Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .

...........0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index...............................Rhino 2........................................................................ 447 xv ...........................................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

Help Access Rhino's Help file. Index. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. To explore the related topics.com/support/faq. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. and Find. and by the time the product was in beta testing. see the Rhino Command List.rhino3d. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background.rhino3d. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process.Rhino 2. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d.com Web site www. 17 . the name stuck.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www.rhino3d. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. under the topic Help. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino.

drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. In parallel views like the default Top. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Ortho pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1.Rhino 2. Front. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. and Right view. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. F8.

0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. PageUp. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. Snap pane on the status bar.Rhino 2. Rotate mouse wheel. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . PageDown. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button.

Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .Rhino 2. Lens length displays on status bar.

See Options dialog box. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands.Rhino 2. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

Angle If you type an angle with < prefix.Rhino 2. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. 26 .0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.

3 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.6. type coordinates in the format: x. the point will lie on the world x.z and press Enter. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.6.0 and press Enter. then click Single Line.10 and press Enter. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.0 and press Enter. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. with r prefix relative coordinates. click Line. type coordinates in the format: wx.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter.and y-coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note If you enter only x.10 and press Enter.6. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. then click Single Line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the construction plane. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. type w0. Note If you enter only x. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type 0.0.6. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.z and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type w12.10 in the construction plane coordinates. click Line.0. click Line.10 in the world coordinates. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. 27 . Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. then click Single Line. type 12.y. type coordinates in the format: rx.y. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. enter the starting point for the line. y and z coordinates to place points. type r2.and y-coordinates.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.y plane.

Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. type 4<45 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. click Line. type r4<45 and press Enter. click Free-form.axis) and press Enter. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. then click Interpolate Points. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. then click Single Line. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. 28 . indicating the new location of the selection set.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. A white tracking line will display. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Next point of curve. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. click another point in the perspective viewport. Click the left mouse button to select the point.axis) and press Enter. enter the starting point for the line. click a point in the perspective viewport. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt.Rhino 2. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. then click Single Line. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x.

Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. negative numbers are below. Specifying 3. Release Ctrl. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Place the first line point. After starting elevator mode. then press Ctrl and click.Rhino 2.D. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. Drag the mouse out. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. was when you pressed Tab. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. click Line.D points using 2. release Ctrl. You can start elevator mode in another location. then click Single Line. and click again. type NoElev. 29 . Continue with picking locations. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. press Ctrl. From the Curves menu.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Press Tab. but only if the point can be truly 3. Change viewports. Or press Tab twice. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock.

Rhino 2. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. type a distance and press Enter. then click Single Line. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Click to place the point. Or. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. From the Curves menu. enter the starting point for the line. the marker snaps to the curve end. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . type <60. Turn on end object snap. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. click Line. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated.

you can turn them on. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. click Line. Click to place the point. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. Or. enter the starting point for the line. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. type 10. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.Rhino 2. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. Click to place the point. From the Curves menu. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. then click Single Line.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface.

and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. 32 . Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. so those are the things that need to be merged. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. the surfaces cannot be merged.Rhino 2. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. this will become more clear. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way.

Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. 33 . Text height The text height in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. extension line offset distance. extension line extension. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. The text height.Rhino 2.

Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view.Rhino 2. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. 34 . Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units.

Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. type information you want to save with the model. but should shade and render relatively fast. When the Refine check box is selected. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Notes tab Add notes to your model. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. more accurate meshes. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Custom Set the custom options. 35 . Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. but may take very long to shade and render. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. Document Properties dialog box. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. is from 1 to 100. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface.Rhino 2. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. whenever you start a new model without a template. and higher polygon count. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. This setting is scale independent. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. Document Properties dialog box. This setting is scale independent. when not zero. these settings are used. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option.

