Choices and Requirements of Batteries for EVs, HEVs, PHEVs

A CALSTART Webinar Ahmad A. Pesaran
National Renewable Energy Laboratory

April 21, 2011

NREL/PR-5400-51474

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

Outline of the Presentation
Introduction to NREL Introduction to Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) Battery Technologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) & Electric Vehicles (EVs) Battery Requirements for EDVs Concluding Remarks

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NREL’s Portfolio on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy From Concept to Consumer Electricity Solar Geothermal Electricity Wind & Water Buildings Ocean Fuels Biomass Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Transportation • Renewable Fuels • Efficient and Flexible Vehicles • Renewable Electricity • Electric Systems Integration • Net-Zero Energy Buildings International Programs Photoconversion Strategic Analysis Integrated Programs Systems Biology Underpinned with Science Computational Science NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 4 .

and heavy-duty vehicles NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY .Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems Supporting DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Office and its FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Partnership Advanced Vehicles Advanced Power Electronics Energy Storage Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction Performance Fuels Health Impacts Advanced PetroleumBased Fuels NonPetroleum Based Fuels Testing & Analysis Systems Analysis Fleet Test & Evaluation ReFUEL Lab Electric Vehicle Grid Integration Tires CoolCAB 5 Emphasis on light-. medium-.

NREL Energy Storage Projects Supporting DOE and helping industry to achieve energy storage targets for electrified vehicles Energy Storage Task Materials Development Components Modeling Current Density Components Testing Life Studies System Evaluation Temperature Images courtesy of NREL Energy Storage team NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 6 .

Outline of the Presentation Introduction to NREL Introduction to Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) Battery Technologies for HEVs. PHEVs & EVs Battery Requirements for EDVs Concluding Remarks NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 7 .

Spectrum of EDV Technologies Conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) Vehicles Micro hybrids (start/stop) Size of Combustion Engine Mild hybrids (start/stop + kinetic energy recovery) Medium hybrids (mild hybrid + engine assist) Full hybrids (medium hybrid capabilities + electric launch) Plug-in hybrids (full hybrid capabilities + electric range) Electric Vehicles (battery or fuel cell) Axes not to scale Size of Electric Motor (and associated energy storage system) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 8 .

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Configurations NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 9 .

Plug-In Vehicle Configurations NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 10 .

Examples of Light-Duty EDVs in the Market Micro Mild hybrids hybrids Medium hybrids Full hybrids Plug-in hybrids Electric Honda FCX Chevy Malibu CITROËN C3 BMW ED Chevy Tahoe Saturn Vue + Electric Range or Launch Adapted and modified from “From Stop-Start to EV “ by Derek de Bono presented at the SAE Hybrid Vehicle Technologies Symposium . CA. San Diego. February 2010 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 11 .

module. and volume Decreases reliability and durability × Decreases performance with aging × Raises safety concerns Saves fuel and reduces emissions Lithium-ion battery cells.Battery is the Critical Technology for EDVs  Enables hybridization and electrification  Provides power to motor for acceleration  Provides energy for electric range and other auxiliaries  Helps downsizing or eliminating the engine  Stores kinetic and braking energy Adds cost. weight. and battery pack for the Mitsubishi iMiEV (All images courtesy of Mitsubishi) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 12 .

PHEVs & EVs Battery Requirements for EDVs Concluding Remarks NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 13 . PHEVs and EVs Battery Technologies for HEVs.Outline of the Presentation Introduction to NREL Introduction to HEVs.

energy.Battery Choices: Energy and Power NiMH proven sufficient for many HEVs. Lithium ion technologies can meet most of the required EDV targets in the next 10 years. Still recovering early factory investments.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2010_fotw609.eere.html NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 14 . Source: www1.

Qualitative Comparison of Major Automotive Battery Technologies Attribute Weight (kg) Volume (L) Capacity/Energy (kWh) Lead Acid NiMH Li-Ion Key Poor Fair Good Discharge Power (kW) Regen Power (kW) Cold-Temperature (kWh & kW) Shallow Cycle Life (number) Deep Cycle Life (number) Calendar Life (years) Cost ($/kW or $/kWh) Safety.Abuse Tolerance Maturity – Technology Maturity – Manufacturing NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 15 .

