaker unit, Hydrocracker unit and Catalytic Reformer unit.

PRE FILTRATION: Off gases from CDU/VBU/OHCU/FCCU/CRU are routed to Sour Gas Filter Separator under flow measurement. Liquid particles in fuel gases are separated in Sour Fuel Gas Filter Separator and drained to CBD/Flare periodically depending upon the liquid level in it. Provision is there to automatically shut down the draining in case of very low liquid level in filter separator.

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If the pressure drop in Filter Separator exceeds 0.20 Kg/Cm2 the equipment is by passed and cartridges in filter separator are changed before taking it again on line. A.ABSORPTION: From the sour gas filter separator the gases are routed to the bottom of the Fuel Gas Amine absorber 19-C-002. The Fuel Gas Amine absorber is provided with valve trays and a demister pad above the top tray. The absorber operates at a top pressure of 4.0 Kg/Cm2 (g) and temperature of 45 C. Lean Amine from ARU is introduced on the top tray under flow control. Hydrogen sulphide and CO2 from the sour gas gets absorbed into DEA and because of the chemical reaction the temperature of DEA solution rises to 57 C. The rich DEA containing H2S/CO2 is pumped to ARU for the regeneration and reused in Absorber. Differential pressure indicators measure their pressure drop across trays.

B.POST FILTRATION: From the top of the Absorber, the sweetened Fuel Gas under Absorber pressure control is passed to Sweet Fuel Gas Filter separator where any Amine which is entrained in the gas is trapped and sweet Fuel Gas is routed to Fuel Gas system. Liquid collected in sweet Fuel Gas Filter separator is periodically drained to Amine Sump. The operation of sweet Fuel Gas Filter separator is similar to sour fuel gas filter separator. Start up Fuel Gas demand of the unit is supplied by LPG vaporiser, which is a vertical drum with submerged-in Reboiler heated by LP Steam.

13. CHEMICALS REQUIRED 1) AMMONIA To neutralize the HCL (Hydrochloric Acid) formed due to the decomposition of mainly calcium and magnesium chloride present in the crude oil at the initial condensation point of water i.e. at crude & vacuum over head system 2) NEUTRALIZING AMINE
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3) CORROSION INHIBITOR Corrosion inhibitors are amine compounds which forms a thin protective layer in the column over head line to protect the line from corrosion by acidic compounds present in the column overhead vapours.. 4) FILMING AMINE 5) DEMULSIFIER Demulsifier is used for breaking stable crude water emulsions to ensure proper desalting and minimum carryover of oil along with brine 6) CAUSTIC SOLUTION (pre- & post desalter) Caustic (NaOH) is dosed in pre- desalter crude to neutralise free Napthenic acid present in crude. It is dosed in post- desalter crude to neutralise the acids formed due to hydrolysis of calcium and magnesium salts in desalter. 7) TSP (Tri-Sodium Phosphate) It is used to increase the pH from Acidic to Neutral and to protect the steam generating exchangers/ vessel from corrosion. In CDU/VDU it is used in steam generating vessel (03-V-23/24/E-54).

Handling of hazardous Chemicals:Hazardous chemicals used in AVU are Caustic , Ammonia ,Corrosion Inhibitor & Demulsifier .These are to be handled carefully since unsafe operation can lead to personal injury. Always use face shield, safety goggles, safety gloves & rubber boots during preparation of these chemicals. Avoid contact with eyes, skin & clothing. Avoid breathing vapors or mist. Never use cutting torch on or near the container, since vapors may travel away from the container & explosion may result. If in case of physical contact with these chemicals, wash the affected portion with water immediately, remove the person to fresh air & seek medical advice. Threshold Limit Value for Ammonia & Corrosion Inhibitor is 25 ppm & that of caustic is 2.5 mg/m3.
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Filled Ammonia cylinders should always be stored in vertical position & empty cylinders in horizontal position in separate area. At any point of time more than 5 filled cylinders should not be kept at the site.

14. UTILITIES REQUIRED : LP Steam Pressure: 3.5 kg/cm2 MP Steam Pressure: 14 kg/cm2 Instrument air : Cooling Water: FG Pressure : 6.0 kg/cm2 4.0 kg/cm2 3.0 kg/cm2

FO Pressure: 9.0 kg/cm2

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INTRODUCTION A fired heater is a direct-fired heat exchanger that uses the hot gases of combustion to raise the temperature of a feed flowing through coils of tubes aligned throughout the heater. Depending on the use, these are also called furnaces or process heaters. Some heaters simply deliver the feed at a predetermined temperature to the next stage of the reaction process; others perform reactions on the feed while it travels through the tubes. Fired heaters are used throughout hydrocarbon and chemical processing industries such as refineries, gas plants, petrochemicals, chemicals and synthetics, olefins, ammonia and fertilizer plants. Most of the unit operations require one or more fired heaters as start-up heater, fired Reboiler, cracking furnace, process heater, process heater vaporizer, crude oil heater or reformer furnace.

