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School of Social Science The University of Queensland St Lucia QLD 4072
This guide has been prepared for the use of students in Anthropology, Archaeology, Criminology and Sociology courses at The University of Queensland. It contains material presented in earlier guides distributed by the School as well as relevant new material.
SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
STUDENT WRITING GUIDE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ASSIGNMENT TOPICS AND TOPIC ANALYSIS HOW IMPORTANT IS THE ASSIGNMENT? EXPECTATIONS TOPIC PRE-PLANNING Determining (Instructional) Words Second Phase of Pre-planning: Orientation LOCATING INFORMATION READING AND MAKING NOTES FOR ASSIGNMENTS AN APPROACH TO READING HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT IS RELIABLE? Primary Sources Always Carry More Weight Than Secondary Sources Three Witnesses Are Better Than One MAKING NOTES REVISITING YOUR ESSAY PLAN ESSAY WRITING WHAT MARKERS EXPECT WORKING UP A TOPIC ANSWERING A QUESTION ESSAY STRUCTURE Introduction (What You Are Going To Tell Them) Discussion or Body of the Essay (Telling Them) Conclusions (Tell Them What You Told Them) FINAL STAGES PROOFREADING ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES WRITING: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS LANGUAGE Inclusive or Non-discriminatory Language SPELLING, PUNCTUATION AND GRAMMAR PLAGIARISM TURNITIN – ONLINE TUTORIAL PRESENTATION HANDWRITTEN OR TYPED? LAYOUT PAPER SIZE AND PAGINATION USE OF ITALICS ORPHANS AND WIDOWS LENGTH SUBMITTING AND COLLECTING WORK COVER SHEET SUBMITTING COLLECTION DUE DATES AND EXTENSIONS REFERENCING DIRECT QUOTATIONS HOW TO QUOTE WITHIN THE BODY OF YOUR ESSAY CITING ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND INTERNET SOURCES
SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
STUDENT WRITING GUIDE
HOW TO COMPILE A REFERENCES CITED LIST OTHER REFERENCING CONSIDERATIONS HOW TO COMPILE AN ON-LINE REFERENCES CITED LIST Format for Referencing Electronic Sources Examples of Reference Entries for Electronic Sources Sources of Further Information on Referencing Electronic Documents NOTES ON THESIS PREPARATION THESIS CONTENT PROBLEMS IN WRITING FRAMEWORK FOR A THESIS DATA HANDLING AND PRESENTATION TABLES, FIGURES AND APPENDICES Tables Graphs Diagrams and Illustrations Appendices TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THESIS PRESENTATION SOURCES OF HELP AND FURTHER READING REFERENCE WORKS ON WRITING SPECIALIST DICTIONARIES
SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
STUDENT WRITING GUIDE
1. ASSIGNMENT TOPICS AND TOPIC ANALYSIS
While undertaking studies in the School of Social Science (Anthropology, Archaeology, Criminology and Sociology) you will be required to submit written assignments for assessment. These assignments are a crucial part of your learning and give you an opportunity to develop and express your research, critical thinking and communication skills. The type and number of assignments you are required to submit will depend on your chosen courses. However, the procedures and principles involved in producing well written assignments are applicable in all courses. Following these guidelines will improve your work in the eyes of your reader/s, and many of the skills you will learn are essential to academic and professional report writing and presentation.
1.1. HOW IMPORTANT IS THE ASSIGNMENT?
The course guide or outline will indicate the proportion of total marks attached to an assignment. The percentage of marks an essay is worth is a useful guide to how much time and effort you should spend on it relative to other items of assessment for the course. However, while an assignment may only be 500–1000 words long, it can often be harder to write a clear and concise short essay than a longer one. Percentage of marks, rather than word limits, are a better way of judging effort to expend on your work.
At University level what is assessed in your written work varies across disciplines and across courses. However, you are NOT assessed on your ability to merely recite facts or reproduce information from other sources. Instead, you WILL BE assessed on your ability to interpret a question intelligently, and your ability to demonstrate a depth of understanding of a topic based on critical analyse of sources surrounding that topic. In all instances, your ability to organise information from various sources into a clear, concise and logical argument will be pivotal to the success of your assignment. (See Section 3.1 for more information on markers’ expectations.)
In most cases (theses usually excepted) you will be given a set topic to write about or research. (In some cases you will be given the option to create your own topic and this is discussed in Section 3.2 of this guide.) The set topic will provide a clear definition of assignment requirements. Analysing the topic statement will give you clues as to how to approach your planning, writing and research. Plan your assignment so that the topic is clearly and directly addressed, not avoided or dealt with indirectly.
The first step in undertaking an essay is to study carefully the question or topic to be addressed. Undertaking a critical and reflective analysis of the topic or question will contribute to the success of your essay by drawing your attention to key words essential to understanding the nature of the essay. Failing to read an essay topic or question appropriately often leads to mere descriptive or ‘factual’ writing, rather than essays that fulfil the requirements of the topic.
SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
STUDENT WRITING GUIDE
Essay topics or questions can often be broken down into three separate but interrelated parts:
• Defining words: Key words or concepts which must be considered and defined before essay preparation can begin (social class, oligarchy, culturally constructed, gender inequality, functionalist tradition are examples of concepts requiring definition). Often these key words and concepts have to be defined within the context (or setting) of the essay topic.
(Often defining words can be clarified by referring to a specialist dictionary in your course area. Course dictionaries are located in the reference section of the library—three examples for each discipline have been provided in the Bibliography to this guide. These examples represent a small proportion of those available in the library.) • Problem or issue set by the question/topic: Essay topics and questions in the social sciences often have an issue (or conflict) which you need to address, explore and adopt a position on. Exploring a topic or question allows you to be more analytical and successful in your writing. Determining (instructional) words: Words which set down a method for approaching the essay question or topic (typical examples are illustrate, discuss, evaluate, analyse). They will determine how you read your references and organise your essay. (See list below of example determining words and explanations.)
(Adapted from Mahony, David. 1997 The Student Guide for Writing and Studying Effectively at University: The World of Ideas and The World of Text. Kelvin Grove, Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. [LB2369.M335 1997 – Quarto])
1.4.1. Determining (Instructional) Words
Analyse Break the topic matter down into its component parts and examine each part in detail to get to the essence of topic matter. Systematically accept or reject a position by presenting reasons and evidence for acceptance or rejection. Always indicate your awareness of opposing viewpoints. Make critical observations about the topic matter, avoiding overgeneralisations and mere description. Look for similarities and differences between ideas, events, interpretations, propositions and so on. Place the ideas, events, interpretations, propositions in opposition in order to show the differences between them. Give your viewpoint or judgment about the worth of theories or opinions about the truth of facts, and back you opinion with a discussion of evidence. Set down clear, concise and authoritative meanings about the nature of the topic matter. Show that the distinctions implied in the definition are necessary. Give a detailed or graphic description of the characteristics of the topic, emphasising the most important points.
and consider both strengths and weaknesses. Supply the main points or general principles of a topic. Douglas and Peter Sharpe. 1998 3 . Investigate or examine by argument. and make clear and explicit. take opposing viewpoints into consideration.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Differentiate Show the difference between two or more things by determining their distinctions. Formally set forth or definitely declare a position. Identify and describe the development. Thoroughly examine a topic by investigating and analysing every aspect of it. supported by evidence. Critically examine. Make an appraisal of the worth of something. Provide a concise account or statement of the main points or substance of a matter. study and carefully survey all areas of the topic. Make clear. Explain and make clear by the use of concrete examples or by the use of figures. Lorraine and Frances Rowland. diagrams or concrete examples. process or history of a topic from some point or origin (usually the latest to the earliest evidence or development). Emphasise should be on the structure and relationship of information. Discuss Enumerate Evaluate Explain Explore Illustrate Interpret Investigate Justify Outline Prove Relate Review State Summarise Trace (Adapted from Bate. Sydney: Harcourt Brace [LB2369. and account for in detail (interpret meanings clearly). Confirm or verify. Defend or show adequate grounds for decisions or conclusions. in an organised and orderly manner. or demonstrate truth or falsity by presenting evidence and arguing logically. in the light of its apparent truth or utility. emphasising relevance and associations in a descriptive fashion. Reveal or show how things are connected to each other. leaving out less significant details. pictures. usually also giving your own judgment (with adequate backing). Search. analyse and discuss the majors points of a topic. omitting details and examples. Bring out the meaning of. presenting a point of view (whether yours or others). 1996 Writer’s Handbook for University Students. specifying details fully and clearly while omitting unnecessary details. and your opinion should be supported by arguments and evidence both for and against. May entail description and interpretation. List or specify and describe one by one the points required. Avoid mere description or summarising and focus on the ‘why’ and ‘how’ aspects of an issue.B345 1996] and Marshall. Include your personal opinion. interpret.
understand key terms. Helen Cooke is located in the Social Sciences and Humanities Library. encyclopedias. Internet resources and specialised resources for each discipline. 1. • Initial reading will usually start with set texts assigned in the course and these will allow you to: • • • • • explore the topic. Thesis statements are likely to change throughout the process of researching and writing your essay. or your claim. Second Phase of Pre-planning: Orientation Often this requires general reading in the area of investigation to clarify key concepts. Criminology and Sociology. in response to the problem. etc. and references lists or bibliographies attached to primary sources. You should be constantly asking yourself: Is what I am reading pertinent to the topic? 4 . books. Remember that this plan should be flexible and you should be prepared to change it as you read and write more. Further information and help can be obtained from Helen Cooke. general references in the library. Our libraries also have specialist information sheets on relevant library resources for each discipline. organise obtaining and utilising specialist references relevant to the topic (essential to developing a well informed essay). as well as other relevant titles in the library. concepts and theories. LOCATING INFORMATION After general reading around a topic it is time to move to specialist works in your course reading list. Word-processing computer packages that allow you to move text around are ideal tools for essay preparation. 1.M369 1998]) The TOPIC is the descriptive or focus area of the essay question.4.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE A Guide to Learning Independently. Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. journals and databases. 3rd edn. It is often useful to write separate points on separate pages or cards so that you can easily reorganise your thoughts. A thesis states or claims your earlier assertions about the central problem raised by the essay topic. Archaeology. [LB2395. Early knowledge can be obtained from: • • • • set readings and textbooks assigned to the course.2.5. the PROBLEM is the central issue raised by the essay question and the THESIS STATEMENT is the main idea. the librarian for Anthropology. tutorials and/or seminars. Continue to develop your plan gradually by compiling evidence. This is particularly important if you have little knowledge of the essay topic. specialist dictionaries. lecture notes. Be sure to judge the relevance of a work to your essay topic. assess the determining words of the topic. theories. and frame an early tentative thesis statement for the essay. examples and quotations form the literature and review your plan from time to time in the light of any new literature. Bibliographies and reference lists attached to work you have read are often excellent sources of information for other worthwhile works. These fact sheets contain information on how to locate dictionaries.
SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE After this initial surveying of relevant literature you can now move to reading. critical thinking and note taking. 5 .
rather than just extract information. Are the main points reiterated and linked to the introduction here? Main body of text. Note headings for later analysis. READING AND MAKING NOTES FOR ASSIGNMENTS The following aims to make you aware of the STRUCTURE of academic texts and how this structure influences your thinking. While some pieces of writing will be easier to examine in the way we suggest than others. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. main theme and arguments.M335 1997 . Critical thinkers: • • • • • • • test evidence define terms see the various sides to an argument look for consistency in argument seek out the strengths as well as the weaknesses in an argument are aware of the author’s assumptions are detached in their approach to the problem set by the question (Taken from Mahony. Can you quickly determine whether headings are related to text? Does the first paragraph of each section act as a kind of introduction to that section? Graphic aids. David. Some papers are preceded by a short abstract with the same function. Solutions should be provided or further work outlined. Awareness of academic writing structures is also a first step in being able to produce such writing yourself. What does the title suggest will be the main theme? Analyse the key words in the title.Quarto]) 2. Work through the following aspect of the work in the order suggested.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 2. Is the work well supported by reference to other significant work and information from other sources? Are the quotations relevant? 6 . [LB2369. What are the main ideas here? How far did you need to skim to find the outline of main points? Conclusion. Introduction/Abstract. Title. This is usually the first paragraph that summarises the main ideas to be covered.1. Are there any tables or graphic representations that help to make points more emphatically and clearly? How effective are they? References. In the process you will learn how to critically evaluate arguments. AN APPROACH TO READING First SKIM the work for structure. 1997 The Student Guide for Writing and Studying Effectively at University: The World of Ideas and The World of Text. Kelvin Grove. This should also summarise the main points. there will always be some structure that you need to be aware of in order to evaluate the work.