AABC Europe 2010 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 16 .Projections for Automotive Batteries Source: Hiroshi Mukainakano.

and battery pack systems. Various sources: 2009 DOE Merit Review 2010 ETDA Conference 2010 SAE HEV Symposium NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 17 . module configurations. and thermal management is the key. • Integration with proper electrical. • New developments and potential advances make it difficult to pick winners. safety. many chemistries. shapes.Challenges & Opportunities with Li-Ion Technologies for EDVs • High cost. mechanical. cell sizes.

Spotnitz. Battery Design LLC. “Advanced EV and HEV Batteries” NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY .2-3.Lithium Ion Battery Technology—Many Chemistries Voltage ~3.8 V Cycle life ~1000-5000 Wh/kg >150 Wh/l >400 Discharge -30 to 60oC Shelf life <5%/year Many anodes are possible Carbon/Graphite Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) Titanium-oxide based Silicon based Metal oxides Many electrolytes are possible LiPF6 based LiBF4 based Various solid electrolytes Polymer electrolytes Ionic liquids Many cathodes are possible Cobalt oxide Manganese oxide Mixed oxides with nickel Iron phosphate Vanadium-oxide based 18 Source: Robert M.

al.Electrochemical Window in Lithium Ion Batteries Source: Yoon Seok Jung. CA NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 19 . et. San Francisco. Presented at 2011 MRS Spring Meeting.

8 0.need electronics to accurately determine state of charge (SOC) .065 2.15Al0. Battery Design LLC 20 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY . V 4.85 4.00 3.7 0.55 0.073 3. improvements in high temperature stability reported recently.may require larger number of cells due to lower cell voltage Other high voltage phosphates are currently being considered.912 3.Characteristics of Cathode Materials Theoretical values for cathode materials relative to graphite anode and LiPF6 electrolyte Material LiCoO2 (Cobalt)* LiNi0.80 4.600 1.05 3.safe on overcharge .784 2.55 0.95 mAh/g 151 195 119 153 220 161 Avg.976 Mixed metal oxide cathodes are replacing cobalt oxide as the dominant chemistry.8Co0.0 3. *Source: Robert M. LiFePO4 is now actively pursued by many as the cathode of choice for vehicle applications . Spotnitz.05O2 (NCA)* LiMn2O4 (Spinel)* LiMn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3O2 (NMC 333)* LiMnxCoyNizO2 (NMC non-stoichiometric) LiFePO4 (Iron Phosphate)* Δx 0. Mn2O4 has been around for many years – good for high power.7 0.40 Wh/kg 602 742 480 588 720 549 Wh/L 3.

org/Libraries/Publications/Energy _Storage_Compendium_2010.Many Commercial Cathode Oxide-Based Li-Ion Batteries are Available Johnson Control-Saft Altair Nanotechnologies LG Chem Electrovaya Dow Kokam SK Innovation NEC/Nissan GS Yuasa Sony Sanyo Samsung Panasonic Lishen Pionics Other Chinese companies CALSTART Energy Storage Compendium Conhttp://www.calstart.sflb.ashx NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Mixed metal oxide cathodes (> 200 mAh/g) 21 .

Lauderdale.Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Cathodes + High stability and non-toxic + Good specific capacity + Flat voltage profile + Cost effective (less expensive cathode) + Improved safety Issues addressed recently: – Lower voltage than other cathodes (Alternate phosphates – manganese. March 13-16. – are currently being investigated) – Poor Li diffusion (DLi~ 10-13 cm2/sec) (Overcome by doping the cathode) – Poor electronic conductivity (~ 10-8 S/cm) (Overcome by blending/coating with conductive carbon) Source: Online brochures from Valence Technology. etc. NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 22 . http://www. Ft. 2006.com/ucharge.asp Other approaches used to overcome poor characteristics: – Use nano LiFePO4–carbon composite – Use larger number of cells – Nano-structured materials Source: Various papers from the 23rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit. vanadium.valence. FL.

