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ISSN 0016-8521, Geotectonics, 2006, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 120134. Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.

. Original Russian Text E.V. Sklyarov, V.S. Fedorovskii, 2006, published in Geotektonika, 2006, No. 2, pp. 4764.

Magma Mingling: Tectonic and Geodynamic Implications

E. V. Sklyarova and V. S. Fedorovskiib

of the Earths Crust, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia bGeological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevskii per. 7, Moscow, 119017 Russia e-mail:
Received February 7, 2005

AbstractAn attempt is made to consider the tectonic and geodynamic implications of the mingling of mac and felsic magmas, particularly, the relationships between mac and felsic igneous rocks in composite dikes and plutons. Magma mingling develops in suprasubduction, intraplate, and collisional settings. The attributes typical of each type of mingling are discussed with special emphasis on the magma mingling of the collisional type, which is related to synmetamorphic shearing and may be regarded as a direct indicator of synorogenic collapse of collisional structural features. This phenomenon is exemplied in the Olkhon collisional system in Siberia. DOI: 10.1134/S001685210602004X

INTRODUCTION Magma mingling and mixing1 are widespread processes in many geodynamic settings. It is a paradoxical fact that the idea of mixing of magmas differing in composition was put forward for the rst time in the midst of the 19th century by a specialist in analytical chemistry rather than in geology, Robert Bunsen [42]. Having sampled volcanic rocks in an area with geysers in Iceland, Bunsen revealed substantial compositional differences in the sampled basalts and suggested that a layer of basaltic magma was overlapped by a layer of rhyolitic melt and the entire range of igneous rocks was formed owing to various degrees of basaltrhyolite mixing. It came as no surprise that this idea was immediately heavily criticized by the geologists who studied Iceland and afterwards was adopted but with a geological priority. Towards the turn of the 19th century, additional evidence for the mingling of magmas contrasting in composition was provided [42] concerning primarily composite dikes and sills and granitic plutons with numerous mac inclusions. The effects of mingling have been described in other volcanic provinces in addition to Iceland. The idea of contemporaneous emplacement and crystallization of magmas of contrasting compositions became popular. However, in the beginning of the 20th century, this idea was displaced by the concept of crystal fractionation stated comprehensively by N. Bowen in his book The Evolution of Igneous Rocks [24], which became a guidebook for
1 The

several generations of igneous geologists. This universally accepted concept is still developing, and its appearance would not threaten the concept of mingling if crystal fractionation were not proclaimed as a single mechanism that provides the diversity of igneous rocks. As always happens during the emergence of new paradigms and panaceas, the other ideas supported by reliable data are pushed aside. Furthermore, the model of mingling was deemed unrealistic for a long time because of the substantial difference in viscosity and temperature of felsic and mac magmas. However, a large body of new information obtained in the mid-20th century provided decisive evidence for the coexistence of contrasting magmas and the idea of their mingling inspired a renewed interest and gave impetus to numerous publications (reviews in [12, 26, 27, 42]), the amount of which continues to increase. It should be noted that the concept of mingling considerably expanded and fell outside the scope of interaction between melts. Piperites have been recognized and characterized as products of interaction of erupting lavas with water-saturated unconsolidated sediments [35]. The term metamorphic mingling has been introduced for describing the mechanical mixing of ductile metamorphic rocks and mac melts in collisional zones [18]. In this paper, we focus our attention on classic magma mingling as emphasized in the title. Moreover, because only petrologic problems related to the interaction between magmas differing in composition are discussed in the overwhelming majority of the publications and only in a few works is the consideration extended beyond specic bodies of igneous rocks, it seems expedient to center our attention on tectonic and geodynamic implications of mingling. The paper presented is based on the data obtained by us and other researchers in the western Baikal and Transbaikal regions.

term magma mingling widely used in English language publications implies a mechanical interaction between the coexisting melts of different compositions that does not result in their complete homogenization (see [42] for the historical review) and is in contrast to the term magma mixing that accentuates the formation of hybrid melts of intermediate composition; both English terms are commonly translated by the same Russian word. To avoid confusion, the transliterated English terms are often given following the Russian word in the Russian version of this paper.





Mafic intrusions Mafic volcanics Granitic plutons Felsic volcanics Flank cinder cones
Fig. 1. Evolution of the granitic magmatic system controlled by emplacement of mac magma into the crust: a conceptual scheme, after [30]. (a) The early stage of emplacement of basalts in the cold crust when they can erupt on the surface; (b) the stage of the crusts heating and the onset of generation of felsic crustal magma that erupts on the surface or crystallizes under hypabyssal conditions; and (c) the stage of the mass melting of the crust characterized by eruption of ignimbrites, caldera collapse, and emplacement of large granitic plutons. Basalts can penetrate into the upper crust only at the periphery of an igneous province.