We have to form a THEORY to explain the observed data. But in order for this to be accepted as fact. The FACT that we then know is not that it is the best course. functionalist. structuralist. and made the basis of reasoning or calculation. HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT IS RELIABLE? DATA are the raw material by which we turn opinions and hypotheses into convincing arguments. post-structuralist)? Are arguments valid? Do they contain persuasion or faulty logic? What type of evidence is used to support the argument/outline the case/investigate the problem? How convincing is the evidence? Why? What are the chief strengths and weakness of the arguments? What are the main limitations or arguments and evidence? Are any particular forms of bias built into the study? What factors have influenced the choice of methods. something known as fact. or overstated? What questions does it leave in the reader’s mind? 2. feminist. the conceptual framework? Are alternative explanations given and comparisons made? Are there any cause/effect relationships? Are these indeed cause and effect. The Shorter Oxford Dictionary defines datum (singular of ‘data’) as: “A thing given or granted. we would have to test our theory by other means. Write a summary of the article with your critical evaluation of the work. Do you agree that this outlines the main points. and for this purpose. Does the author adopt a clear theoretical stance? Can this be identified (e. date or source of this article? Does the title give you a good overview of the content? 2.2. Does it draw the arguments together? 4.” Suppose we surveyed all the students in a given course and found that 80% of them said it was the best course they had ever taken. what are the grounds for your doing so? You will have to give your reasons for your evaluation of this article. Is the article plausible and accurate? If you disagree with any of it. and here our theory would probably be that it was a good course. Marxist. and in sufficient detail to enable the reader to evaluate them? Are the conclusions cautious. objectively. The following questions may help you develop your analysis: • • • • • • • • • • • • • What is the article/book about? What is the case or problem being investigated? What are the key concepts used in the article? Make a note of their definitions. Summarise the conclusion.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Now READ AND THINK. it will be useful to consider the following: 1. or does it merely open the discussion? 3. but that 80% of current students thinks so.g. listing the main points to be discussed. 7 . the accuracy of measurements. Summarise the introduction. the reliability of date. or vice versa? Are the conclusions presented clearly. Is there anything significant about the author.
we can have more confidence in the description. however. We can only decide how much weight to give it by examination of the primary data presented.M335 1997 . place of publication. 2. 1997 The Student Guide for Writing and Studying Effectively at University: The World of Ideas and The World of Text.1.3. we have to take their argument seriously. an original ethnography can be expected to give you better and more detailed data than something like a textbook. [LB2369. How do you know what is reliable? Criteria for judging evidence: • • • • • • • is it relevant to the thesis statement? can it be validated? is it representative? does it broaden my understanding? does it challenge my thesis statement? what conclusion/interpretation does it lead to? how will it be used in the assignment? (Taken from Mahony. for instance. If the anthropologist describes many families as having the same household arrangements. or sometimes even a later reworking of the material by the same person. A rigorous critique of argument is best based on primary data.2. MAKING NOTES Make your notes initially including the following information: • Bibliographic/reference information: ◊ Author/s name ◊ Title of article/chapter heading ◊ Title of book/journal ◊ Page numbers ◊ Date of publication ◊ Publication details (volume.2. Kelvin Grove. or surveys all the households. part numbers. Are we shown the people doing the things the anthropologist says they do? How often are the informants’ own words quoted? 2. In anthropology. In constructing the argument of your essay you will need to call on the best possible range of information.2. David. That is not to say that a dissenting voice is necessarily wrong. If several anthropologists come to the same conclusions about a particular people or social formation. the more likely the conclusions are to be correct. Three Witnesses Are Better Than One This rule merely means the more supporting data there are.Quarto]) 2.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE It has been said that data become facts when they have stood the test of time and argument. publishers) 8 . Primary Sources Always Carry More Weight Than Secondary Sources A researcher’s own report of experimental data (carefully controlled and executed) or the citing of original documents or eyewitness account is preferable to a report of the same information by another person. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology.
If you do not have a word-processor you may want to work with separate ideas on separate cards or sheets of paper so that you still have the opportunity to easily reorganise your material. read them to see that they provide an adequate summary of what you have read. just let it flow from your developed plan. REVISITING YOUR ESSAY PLAN Again examine carefully the scope and structure of your plan. 9 . Ask yourself: • Have I compiled all the material necessary to answer the set question/address the set topic? • Have I dealt with the whole topic? • Have I answered questions that are not asked? • Is there a clear thread running through the plan linking each of the parts logically together? • Does the conclusion clearly follow from the main points of argument? Then read through all your notes to refresh your memory. It is now time to write your first full draft.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE • • • Is the article/book ◊ a report or critique of empirical research? ◊ a theoretical exposition? ◊ a theoretical review? Make a note of any tables or diagrams you may want to refer to later (include page numbers).4. Do not worry too much about the prose at this stage. Are the notes sufficient to enable you to report on what you have read. take care to reference correctly and use quotations appropriately. When you have finished making notes. 2. DO NOT PLAGIARISE (see guidelines in Section 5 of this guide). Write in your own words. Good notes will be useful beyond the requirements of any one course or assignment. since the book or article may be hard to track down again once you have returned it to the library. Invent your own system of shorthand to save space but be sure you can still understand it in a month’s time. Make a note of any quotations you may wish to utilise later (include page numbers). can you explain the reading to someone else? Can you use them to compare with other reading you have done or will do on the topic? Can you form a critical analysis from them? Be careful not to make your notes too concise. Remember. Keep your notes in a safe place. Organise files carefully so that you can locate notes again in the future. that is. the more detailed your notes the better.
In addition to the body of the essay (in which information. IT IS EXPECTED THAT YOUR ESSAY WILL BE CLEARLY FOCUSED ON THE TOPIC CHOSEN. prepared as you explore the topic and compile notes from reading material. Presentation. and the essay should have a title. reviews and critically analyses the relevant literature and shows original or creative thinking. figures and tables. pages should be numbered. if the essay is divided into sections. are presented). It is often helpful to readers. conclusions are supported by the data. Always begin the writing process as soon as you choose your topic. As a further indication of the standards markers apply and how the assessment of your essay will be approached from a marker’s perspective. 3. The standard conventions should be followed for presentation of quotations. sources are properly cited and referenced. The arguments presented should be logical. the essay should include an introduction (in which the topic or problem is specified. The essay should contain an adequate amount of data or information to support the conclusions drawn. with its parts logically and understandably organised. ESSAY WRITING Writing an essay is a gradual process. and carefully manage your time to allow for each stage of preparation. Content. soon after topics/questions are distributed. set in context and its relevance indicated) and a conclusion (in which the strands of argument are drawn together. This refers to the mechanics of essay writing. the information and data presented are relevant to the topic and have been analysed appropriately. polished and professional in presentation. etc. Organisation. extremely well-written and organised. but the following indicates what would generally be expected of an essay receiving top marks: Outstanding essay that engages with the topic or problem. of course. WHAT MARKERS EXPECT You should be given a written copy of the criteria that will be used to mark your essay.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 3. analysis. and the conclusions reached should be plausible. 10 . spelling and punctuation errors. The essay should have been carefully proofread and any errors corrected prior to submission. The first step in writing is to study the set topic carefully (as discussed earlier). 3. each clearly headed—this is especially true of longer essays. discussion. can vary among markers. the final version of an essay that you submit for assessment should develop through several drafts.1. the following provides additional information on the major aspects of an essay and what markers look for in relation to them: 1. The theoretical perspective from which the problem or question is approached should be made explicit. and it should be neat and legible. 2. The essay should be coherently structured. and makes essay preparation easier. The essay should be free of grammatical. Criteria. final points are made and the broader implications of the study suggested). Always keep a copy of the actual wording of the topic/question in view. and the methods of analysis employed should be appropriate to the problem or question addressed.
and technical terms. The essay should demonstrate the ability to locate. but also to place the essay topic in context and to assist in developing a theoretical or other perspective on it. Originality and Creativity. Style. 4. but it is a skill that can be learned and improved upon with practice. The writing in the essay should be lucid and communicate the author’s thoughts effectively (simplicity of style is generally a virtue). In addition to information and perspectives derived from other sources. This will make you aware of other possible key words as well as help you to focus your attention on a manageable portion of the field. 1. It is not acceptable to create an essay simply by paraphrasing a set of sources or by stringing together a series of quotations. identify the topic you intend to address.2. Firstly.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 4. outlooks. Next. and it should be evident that the references cited were actually read. the essay must contain some ideas. relevant to that topic. 3. The essay should be free of unnecessary jargon. WORKING UP A TOPIC You may be asked to define your own topic for an essay or project. Plagiarism. 5. and the sources used should be credible and pertinent. key words. write down some descriptors. alternatively. Essay writing is a skill. It is not acceptable to cite only popular works or such sources as encyclopaedias. insights. Standard conventions for citing and presenting references should be followed. need to be defined? Remember that dictionaries are not specialist texts and therefore are not often the best places to go for definitions in this context. or related to your topic. You will have to check these key words against the course catalogue in the library (command ST or TE on the computer) to see which of them in fact appear there. Markers will watch for plagiarism (see Section 5) and penalise it. The following is designed to help you begin to refine your ideas. 2. A classic mistake students make is to pick too large a topic and/or to not clearly define just what their topic is. 7. abbreviations and acronyms should be defined. What terms in your title. 6. A definition might be a discussion of the possible approaches to a topic rather than a formula. This literature should be used not only to provide information or data germane to the argument of the essay. 3. What lines of thought does your title suggest? Make sure that your title does not include references to an area you do not want to deal with or. Words should be used properly. omits a major aspect of your assignment. Can you discuss arguments both for and against the main thesis of the topic? 11 . analyses. Use of Literature and Referencing. information. Your lecturers and tutors will expect you to take your work seriously and to put some effort into it. 5. Primary sources should be cited whenever possible. or approaches of an original nature. critically assess and appropriately use the relevant literature. and will mark accordingly. You should now be ready to think about a title.
4. Many writers do not structure their work so as to help the reader but it will be of great help to you in your academic career if you can learn to do this. paragraphs should have internal coherence. 12 . The trick is to “tell them what you are going to tell them. Now rough out an introduction for your own essay.3. and present the evidence. a discussion (body of the essay) and conclusions. or use a quotation which conveys the key ideas you will discuss. ANSWERING A QUESTION Where an essay question is provided students often fail to do what the question asks of them. outline your reasons for focussing on certain aspects of a general topic. This is the part where you report on your reading. It is. weigh up arguments for and against a proposition. post a hypothesis you will test and report on. important to outline some relevant points about paragraph structuring that will help ensure your essay flows properly. Does your introduction cover the issues raised in the title and definition of topic? Does it leave any unaddressed? Does it make a reader want to read on? You will often find it necessary to rewrite first attempts.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 3. 3. Introduction (What You Are Going to Tell Them) Here you should define your topic. give selected data to establish a topic as worth writing about.2. Discussion or Body of the Essay (Telling Them) The body of the essay can be thought of as a series of building blocks that escort the reader step by step through your argument. ESSAY STRUCTURE Many of the articles you have read and will read in the future will not live up to the expectations that are embodied in our earlier exercises on reading. a paragraph should at least have a topic sentence. In particular: • • • • a paragraph should revolve around one main idea.1. therefore. using one of the strategies suggested here.4. and there should also be coherence between paragraphs. then tell them what you have told them”. The way you structure your paragraphs assists in the development of your essay and is an important aid to your reader’s understanding. Take note of the list of determining (instructional) words (outlined in Section 1. The length of the introduction will vary with the length of the essay. Paragraphs. supporting sentence/s and often a concluding sentence. tell them. as your introduction should relate directly to the body and conclusion of your essay. 3. You might: • • • • • • ask a question you will attempt to answer.4 of this guide) and make sure you are fulfilling the markers’ expectations. This is probably the most important part of the essay as it will let your reader know what to expect. state a case you will argue. This means you need an introduction.4. 3. Any terms or concepts that are central to your topic should be defined in the introduction or very early in the discussion.