2006.2-Ah Real Capacity 15-mOhm Under R&D Newer Voltage vs.com/ucharge. Source: 2006 On line brochures from Valence Technology. Phosphates Li Iron A123 Systems with 26650 Cells 100 Wh/kg Source: Andrew Chu (A123 Systems) from the 23rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit.8 V 5.6 V 4.valence. Lauderdale.1 V 4.asp 3. FL. http://www. Ft.1 V 23 Manganese Cobalt Nickel . NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 3. March 13-16.Valence Technology 18650 Cells 100 Wh/kg in cell 84 Wh/kg in U Charge module Improvements in Phosphate-based Cathodes The battery with standard lead acid battery form factor includes a battery management system.

NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 24 .000–4.Improvements on the Anode—Titanate Altair Nanotechnologies Inc. 2006. FL. Improved low temperature performance 80–100 Wh/kg 2. March 13-16. Lauderdale. House (Altair Nanotechnologies) from the 23rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit.000 W/kg Source: E. Ft.

High volume expansion .No need for an SEI Issues at hand: .Low cell voltage .No lithium deposition .Poor cyclability 1000 nm 100 nm 25 nm 500 nm Source: Recent (2011) Reports on SiO Carbon Composite Anodes (Shriram Santhanagopalan-NREL) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 25 .High rate capability .Improvements on the Anode—Silicon Advantages: .Very high theoretical capacity .

Improvements to Other Components Separators Dow’s High Temperature Electrolytes claimed to be stable up to 5 V Binders: .SBR and CMC increasingly popular LG Chem’s Safety Reinforcing Separator (SRS) Conductive Coatings Sources: Shriram Santhanagopalan and Anne Dillon (NREL) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 26 .Shift from fluoride-based binders .

9 % Hitachi Maxell 7 . Hitachi 6 3 .kobe 2 8 .3 % Cobasys Batt.house LIB Makers Sanyo 15% LEJ 51% GS Yuasa Hitachi Vehicle Energy 34% Mitsubishi Corp.Daimler .Saft GM.Relationship Between Car Makers and Battery Makers NiMH Makers Car Makers Toyota 60% Daihatsu Hino PEVE 40% Panasonic Subaru Ford Nissan Honda Sanyo Pb Mitsubishi Mitsubishi Fuso Isuzu Pb 50% 50% Automotive Energy Supply NEC/ NEC Tokin Toyota System PEVE or Toyota in.BMW System LG Chemical Source: Nomura Research Institute.8 % Shin. NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 27 . Ltd.Supply Investment ※including plan & assumption GM Daimler VW/ Audi Hyundai Cobasys/ A1 2 3 Compact Power Johnson Control.

product of organic electrolyte decomposition – Mostly formed during first cycle of battery. gas evolution inside LixC6  Stress  Cracks • Changes of Composite Electrode – SEI & volume changes cause: • Contact loss between LixC6. electrolyte reduction.Anode Aging • Solid/Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Layer – Passive protective layer. and current collector • Reduced electrode porosity NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 28 . but continues to grow at slow rate – May penetrate into electrode & separator pores – High-temperature effects – Low-temperature effects (during charging) • Changes of Active Material – Volume changes during insertion/de-insertion (~10%) – Solvent intercalation. conductive binder.

000 deep cycles • Also need to consider combination of high.Battery Cycle Life Depends on State-of-Charge Swing • PHEV battery likely to deep-cycle each day driven: 15 yrs equates to 4.000–5. November 15-19.and low-frequency cycling 70% 50% Potential Potential Potential Potential 4000 Source: Christian Rosenkranz (Johnson Controls) at EVS 20. 2003 29 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY . CA. Long Beach.

2 Source: Bloom and Battaglia. 2008 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Time (years) 0.3 1.6 30 .35 Temperature (°C) Relative Resistance 1.Battery Degrades Faster at Higher Temperatures Calendar (Storage) Fade 1.05 1 0 Relative Power 30 40 47.2 1.1 1.5 55 0.25 1.15 1.4 0.

Summary of Aging and Degradation Capacity decreases and resistance increases by: • Both high and low SOC charge-discharge • High temperatures • Low temperatures during charging • Surface chemistry (anode and cathode) • Phase transitions/structural changes (cathode) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 31 .

Safety—Li-Ion Thermal Runaway External Abuse Conditions External Heating Over-Charging Causing or Energizing Internal Events or Exothermic Reactions Electrode-Electrolyte Reactions Leak Smoke Over-Discharging Lithium Plating High Current Charging Nail penetration Crush External Short Decompositions Internal Short Circuit Electrochemical Reactions ThermalRunaway Thermal Runaway If Heating Rate Exceeds Dissipation Rate Gas Venting Flames Rapid Disassembly Flammable electrolyte NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 32 .