TYPICAL ATTRIBUTES OF MAGMA MINGLING In terms of tectonics, it is most important that the mingling of the mantle-derived mac and crustal felsic magmas that coexist in the liquid state eventually occurs in the middle and upper crust or at the day surface. The mingling of products of magma fractionation within a single magma chamber is also known. However, such occurrences are insignicant in size and not abundant. According to a popular concept, the considerable masses of granitoids are generated in the lower crust affected by ascending mantle-derived mac melts, as follows from intimate spatial association of mac and granitic rocks. The most pictorial qualitative model developed by Huppert and Sparks [30] demonstrates the consecutive emplacement of mac melt into the crust and the accompanying generation of granitic magma (Fig. 1). At the initial stage of rifting, basalts erupt on the surface of the cold and brittle crust (Fig. 1a) and at the same time intrude the upper and middle crust, while forming sills and relatively small
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magma chambers. The conductive heating of the crust eventually leads to the generation of granitoid magma (Fig. 1b), and the partially melted crust serves as a natural barrier that becomes impermeable to new portions of basaltic magma and thus promotes further heating of the crust; particular batches of granitic magma can erupt on the surface. The advanced heating of the crust (Fig. 1c) provides the formation of large plutons, while ignimbrites erupt at the surface. The late basaltic eruptions are conned to the margins of igneous provinces. The mac and felsic rocks occur in composite plutons as complexes of contemporaneous dikes, including ring dikes, minor intrusions, schlieren and autoliths (dialiths, after Popov [12]) in granites [25, 26, 34] or syenites [10]. In the elds of felsic volcanics, basalts occur as discrete lava ows, cinder cones, inclusions and interlayers within mac rocks [21, 32]. Composite dikes and sills are noteworthy. They may be shallowseated conduits of volcanic edices [36, 37, 39], separate intrusive phases [811, 25, 26, 43], or components of high-temperature collisional metamorphic complexes [6, 14, 22].



Fig. 2. Section of a composite dike with mac rocks at its margins, after [28].

Thus, the lava ows, composite dikes, and magma chambers are three main modes of occurrence typical of mingling. The magma mingling in lava ows is indicated not only by mac inclusions and schlieren in felsic volcanics but also by xenocrysts of mac minerals and high-Ca plagioclase in silicic lavas, whereas quartz and alkali feldspar occur in basic and intermediate lavas. As a rule, the volcanics with these attributes do not bear signs of superimposed deformation. The composite dikes are diverse in morphology and may be linear, curved, branching, or ring-shaped. Through relationships between igneous rocks of different compositions, two main types of composite dikes are distinguished: (1) those with a felsic core rimmed by mac rocks and (2) those with a mac core combined with felsic margins [41]. The composite dikes of the rst type (Fig. 2), which were described by A. Harker in his classic monograph [28], are formed as a result of consecutive injections of mac and felsic melts; the latter were emplaced into the axial, incompletely solidied zone of the preceding mac dike. The second, prevalent type is formed during contemporaneous injection of two magmas contrasting in their compositions and is characterized by more diverse relationships between the mac and felsic materials. The pillow and breccia structures are typical; however, pseudolayered varieties are also noted. The dikes with absolute predominance of mac rocks cut by numerous felsic veinlets (net-veined complexes) are rather abundant. The examples of such relationships in granitoid plutons of the Transbaikal region and in metamorphic rocks of the Olkhon region will be discussed below. The entire range of composite dikes, from those composed of undeformed mac and felsic rocks via partly tectonized rocks of different compositions to the completely metamorphosed mac and felsic rocks, is observable.

