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Failure Mode And Effects Analysis

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Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method (first developed for systems engineering) that examines potential failures in products or processes. It may be used to evaluate risk management priorities for mitigating known threat-vulnerabilities. FMEA helps select remedial actions that reduce cumulative impacts of life-cycle consequences (risks) from a systems failure (fault). By adapting hazard tree analysis to facilitate visual learning, this method illustrates connections between multiple contributing causes and cumulative (life-cycle) consequences. It is used in many formal quality systems such as QS-9000 or ISO/TS 16949. The basic process is to take a description of the parts of a system, and list the consequences if each part fails. In most formal systems, the consequences are then evaluated by three criteria and associated risk indices:
• • •

severity (S), likelihood of occurrence (O), and (Note: This is also often known as probability (P)) inability of controls to detect it (D)

Each index ranges from 1 (lowest risk) to 10 (highest risk). The overall risk of each failure is called Risk Priority Number (RPN) and the product of Severity (S), Occurrence (O), and Detection (D) rankings: RPN = S × O × D. The RPN (ranging from 1 to 1000) is used to prioritize all potential failures to decide upon actions leading to reduce the risk, usually by reducing likelihood of occurrence and improving controls for detecting the failure.


[edit] Applications
FMEA is most commonly applied but not limited to design (Design FMEA) and manufacturing processes (Process FMEA).

how often and when they might occur and their potential seriousness. [edit] History . Track changes to process-incorporated to avoid potential failures. Severity of potential failures. 3. 2. Likelihood of a potential failure occurring. DFMEA then goes on to establish the potential effects of the failures. a different method called fault tree analysis is used.Design failure modes effects analysis (DFMEA) identifies potential failures of a design before they occur. or improve detectability. FMEA Analysis is often applied through the use of a FMEA table combined with a rating chart to allow designers to assign values to the: 1. Document the process. Identify actions which could eliminate or reduce the occurrence. their cause. 3. Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product/process and its effect. Process failure modes effects analysis (PFMEA) is a systemized group of activities intended to: 1. 2. It is not able to discover complex failure modes involving multiple failures or subsystems. For these. The chance of detection within the process The numbers are then summed to create the Risk Priority Number (RPN) This data can then be collected in a table such as: Failure Part Function Mode Effect Potential Possible Preventative Severity Occurrence Detection of Cause of Means of RPN Actions to be Rating Rating Rating Failure Failure Detection Taken [edit] Disadvantages FMEA is useful mostly as a survey method to identify major failure modes in a system. or to discover expected failure intervals of particular failure modes. and 4. FMEA Analysis is very important for dynamic positioning systems.

the Pinto. FMEA has since been used on the 1960s Apollo space missions. suffered a fault in several vehicles causing the fuel tank to rupture and subsequently burst into flames after crashes. In the 1980s it was used by Ford to reduce risks after one model of car.The FMEA process was originally developed by the US military in 1949 to classify failures "according to their impact on mission success and personnel/equipment safety". [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • Causal layered analysis Reliability engineering Safety engineering Futures techniques Failure mode Failure rate Six sigma DRBFM [1] Microsoft Excel 2000 FMEA Worksheet template .