PHEVs & EVs Battery Requirements for EDVs Concluding Remarks NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 33 .Outline of the Presentation Introduction to NREL Introduction to Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) Battery Technologies for HEVs.

Cycle Life. Economics and market needs are used to identify life and cost. Calendar Life and Cost) Vehicle size (weight and shape) Electrification/hybridization purpose • Start/stop • Assist or launch • Electric drive Degree of hybridization Driving profiles and usage Auxiliary or accessory electrification Expected fuel economy Electric range Energy storage characteristics (acceptable SOC range) Vehicle simulation tools are usually used to estimate power and energy needs.Energy Storage Requirements (Power. NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 34 . Energy.

Energy Needs in Light-Duty Electric-Drive Vehicles Micro Hybrids (12V-42V: Start-Stop.pdf NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY * Energy for a ultracapacitor in combination with Li-Ion 35 .gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/45596.nrel. Launch Assist) Energy Storage Technology NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucap: Likely Ucap + VRLA: Possible NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if engine is not downsized much Ucaps + VRLA: Possible Min in use energy needed 15-25 Wh Mild/Med Hybrids (42V-150V: Micro HEV Function + Regen) 25-80 Wh Full/Med Hybrids (150V-350V: Power Assist HEV) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Possible Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible 70-200 Wh Fuel Cell Hybrids NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if fuel cell is not downsized Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible NiMH: No Li-ion: Yes Ucaps + high energy Li-ion: Possible 70-200 Wh PHEV: 5-15 kWh (50-90 Wh*) EV: 20-40 kWh Plug-in HEV (and EV) http://www.

Power Needs in Light-Duty Electric-Drive Vehicles Micro Hybrids (12V-42V: Start-Stop. Launch Assist) Energy Storage Technology NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucap: Likely Ucap + VRLA: Possible Power/Energy use = 200-300 P/E use = 50-200 Range of Power needed 3-5 kW Mild/Med Hybrids (42V-150V: Micro HEV Function + Regen) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if engine is not downsized much Ucaps + VRLA: Possible 5-15 kW Full/Med Hybrids (150V-350V: Power Assist HEV) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes P/E use = 20-150 Ucaps: Possible Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible 15-50 kW Fuel Cell Hybrids NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if Fuel Cell is not downsized Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible P/E use = 20-150 15-50 kW PHEV: 20-50 kW EV: 80-120 kW Plug-in HEV (and EV) NiMH: No P/E use = 3-8 Li-ion: Yes Ucaps + high energy Li-ion: Possible P/E use = 1.5-4 http://www.nrel.pdf NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY * Energy for a ultracapacitor in combination with Li-Ion 36 .gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/45596.

USABC/FreedomCAR Battery Requirements Developed jointly by U. with input from battery industry Requirements and targets are specified to make EDVs eventually competitive with conventional ICE vehicles on a mass-produced scale NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 37 . automotive OEMs (through USABC). DOE (with support from national labs).S.

Energy Storage Requirements for Micro Hybrids (at End of Life) http://www.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 38 .uscar.

Energy Storage Requirements for Micro Hybrids
(at End of Life)
Discharge Power: 6 kW for 2s

Cycle Life: 750,000 (150,00 miles) Available Energy: 30 Wh at 1 kW rate Mass Produced System Price: $80 ($13.3/kW)

Calendar life: 15 years

Weight and Volume Restrictions

http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY

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Energy Storage Requirements for Low-Voltage Mild Hybrids
FreedomCAR 42 V Energy Storage System End-of-Life Performance Goals (August 2002)
42 Volt Targets Rev. August 2002
Discharge Pulse Power (kW) Regenerative Pulse Power (kW) Engine-Off Accessory Load (kW) Available Energy (Wh @ 3 kW) Recharge Rate (kW) Energy Efficiency on Load Profile (%) Cycle Life, Miles/Profiles (Engine Starts) Cycle Life and Efficiency Load Profile Cold Cranking Power @ -30°C (kW) Calendar Life (Years) Maximum System Weight (kg) Maximum System Volume (Liters) Selling Price ($/system @ 100k/yr) Maximum Open Circuit Voltage (Vdc) after 1 sec Minimum Operating Voltage (Vdc) Self Discharge (Wh/day) Heat Rejection Coefficient (W/°C) Maximum Cell-to-Cell Temperature Difference (°C) Operating Temperature Range (°C) Survival Temperature Range (°C)
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY

Start-Stop
6 N/A 3 250 2.4 kW 90 150k (450k) Zero Power Assist (ZPA) 8 15 10 9 150 48 27 <20 N/A N/A -30 to +52 -46 to +66 21 V Min. 5 min 2 sec 13 8 3 300

M-HEV
2 sec 2 sec 5 min 18 18 3 700 4.5 kW 90

P-HEV
10 sec 2 sec 5 min

2.6 kW 90 150k (450k) Partial Power Assist (PPA) 8 15 25 20 260 48 27 <20 N/A N/A -30 to +52 -46 to +66 21 V Min.

150k (450k) Full Power Assist (FPA) 8 15 35 28 360 48 27 <20 >30 <4 -30 to +52 -46 to +66
40

21 V Min.

http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85

Energy Storage Requirements for Low-Voltage Mild Hybrids
Discharge Pulse Power (kW) Regenerative Pulse Power (kW) Engine-Off Accessory Load (kW) Available Energy (Wh @ 3 kW) Recharge Rate (kW) Energy Efficiency on Load Profile (%) Cycle Life, Miles/Profiles (Engine Starts) Cycle Life and Efficiency Load Profile Cold Cranking Power @ -30°C (kW) Calendar Life (Years) Maximum System Weight (kg) Maximum System Volume (Liters) Selling Price ($/system @ 100k/yr) Maximum Open Circuit Voltage (Vdc) after 1 sec Minimum Operating Voltage (Vdc) 6 N/A 3 250 5 min 2 sec

Discharge Power: 13 FreedomCAR 42 V Energy Storage System End-of-Life Performance Goals (August 2002) kW for 2s 42 Volt Targets Rev. August 2002 Start-Stop M-HEV P-HEV
13 8 3 300 2.6 kW 90 150k (450k) Partial Power Assist (PPA) 8 15 25 20 260 48 27 <20 N/A N/A -30 to +52 -46 to +66 21 V Min. 21 V Min. 2 sec 2 sec 5 min 18 18 3 700 4.5 kW Available 90 Energy: 300 Wh 150k at 3 (450k)rate kW 8 15 35 28 10 sec 2 sec 5 min

Cycle 2.4 kW Life: 90 450,000 150k (450k) (150,00 miles)
8 15 9

Zero Power Assist (ZPA)

Full Power Assist (FPA) 21 V Min.

Calendar Life at 10 30°C: 15 years
150 48 27 <20 N/A N/A -30 to +52 -46 to +66

Weight and Self Discharge (Wh/day) Volume Heat Rejection Coefficient (W/°C) Restrictions
Operating Temperature Range (°C) Survival Temperature Range (°C)

Mass 360 Produced 48 System Price: $260 27 ($20/kW)
<20 <4 -30 to +52 -46 to +66
41

>30

Maximum Cell-to-Cell Temperature Difference (°C)

http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY

000 25-Wh cycles (7.55 x Vmax) 50 -30 to +52 -46 to +66 500 35 (97-Wh pulse) 0.php?articles_id=85 .5 (at C1/1 rate) 90 (50-Wh cycle) 7 300.org/guest/article_view.55 x Vmax) 50 -30 to +52 -46 to +66 800 42 http://www.3 (at C1/1 rate) 90 (25-Wh cycle) 5 300.000 50-Wh cycles (15 MWh) 15 60 45 max < 400.000. 10-s rests between) Cycle Life for Specified SOC Increments Calendar Life Maximum Weight Maximum Volume Operating Voltage Limits Maximum Allowable Self-discharge Rate Temperature Range: Equipment Operation Equipment Survival Production Price @ 1.5 MWh) 15 40 32 max ≤ 400.000 units/year NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Units kW kW KWh % kW cycles years kg l Vdc Wh/day °C $ 25 Power-Assist (Minimum) 40 Power-Assist (Maximum) 20 (55-Wh pulse) 0. min ≥ (0. and Fuel Cell Vehicles (at End of Life) FreedomCAR Energy Storage System Performance Goals for Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles (November 2002) Characteristics Pulse Discharge Power (10s) Peak Regenerative Pulse Power (10s) Total Available Energy (over DOD range where power goals are met) Minimum Round-trip Energy Efficiency Cold Cranking Power at -30°C (three 2-s pulses.uscar. min > (0.For Medium or Full Hybrids.