MAKE A COPY. attach a cover sheet. Always ask “is this an effective conclusion or does it just repeat. Ensure that you have included references where necessary and check their accuracy (see Section 10 in this guide). it is helpful to subdivide the discussion paragraphs by the use of headings and subheadings. and the presentation of references. as well as to check that your argument really does go the way you want it to. A conclusion may also point to the broader implications of the study.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Often.3.5.6. produce your final copy. and submit it by the due date (see sections 8 and 9 in this guide). PROOFREADING Even if you compose your essays on a computer and use your spelling/grammar checker. grammar and legibility. it is very helpful if you can read your essay aloud to another person. A good way to detect mistakes is to read your work out loud. when planning your essay. It is very important to proofread your work for grammatical and typing errors. The most effective way to proofread is from a hard copy rather than on a computer screen. the conclusion should round off your essay so that it does not let your reader down too hard. Ask yourself.4. That is. the main points?” 3. Since it will be hard for you to see errors in work you are still immersed in. As well as drawing together what you have said. too long or not well balanced. 3. When complete. it is usually a good idea to leave your essay at least overnight before proofreading. If you are satisfied. rather than synthesise. Evaluate the effectiveness of your introduction and conclusion and check that they point to and address the main issues of the set topic. here you should summarise the evidence you have presented for the main points of the topic as you have defined it. Conclusions (Tell Them What You Told Them) As we pointed out in the reading exercises. 3. with no glaring omissions. It is also a good idea to have someone else read your work. ask someone else to read your essay. Write your final draft and take particular care with spelling. 13 . These should be specific questions and not statements of the type “much work remains to be done”. is my argument convincing? At this stage. mistakes will creep in. FINAL STAGES When you have completed your first full draft. proofread it carefully. It is quite remarkable how mistakes will leap out at your after a passage of time. Take note of any comments they have and make any necessary adjustments. punctuation. re-examine the scope and structure of your essay and expand or prune if your draft is too short. You should not introduce new evidence at this point but you may suggest further questions that may be asked. this should relate to the introduction.
1997 Essay Writing for Students: A Practical Guide. These bibliographies might be a part of the essay or report you are asked to submit. R.C55 1997]) 14 . and the more recent description of the Tiwi in the 1960s by Pilling.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 3. South Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman Australia Pty Ltd. Rinehart & Winston. [LB2369. These comments should précis the contents of the book or article.W. C. Annotated bibliographies are lists of references with brief comments (the Macquarie Dictionary defines the term ‘annotate’ as “to remark upon in notes”). What is critical here is that the annotations for the works included in the bibliography should be brief. social organisation. Pilling 1960 The Tiwi of North Australia. yet still informative. and provide a brief evaluation of it in relation to your topic or question. Each entry consists of the bibliographic details for the work listed followed by your comments on it. and A. Example: Hart. or they might be assigned as preparation for future work in the course.7. This is the standard monograph on the Tiwi comprising the earlier work of Hart on the ceremonies. economic system and daily life of this Aboriginal people. It was particularly useful in providing an insight into the various forms of social control which operate in an island community. John and Brigid Ballard. indicate how it is relevant. (This example taken from Clanchy. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES Some courses will require you to produce annotated bibliographies for assessment. New York: Holt.M.
Always spell out a number that begins a sentence.H83 1997] 4. ‘can’t’. so that 10. thus. WRITING: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 4.g. The use of discriminatory language puts the writer at risk of being perceived as sexist.81 would be October 6 not 10 June). consult your tutor or course controller. The following points should also be noted: • Adopt Australian forms of spelling (e.6.81. Qantas. Colloquialisms and slang should also be avoided. rude or ignorant and.6. Aim for a simple. and individuals within them. The Macquarie Dictionary is a suitable reference. Avoid contractions such as ‘don’t’. Avoid unnecessary detail and irrelevancies. Some general points to remember when writing assignments are as follow: 15 . 2nd edn. Avoid sweeping statements that you cannot support. Avoid excessive capitalisation of words and phrases. Avoid the use of technical jargon for its own sake (this is different from the careful use of specific terms and concepts necessary in a theoretical argument or explanation). Avoid abbreviations. LANGUAGE Write in clear.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 4. There is a difference between written and spoken English and you should observe the distinction between language suitable in conversation and language suitable in a written document.1. are not degraded or excluded (e. ‘doesn’t’.1. Always write in a tone that is objective and persuasive. unless they are conventionally very familiar (MLC could mean Member of the Legislative Council or an insurance company. concise English prose. unless quoting directly from a publication in which the American form is used. Be consistent and unambiguous when referring to dates (10 June 1981 rather than 10. Inclusive or Non-discriminatory Language Another aspect of language that must be adhered to is non-discriminatory or inclusive language. the American practice reverses this. Spell out figures up to ten—use numbers for larger figures. unprofessional. A good general guide is Hudson. when in doubt. N. phrases like ‘Christian name’ exclude the many people of other faiths at the University). UNESCO are acceptable). Do not use acronyms (words made from initial letters) without spelling them out first. The use of inclusive language ensures that groups. racist. clear style. Avoid repetition of arguments and evidence. etc. • • • • • In other cases. ‘colour’ not ‘color’. 1997 Modern Australian Usage. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.1. but always spell out what you mean rather than leave things ambiguous in the mind of the reader. [PE3601. ‘centre’ not ‘center’). Anzac.g.
or cast as ‘special’ in relation to others. Murri or Koori. Using words like ‘pensioners’. not the disability. [LB239. Culturally inclusive language. Avoid using words like ‘man’. The purpose of using culturally inclusive language is to ensure that all ethnic and cultural groups are depicted as equals.g. bisexual and heterosexual. you should also avoid using the term ‘normal’ as a contrast to people with disabilities. For example. ‘geriatric’. To be inclusive. ‘humankind’. Instead use terms such as ‘people’. Ageist language. For example. refer to people who have a ‘sight impairment’ rather than ‘the blind’. Some people may prefer to be known by their regional name. It is also generally suitable to use the terms ‘homosexual men’ and ‘homosexual women’ when used in the same context as the terms ‘heterosexual men’ and ‘heterosexual women’. There is diversity amongst the indigenous groups and ethnic communities within Australia so try to avoid making generalisations. such as ‘police officer’ and ‘homemaker’ and avoid putting ‘female’ or ‘male’ in front of these titles as this suggests that such jobs normally belong to either women or men. The aim of using inclusive language when referring to people with disabilities is to focus on the individual. Find neutral terms for occupational titles. your language should reflect the fact that our community contains people who are homosexual. Inclusive language should also be aimed at countering discrimination against older people.A6 1994] 16 . ‘mankind’ or ‘he’ when writing generally about women. When referring to the two cultural groups together use ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ consistently throughout a document. When describing people or cultures. e. If it is necessary to discuss a person’s disability. hence. The terms ‘gay men’ for men and ‘lesbian’ for women are generally accepted within the homosexual community. while other terms in use at present include ‘seniors’. The majority of older people are busy. People with disabilities do not wish to be ignored. independent and contributing to the social and economic well-being of the community. be sensitive to how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may prefer to be referred to. Language and people with disabilities. or to be referred to as ‘an Aboriginal person’ rather than an ‘Aborigine’. or by a local ‘tribal’ or group name. and avoid the use of sexist generalisations in all written work. 1994 Thesis and Assignment Writing. ‘senior citizens’ and ‘mature aged’ people. You should use words that include both sexes. avoid stereotyping as it is misleading and ignores the personal worth of individuals. The term ‘older people’ (not ‘old people’) is generally acceptable. Poole. should not be referred to as Aboriginal. The University Senate has formulated policy that supports the use of non-sexist language within this University. rather than the disability constituting the person. Use terms such as ‘staff’ in place of ‘manpower’ and ‘spokesperson’ in place of ‘spokesman’. 2nd ed.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Non-sexist language. and ‘senile’ perpetuates negative stereotypes about older people. etc. Thus. it is better to refer to the disability as something that a person has. Discriminatory language based on sexual orientation. and M. ‘they’. It is illegal to discriminate against people on the grounds of their sexual orientation. men and transgendered people. For further information on non-discriminatory language see Anderson. Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons. Torres Strait Islanders have a linguistic and cultural identity different from other indigenous people of mainland Australia and. and to ‘people with epilepsy’ rather than ‘epileptics’. ‘human beings’. J.
Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. 1994 Style Manual for Authors. [Z253. 4. no matter how insightful.pdf. SPELLING.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE For further information go to the University of Queensland’s ‘Inclusive Language’ brochure at http://www.au/equity/docs/inclusive_language05.2.A88 1994] 17 . consult some of the relevant texts provided in the attached reference list of other sources. An excellent source is the Australian Government Publishing Service.edu.uq. PUNCTUATION AND GRAMMAR Errors in spelling. Editors and Printers. 5th edn. If you are unsure of how to use various punctuation marks. punctuation and grammar make it difficult for your reader to follow your ideas.
and Aborigines do not select racial oppression. PLAGIARISM Students who are found guilty of plagiarism can be expelled from the University for misconduct. Paraphrase: a saying or writing of a text or passage in another way. beliefs like these neglect to consider the fact that people are very greatly restricted by extra-individual forces over which they have no or only very limited control. people are not free to do exactly what they want in life. Plagiarise: to take ideas. In order to help you avoid this “cardinal sin” of Academe. paraphrasing and plagiarising. etc. etc. The tradition of all the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living (Marx 1970:96). Marx and F. given and transmitted from the past. 1970 The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. women do not opt to be dominated. For example. theses. but they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves. An example of quoting properly is: However. to make it shorter. but under circumstances directly encountered. As Marx (1970) once noted. For example. serfs do not choose to be enslaved. they must take into account historical traditions that channel their behaviour. Plagiarism includes copying the work of other persons or presenting substantial excerpts from books. lecture notes. Engels Selected Works.. • • • Quote: to repeat (a passage.) from a book. serfs do not choose to be enslaved. so you are advised to keep a careful record of any sources you use in material that is handed in for assessment. beliefs like these neglect to consider the fact that people are very greatly restricted by extra-individual forces over which they have no or only very limited control. and Aborigines do not select racial oppression.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 5. esp. passages. articles. Moscow: Progress Publishers). etc. K. (All of the above definitions are taken from the Pocket Macquarie Dictionary) The following examples are hypothetical passages from three student essays on “Freedom and Constraint in Sport” (the reference for the quotation used in these examples is Marx. without acknowledgment. women do not opt to be dominated. etc.. Your attention is drawn to the University regulation regarding plagiarism: The misuse or plagiarism of other persons’ work is a serious academic ‘offence’ and is viewed with the greatest concern by the University. simpler and clearer. Marx’s following comments are particularly relevant in this case: Men make their own history. An example of paraphrasing properly is: However. the following definitions and examples illustrate the similarities/differences among citation/quotation. or their manner of expression and pass them off as one’s own. speech. 18 . In K.
au/webapps/portal/frameset. Legitimate quotation and paraphrasing are essential. If electronic submission is not required.elearning. Men make their own history. PLAGIARISM IS REGARDED VERY SERIOUSLY. women do not opt to be dominated. 5. For example. and depend on accurate note-taking and research skills. serfs do not choose to be enslaved. IF IN DOUBT ASK YOUR TUTOR OR COURSE CONTROLLER FOR ADVICE. and Aborigines do not select racial oppression. but under circumstances directly encountered.1 Turnitin Online Tutorial To assist you in using Turnitin there is an online tutorial on Blackboard at: http://blackboard.uq.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_22_1 . but they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves.edu. In some courses you might be required to use Turnitin as part of the electronic submission process. beliefs like these neglect to consider the fact that people are very greatly restricted by extra-individual forces over which they have no or only very limited control. 19 . The first two examples are legitimate and acceptable forms of academic writing. The last is not acceptable because the words are not shown as being quoted and thus they appear to be the work of the essay writer rather than the original author.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE An example of plagiarising is: However. given and transmitted from the past. All three of the above examples convey the same ideas and information yet do so in different ways. Turnitin is a helpful tool to check that you have not used the work of others without the use of appropriate referencing.