Max dist. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. more accurate meshes. Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. By default. Setting Max dist.Rhino 2. When the Refine check box is selected. In practice. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. By default. Min edge length. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. and higher polygon count.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. When the Refine check box is selected. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Simple planes is not selected. This option is scale dependent. and Max dist. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Refine is selected. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. edge to Srf options. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. less accurate meshes. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Jagged seams is not selected. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. By default. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. After initial meshing. and lower polygon count. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Max edge length. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. 36 . Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. The default values is 16.

buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. 37 . Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. In Rhino. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. This makes the image appear smoother. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. but also slows down rendering. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. None No shadows.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. Background Sets the color of the render background. With small objects. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. With large objects. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. if the shadows are turned on. In general. In practice. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. use smaller shadow offset.Rhino 2. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. use bigger shadow offset. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. None Each pixel is sampled once.

2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1.2m 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. or Feet & Inches. Document Properties dialog box. trimming surfaces. the relative tolerance is used instead. When you change from one units to another. In those commands.2c 1. Select Decimal. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. Fractional. Example types and forms are: Microns 1.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Mils 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2cm 1. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.Rhino 2.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. You can mix fractional and decimal input.2mm 1.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.2(") 1-1/2" 1.2mic 1.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. For example. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry.2km 1.

Extents. and use predefined viewport configurations. Zoom Window. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. set multiple templates. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. You can create new viewports.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. rename viewports. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. 39 .01 millimeters. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. and place a named viewport on top. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. In general. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. step through the viewports. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode.01 to 0. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. You can specify which viewport is maximized. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match.001. Rhino 2. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. or Extents of the selected objects. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. Close the viewport. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. Use defined and named views.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display.Rhino 2.

To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. When you make a Window selection.Rhino 2. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Crossing. Edit Grid properties. click Zoom Extents All. 40 . press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. When you make a Crossing selection. from the View menu. Select objects General Click an object to select it. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. Edit viewport properties.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. To select additional objects. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. When the selection menu pops up. To bring all your objects into view. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. click Set View > Plan. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. from the View menu. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. To remove an object from a selection set. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command.

0.0 If you save as a 1. Sweep2). no 2. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Saving 1. When object is highlighted. but if you picked it as a boundary. In the Save as type box. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. type a filename. For instance if you have a plane. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. Click another object. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. press Enter or the spacebar.0.0 If you load a 1. select Rhino 1.x file from Rhino 2. Copy. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move.x files from Rhino 2.Rhino 2.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.x 3D models (.x files into Rhino 2. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. Sweep1. and you picked an edge as a curve.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list.x file. Import and export file types Rhino 1. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). In the File name box. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 .x file into Rhino 2. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. you'd get one line.3dm). click Export or Save As.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu.

set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. click Save As. If no object name is defined. select 3D Studio.Rhino 2. 42 . In the File name box.2. Or. click Open. Or. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Click Open.5. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. They are not converted to NURBS. type a name for the 3DS file. from the File menu. Click Save.0.0. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. For version 3. 2. type a name for the 3DS file. When building morph targets. or MAX 2. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. In the Save as type box. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. MAX 2. select 3D Studio.2. 2. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. click Export Selected. in the Files of type. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. In the Open dialog box. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. click Import/Merge.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. In the File name box.0 use IGES to transfer files. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. from the File menu. If so.

From the MAX2. Open 3D Studio MAX2.5 plug-ins path.5. MAX does not export NURBS curves. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. from the Files of type box. Select the 3DM file to import. or 3D Studio R4.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces.5 File Import dialog box.0 Command Reference File formats In general. Now mesh your curved surfaces. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. RhinoMax20imp. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. RhinoMax25imp. RhinoMax2imp. select Rhino 3D Models. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.dli.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. Only Spline objects get exported. In the MAX2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. 3DS MAX version 2.Rhino 2. This happens because MAX2. or RhinoMax25imp. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. export to a DWG.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.3dm.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points.5\plugins\" directory.dli. and RhinoMax20imp.5 File menu.dli from the directories in your MAX2. Attempt trimming? 43 .dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. (3dmimp.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. click Import. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. use 3DS file format.dli into your "3dsmax2.dli. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. RhinoMax2imp.rhino3d. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. are imported in several pieces.dli. The Rhino web site at http://www.dli. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. This happens because the MAX2.5. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in.