min ≥ (0.000 25-Wh cycles (7.000 cycles (150.000 units/year Produced System = $500 ($20/kW) http://www. and Fuel Cell Vehicles (at End of Life) FreedomCAR Energy Storage System Performance Goals for Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles (November 2002) Characteristics Pulse Discharge Power (10s) Peak Regenerative Pulse Power (10s) Total Available Energy (over DOD range where power goals are met) Minimum Round-trip Energy Efficiency Cold Cranking Power at -30°C (three 2-s pulses.55 x Vmax) 50 -30 to +52 -46 to +66 500 Calendar Life at 30°C = 15 years Operating Voltage Limits Maximum Allowable Self-discharge Rate Temperature Range: Equipmentfor Mass Cost Operation Equipment Survival Production Price @ 1.55 x Vmax) 50 -30 to +52 -46 to +66 800 43 = 300. 10-s rests between) Cycle Life for Specified SOC Increments Cycle Life (charge sustaining) Units kW kW KWh % kW cycles years kg l Vdc Wh/day °C $ 25 20 (55-Wh pulse) 0.000 miles) Calendar Life Maximum Weight Maximum Volume 300.3 (at C1/1 rate) 90 (25-Wh cycle) 5 Power-Assist (Minimum) Power-Assist (Maximum) Peak Power Discharge 40 (10s)(97-Wh pulse) 35 = 25 kW 0. min > (0.org/guest/article_view.uscar.000 50-Wh cycles (15 MWh) 15 60 45 max < 400.5 (at C1/1 rate) Available (50-Wh cycle) 300 90 Energy = Wh at C1/1 rate 7 300.For Medium or Full Hybrids.000.5 MWh) 15 40 32 max ≤ 400.php?articles_id=85 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY .

org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 44 .uscar.http://www.

uscar.40 Mile EV Range Peak Power Discharge (10S) = 38 kW C-rate ~ 10–15 kW Available Energy = 11.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 45 .6 kWh (ΔSOC = 70%) Capacity (EOL) = 16.000 cycles Cycle Life (charge sustaining) =200K–300K cycles Calendar Life at 35°C = 15 years Cost for Mass Produced System = $3.6 kWh Cycle Life (charge depleting) = 5.400 ($300/kWh available energy) http://www.

php?articles_id=85 .000 units @ 40 kWh ($/kWh) Operating Environment (°C) Normal Recharge Time High Rate Charge Continuous Discharge in 1 Hour – No Failure (% of rated energy capacity) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Minimum Goals for Long Term Commercialization 460 300 150 230 150 2:1 40 10 1.000 20 100 -40 to +85 3 to 6 hours 40-80% SOC in 15 min 75 46 http://www. 80% DOD/30 sec (W/kg) Specific Power – Regen. 20% DOD/10 sec (W/kg) Energy Density – C/3 Discharge Rate (Wh/L) Specific Energy – C/3 Discharge Rate (Wh/kg) Specific Power/Specific Energy Ratio Total Pack Size (kWh) Life (Years) Cycle Life – 80% DOD (Cycles) Power & Capacity Degradation (% of rated spec) Selling Price – 25.org/guest/article_view.000 20 <150 -40 to +50 20% Performance Loss (10% Desired) 6 hours (4 hours desired) 20-70% SOC in <30 min @ 150 W/kg (<20 min @ 270 W/kg Desired) 75 Long Term Goal 600 400 200 300 200 2:1 40 10 1.uscar.USABC Goals for Advanced Batteries for EVs Parameter (Units) of Fully Burdened System Power Density (W/L) Specific Power – Discharge.