if the course controller has not specified this. Do not rely on your word processor’s spell checker to pick up mistakes. Also be careful in font selection. LAYOUT Margins should be a minimum of 25mm all round. and use one side of the paper only. PAPER SIZE AND PAGINATION Use international size A4 in preference to other sizes (the default paper size for some commonly used word-processing programs is American letter size. 6.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE PRESENTATION 6. Do not mix paper sizes in an assignment. Lines should be double-spaced (including between paragraphs). so check your paper size setting before you begin your work).2). ensure that these have correct page numbers and that subsequent pages also flow in order. illustrations and so on. and when incorporating words from other languages into your text (it is not necessary to continue italicising them after the first time they are used). avoid ornate or difficult-toread font styles (Times New Roman is the font generally used in University documents).2. Standard 12 point font should be used throughout and avoid overuse of bold print. Number all pages clearly and in sequence.1. Handwritten work containing cross-outs and insertions will be viewed as a draft and marked accordingly. 6. USE OF ITALICS The use of italics should be employed when: • • discussing Bills or Acts of Parliament (e. However. If inserting pages with diagrams. or other printing effects. 20 . proofread and correct all work before submission. it is still preferable that you submit typed or wordprocessed work over handwritten work. Left margins of 35–40mm are helpful for markers and essential for bound work like theses. HANDWRITTEN OR TYPED? Many course controllers specify that work must be typed or word-processed.g.4. multiple fonts. If you are submitting handwritten work it will usually take several attempts at drafting before you have a final coherent and legible essay. write on every second line. although indented quotations will be single-line spaced (see Section 10. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Queensland Discriminatory Laws) Act 1984). 6. Poorly typed work with typographical errors will attract as many penalties as poor handwriting. Type in one colour and do not use red (often used for marking).3. If handwriting.
you move the whole paragraph on to the next page. ORPHANS AND WIDOWS An orphan occurs then the first line or two of a paragraph is left by itself at the bottom of a page. Avoid exceeding the recommended length as excessive length is no substitute for quality.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 6.5. This is a rough guide to the importance of the assignment in the overall pattern of assessment for the course. LENGTH For written work an approximate length is usually supplied in your course outline. Many word-processing packages have functions which will do this automatically for you if set correctly. 21 . A widow occurs when the last line or two of a paragraph is left by itself on the top of a page. Learning to be concise is an essential aspect of effective written communication. It is preferable that when an orphan or widow occurs. 7. Many lecturers will not mark assignments that exceed the specified length limit.
20 stamped. Print the assignment sheet and attach to your assignment and submit to the School office where the barcode will be scanned. School administrative staff will be responsible for the distribution of all scanned assessment items to the course controller.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 8. merely staple your assignment securely. Heavy folders and binders can be a nuisance for staff to handle.uq. 22 . Students unsure of the above process may contact the administrative staff in the School of Social Science on Tel: 3365 3236 or via www. You may access the cover sheet through the School Website by logging onto – http://www. an email receipt will be generated and sent to you for your record. Once your assignment is scanned. SUBMITTING AND COLLECTING WORK 8. The possibilities are to: • pick up the work in person at tutorial or lecture on nominated day of return. self-addressed envelope can be left with your tutor or course controller who will arrange to forward the assignment after marking. Instead. Assignments must be submitted no later than 2:00pm on the due date.edu. If you post your assignment you must have the cover sheet date-stamped by the post office before placing it in your envelope for sending. Michie Building (9) where it will be scanned as a record of receipt. Please check the Plagiarism and Discipline policies.au Note: Avoid the use of folders. written assignments must not be handed to your course controller or tutor in class. unless an extension has been granted by the course controller.edu. Faxed or e-mailed assignments are not accepted. Assignments will not be accepted without a cover sheet with a barcode. All information requested should be supplied.socialscience.1. • • • • • • Fill out the details relating to the assignment from the ECP. Then click the “Assignment cover Sheet” box and the completed assignment sheet will be generated containing a barcode. Assignments are kept in the School for six months after the release of final results and then destroyed. Your assignment must be submitted to the School of Social Science General Office. COLLECTION Check with your tutor or course controller when and where work will be returned after marking. Room 805.uq. Assignments received after this time will be deemed late and attract a penalty. binders and plastic sleeves. Please note. Level 8. Note: It is the student’s responsibility to keep a copy of all work submitted in case of theft or loss and to avoid disputes.html?page=65016 and then log on with your UQ Username and Password.3. 8.socialscience.au/index. The boxes must be ticked to indicate that you have read and understood the policies. or • a $1. COVER SHEET AND SUBMISSION All assignments must be submitted with a cover sheet.
Any student with a disability who may require alternative academic arrangements.uq. Extensions of more than two weeks require the following form to be filled in and attached to the assignment: http://www.html?page=25122) and to the policy on Special Arrangements for Examinations for Students with a Disability (http://www.edu.ansoc. or close to. DUE DATES AND EXTENSIONS Due dates for submission of written work are designed to allow you to budget time and to prepare in advance.uq. You must adhere to due dates. If you are unable to meet a due date you must seek an extension of time from the course controller or tutor concerned.au/forms/ExtensionRequestForm. Extenuating circumstances will be taken into account by course controllers and tutors.html?page=25111) 23 . in the course/program is encouraged to seek advice at the commencement of the semester from a Disability Adviser at Student Support Services.au/hupp/index.doc Work submitted late without an authorised extension of time may attract penalties (see each course outline for details).edu.au/hupp/index.uq. If you require an extension of time you should seek one well before the due date. Any extensions asked for on. the due date will require a medical certificate.edu. including assessment.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 9. Please refer to the University policy: Students with a Disability (Disability Action Plan) (http://www.
’loc.) • • The author-date style is economical in terms of time and space. 24 . closely summarising a passage from another author. All references cited within the body of your essay must be acknowledged in an accompanying reference list which should be alphabetically listed on a separate page.’ and the like. This can sometimes lead to problems in comprehension or grammatical coherence (e.6 on constructing References Cited and On-line References Cited lists. cit.e. Only sources cited in your essay should be included in your reference list. REFERENCING The purpose of using referencing conventions is to acknowledge the work and ideas of other people as used within your own written work. add an expert’s authority to your claims.. and give credit to the work of others. This includes author’s name.1.’ or ‘op. as opposed to footnote and endnote referencing. easy to use. Using this style.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 10. In these cases additions or omissions from the quote are necessary but should remain minimal and follow recognised procedures. attached to the back of your assignment. Referencing conventions are used to: • • • assist a reader’s further research in the same area of study. there are times you may wish to footnote or endnote a substantive observation for your reader. These procedures are the use of brackets [ ] for additions and three dots (an ellipsis) . In the School of Social Science we use the author-date style of referencing. It is not a convention in this School to do bibliographies. for omissions (note that ellipses are treated as if they were words and that the spaces and punctuation before and after them are handled accordingly). one common mistake is the use of a quotation which takes the paragraph structure from present tense to past tense).g. Referencing conventions should be followed when you are: • • • quoting the exact words of another author.4 and 10. In these cases keep the note simple and there is no need for the use of footnoting conventions such as ‘ibid. i. or using an idea or material which is directly based on the work of another author. cit. where your information came from.’. If you reference by using footnotes and endnotes you will be penalised. and entries can be added or deleted with very little disturbance to the text. DIRECT QUOTATIONS The use of direct quotations in an essay is governed by a number of formalities that must be observed: • The words of the original text must be copied exactly. (See sections 10. date of publication and page number/s of the material cited (examples appear below). From this reference your reader can then turn to your list of references for full publication details. Saying this. Every direct quotation must be accompanied by a full reference to the applicable source. 10. you identify a reference to an author instantly..
unless in your essay you cite works by more than one author with the same surname. also note full stop after the citation 25 . Example: The notion that foundational discourses cannot avoid being local and ethnocentric is pivotal to what has come to be called postmodernism (Rorty 1991). a pivotal tenet of what has come to be called postmodernism. firstly. and between Aborigines and others (Langton 1998:201).SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Two final points for consideration are that. Example: However. Aboriginal dispute resolution mechanisms (such as swearing and fighting) remain and need to be viewed as culturally meaningful social devices employed between Aboriginal people. This type of citation is placed at the end of the sentence before the full stop. Smith 2001)” Alternatively.2. then first names or initials are included to differentiate them.g. followed immediately by the year of publication in parentheses. Example: Rorty (1991) discusses how foundational discourses cannot avoid being local and ethnocentric. HOW TO QUOTE WITHIN THE BODY OF YOUR ESSAY The citation of a general argument or a body of work as a whole requires only the name of the author and the year of publication (with no punctuation between the two). they are her ideas and therefore a page number reference should be supplied. Secondly. 10. year of publication If a specific idea or quotation needs to be referenced. then a colon and the page number follows the year (with no spaces in between). Again. the author’s surname may be integrated into the text. e. consistency is extremely important and you should proofread your work thoroughly to ensure you are referencing correctly at all times. all in parentheses. note that the reference is part of the sentence and comes before the full stop. it is not acceptable to merely cite an author at the end of your paragraph as the source for all the information contained therein. only author’s last name needed. Smith 1993) … (J. whilst these are not Langton’s exact words. Use of ideas and information not your own should be properly referenced according to the procedures detailed in the next section. “(P.
Example: Several ethnographic studies (see Hiatt 1965. Meggitt 1962. ethnic or racial inequality. semicolon after initial reference inclusion of words inclusion of other relevant authors alphabetically In the course of referring to an author’s work you may know of alternative discussions by other authors about the same points being cited. Example: reference information after author’s name. and always in parentheses (round brackets) Yeatman (1986:157). race and occupation. ethnicity. Example: Feminists have not only documented the androcentric bias of sociology. double quotation marks page number follows directly after colon If the quotation is 3 lines or more in length. new political. swearing and fighting is rule-governed behaviour. they have also “analyzed critically the politics of science in its normative constructions of femininity and womanhood” (Seidman 1994:124. followed by the words ‘see also’ and the respective authors and years of publication. Taylor 1983. Harding and Hintikka 1983. You may quote one author directly but wish to note other authors who have discussed the same or similar ideas. legal and social situations” (Langton 1998:202). Example: In contemporary Aboriginal society.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE If the citation is a direct quote of an author’s work then double quotation marks should be inserted around the words used. This has significantly recast the empirical reference points of sociological inquiry. Keller 1985). not at end of quote. indented on both sides and single-line spaced. In these cases you place a semicolon after the citation information.. Warner 1958) have discussed varying aspects of conflict resolution mechanisms in Aboriginal societies. has noted that: place colon before quote Within sociology. no quotation marks Where more than one author is mentioned the names are separated by semicolons and presented in alphabetical order. Quotation marks are left out. see also Harding 1986. Stanner 1968.. gender has become a central variable of social analysis alongside class. for example. than the whole quotation is separated from the main text by a line. and has made patterns of gender inequality as significant a concern as patterns of class. “adapted from earlier indigenous patterns to enable meaningful existence in . when discussing the impact of feminism on the social sciences. While these other authors’ views may not 26 .