The development of mingling in magma chambers is especially diverse and controlled by many factors, the most important of which is the degree of crystallization of granitic magma. The two extreme states correspond to (i) the liquid state of granitic magma with variable contents of phenocrysts and (ii) the solid crystalline state, occasionally with insignicant amounts of residual melt. Let us dwell in more detail on the characterization of mingling for both variants. The crucial indications of mac melt injections into felsic magma (the rst variant) were set forth by Litvinovskii et al. [10]: (1) The grain size of mac rocks at the contact with the host felsic material diminishes not only in large intrusive bodies but also in particular nodules as a result of the fast solidication of basaltic magma at the boundary with felsic melt that had a lower temperature than the basalt solidus. (2) As a rule, the mac rocks are ne-grained (medium-grained in exceptional cases), including the bodies reaching 2030 m across. This is also evidence for their fast crystallization. (3) The grain size of granitic rocks at the contact with mac rocks does not decrease, even if the mac bodies are rather large; thin granitic injections into mac rocks also do not reveal a decrease in grain size. At the same time, the chilled margins of syenitic bodies are present always at the contacts with country metamorphic rocks. (4) The basic inclusions have festoon-lobate outlines in cross section owing to a great number of small globules. Such a shape of contacts is typical of the boundaries between two liquids having different viscosities [27]. (5) Large mac bodies are constantly surrounded by spherical and oval inclusions, and the oblong bodies are accompanied by trains of such inclusions. This is additional evidence for dispersion of a more viscous melt in a less viscous liquid. (6) In some places, the inclusions have the appearance of bent strips and ribbons that bear no indications of cataclasis and translation of rock-forming minerals. Such inclusions may be regarded as a product of ductile deformation of mac material in the felsic magma. (7) Ductile deformation and oriented mac inclusions are especially evident in those places where the granitic melt moved along the contact with solid gabbro and injected gabbro along fractures. The mac inclusions occur here as elongated, often curved lenses oriented parallel to the contact of gabbroic blocks (xenoliths). The orientation of tabular plagioclase and prismatic grains of dark-colored minerals is clearly seen under a microscope both in mac rocks and to a lesser extent in host granitoids. (8) The tonalitic and biotiteplagioclase selvages at contacts of felsic rocks with mac inclusions are conclusive evidence for the coexistence and partial mixing
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Fig. 3. System of synplutonic dolerite dikes, after [8]. Thin dikes are chains of spherical, oval, and oblong fragments commonly with signs of ductile deformation.

of contrasting magmas. As shown in [38], these selvages testify, rst, to the diffusion exchange between two magmas and, second, to additional heating of syenitic melt at the contact with mac magma. Although the aforementioned features were established for the particular Romanovsky pluton in the Transbaikal region, they may be regarded as typical structural and petrographic attributes of magma mingling. The elongated swarms or chains of melanocratic inclusions, synplutonic dikes, and related linear chains of globular and droplike mac bodies serve as indicators of the emplacement of mac dikes into incompletely consolidated granites that contained as much as 30% of the residual melt (the second variant of mingling) (see Fig. 3). In this case, the mac rocks do not undergo boudinage and their morphology results only from crystallization. The brittle failure of granitic rocks with the formation of linear fractures lled with mac magma indicates that the granitic rocks are crystallized signicantly by the moment of mac melt emplacement. The felsic melt that contains 3570 vol % of crystals has the rheological properties of Bingham liquid [31] and provides development of linear shear zones. Such zones control the injections of mac melts. The transition from swarms and chains of inclusions to synplutonic dikes cut by injections of residual melts derived from host granitoids depends on the proportions between the crystals and the liquid phase retained in some location. Additional heating of wall rock that results in melting within the contact zone is also possible. MINGLING IN VARIOUS GEODYNAMIC SETTINGS The spatiotemporal association of felsic and mac magmas is typical of suprasubduction orogenic belts;
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specic regions of intracontinental extension, e.g., the Basin and Range Province; intracontinental and oceanic provinces of intraplate magmatism; and collisional zones. Let us consider the development of magma mingling in various geodynamic settings and combine those of them that exhibit common magmatic and tectonic features. In particular, the suprasubduction setting comprises the island-arc systems and active continental margins of the Californian and Andean types, while the intraplate settings are represented by both the rift systems and mantle plumes. We realize that comprehensive characterization of mingling in various settings is not possible at the current state of knowledge primarily because of insufcient published data. Therefore, we present the most typical and best studied cases, while deliberately omitting the examples of mingling in the near-surface environment (lava ows, dikes as lava conduits) and dwelling on deeper levels without repeated reference to composite dikes and lava ows. Suprasubduction Setting Effects of magma mingling are extremely diverse in mature island arcs and continental magmatic margins and have been described in most detail at the western margin of North America, where the igneous events are dated back to the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The Chelan migmatite complex is one of the best studied cases of magma mingling [29]. The complex consists of Late Cretaceous migmatized metatonalite. Amphibolite, hornblendite, metagabbro, and metadiorite are less abundant but important constituents of the complex. Basic dikes deformed to various extents are numerous. The conceptual scheme illustrating relationships between different igneous rocks is shown in Fig. 4.



2M 5

2 3M

2S 3

3 4M 1 3A 5

Fig. 4. Relationships between intrusive phases and the structure of the Chelan migmatite complex: a conceptual scheme, after [29]. Numerals denote ve types of mac and ultramac rocks. See text for explanation.