php?articles_id=85 . 20% DOD/10 sec (W/kg) Energy Density – C/3 Discharge Rate (Wh/L) Specific Energy – C/3 Discharge Rate (Wh/kg) Available Energy Specific Power/Specific Energy Ratio Total Pack Size (kWh) Life (Years) Minimum Goals for Long Term Commercialization 460 300 150 230 150 2:1 40 10 1.000 20 100 -40 to +85 3 to 6 hours 40-80% SOC in 15 min 75 47 = 40 kWh at C/3 rate Cycle Life (full charge depleting) = Cycle Life – 80% DOD (Cycles) 1.USABC Goals for Advanced Batteries for EVs Parameter (Units) of Fully Burdened System Power Density (W/L) Specific Power – Discharge.org/guest/article_view.000 miles) Power & Capacity Degradation (% of rated spec) Selling Price – 25.000 ($150/kWh) Continuous Discharge in 1 Hour – No Failure (% of rated energy capacity) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY http://www. 80% DOD/30 sec (W/kg) Specific Power – Regen.000 20 <150 -40 to +50 20% Performance Loss (10% Desired) 6 hours (4 hours desired) 20-70% SOC in <30 min @ 150 W/kg (<20 min @ 270 W/kg Desired) 75 Long Term Goal Peak Power Discharge 600 (10S) = 80 kW 400 200 300 200 2:1 Calendar Life at 30°C 40 = 10 years 10 1.000 cycles (150.uscar.000 units @ 40 kWh ($/kWh) Operating Environment (°C) Normal Recharge Time HighCost for Mass Rate Charge Produced System = $6.

6 10+ 3.000 40 32 -30 to +52 PHEV (2015) 10–40 38–50 25–30 1.000–5.5–11.4–2. DOE Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 48 . deep discharge 300 133 -40 to 85 Source: David Howell.3 15 3.Summary: DOE and USABC Battery Performance Targets DOE Energy Storage Goals Equivalent Electric Range (miles) Discharge Pulse Power (kW) Regen Pulse Power (10 seconds) (kW) Recharge Rate (kW) Cold Cranking Power @ -30°C (2 seconds) (kW) Available Energy (kWh) Calendar Life (year) Cycle Life (cycles) Maximum System Weight (kg) Maximum System Volume (l) Operating Temperature Range (ºC) HEV (2010) N/A 25 20 N/A 5 0. deep discharge 60–120 40–80 -30 to 52 EV (2020) 200–300 80 40 5–10 N/A 30–40 10 750+.8 7 3.000.

PHEVs & EVs Battery Requirements for EDVs Concluding Remarks NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 49 . PHEVs and EVs Battery Technologies for HEVs.Outline of the Presentation Introduction to NREL Introduction to HEVs.

a few large cells Diagnostics Maintenance/Repair Packaging – Structural and connections Thermal Management – life (T).Integrating Cells into Packs • • • • • • • • • Safety (abuse tolerance. life) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 50 . performance. safety – Impedance change with life – impact on thermal management and design for end of life • Electrical Management – balancing. flat/prismatic designs Manufacturability Recyclability Many small cells vs. power. safety • Control/Monitoring – Gauge (capacity. life. one cell will have an event) Cost/Value Long life/Durable Cylindrical vs. performance (T).

Battery Packaging? Many small cells – – – – – – – Low cell cost (commodity market) Improved safety (faster heat rejection) Many interconnects Source: Valance Technologies Low weight and volume efficiency Reliability (many components. but some redundancy) Higher assembly cost Electrical management (costly) Source: EnergyCS Fewer large cells – – – – – – – Higher cell cost Increased reliability due lower part count Lower assembly cost for the pack Higher weight and volume efficiency Source: Saft America Thermal management (tougher) Safety and degradation in large format cells Better reliability (lower number of components) Source: Matt Keyser (NREL) NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 51 .

com/esq/articles/2010/Lithium_Ion_Batte ry.Battery Packs in Some EDVs Chevy Volt Nissan Leaf Prius PHEV http://autogreenmag.com/will-the-nissan-leaf-battery-deliver-all-itpromises/ http://www.html http://www.htm NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 52 .com/articles/79578/20101108/sblimotive-samsung-sdi-chrysler-electric-car.html i-MiEV Ford Focus Fiat 500 EV http://www.metaefficient.caranddriver.ibtimes.s.com/cars/ford-focus-electricnissan-leaf.toyota.-spec_photos_and_infoauto_shows/gallery/mitsubishi_prototype_i_miev_lithiumion_batteries_and_electric_drive_system_photo_19 http://www.com/tag/chevroletvolt/page/2/ http://inhabitat.com/news/car/10q4/2012_mitsubi shi_i-miev_u.