If the same author has used an idea in two or more of their publications in the same year and you wish to cite them all. cf. with a comma between each year of publication. 1979b) shows how subsistence patterns on the southeast coast correspond to resource clusters and how group identity is based partly on predominating associated environments. you may wish to alert readers to these works for comparative purposes. 1972) appears to have found such a system in Western Australia. God and common sense (Grosz and Lepervanche 1988. Example: use of a comma as opposed to a semicolon Von Brandenstein (1970. you must list both authors’ names in the order that they appear in the original source. Meehan 1982:7).’ to note comparative text If the same author has used an idea in two or more of their publications and you wish to cite them all it is important to place the publications in date order. When you wish to cite information or ideas from a work by two authors. Example: order alphabetically when dates the same Anderson (1979a. Example: When discussing anthropological analyses of ‘economy’ in Aboriginal societies. Example: The most familiar guarantees of the ‘truth’ of discourses are science. inclusion of abbreviation ‘cf. where world view is condensed into a formula that neatly coincides with a section system. Anderson (1988) notes that archaeology has made a significant contribution to the ethnographic field of subsistence behaviour since the late 1960s: “This is ironic given that many social anthropologists had been saying for some decades that the opportunities for research of this sort had long disappeared” (Anderson 1988:140.4) and to distinguish them by adding lowercase letters in alphabetical sequence to the common date.’ (Latin confer = compare) is used in text to note authors for comparison. The brief abbreviation ‘cf.4). but both authors must be listed at all times 27 .SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE be directly relevant to your analysis. This order should also be reflected in your References Cited list (see Section 10. Weedon 1987). it is important to order them alphabetically in your References Cited list (see Section 10. Grosz is the name under which the reference can be found in your References Cited list.
4). O’Connell et al. while O’Connell is the surname for alphabetical ordering in the reference list— remember to list all authors’ last names the first time you cite their work in your text. there is also the ethnoarchaeological work of O’Connell and others on the Alyawarra (see O’Connell and Hawkes 1984. it is only necessary to reference the first author’s last name followed by ‘et al. In some cases you may opt to spell out the full name of the institution or organisation the first time you cite it but thereafter use an acronym. In your References Cited list you name all the authors in the appropriate order (see Section 10.’ denotes more than two authors. but use et al. followed by the words ‘cited in’ 28 . Subsequently. not the original. Example: Any discussion of development issues must take into account that “[i]ndigenous peoples’ cultural integrity and cultural self-understanding are reflected in their own development strategies” (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs [IWGIA] 1994:12) note the inclusion of the acronym in brackets after the full title is given (the same convention applies in your References Cited list). Example: On the eastern side of central Australia and working within the same framework as Gould (1980). use of ‘et al.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE When you wish to cite information or ideas from a work by three or more authors. include only this in your References Cited list author and year of publication of original text. You should seek out the cited author’s original text. in subsequent citations In the case of institutional authorship. however. supply only sufficient information for positive identification of the institution.’ (in italics). Also note that it is the secondary source. 1983). you must list all the authors’ last names the first time you refer to their work. only when this is not possible does the following convention apply. In these cases ensure that you note the acronym in parentheses or brackets the first time you refer to or cite it. their conclusions are that the life of Aborigines in these situations is “a povertystricken reflection of the life of Australian working people” (Wilson 1963 cited in Bell 1965:396). source in which original is cited. also note the use of brackets for material already enclosed within parentheses At times you may need to refer to work by an author who is cited in another author’s work. Example: Generally. that is entered in your References Cited list.
d. God and common sense” (Grosz and Lepervanche 1988:54).. and with many features in common with the cultures of Aborigines living in more remote areas” (Anon. full dates.. etc. the abbreviation ‘Anon.. 29 . and with many features in common with the cultures of Aborigines living in more remote areas” (Sommerton 2000:2). When citing print media (newspapers. and with many features in common with the cultures of Aborigines living in more remote areas” (Keen n. If quoting from a print medium where a writer’s/author’s/journalist’s name has not been supplied. Example: “.) use writers’/authors’/journalists’ names when available.d.’ (no date) is used in such situations. etc. the publication’s name is used as the point of reference. Example: in this case ‘family’ appears rather than ‘familiar’.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE If you wish to use a direct quote but an error appears in the original words of that quote. the convention of inserting ‘sic’ in brackets applies. Example: “. The abbreviation ‘n. Example: “.:191). [sic] is inserted to note error in original text “… the most family [sic] guarantees of the ‘truth’ of discourses are science. This is placed immediately after the error and informs readers that the error was present in the original and not created when you transcribed the quotation. and with many features in common with the cultures of Aborigines living in more remote areas” (The Australian 2000:2).... There is no need to include a publication’s name. as the citation points the reader to the relevant information in your References Cited list. magazines. Example: “.. On rare occasions you might need to cite a work that has no date. if you wish to quote from a work that has no author. brochures.. Similarly. 1988:191).’ is used to denote ‘no author’ or ‘anonymous’.
. semicolon after reference information then the words ‘emphasis added’ 30 . OR producer’s name in the example above. EXAMPLES: “. program’s name in the example below “. if for some reason this is not available. This may entail going directly to the lecturer for guidance on relevant literature. Personal communications do not get listed in your References Cited list. and with many features in common with the cultures of Aborigines living in more remote areas” (Thiele 2000).) believes that we must all critically assess and negotiate our responses to Aboriginal views and needs when studying indigenous societies. Example: ‘pers. thus. When quoting from another author’s work you may decide to emphasise a certain word or concept (by using italics) in the quote for your reader’s attention.’ becomes the shorthand way to say personal communication Bradley (1999:pers.. Note: This does not apply to course lectures.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE When quoting from an audio-visual use the producer’s name or. and. comm. use the video title. If you want to quote an authority in a certain area to whom you have spoken directly. Example: Embracing the notion that language speaks or constructs acknowledges the dynamic nature of language. texts “become a metaphor for understanding the struggle for meaning beyond referential language” (Birch 1989:6.. and with many features in common with the cultures of Aborigines living in more remote areas” (The Cutting Edge 2000).. comm. you can reference in the following way. As you are changing the original text by using italics it is necessary to indicate that you have added the emphasis. but they have not written anywhere on the information you want to use. It is unacceptable to quote directly from course lectures: You must research appropriate sources. emphasis added).
emphasis in original). These quotes should be relatively brief and appear in 10pt font. but only when this type of quote is used. 31 . Example: Power is operationalised within discourses through the means in which discourses comprise and regulate subjects: “That is. Example: A dialectic relationship exists.5 of this guide).SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Similarly. Social Structures referencing remains the same as for quotations. graphs and other illustrations reproduced and adapted from other sources have the same status as quotations of words. it is necessary to distinguish the two. it augments the “achievement of social continuity or social change” (Fairclough 1989:37) by impacting on social structures (see Figure 1). except for the reference information. to avoid confusion between emphasis added by you and emphasis already present in the original. This is done in the way indicated below. and must be acknowledged and referenced in the same manner (also see Section 11. All words should be italicised. note that the same conventions also apply to tables Practice and Discourse Figure 1. These conventions apply no matter how long the quote. with a stand alone quotation as a prelude to analysis or discussion. etc. Social structures and social practice and discourse (Fairclough 1989:38). while the inclusion of ‘Figure 1’ in the text and with the diagram signposts the reader to relevant information. which remains in normal type. here the author has added the emphasis and you are noting that it is not your addition to the text There may be times when you wish to start your essay. thesis. Example: Research practices undertaken in a critical mode necessitate regarding the complexity of social relations and the researcher’s own socially determined position within the reality that one is attempting to describe (McLaren 1992:84). Tables. indented on both sides and single-line spaced. discourses organise a way of thinking into a way of doing” (McLaren 1992:79. not only is discourse determined by social structures.
It is worth emphasising that reported research can be inaccurate and misleading. examine it and make a judgement about whether the citation is correct in its description of the research findings. HOW TO COMPILE A REFERENCES CITED LIST This section provides information on how to compile a References Cited list (as noted earlier. A better test for the accuracy of a particular body of evidence. Where cited material refers to research.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 10. in this School we do not construct bibliographies). A later section deals with this. but in general. in part or in whole. 32 . audio visual items. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism. a number of points need to be kept in mind. either on the Internet or in a book or in a journal. more and more academic material is being published on it. then it is advisable to go back to the original research. Providing bibliographic details for electronic media and Internet references in your References Cited list is a more difficult task. is whether there is a consistent pattern of results in a range of studies that use a variety of methodologies. If you wish to cite material on the Internet.3. material from the Internet is covered by copyright law and must be referenced. the References Cited list (which contains all the other sources cited in your text). journal articles. (as shown in the examples in Section 10. it is best first to characterise the evidence that is provided and then to comment on it in terms of its credibility. is accurate and valid simply because it appears in written form. CITING ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND INTERNET SOURCES In citing material on the Internet or. Material that you cite should always be tested against the evidence that is available on the topic. any other source. Conventions and rules vary from publisher to publisher and from discipline to discipline. Scholarly electronic publishing is an evolving field but as a general rule you cite these references in your text as you would other sources such as books. electronic sources that have been cited in your text should be referenced in a separate list entitled ‘On-line References Cited’.4. Many social science journals publish “notes for contributors” or “style sheets” that contain information similar to that provided in the examples given in this section. Many things that appear in written form may be misleading or erroneous. of itself. relatively weak as an argument unless the nature of that source and its credibility are given critical consideration. and make a judgment about its credibility. Simply citing a source as evidence for a particular point is. The view that you should adopt toward material on the Internet (or elsewhere) is one of scepticism and doubt.2). However. Once you have made such a judgement. 10. and placed after. This list should be separate from. The most important consideration is that you should not assume that something. There are many different ways to set out a References Cited list. and that individual studies rarely provide convincing evidence by themselves. Although one must be careful in using the Internet as a source of information. or arguments based on that evidence. as with print media. etc. question the motives behind it and the evidence put forward in its support. You should read what is offered. This list should be alphabetically ordered by surname and then by date of publication. you will need to state clearly in your work the basis on which this judgement was made. It may also be necessary to make a judgment about whether the research itself is valid. and this material can be useful. for that matter.
The following illustrates an acceptable way in which a References Cited section might be constructed. criminology or sociology. ‘an’. The 2000 Homeless horror: Social housing not meeting needs. the date becomes the key if you are including more than one anonymous source when names of writers/authors/journalists are not available for print media. but here it is spelled out in full. 1979b From ecology to political economy: An introduction to the study of cultural and economic change at Bloomfield River. ‘the’) are discounted in alphabetising titles Australian. note that articles (‘a’. ‘Anon. Example: REFERENCES CITED Anderson. Current Anthropology. The most important point to keep in mind when citing and referencing sources is that the key to the use of any system is consistency throughout your text in citation and referencing style. Ensure you check for this detail and include the whole title of the book being referenced. Unpublished manuscript. You should also be aware that the full titles of books often only appear on their inside pages (not on their front covers). the above illustrates how multiple works by the same author in the same year should be referenced unpublished manuscripts and theses can be denoted in this way Anonymous 1988 Continuity of Identity and Culture in Aboriginal Societies.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE You can use any system in common use in anthropology. North Queensland. The Australian.’ is used as shorthand for ‘anonymous’ in the citations in your text. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. If a staff member requests the source of the referencing system you have used. C. you must be able to supply the details. 1979a Aboriginal economy and contact relations at Bloomfield River. archaeological or sociological journal such as Canberra Anthropology. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Newsletter 12:33-37. The School recommends that its students adopt the style of a reputable anthropological. Unpublished manuscript. You cannot invent your own. 1 February 2000:2. Australian Archaeology. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. or the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology. archaeology. full date of publication followed by page number/s title repeated 33 . publication titles should be used for referencing.
1989 Language and Power.A. the initials follow the surname for the first author but precede the surname for second. Caine. and then the ‘ed. n. N. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. 1983 International law and the recognition of Aboriginal Law (paper presented at the Conference on Aborigines and International Law). authors The Grosz. Grosz and M. 12 May 2000. and M. space. date of screening Fairclough. followed by the editor’s name with the initial first and surname next.d. followed by the place of publication. J. Cutting Edge. this reference relates to a paper presented at a conference—of importance is where the conference was held by adding this you are letting your readers know that you have used an audio-visual as a reference when a producer’s name is not available for an audio visual. The 2000 Continuity of identity and culture in Aboriginal societies [video recording]. London: Longman Group United Kingdom Limited. E. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Crawford. de Lepervanche 1988 Feminism and science. E. pp. the chapter title appears first. Canberra: Centre for Continuing Education. Continuity of identity and culture in Aboriginal societies. or subsequent. Keen. colon. ‘n. Sydney: Allen and Unwin. de Lepervanche (eds) Crossing Boundaries—Feminisms and the Critiques of Knowledges. Unpublished manuscript. I. the program title should be used for referencing Cutting Edge.’ is shorthand for ‘no date’ and should appear before any other works that you have cited by the same author this is a reference for a chapter in an edited book.d. for book references the title is in italics. 5-27. In B. and then the publisher if two or more authors. Australian National University.’ abbreviation follows in parentheses 34 .A.