Five phases of mac and ultramac magmatism are recognized [29]: (1) older metagabbroic rocks tectonized and transformed into agmatites, (2) migmatized mac rocks that ow around the agmatitic blocks together with the associated leucosome and make up thick layers (2M) or small conformable dikes dismembered into boudines (2S), (3) older synplutonic dikes and larger bodies that cut through the agmatites and migmatized dikes and experience viscousductile deformation together with country granitoids, (4) younger synplutonic dikes that underwent only slight deformation, and (5) postplutonic lamprophyre dikes with characteristic chilled margins. The preanatectic mac intrusions were emplaced as discrete small bodies into the consolidated tonalite. In particular bodies, the crystal fractionation resulted in the formation of mac and ultramac cumulates and residual diorites as small chambers. No signs of mingling and hybridization of mac magma are noted at this stage. Subsequently, the mac rocks underwent brittle failure and were cut by granitic veins. The belt of the older mac rocks extends for 13 km. The late brittle failure and rotation of particular blocks led to the local development of typical agmatitic structures. The synanatectic magmatic intrusions are characterized by banding and sharply distinct in this respect from mac rocks of the rst phase. The structural patterns

indicate that the mac melts were emplaced into the plastic, partially melted country felsic rocks and mingled with leucocratic injections. The latter, together with the batches of crystallizing mac magma and segregated felsic melts, acquired a gneissic appearance. The older synplutonic mac dikes are widespread in metatonalites and migmatites. They are discordant relative to the migmatite banding but, at the same time, have experienced rather intense deformation at the late stages of crystallization and after its completion. The products of remelting of felsic rocks affected by mac magma have an insignicant volume and occur as thin veinlets of irregular shape hosted in mac rocks. The younger synplutonic dikes are similar in their composition and structure to the older synplutonic dikes but distinguished from the latter by a lower degree of postcrystallization deformation and by crosscutting relations with the felsic veins that accompanied the preceding mac dikes. Both the older and the younger synplutonic dikes are rather widespread in the elds of metatonalites and migmatites belonging to the Chelan Complex and are extremely rare in the country rocks. The youngest lamprophyre dikes crosscut the entire complex of the above-listed igneous rocks and do not reveal signs of interaction with felsic melts. The entire Chelan Complex may be regarded as an example of metamingling with complex spatiotemGEOTECTONICS Vol. 40 No. 2 2006



poral interrelations between magmas of different compositions. The high degree of syncrystallization, latecrystallization, and postcrystallization deformations of mac rocks related to the secondfourth phases has attracted attention. Intraplate Setting The effects of mingling have been described in detail for the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic (after [3]) granitoid plutons of the MongolianTransbaikal alkali granitesyenite province and for the granitoid plutons that preceded formation of this province. The intraplate geodynamic setting of these plutons was established by Yarmolyuk et al. [19]. The mingling of felsic and mac magmas was developed at various stages of emplacement of the Romanovsky [8, 10], Ust-Khilok [9, 15], Kharitonovsky [43], and Shalutinsky [11] plutons. The effects of mingling are expressed extremely diversely and embrace the entire range of attributes set forth by Litvinovskii et al. [10]. Melanocratic inclusions in monzonite, syenite, and granite, as well as swarms of synplutonic dikes and various composite dikes, are widespread. The most typical features of mingling are shown in Fig. 5. In general, it may be noted that emplacement and evolution of the Late Paleozoic granitic and syenitic plutons were characterized by a multifold supply of mac magmas into plutonic chambers; the mac magmas were contaminated to some extent with felsic materials. The depth of pluton formation is estimated at 67 km [15]. While on the subject of this depth, it should be kept in mind that we are discussing only a level with distinctly expressed mingling. At the same time, the magmas were generated in the entire section from the upper mantle (mac melts) to the upper crust. The diversity of magmas, their generation and evolution in the intermediate chambers at various depths were considered comprehensively for the UstKhilok pluton, where three consecutive intrusive rhythmstwo syenitic and the youngest graniticare recognized [9]. The effects of mingling are related to all of these intrusive phases, and the nal basaltic injections correspond to the complete consolidation of the pluton. No less than six pulses of mac magma injections into the large Ust-Khilok pluton are documented by (1) blocks-xenoliths of gabbro in monzosyenite of the rst phase, (2) mesocratic monzosyenite with numerous melanocratic inclusions and large microgabbro inclusions in monzosyenite, (3) synplutonic microgabbro dikes in monzosyenite, (4) leucosyenite of the second phase with sporadic mac inclusions, (5) syenitegabbro composite dikes, (6) monzonitegabbro composite dikes, and (7) aplitegabbro composite dikes [11]. The relationships of mac dikes with felsic rocks are shown in Figs. 5a and 5b. Detailed geological and petrologic studies showed that the entire variety of
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0.1 m