2010 DOE Annual Merit Review NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 53 . Energy Storage Program Overview.Investments in Factories to Reduce Battery Cost (based on Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009) Source: David Howell.

000 to 2. and cost are big issues – Thermal management is a concern NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 54 .000 Wh/mile – 30 to 60 kWh battery for 30-mile range – Volume. weight.Battery Energy Requirements for Heavy-Duty EDVs The energy efficiency of light-duty vehicles is about 200 to 400 Wh/mile – 5 to 12 kWh battery for 30 miles – 2-Second power: 30 to 60 kW – P/E from 2 to 15 Sprinter PHEV consumes about 600 Wh/mile in charge-depleting (CD) mode Heavy-duty vehicles could consume from 1.

sfgate.com/forum/thread/20 29/coke-uses-hybrid-electric-trucks http://articles.and Heavy-Duty EDVs http://green.com/2008/01/22/dc-auto-show-1-732-more-orders-for-gm-hybrid-buses/ http://www.com/2009-12-06/business/17182903_1_hybrid-garbage-trucks-volvogroup http://www.com/fleets/part-growing-trendups-adds-200-hybrid-trucks-28035.Examples of Medium.com/2007/05/21/walmart-receives-its-first-peterbilt-hybrid-bigrig/ NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 55 .html http://www.autoblog.com/worlds-first-hybrid-refuse-truck-volvo-sweden/9131/ http://green.autoblog.gizmag.autoblog.html http://green.hybridcars.greenoptions.hybridcars.com/news/greening-massivegovernment-vehicle-fleet-28337.com/photos/fedex-hybrid-truck/ http://www.

electricenergyonline.dieselpowermag.com/?page=show_news&id=138652 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 56 .Examples of Medium.html http://www.anl.html http://www.transportation.com/hybrid-car-battery http://www.com/features/trucks/1103dp_artisan_vehi cle_systems_diesel_hybrid_big_rig/photo_06.org/automobiles/3375-electric-garbage-trucks-coming-toparis?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+EcoGeek+%28EcoGeek%29 Courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory: http://www.ecogeek.hybridcars.gov/media_center/transp ortation_images/battery_images.and Heavy-Duty EDVs and Their Batteries http://www.

see the complete conference paper.An Example of an Investigation to Evaluate MediumDuty Electric Drive Vehicles For more information. NREL/CP-5400-49253 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 57 .

China. Optimizing route (intensity and distance) selection can minimize petroleum use and costs. lowering battery costs is critical to EDV penetration. Shenzhen. EVS-25 Presentation.Example Results Comparing Different Electrification Options for a Medium-Duty Vehicle Battery and fuel costs dominate economics. Source: Rob Barnitt. Nov. 2010 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 58 .

and heavy-duty applications NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 59 . Japan.Concluding Remarks • There are many types of electric drive technologies and thus battery solutions • Batteries with high power-to-energy ratios are needed for HEVs • Batteries with low power-to-energy ratios are needed for EVs and PHEVs • NiMH batteries would be the technology of choice for HEVs for the next 5 years. and then they will be gradually replaced by Li-ion • Li-ion batteries have the power and energy densities for PHEV and EV applications. packaging and cost (Recovery Act funding is expected to reduce battery cost) • Battery technologies being developed for light duty vehicles can be used for medium. but cost is an issue for mass-produced adoption • There are a number of Li-ion chemistries with prismatic or cylindrical formats that could be mass produced in the market • Difficult to predict technology winner • Many companies are performing R&D and high-volume manufacturing in the United States. and China • The key barriers to commercialization of PHEVs and EVs are battery life. Korea.

Acknowledgments DOE Program Support – – – – – – – – – Dave Howell Tien Duong Brian Cunningham NREL Technical Support Shriram Santhanagopalan Anne Dillon Matt Keyser Kandler Smith Gi-Heon Kim Jeremy Neubauer NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 60 .

gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/ Thank You! ahmad.gov NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 61 .nrel.pesaran@nrel.

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