. In I. 1 February 2000:2. P. 1983 Traditional and modern plant use among the Alyawarra. and the politics of ethnographic practice—the mission of the wounded ethnographer. pp.) Being Black: Aboriginal Cultures in ‘Settled’ Australia. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 5(1):77-92. and for any proper nouns that may appear McLaren. 1992 Collisions with otherness: “Travelling” theory. when names of writers/authors/ journalists are available for print media.F. after initially listing all authors’ last names. the article title appears first and capital letters are used for the first word in the title. Latz and P.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Langton. in the reference list you must provide all authors’ names O’Connell. 201-225. they should be used for referencing Sommerton. Barnett. J. for the first word after a colon. 1988 Medicine Square.’ is used in citations in your text. M. Economic Botany 7(1):80109. 2000 Homeless horror: Social housing not meeting needs. P. the 35 program title should be used for referencing .K. J. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.’ stands for ‘page numbers’ and the full page range of the chapter must be indicated the book title in italics follows the editor’s name place where published followed by a colon and the publisher’s name this reference is for an article in a journal. postcolonial criticism. full date of publication followed by page number/s title repeated by adding this you are letting your readers know that you have used an audio-visual as a reference when a producer’s name is available for an audio visual. The Australian. ‘et al. Keen (ed. volume number is followed by issue number or season or month (in parentheses) if this information is available journal title is capitalised and in italics full range of page numbers follows directly after colon when referencing three or more authors. ‘pp.
2nd edn. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Example: Hudson.G. N. 36 .5. Reprints. Oceania 42:223-234. CC. 1972 The symbolism of the north-western Australian zig-zag design. If the work cited is other than a first edition. In the body of your text they are cited by the corporation’s name and date. 2000 Continuity of identity and culture in Aboriginal societies [video recording]. Example: Curriculum Corporation.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Thiele. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 12 May 2000. Resources authored by corporations are listed under the corporation’s name in your reference list. 1970 The meaning of section and section names. Cutting Edge. Second and subsequent editions. when you have cited several works by the same author. 1995 National Principles and Guidelines for Aboriginal Studies and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Oceania 41:39-49. it is necessary to cite the publication date of the edition being used and to provide the edition number after the title of the work. C. you need only enter the author’s name once in your References Cited list 10. OTHER REFERENCING CONSIDERATIONS Corporate authorship. Where a work is reprinted in a different form or a classic is republished in a modern version. the original date of publication is generally placed in parentheses after the publication date of the reprint. 1997 Modern Australian Usage. Example: Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases 1977 (1982). Melbourne: K-12. date of screening The von Brandenstein. J.
The minimum items of information required for this purpose are author’s name and/or Web page title. lastly. Furthermore. not at hyphens. the recipient’s e-mail address (in parentheses). If referencing an e-mail. it should not be placed on a separate page unless space limitations require it). and. 1994 Style Manual for Authors. first name (or initial) Title of article/document Title of journal/book Volume number. therefore. but if possible arrange for breaks to occur only at punctuation separators. and so is the way these sources are referenced. 10. issue number and page numbers (if journal) [Protocol and address] Date of publication (and publishing information for books) [Date accessed] 37 . 10.6. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Format for Referencing Electronic Sources Scholarly electronic publication is still evolving.6. the name of the e-mail’s recipient (often you). the author’s e-mail address (in parentheses). You may break URLs (Universal Reference Locations) across lines. who may have their own guides to referencing on-line material. the title of the article attached. This list should be ordered alphabetically by surname and then by date of publication and should be located directly after your References Cited list (i.A881994] Note: Course controllers and supervisors may have their own referencing preferences and you should seek their advice on this as well as on any other matters relating to assignment and thesis preparation and presentation. and do not add hyphens. you will need to include: the author’s name. What is imperative in compiling this list is that you supply adequate information for the electronic sources cited in the body of your text. The basic elements of an Internet reference listing consist of the following: • • • • • • • Author’s last name. For information on referencing issues not dealt with above you should consult a standard source such as: Australian Government Publishing Service. of which new editions come out fairly regularly.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Standard reference works. Editors and Printers.1. as it is usually significant. They are entered under the title even though an editor is mentioned on the title page. a URL (for Internet sources). Example: The Macquarie Illustrated World Atlas 1984 Sydney: Macquarie Library. HOW TO COMPILE AN ON-LINE REFERENCES CITED LIST This section provides information on how to compile a On-line References Cited list. certain conventions for punctuating reference entries have been changed and/or adapted to suit electronic sources. 5th edn.e. the date of the e-mail (year/month/day). It is important that you check with your lecturers or tutors. take care to preserve case in network server directories and file names. such as atlases and dictionaries. and the date/s you accessed the source. As editors change over the years. This guide is not intended to be definitive. [Z253. These are well-known reference works. these works are usually known by title. Punctuation is an important part of Internet addresses. but to offer some general pointers to how electronic sources can be referenced.
M. and their inclusion is mandatory. 1996 Citing Online Sources [on-line]. Available from: http://www. 4(1). Examples of Reference Entries for Electronic Sources Electronic sources are extremely diverse.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE The information supplied in a reference entry should be adequate to accurately identify the resource. season or month if available Important: accurate URL address and date accessed are an imperative.html [Accessed 18 June 2000. date of publication http://www. date of publication indicates found on-line volume number followed by issue.quinion. editor or site name title in italics indicates found on-line Important: accurate URL address is an imperative Quinion. It is always possible to get the protocol and address and the date/s YOU accessed the resource. If you access the material more than once then all dates of access should be supplied. 1999 Fourth World Nations in the era of globalisation: An introduction to contemporary theorising posed by indigenous nations.com/ Important: accurate date accessed is essential.2. you should always specify the modification date of the version used or. if accessed more than once all dates should be listed 38 . K. Available from: words/articles/citation. all dates should be listed Electronic journal works: title of article with only first word and proper nouns capitalised author’s name journal title in italics Seton.cwis. an access date. Fourth World Journal [on-line]. 10. if you accessed more than once. As electronic documents are liable to change frequently. Following are some examples of formats for referencing the principal types of sources you are likely to use Individual works: author. 19 July 2000].htm [Accessed 17 July 2000]. if none is available.org/fwj/41/fworld.6.
provide recipient’s name and e-mail address Note: The above referencing conventions are also applicable to the referencing of information from CD-ROMs.uvm.ualberta.L5 1193]) The Web also contains sources of help on the specific problem of citing URLs in reference lists.edu/~ncrane/estyles/ The last two of the above Websites are based on Li.html http://www. on-line databases and ERIC documents. consult: http://www.au).SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE E-mails: name and e-mail address of sender year. Fourth World Nations in the era of globalisation: Journal article attached.ac.au/library/resources/genref/harvardprint.navy.cam.edu/wpcpages/library/refpubs.usq.htm http://www.htm http://www.org/I/training/citation/citing.bradley@mailbox. Westport: Meckler.3.quinion.uk/users/maw13/citation. One that is aimed at the biomedical and scientific fields is: http://www/nrlssc. (firstname.lastname@example.org 39 . consult: http://www. month and day e-mail sent specify the subject of the communication Seton. For a guide to application of the Harvard referencing system to on-line material.ca/library_html/help/pathfinders/style/style.cl.htm For specific examples of referencing formats for various types of e-documents. Sources of Further Information on Referencing Electronic Documents There are several Websites that provide detailed information on ways of citing and referencing electronic sources.net. July 16.edu. Crane.ifla. E-mail to John Bradley (j.6.edu.uq.wilpaterson.mil/meta/bibliography. see: http://www.html For useful examples and bibliographies of guides to referencing Internet documents. 10.com/words/articles/citation. K. X.edu.au) 2000.library. and N.html http://www. [Z253. 1993 Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information.
its guidelines are also available at www.australianacademicpress.aas.co.com. For Archaeology assignments see the most recent hard copy of the journal Australian Archaeology.au/Publications/Journals/Criminology/Crimc ontribsinfo.australianarchaeologicalassociation.php). 40 .com.6. its guidelines are also available at http://www.sagepub.au/TAJA/Style_guide.au/australianarchaeology/notesforcont ributors. 1. 3. For Sociology assignments see the most recent hard copy of Journal of Sociology.pdf.htm 4. For Criminology assignments see the most recent hard copy of Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. its guidelines are also available at http://www. 2.aspx?pid=105687&sc=1. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION For general conventions refer to Style Manual for Authors. its guidelines are also available at www. Editors and Printers. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.uk/journalManuscript.asn.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 10. For Anthropology assignments see the most recent hard copy of The Australian Journal of Anthropology. 5th Edition (revised) 1998.
Outlines are an invaluable tool in this process and should be applied at several levels. the third to discussion of methodology and methods.131. 5. the process of writing a thesis reduces to answering five questions (see Barrass. take notes. 4. 41 . decide how you will say it. abstracts.).3. Likewise. tables. THESIS CONTENT In essence. 1978 Scientists Must Write: A Guide to Better Writing for Scientists. it does contain information on the setting out of graphs. THESIS LENGTH The required word counts for theses are as follows: Bachelor of Social Science (Honours): Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Sociology/Criminology: Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Anthropology/Archaeology: Coursework Masters: Master of Philosophy: Doctor of Philosophy: 11. This will help you to be consistent in matters of style and will save you from repeatedly agonising over the same decisions. [T11. the second to project rationale and background. that other students may find useful. do not try to tackle the whole procedure at once. p. etc. London: Chapman and Hall. diagrams. Organise your thoughts. Students writing theses should also take note of information supplied in previous sections of this guide that may be useful in the course of their work (how to write plans.B37 1978]): 1. However. NOTES ON THESIS PREPARATION This section is specifically aimed at students writing theses. then decide in what order you will say it and. Decide first what you want to say. find resources. PROBLEMS IN WRITING We cannot teach you how to write. 1. select a good dictionary and keep to it. including an indication of the broader implications of your study and suggestions for further research. from the thesis as a whole through separate chapters and sections of chapters to individual paragraphs. 11.1. 2. but we can offer you some suggestions. etc. 11.2.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 11. and the fifth to discussion and conclusion. Approach the process of writing in steps. What did you study? Why did you study it? How did you study it? What did you find out? What does what you found out mean? 8000 12000 15000 15000 40000 80000 The first question corresponds to introduction and problem definition. illustrations. 3. finally. Keep a style sheet (a record of the stylistic decisions you have made). in which pursuit of the problem is justified and placed in context. Robert. the fourth to results and analysis. 2. Consistency in style and format are important. Engineers and Students.