0.2 m

(a) (b)

(c) 30 cm


(e) 30 cm (d) 10 cm (f)

Fig. 5. Typical attributes of magma mingling in granitoid plutons of the Transbaikal region, after [9, 10]. (a) Festoon boundaries of mac rocks and chilled margins at the contact with aplite in a composite dike, (b) amelike boundary of a large synplutonic mac inclusion in monzosyenite, (c) composite dike that serves as a conduit of a large combined sill in syenite and (d) close-up of its offset, (e) contact of a large mac body with host syenite and (f) close-up of this contact. (a, b)the Ust-Khilok pluton and (c)(f)the Shalutinsky pluton.

igneous rocks in this pluton (mac rocks, monzonite, monzosyenite, syenite, quartz syenite, and aplite) is a result of interaction of mac and syenitic magmas and fractionation of hybrid melts during their crystallization in transitional chambers [9]. The syenitic magma was generated and mixed in the lower crust. The intermediate magma chambers that yielded a wide range of felsic melts could have been located at different levels of the lower and middle crust, and nally, the pluton proper was formed in the upper crust. In other words, the interaction of mac and felsic magmas with various effects of magma mingling and mixing embraced the entire Earths crust. The specic feature of mingling in the Mongolian Transbaikal province consists in the complete absence of syncrystallization, late-crystallization, and postcrystallization deformations. More precisely, such deformations are pointed out, but only as they relate to lateral propagation of felsic magmas [9].

126 20 m

60 40

Amphibolite Granitic pegmatite Gneiss and migmatite Viscous shear Dolerite

50 65 50 40 70



30 30 80 45 60 40 30 70 70 50 70 50 30 70 60 50 80 30 35 70 35 75 30 40 65 65

30 75

Fig. 6. Structure of the composite dike in the Oval dome, after [14].

Collisional Setting The effects of mingling in collisional complexes have not been described in the same detail as in the suprasubduction and intraplate settings. The paper by Berthelsen [22] that deals with the so-called globulites, i.e., specic occurrences of mac material in metamorphic rocks, hardly exhausts the problem. The composite mingling-dikes of the second type have been described in the Early Paleozoic collisional complex of Sangilen [4]; however, these dikes occur within the granitic pluton, and only publication [5] that considers relationships between igneous, metamorphic, and tectonic processes made it possible to understand that emplacement of mingling-dikes was related to the late stage of collision. The Olkhon collisional system in the western Baikal region may be offered as a tectonotype of magma mingling in collisional systems at the level of the middle and lower crust. The Early Paleozoic Olkhon collisional system in the western Baikal region is a complex of various igneous and metamorphic rocks [17]. Several tectonic stages of nappe and dome formation and shearing were accompanied by high-temperature metamorphism and diverse, largely granitoid magmatism [16, 17]. The lithotectonic complexes characterized in detail in numerous publications were formed in the Early Paleozoic as a result of microcontinentisland arc and microcontinentcontinent collision [1, 13]. The structures of magma mingling that are mainly represented by composite dikes have been revealed here recently [6, 14]. These dikes have much in common and at the same time are characterized by substantial differences. We divide them into two types.

The rst type is represented in the Olkhon region by sporadic dikes composed of granites and low-K and medium-Ti tholeiitic dolerites metamorphosed to some extent [14]. By the degree of metamorphism, the complete series may be traced from unaltered subvolcanic bodies to amphibolites in metamorphosed near-concordant dikes. The fresh and metamorphosed dolerites may be observed at one exposure near the Oval dome (Fig. 6). The intrusive body exposed here is not a linear dike but a structural feature that was deformed in the process of shearing. Dolerites are hosted in migmatized gneisses as chains of boudines and globular bodies extending as far as 10 m. The boudines are incorporated into a shell of pegmatoid granite 0.31.0 m in thickness. As has been mentioned above, both mac rocks and pegmatoid granites are devoid of signs of ductile deformation at the mesoscopic and microscopic levels. A unit of medium-grained amphibolite, the shape of which shows that the unit was involved in shearing, is located to the northwest of the above composite dike. Dolerite and amphibolite are identical in chemical composition and t the low-K and medium-Ti tholeiitic basalt [14]. It may be suggested that the abundance of synmetamorphic mac dikes in the Olkhon region remains strongly underestimated, because when they are completely metamorphosed, it is impossible to distinguish them from amphibolites of the country granitegneiss complex. The youngest composite dikes cut the metamorphic rocks obliquely and do not bear indications of the subsequent deformation. The dike located near the Krest Peninsula in the Olkhonskie Vorota Strait and traced for more than a kilometer is the most indicative in this
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L. Baikal