Sankey diagram of reheating furnace

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There are majorly four sections in furnace: Radiant Section: The radiant tubes, either horizontal or vertical, are located along the walls in the radiant section of the heater and receive radiant heat directly from the burners or target wall. The radiant zone with its refractory lining is the costliest part of the heater and most of the heat is gained there. This is also called the firebox.
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Convection Section: The feed charge enters the coil inlet in the convection section where it is preheated before transferring to the radiant tubes. The convection section removes heat from the flue gas to preheat the contents of the tubes and significantly reduces the temperature of the flue gas exiting the stack. Too much heat picked up in the convection section is a sign of too much draft. Tube temperature is taken in both convection and radiant sections. Stack and Breeching: The transition from the convection section to the stack is called the breeching. By the time the flue gas exits the stack, most of the heat should be recovered and the temperature is much less. From a measurement point of view, this location places fewer demands on the analyzer but is much less desirable for the ability to control the process. Measurement of stack emissions for compliance purposes is normally made here. Shield Section: Just below the convection section is the shield (or shocktube) section, containing rows of tubing which shield the convection tubes from the direct radiant heat. Several important measurements are normally made just below the shield section. The bridge wall or break wall temperature is the temperature of the flue gas after the radiant heat is removed by the radiant tubes and before it hits the convection section.





11200.00 9998.00 14.00 1291.00 1156.00 10531.00 7.00 4.00 0.022

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Practical CDU furnace efficiency is calculated by following method: Fuel gas(FG) used = 35 MT/D Fuel oil(FO) used = 112 MT/D Heat released by fuel gas = = 11200 x 35 / 24 x 1000 = 16.33 MMKCAL/HR Heat released by fuel oil = = 9998 x 112 / 24 x 1000 = 46.65 MMKCAL/HR TOTAL HEAT RELEASED =Heat released by fuel gas + Heat released by fuel oil = 62.98 MMKCAL/HR O2 content in STACK = 4.0

CO2 content in STACK = 10.64


Atomizing steam= 1.86 T/HR Atomizing steam = 1.86 x 24 = 44.64 T/HR

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Theoretical air for fuel oil =

= (7 + 3) x 1000/ (7 +1) x 12 x 0.21 = 496 KGMOLES

Theoretical air for fuel gas =

= (4+ 3) x 1000/ (4 +1) x 12 x 0.21 = 556 KGMOLES

Total theoretical air required = = 112 x 496 + 35 x 556 = 75012 KGMOLES

Total CO2 =

= ((7) x 112 / (7) +1) + (4) x 35 / (4) +1)) x 1000/12 = 10500 KGMOLES

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Total H2O = = (112 / 7 +1) + 35 / 4 +1) x 1000/4 = 5250 KGMOLES Total theoretical N2 = = 75012x0.79 = 59259.48 KGMOLES Flue gas O2 =

= 4 x (10500 + 5250 + 59259.8)/ (100-4/0.21) = 3706.35 KGMOLES

Actual air required = = 75012 + 3706.35/0.21 = 92661.28 KGMOLES

Air average mol. Wt = 29 Total air (normal condition) = 92661.28 x 22.4/ 24 = 86483.87 NM3/HR Total air (given condition) at 35 C = 86483 x (273+35)/273 = 97571.54 M3/HR

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= (92661.28 75012) x 100 / 75012 = 23.53 % H2O moles due to humidity =

= 0.022 x 92661.28 x29 /18 = 3284.32 KGMOLES

Total flue gas =

= 10500+5250+59259.48+3706.25/0.21+44.64 x 1000/18 = 98423.085 KGMOLES Flue gas average mol. Wt =

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Total Flue gas)

= 29
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Total flue gas (normal condition) = total flue gas x 22.4 / 24 = 91861.5 NM3/HR Total flue gas (given condition) at 188 C = 91861.5 x (273+188)/273 = 155121.43 M3/HR

Flue gas heat loss = m *Cp * T Where m= total flue gas = = 98423.085 x 29/1000 + 1000 x 0.245 x (188-14) x 10^-6 = 5.069 MMKCAL/HR

% HEAT LOSS TO FLUE GAS = = 5.069/62.98 x100 = 8.048%

Setting loss = = 62.98 x 1 / 100 = .63 MMKCAL/HR

% Setting heat loss = 4%

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Actual furnace efficiency = 100 - % setting loss % heat loss flue gas = 100 8.048 - 4 = 87.95



91%. 87.95 %

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Training AVU manual Perrys handbook of Chemical Engineering Industrial Furnace, Volume 1 and Volume 2, John Wiley & Sons Trinks Improving furnace efficiency, Energy Management Journal

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