Then present them in the order: 2nd. Readers cannot read your mind. 1st. Do not write a run-on sentence it is difficult when you have to punctuate it so it makes sense when the reader reads what you wrote. 4th). do not use participles. 6. Join clauses good. case is important. Just between you and I. like a conjunction should. what are the ultimate conclusions that could be drawn from what you say? Are these conclusions what you intend? 5. simple declarative sentences are generally the best. An alternative is to rank the points to be made in terms of the their importance or significance (1st. Avoid long. There are several indices that can be used to gauge the degree of readability of your writing—these can be found in manuals on writing or as a facility in word-processing programs. 3rd. Take care to use words correctly (do not confuse comprise/compose.). 4th. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms unless you are sure they are in common use. In addition. Finally. avoid such ambiguities as “Mary had a little lamb”). convoluted sentences and big words (“obfuscatory scrivenery”). The references on writing listed in Section 12. Take care that you are saying what you mean to say (e. but below are some conventions that you should pay particular attention to in your writing: • • • • • • • • • Each pronoun should agree with their antecedent. 3. 7. you should ask of every sentence you write whether or not it actually says what you want it to say. 42 . Avoid flowery prose: You are not writing a novel. Although you will want to use a variety of sentence types. Do not use no double negatives. relative/relevant. You may arrange the elements of your discussion in a logical sequence (A B C D) if the points to be made derive from one another in logical order. A writer must not shift your point of view. they will want to know if you know what they mean and are not really hiding your ignorance or misunderstanding behind a cloud of obfuscatory scrivenery. 2nd. alternate/alternative. Divide chapters into manageable units—sections and subsections—and identify them with headings and subheadings. If you must use them.1 include several that provide information on grammatical conventions. consider the implications of what you are saying: If logically extended. When dangling. be sure to follow established conventions in such matters as the presentation of scientific names. This assists readers by making the overall plan of organisation evident to them. Keep it simple. This pattern can be applied at several levels of thesis organisation. Use good grammar. You may mistakenly think that your examiners are familiar with them when they are not. This order of presentation holds the reader’s interest while imparting maximum impact to your most important point. Your writing should be direct and active rather than passive. Verbs has to agree with their subject. 3rd.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE There are several techniques of organisation you can employ. etc. and even if they are. A preposition is a poor word to end a sentence with. Also take care to define technical terms and jargon.g. take care to define them when they are first introduced. 4.
The following is a brief guide to thesis organisation. The problem. contractions and such conjunctive adverbs as ‘however’. and frustrated examiners are unlikely to be sympathetic to your cause. make claim to undertaking a research project which is significant to the field of study by complementing or challenging other studies. FRAMEWORK FOR A THESIS In many of the social sciences a prescribed framework is followed in writing a thesis as it is usually based on an empirical investigation. 115. after analysis of the data. and clearly outline the theoretical starting point that informs the research (e. 9. Rewriting and revising are the keys to writing well. interview or observation. and B. Do not use footnotes. 10. [T11. 11. This section should also clearly define the methods chosen for the study and the sort of data anticipated. stated in such a precise and specific way that it can be validly investigated. ideas from specific literature). Theses that are a struggle to read frustrate examiners. The problem may be developed into a hypothesis which is to be investigated. Put yourself in your readers’ place and try to make their job as easy as possible without being condescending. In this case a statement should be made why you consider the hypothesis to be true.g. the writer can. or focus of the research study. II. If it is not important enough to include in the main text. modifications had to be made to the original research design. especially proper punctuation of restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses and phrases. the writer is well versed in the significant research findings/interpretations in the field in which the research is being undertaken. 1979 How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. (Adopted from Day. specific concepts. The Introduction Includes: I. A literature review which demonstrates to the reader that: A. those modifications should also be discussed in 43 .SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE • About sentence fragments. Methodology and Methods The methodology section should discuss the original purpose of the research. it is not important.4.D33 1979]) In addition. abbreviations. pay attention to punctuation. 8. Do not try to produce a final draft in one go. in the light of the literature review. Always have consideration for your readers. Students primarily report on their own investigations rather than on the ideas and evidence of others. Robert A. Give yourself time to hone and polish. often through survey. If. adding to knowledge in the field or more likely applying an acknowledged theoretical position to a particular setting. p. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Its significance should also be borne out by the literature review.
If you have any specific difficulties. You may also wish to reflect upon how some aspects of your research design could have been improved or why unexpected results occurred and their significance.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE the methodology section.) The methods component of the methodology section should indicate the type of research instrument used (survey. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the study should be clearly shown. Kelvin Grove. that is. correlations. as means and standard deviations.Quarto]) 11. Methodology and Methods (cont. These modifications range from decisions to vary aspects of chosen methods. DATA HANDLING AND PRESENTATION In most cases the presentation of data is central to the business of thesis writing. observations). Outcomes should be expressed fully and clearly and not left to the reader to try to work out. In the final section. to the construction of new concepts and theories to be tested following rejection of working hypotheses and unanticipated discoveries in the preliminary analysis of data. [LB2369. There is much diversity in the kinds of problems and the types of data dealt with in theses. The following are some general guidelines for data presentation. how and why this process moved from its intended beginning to its final end.e. Significant results (through degrees of similarity or difference) may merit special attention. The methods section has to be spelt out in such clear and precise terms that it could be followed readily by another researcher who wishes to test the research.5. the method/s of processing (for example. i. you can relate your findings to your literature review by showing how your study was relevant to the general field of knowledge. we cannot cover them all. you can now demonstrate the extent to which the problem posed by the study or your hypothesis has been proved or disproved.M335 1997 . How the study could be used in other settings may also be indicated. The results section reports faithfully upon the outcomes of the study. questionnaire. This is the section where you seek to integrate the study. Sustainability (why the method can be defended) is particularly important in relation to the variables which were studied. 44 . for example as F values) should be indicated. discuss them with your supervisor. All these aspects need to be clearly outlined in this section to convey the development of thinking surrounding the research process. the nature of the sample (and perhaps control group). Results Discussion Conclusion (Above adapted from Mahony. the research instrument and the setting of the study. its sustainability and the structure of the investigation. and how well you handle and present your data will have a crucial bearing on how your thesis is received. the reasons for the method undertaken. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. David. Statistical tables and/or graphs and charts may well be an essential aid to this reporting. interview. 1997 The Student Guide for Writing and Studying Effectively at University: The World of Ideas and The World of Text. If statistics are to be used.. or differences expressed.
The best place for this is in an appendix. inclusion of irrelevant material might convey the impression that you do not really know what you are doing. This requires some judgement.. it proves that one lacks discrimination” (Aaronson. Extraneous information will only distract the reader and may distort your argument. but be very careful not to become tiresomely repetitious. you can often help the reader by presenting it in different ways. explain how they are derived and what they indicate.. does not prove that one has unlimited information. Philadelphia: ISI Press.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 1. or photograph). Readers are easily confused. On the other hand. save space and your readers’ patience by including in the main body of your text only summary or representative data. you do not want to leave out information that might be important to your argument or that might be useful to others in the future. Do not repeat in words what has been made readily apparent to the reader in other ways—e. Take care with redundancy. On the one hand. This requires that you present your data in an organised manner: Group data under descriptive headings and deal with them in successive sections. define them and make it clear what they mean. relevant information not only includes information that supports your arguments or explanations.D33 1979]). spell out its relevance. You must acknowledge the source of all data or ideas not your own! 45 . Your statistics should be meaningful ones (not “33% of the sites examined were stratified. either through differently phrased restatements or by combining methods of presentation (e. it also includes data that are contrary to them. At the same time. 3. 33% were unstratified. Not only do you want to take care that only relevant information is included. Take care that the information you include is relevant to your thesis topic or problem. 1977 cited in Day. In this connection. Write clearly and succinctly. be careful not to let your ego become involved. so take pains to present your results with crystal clarity. a written description in conjunction with a figure. avoid the temptation to demonstrate your brilliance as a scholar by overwhelming the reader with a barrage of data. Be selective in the data you include. Use your imagination in devising ways of illustrating your points effectively. It is also useful in dealing with very long and involved discussions or analyses to provide brief summaries or reminders of previous discussion at certain points in the text. Robert A. a note on statistics: If you use them. how you derived them and how they apply to the data in your particular case. S. 115. 1979 How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. and the third site was not excavated”). but you also want to be sure that its relevance is apparent to readers. It is pointless to present a lengthy discussion and assume that your readers will immediately grasp its crucial importance. Avoid technical jargon that may be unfamiliar to your readers. When an idea is a difficult one to grasp. diagram. rather than in detailed written descriptions. In addition.g. You can also save space by presenting this information in graphs and tables. flow chart. [T11. These comments apply especially to large quantities of raw data. by means of tables or graphs. p. 2. Resist the compulsion to include everything you know or have found out: “The compulsion to include everything . some redundancy is often useful. 4. Of course. When using analytical terms and concepts. 5. Be especially cautious in use of analytical terms and concepts.g.
1. A heading consisting of a number and a title should identify each table. figures and appendices are useful in a number of ways: for summarising data and saving words. should specify the units. place the table’s heading on the left side of the page—the table should face out from the centre of the bound thesis. 3. zero denotes a zero reading or result. Each column of the table should have a precise heading and. it is better to place it in an appendix. and as sources of raw data that others can use to check your results or to analyse in ways that you did not. The data in the table should be arranged to read down (vertically). use letters or other symbols. 1. If a small table. place it on two perfectly aligned facing pages or. If a table is wide and is to be read by turning the page on its side (landscape orientation). It should be possible to understand the table without reference to the text (although obviously you can elaborate or expand on the significance of the table and its contents in your text). 11. Note that tables are designated ‘tables’ and not ‘figures’. not numbers. The title should be concise. run it over successive pages. and that the heading is placed above the table. yet clearly indicate what the table is about. If a particular place in the table lacks an entry. If you have only a few items of data. As an indication of how a table might be presented. to denote footnotes in tables. If a table is very wide. If a table is very long. mention the range in the text and omit presentation of a table. use an ellipsis or a dash. not the number zero. place it on the same page as the text after the first reference to it (leave adequate space between table and text to offset the table from the text). place it on a separate page.6. It may be necessary to use footnotes to explain abbreviations or other entries in the table. Tables should be placed as close as possible to the place where they are first mentioned or discussed in your text. If the variation in the data is not significant. Tables Presenting information in tables can save a great deal of space. taking care to place a heading on each page. not in (the latter is very awkward for examiners trying to read theses in bed). Use tables when you have a reasonable quantity of information (qualitative or quantitative) and it is necessary to present it. even better. as reinforcement or clarification for points made in discussion. Placement and orientation. as points of reference on which discussion can be focused. as well as facilitate comparisons and provide supporting evidence for your arguments. if you have a large amount. FIGURES AND APPENDICES Tables. It is often best in the case of large or awkwardly sized tables to reduce them—if resolution is preserved and they can still be easily read. These decisions require that you exercise your own judgment as to whether or not a table is appropriate and adds to the presentation rather than simply occupies space. TABLES. Following are some general comments on tables and their presentation. use a fold-out format for it. not an absence of data. if numerical data are being presented. it is better to incorporate them into the text. When to use.6.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 11. If a large table. 2. Identification. below is an EXAMPLE: 46 .
include them in the text. 3. These are placed below the graph. In general.g. Presentation. Amanda.82. 1998 Bushrangers Cave: An Archaeofaunal Analysis and Palaeoenvironmental Study. Following are some general considerations relating to the use of graphs. 4. Data sources and the symbols used in the graph can be included in parentheses as part of the legend. 4. scale down its size. a two-point graph looks silly).000 BP * #* #* #* #* * * #* #* (Reproduced from from Kearney. Species presence/absence at Gatton Shelter (#) (Morwood 1987:105) and Bushrangers Cave (*). Placement and orientation. Because of their visual prominence.6. and should clearly indicate the graph’s subject. 1. graphs should be placed as close as possible to the place where they are first mentioned or discussed in your text. Many computer packages are available that can help you draw and present graphs neatly and concisely. use a graph if the data show a clear trend and make an interesting picture. Species Macropod Macropus rufogresius Thylogale species Possum Petaouroides volans Trichosurus vulpecula Pseudocheirus peregrinus Bandicoot Perameles nasuta Koala Phascolarctos cinereus c. if the data are limited in number. 2. Each graph should be designated by a number and have a legend. St Lucia: University of Queensland. Graphs Graphs may be combined with tables or used separately. but be very careful to preserve its resolution when you do this.000 BP * #* * * #* c.) 11. badly produced graphs can greatly detract from the appearance of professionalism you will want to convey in your thesis.2. When to use. A graph is essentially a pictorial table. As with tables.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Table 11. and many of the same considerations apply (e. otherwise use a table. The axes of the graph must be labelled and the units specified. p. It is important that graphs are cleanly drawn and neatly presented. 1. Unlike tables. Identification. 47 . Graphs drafted in landscape orientation should face out from the centre of the bound thesis. Graphs facilitate comparisons and show how one variable varies with another. graphs do not run over several pages—if you have a very large graph. Unpublished Honours thesis.