250 m
Fig. 7. Geologic map of the Krest Peninsula. (1) Marble; (2) amphibolite; (3) gneiss, migmatite, and granite gneiss; (4) synmetamorphic granite; (5) synmetamorphic dolerite; (6) synmetamorphic shear (blastomylonite); (7) structural lines in gneiss and amphibolite; (8) orientation of gneissic banding and foliation.

respect (Fig. 7). The dike varies from 23 to 10 m in thickness (the latter value is related to bulges). The main body of the dike is composed of medium-grained granite with dolerite lenses therein. Segments that are dolerite-free reach lengths of 300350 m. Dolerites do not make direct contact with the country granitic gneisses that alternate with amphibolites and amphibole gneisses and are armored everywhere by pegmatoid granites 0.53.0 m thick. The structure of dolerite is not reworked. The grain size in marginal zones of dolerite dikes occasionally decreases, thus testifying to the effect of chilling. Thus, the following series may be outlined by metamorphic grade: crosscutting undeformed dikes, deformed near-concordant dikes without structural changes, andcompletely metamorphosed dikes (amphibolites). The compositional similarity of mac rocks in the composite dikes provides evidence for a single episode of injection of mantle-derived tholeiitic magma at the late stage of metamorphism and structural transformation of the collisional complex. The second type of composite dikes occurs in the north of Olkhon Island [6]. Numerous composite and granitic dikes cut through the metamorphic sequence with complex, tectonized intercalation of crystalline schists and marbles; gneisses are not very abundant. The composite dikes reside within a tract about 7 km long. Only gently dipping and near-horizontal granitic
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dikes are known to the north and to the south of this tract; they crosscut the gneissic banding of country rocks. The composite dikes, conversely, are conformable with metamorphic structure. Ladder dikes are noted occasionally. The granitic material makes up narrow near-contact zones in most dikes and thin veinlets of irregular shape in their cores. The pillow structure of mac rocks in contact with granites is observed quite often (Fig. 8a). The volumetric proportion of mac and granitic rocks varies from 30 : 1 (Fig. 8b) to 1 : 1 (Fig. 8c). Fragments of mac rocks incorporated into the granitic matrix are in most cases elongated and gneissic in appearance (Fig. 8c); however, angular and irregular fragments do occur (Fig. 8d). The geologic relationships clearly demonstrate in all cases that granitic rocks solidied later than mac rocks, as expected from the different solidus temperatures of mac and granitic melts. The degree of metamorphism superimposed on granites and mac rocks in the dikes is variable. The massive granites almost completely lacking signs of the subsequent deformation grade into the typically metamorphic gneisses without relics of primary igneous structure and texture. The gneissic structure in crosscutting dikes is parallel to their strike. The mac rocks with clinopyroxene, amphibole, and biotite are often massive; however, the banded varieties, which become indistinguishable from country crystalline schists both by the naked eye and under microscope, are also not rare.




25 cm


50 cm (c)

50 cm

50 cm (d)
Fig. 8. Relationships between mac rocks and granites in composite dikes on Olkhon Island in the western Baikal region. (a) Pillow structure of mac rock at the contact with granite, (b) composite dike with granite at the contact and prevalent mac rock (net-veined complex), (c) strongly deformed composite dike, (d) undeformed composite dike.

The dikes where neither mac rocks nor granites underwent ductile deformation (Fig. 8d) pass into the bodies where both igneous rocks are completely metamorphosed (Fig. 8c). The transitional varieties are rep-

resented commonly by composite dikes with massive or slightly gneissic mac rocks and granitic gneisses in marginal zones. The involvement of composite dikes in folding (Fig. 9) is the most important argument in favor
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Fig. 9. (a) Photograph and (b) position in the fold structure of the thickest composite dike on Olkhon Island.

Mac rock Granite


Ice and snow

Fig. 10. Relationship of mac rock and granite in an intrusive body in the north Olkhon Island.

of their relation to the nal stage of collisional tectogenesis. The morphology and attitude of the dikes testify to their synkinematic character. The stocklike bodies, 300400 m across, that consist of a contrasting magmatic mixture of angular or lenticular mac fragments incorporated into the granitic matrix (Fig. 10) are observed together with composite dikes. The granitic material occupies no more than 30% of the total volume. These bodies are regarded as magmatic chambers formed by simultaneous emplacement of mac and felsic melts. The mac rocks in composite dikes and stocks of the second group correspond in chemical composition to the low-Mg alkali basalts [6] typical of the intraplate setting. Thus, two types of mantle-derived mac melts, tholeiitic and alkaline, participated in the mingling with crustal melts. They are not spatially juxtaposed, although they are localized at a short distance from
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each other. Their chronological relationships remain ambiguous. The published data on the age of metamorphic and magmatic events [1, 2, 7] and unpublished authors data allow us to suggest two episodes of contemporaneous mac and felsic magmatism and hightemperature metamorphism: ~500 and 470480 Ma. If this actually is the case, the suggested events are in line with the Olkhon Terranes tectonic evolution [13, 17] that assumes collision of a microcontinent with an island arc and the subsequent collision of the amalgamated terrane with the Siberian Craton. Moreover, this scheme is applicable not only to the Olkhon Terrane but also to all Caledonides in the Central Asian Foldbelt [20]. According to the concept developed by V.V. Yarmolyuk and his coauthors, the Caledonides in this sector of the Earths lithosphere were formed in the Vendian and Cambrian under effect of the North Asian hot eld (superplume), thereby providing extensive alkaline and subalkaline magmatism. The latter is represented by rather large plutons of alkali gabbroids, e.g., the Birkhin and Kre-



stovsky plutons, and by alkali basalts in composite dikes of the second type. The second episode of tholeiitic mantle magmatism, related to the partial melting of the depleted lithospheric mantle, occurred during collision of the terrane with the Siberian Craton. We would like to emphasize once again two important points: (1) the relation of magma mingling to shearing and (2) the synmetamorphic character of both processes. Because metamorphism is an indispensable component of collisional geodynamics, it becomes clear that the magma mingling in the Olkhon region is also a syncollisional event. At rst glance, this statement is internally controversial because compression and the respective synmetamorphic deformation in the collisional setting hamper the mantle-derived magmas penetration through the crust. However, it is wellknown that uneven surfaces of strike-slip faults give rise to the development of numerous local extension zones (pull-apart structures) and series of systematically arranged tension cracks (Riedel structures) disintegrate the displaced sheets. Apparently, these conditions are sufcient for draining of mantle magmas and their ascent through the thick but gravitationally instable collisional crust. It may be suggested that the collisional system is doomed to breakdown or collapse as soon as shearing becomes an active participant of the collisional scenario. The synmetamorphic magma mingling, one of the earliest indicators of this process, implies the continuation of the general compression and the development of tectonic ow and folding, although the local extension zones are already arising at that time. The mantle-derived magmas are injected into the softened crustal rocks involved in metamorphism and subject to partial melting. The interaction of the mantle and crustal melts results in the formation of structural features typical of magma mingling. The collapse of collisional systems proceeds in the extension regime, and the magma mingling directly testies to the early stage of collapse. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In order to understand the character of relationships between granites and mac rocks and the cause of incomplete miscibility, or alternatively, complete immiscibility, of melts contrasting in composition, three points should be stressed. (1) The marked difference in temperature of granitic and mac melts: 650800C against 11001300C. First, this implies that the felsic melt behaves as a coolant for hot or even overheated mac melts. Second, if the temperature of the country granitic or felsic metamorphic rocks is close to eutectic, the energetic capacity of even small bodies of mac melt is sufcient to induce the partial melting of the country rocks. The progress in such melting is controlled by the volume of the supplied mantle-derived magma. Finally, the third implication of the temperature difference consists in the late crystallization of felsic melts, as is conrmed by

structural relationships between coexisting mac and felsic melts. (2) The sharp difference in viscosity and rheological properties of uid-saturated granitic melt and anhydrous basaltic melt. The incomplete miscibility of melts, various reaction structures, and pillow structure of mac rocks in composite dikes are explained precisely by this difference. The modeling of interaction between liquids with different viscosity [33] has shown that the interface between such liquids becomes more intricate as the difference in viscosity increases (Fig. 11E). The morphological features observed in experiments are consistent with their counterparts in nature (Figs. 11A11D). (3) The sharply distinct density and, accordingly, buoyancy of mac and granitic melts. The partially melted continental crust is an effective barrier to the ascent of the basaltic magma [30], which having reached this barrier starts to spread aside and crystallize as sheetlike bodies. The same mechanism may work within magmatic chambers lled with granitoid material. The morphology and spatial position of sheetlike mac bodies in granitoid plutons [40] indicate the multifold emplacement of mac melts into the magma chamber (Fig. 12). The stratication of the magma chamber caused by settling of crystals in the lower part of the chamber plays an important role in this process. Zones of plastic high-grade metamorphic rocks are efcient barriers to mac magmas. The mac magmas that have reached the base of such zones induce the melting of gneisses and provide magma mingling and ascent of the magma mixture to the upper brittleductile level where the linear fractures are lled with this mixture. An additional conductive heating of rocks may change the style of deformation that provides emplacement of dikes along shear zones [14] or their subsequent involvement in the folding. The viscousductile style of deformation at the lower level results in development of metamorphic mingling, as is observed in the Olkhon collisional orogen [18]. In general, the character of mingling at deep levels of suprasubduction and intraplate settings is highly similar. The conspicuous attributes of mingling develop in the uppermost 57 km of the crust. The magma chambers lled with granitoid crustal melts serve as traps for mantle-derived magmas. The interaction of crustal and mantle magmas in the collisional setting at the late stage of collision occurs at a depth of 720 km and is distinguished by some specic features (see above). The main difference in the mingling that occurs in specic geodynamic settings consists in different degree of syncrystallization, late-crystallization and postcrystallization deformations. Under the extension conditions of the intraplate setting, the deformation expressed in the gneissic texture of felsic rocks and in the attening of mac fragments is related to the spreading within the magma chamber or to the ow of magma along feeding conduits (dikes). The structures
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20 m