Following are some observations on their use. site plans and illustrations of artefacts. As with graphs.3. Also see the University’s Higher Degree Handbook (the section on PhD theses) for guidelines on diagrams and illustrations and their presentation. diagrams and illustrations can also serve as an aid to interpretation and as a way of directing readers to a particular observation. 48 . 11. Presentation. if appropriate. However.6. diagrams and illustrations can be very useful in showing relationships and limiting the need for descriptive text. Identification.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE As an indication of how a graph might be presented. including flow charts. 1. Illustrations should be well executed and should include a scale. are important features of many theses produced in our School. when some parts of the subject illustrated are visually emphasised and others are deleted or de-emphasised. 2. illustrations are designated and numbered as ‘Figures’ (except in the case of photographic Plates) and this is placed below them on the page. along with an explanatory legend. they can contribute to accuracy by depicting observations with a precision that is not possible in words. Diagrams and Illustrations Diagrams and Illustrations of various kinds. below is an EXAMPLE: 40 Average Duration of Visit (mins) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 9–10 10–11 11–12 12–1 1–2 2–3 3–4 Time of Visit (hourly intervals) 4–5 Figure 17. In many cases. See your supervisor or consult a manual on technical or scientific illustration for further details on the production of illustrations. 3. Relationship between duration of visit and time of visit among visitors to Anthropology Museum display gallery. When to use. As with tables and graphs.
... Provide separate appendices for separate categories or forms of data....... followed by the title of the thesis... with Honours Degree the School name (i.. figures and appendices are a very important part of your thesis.. ... Title page.. Students often underestimate the time required to produce them.. The pages of appendices are numbered in sequence with the text... Tables. These may include a variety of things: data recording forms.6. They should not be an afterthought: Schedule sufficient time for you to do them well! 11. Below is an outline of the parts of a thesis and the order in which they should appear.7.. copies of documents.. The interpretations presented in this thesis are my own and do not represent the view of any other individual or group. Inclusion of it in your thesis is mandatory... Table of contents. Honours Degree at the University of Queensland.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 11... and was completed during [insert year/s]... and should be placed before the References Cited section of the thesis. This is the first page of the thesis and it should include: • • • • • the title of the thesis the name of the person submitting the thesis the clause on submission which generally reads: Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of a Bachelor of ………. It certifies that the thesis is an original work and represents your views alone..... raw data. each should be numbered and have a title. This appears on the page following the title page.. School of Social Science) date of submission (month and year only) 2... After the title. Appendices Information or data supplementary to your main text are placed in appendices. etc. Declaration.4.e... It should read as follows: This thesis represents original research undertaken for a Bachelor of ………. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THESIS PRESENTATION There is an established format for presentation of information within theses.. the contents table is set out as follows (not all of the headings may be applicable to your thesis): Title Page Declaration Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Acronyms Abstract Acknowledgments page one... 1. but is not numbered page number in roman numerals (numbered as page ii) page number in roman numerals page number in roman numerals page number in roman numerals page number in roman numerals page number in roman numerals page number in roman numerals 49 . Name of author Date signed 3... The words ‘Table of Contents’ should head this page. notes regarding technical matters..
Since the pages in this part of the thesis are numbered with arabic numerals. a clear statement of your aims and objectives. Now you change to normal numerical (arabic) page numbering. time reading drafts. at this point it is necessary to convert your page numbering format to this numbering style. an outline of major points or findings. 9. as outlined above). Your acknowledgments are a personal undertaking that should. which is given the number ‘1’. again in arabic numerals. Roman numerals follow in numerical sequence from the declaration page to the acknowledgments. therefore. alphabetically. The page following the Table of Contents contains lists of the tables and figures appearing in your thesis. etc. Their page numbers continue the earlier numbering sequence. References Cited. Your acknowledgments appear on their own page. the References Cited section is listed and the number of its starting page is indicated. 4. (See previous discussion on headings and subheadings. If you have cited personal communications within the text of your work. you may wish to acknowledge these sources here. you need to supply an abstract. starts on the declaration page. thank those people who have been instrumental in the formulation of your thesis (i. An abstract gives a brief (150–200 words) overview of the whole thesis. THESIS SUBMISSION 50 . which is given the roman numeral ii. Individual appendices are listed separately. 10. 11. Both lists can appear on the same page if space allows. List of Acronyms. your supervisor/s) and others who you may wish to thank for their support. along with corresponding page numbers. 7. 8. Appendices. Acknowledgments. These lists include the identifying numbers and titles of the tables/figures and the numbers of the pages on which they are located. It may include background information which places the thesis in perspective. Abstract. List of Tables and Figures. As it is a reflection of your whole thesis it is best to leave abstract writing until the last. Thesis chapter titles and section and subsection headings are then listed in the table of contents. but it is not numbered. Any appendices are placed after your final chapter and their numbering follows in sequence from that of the preceding chapters. starting with the first page of the first chapter. Your chapters follow from here and should each start on a separate page. Titles and page numbers (in arabic numerals) for any appendices are then provided. Again on a separate page.8. Numbering.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE (Note: In the technical sense of thesis structure the title page is the first page. in essence. Body of Thesis.e. as they do not appear in your References Cited list. Lastly. This list appears on a separate page and is arranged 6. and their format and organisation should follow the conventions discussed in Section 10. Your References Cited and On-line References Cited lists are the last parts of the thesis.) Up to this point all page numbers should have been in roman numerals. 5. and conclusions or recommendations.
Once the thesis has been examined the School will notify the student of the outcome and whether any corrections need to be completed. The student has four weeks to make the required corrections and resubmit the thesis. They will nominate 2 examiners and the Academic Programs Officer will distribute the theses for examination. 5. 4.au/grad-school/index. If the thesis is acceptable to the Chief Examiner then it is accepted and three copies (one for the Library. 2. 51 . 3. need to be sent to the Printery for permanent binding. With regard to Coursework Masters’ theses the following steps apply: 1.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE For Research Higher Degree theses the Graduate School website offers the best guidance: http://www. one for the School and one for your Supervisor).uq. Submit three temporarily bound theses to your Supervisor.html?page=26304.edu.
Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons. The Learning Assistance Unit in Counselling Services offers both workshops and individual assistance in academic writing. Buckingham. [Z253. South Melbourne: MacMillan Eduction Australia Pty Ltd. and M. 1998 The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage. Poole. Sydney: Harcourt Brace. John and Brigid Ballard. L. Oxford: Oxford University Harmon. and assignment and thesis preparation. and several are listed below. 1997 Essay Writing for Students: A Practical Guide. Editors and Printers. 12. 1994 Thesis and Assignment Writing. 1996 Structures and Strategies: An Introduction to Academic Writing. Finally.C787 1996] Davis. Australian Government Publishing Service. United Kingdom: Open University Press. [Z253. Charles (ed. 1996 Using the Internet. 1993 14th edn. Tight. P. J.D39 1996] Fowler. [LB2369. 52 . SOURCES OF HELP AND FURTHER READING There are many books available on English usage. Press.LB1047. [Q180. and call numbers are provided after each entry.A6 1994] Bate. 1996 Writer’s Handbook for University Students. Lloyd and Susan McKay. Buckingham.3. 1996 The Research Student’s Guide to Success. see the reference section of the University Bookshop. the American Bookstore also has a good selection. 2nd edn. 1994 Style Manual for Authors. [LB2369. [LB239. 1996 How to Research. C. N. United Kingdom: Open University Press.C55 1997] Cryer. In addition.W. do not hesitate to consult your lecturer. scholarly writing.F65 1998] 3rd edn.U75 1996] Hudson. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.55M4B59 1996] Chicago Manual of Style. Hughes and M. Canberra: Australian Anderson. REFERENCE WORKS ON WRITING Below is a selection of books on assignment and thesis writing that are available in the University’s libraries.A88 1994] 5th edn.. South Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman Australia Pty Ltd. They have been chosen for their usefulness.U7 1993] Clanchy. Online Services and CD-R for Writing Research and Term Papers. Government Publishing Service. and many students have greatly benefited from them. [LB2395. Douglas and Peter Sharpe.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 12. [PE1628. H.1.B345 1996] Blaxter. The. [LB2369. [Gatton . tutor or supervisor if you are having difficulties.
Cambridge University Press. 1996 A Manual for Writers of Term Papers. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. [PE1460.P38 1991] Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Partridge. D. 1994 Usage and Abusage.T39 1986] Cambridge: 4th edn. Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. K. Service. 6th edn. [PE1128. [LB2369. 1997 The Student Guide for Writing and Studying Effectively at University: The World of Ideas and The World of Text.J. David. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [PN218. Theses and Dissertations. 3rd edn. Victoria: Viking. 1989 The Student’s Writing Guide for the Arts and Social Sciences. L. New York: MacMillan.S772 2000] Taylor. 1986 A Practical English Grammar. London: Penguin. [PE1478. Frank. [LB2395.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 1997 Modern Australian Usage. and E. 1984 A Guide to Scientific Writing. Stephen 1989 Right Words: A Guide to English Useage in Australia. Turabian.H54 1984] Mahony.H83 1997] 2nd edn. Crane.V.T8 1996] University of Chicago Press.E43C45 1987] 53 . W. [PE1408.MB 1989] Pauwels.B. A. [LB2369. Kelvin Grove. Martinet. 2nd edn. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. Lorraine and Frances Rowland. 2000 Elements of Style. X. Westport: Meckler.T38 1989] Thomson. G. Lindsay. 1987 Chicago Guide to Preparing Electronic Manuscripts: For Authors and Publishers. [PE3601. [LB2369. 4th edn.M369 1998] Murray-Smith. 1998 A Guide to Learning Independently. E. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.T11.L51 1993] A Guide to Citing Electronic Information. [PE3601. White. [Gatton .Quarto] Marshall.L45 1993] Li. Canberra: ANUTECH Pty Ltd. 1993 Electronic Style: [Z253. 1991 Non-Discriminatory Language. Lewins. A.M335 1997 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ringwood. [Z286.P17 1994] Strunk. and N. 1993 Writing a Thesis: A Guide to its Nature and Organisation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and A.
however. [GN11. J. that the information they contain is often simplified and incomplete and that citing only them in your assignment or thesis would not generally be acceptable.B7 1970] Champion. and Muncie. 1986 MacMillan Dictionary of Anthropology. [CC70. Charlotte. Warwick and David Trump (eds). Oxford.E648 1996] London: Routledge.1–4] Seymour-Smith. A. Consequently. 1970 A Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford. . [GN25. [CC70.B4 1997] Ingold. 1970 Dictionary of Anthropology. (eds) 2001 The Sage Dictionary of Criminology. [CC70. Spencer (eds) 1996 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. and M. criminology and sociology subjects. (ed. New York: Facts on File. [GN11. Charles. 54 . Ember (eds) 1996 Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. 1980 A Dictionary of Terms and Techniques in Archaeology. [GN307 Barfield. Ian and Robert Jameson (eds) 1999 A Dictionary of Archaeology. Thomas 1997 The Dictionary of Anthropology. London: Allen Lane. and J. E. SPECIALIST DICTIONARIES There are several specialist dictionaries and encyclopaedias that provide information on anthropology.C48 1980] Shaw. 1970] Boston. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing. Anthropology Barnard. New Jersey: Littlefield Adams. Be warned.E52 1996V. United Kingdom: Malden.) 1994 Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology.S48 1986] Winick. The works listed below are available in University libraries. Totawa.2. while you might start with them. London: Routledge. Sara. T. New York: Henry Holt.C65 1994] Levinson. Hall. [GN11. These can often serve as a useful starting point in assignment or thesis research.W5 Archaeology Bray. archaeology. Massachusetts: G.K.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE 12. London: Sage.D53 1999] Criminology McLaughlin. you must go beyond them to research your topic or problem adequately. [GN307. D.
[HM17. [HM17.J3 1995] Johnson.C66 1994] Oxford.J64 2000] Marshall. David and Julia Jary (eds). Allan G. Gordon (ed. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENT WRITING GUIDE Sociology Jary. 2000 The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology: A User’s Guide to Sociological Language. [HM17. 2nd edn. 1994 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. 2nd edn.). London: Harper Collins. Oxford. 1995 Collins Dictionary of Sociology. University Press. United Kingdom: Oxford 55 .
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