VR = 2.69

VR = 12.9

VR = 130.6 VR = 1403

Fig. 11. (AD) Relationships of granite and mac rock in the Terra Nova intrusive complex, Antarctica and (E) models simulating relationships between liquids with different viscosities, after [33].

related to the deformation during the late stage of crystallization (gneissic banding, boudinage, structures of rupture and fragmentation of competent mac bodies) are typical of the suprasubduction setting. The entire range of deformations, from no deformation to complete metamorphic reworking of composite dikes, is observed in the collisional setting. Moreover, the morphology of mac bodies implies that some composite dikes are controlled by shear zones (Fig. 6). The geologic examples considered above conrm the tendency of increasing intensity of ductile deformation of the igneous rocks that participate in mingling; however, this tendency is far from unequivocal. Besides our point
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of view stated above, another explanation unrelated to the specic features of different tectonic settings is possible. All examples of mingling in different geodynamic settings correspond to different levels of the Earths crust. The granitoid plutons in the Transbaikal region crystallized at a depth of 57 km [15]; the main stages of the evolution of the Chelan Complex correspond to the middle crust [29]; and nally, the level of mingling in the Olkhon collisional system ts the middle and lower crust. Thus, the different style of deformation may be controlled by variation in the depth. However, we emphasize once again the role of shearing in the penetration of mantle magmas into the lower and


SKLYAROV, FEDOROVSKII () Injection of mafic

melt as a lopolith

Feeding dike (1) Mingling in the marginal part of the lopolith

(b) Cooling and sinking of mafic melt

Formation of mafic inclusions by convection


Ongoing sinking and tectonization of the mafic body Mafic inclusions and rafts

Dike remnants

Flamelike offsets

(d) Final stage of the first pulse

Deformation of mafic inclusions by lateral spreading of granitic melt

Intricate configuration of the lower contact of mafic body

Flat upper contact of the mafic body

(e) The second pulse of emplacement of mafic melt

Feeding dike (2)

1 4

2 5

Fig. 12. A model of consecutive emplacement of mac melt into granites with formation of mac intrusive sheets, after [40]. (1) Gabbrodiorite, (2) granitic magma, (3) cumulative layer enriched in crystals, (4) direction of ow in local convective cells, (5) mac inclusions. GEOTECTONICS Vol. 40 No. 2 2006



middle crustal units, which is not realized in other geodynamic settings. The petrology of mantle and crustal magmas participating in mingling were deliberately omitted because discussion of these topics would greatly lengthen the paper. Only the most general features are noted. The alkaline and ultra-alkaline mantle melts are typical of the intraplate setting. The calc-alkaline mac rocks are predominant in the suprasubduction setting, although the mac rocks of the OIB-type also are not uncommon. As has been exemplied by the Olkhon system, both alkali basalts and primitive tholeiites are formed in the collisional setting. The composition of mantle and crustal melts is controlled by numerous factors, including the composition of the upper mantle and the geometry of a subducted plate [23]. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank D.P. Gladkochub, T.V. Donskaya, A.B. Kotov, and A.M. Mazukabzov for their long-standing collaboration in eld studies of the Olkhon region and for discussion of the subjects touched on in this paper. We are grateful to B.A. Litvinovskii for reading the manuscript, participating in discussion, and making helpful comments. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 05-05-64761 and 05-05-64016) and fullled under the Integration Program Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere in the Central Asian Mobile Belt: from Ocean to Continent of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. REFERENCES
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Reviewers: V.V. Yarmolyuk and V.I. Kovalenko


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