The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. click Import. 3DS MAX version 2. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.Rhino 2.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). CurveCV. Select the 3DM file to import.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. In general. Given the information we have. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. click the Sub-Object button. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Curve. Surface. Using developers tools. Click the MAX2. from the Files of type box. select Rhino 3D Models. The Rhino web site at http://www. Be patient.rhino3d.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything.5 NURBS object.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. If MAX crashes. 3D Studio MAX 2. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces.dli or RhinoMax2imp. (3dmimp. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. Open 3D Studio MAX2.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in.5 as a single surface. NURBS curves: 44 . In the MAX2 File Import dialog box.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. From the MAX2 File menu.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2.0 Command Reference If you answer yes.dli and RhinoMax2imp.5 or 3DS DOS. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. If you answer "no. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. To closely examine and edit MAX2.0. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims.5 module called "ACISMAX2.

habware. Surface. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). click Mesh. click Import. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. Select the 3DM file to import. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. CurveCV.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. If there is no Rhino object name. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. In the File Import dialog box. 3D Studio MAX 3. are imported in several pieces. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities.1.rhino3d. On December 10 1997.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. obj+number is used as a name. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. From the Tools menu.Rhino 2. Clear the Weld control. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. from the Files of type box. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. From the File menu.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. select Rhino 3D Models. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. Open 3D Studio MAX. Click the Sub-Object button. Curve." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. Some surfaces. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object.at/duck3. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. 45 .dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory.

In the File name box. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. from the File menu. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products.0 ACIS Version: 3. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 ACIS Version: 2. Or. All of the version types export curves.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. In the Save as type box. To change these into splines. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. It does not fix geometry problems. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. type a name for the file. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. In Rhino. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. click Export Selected. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. select the curves and explode them.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared.and v-direction vectors.Rhino 2.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 .5 ACIS Version: 1. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. Using ACIS Version 5. select the options for the export. click Save As. Click Save.0 is currently not suggested. At the Select object prompt. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. but import in as bodies. select ACIS SAT.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2.

from the File menu.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.0 ACIS Version: 4. Click Open. select a scale option. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. type a name for the AI file. click Import/Merge.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. In the AI Import Options dialog box.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid.Rhino 2. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. click Open. In the Files of type box. In the File name box. Or. 47 .0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1. select Adobe Illustrator. under Scale.

click Export Selected. from the Files of type box. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. In the Open dialog box. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. From the File menu. Or. type a name for the AG file. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. click Export Selected. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. not text. under Scale. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. type a name for the AG file. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. Under some circumstances. Rhino only reads curve geometry. Make the viewport you want to export from active. from the File menu. from the File menu. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. Click Save. From the File menu. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program.ini. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view.Rhino 2. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. click Open. In the AI Export Options dialog box.5.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. curves need to be refit before exporting. select Adobe Illustrator. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves.0 files. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. click Save As. Or. type a name for the AI file. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. select AG. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. click a scale option. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. In the File name box. click Save As. Click Open. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. click Import/Merge. To save AGLib binary files: 48 .1 units from the original curve. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. In the File name box. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. In some situations. select AG. Or. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format.0 > 8.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change.

Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. from the File menu. rays. type a name for the DWG file. type a name for the DWG file. click Export Selected. XREF's are imported. from the File menu. select the options for DWG export. Object properties. In the File name box. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. click Import/Merge. type a name for the DXF file. click Open. click Save As. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. click Save As. Or. Click Open. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. Rhino will not import images. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. type a name for the DXF file. select AutoCAD DXF. click Import/Merge. Click Save. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. Click Save. OLE objects. AutoCAD line types are ignored. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. select the options for DXF export. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Or. Click Open. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Or. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . In the Files of type box. select AutoCAD DXF. From the File menu. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. regions. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. They are not converted to NURBS. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. from the File menu. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. In the Files of type box. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. From the File menu. In the File name box. select AutoCAD DWG. Or. select AutoCAD DWG. click Open. In the File name box.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. from the File menu. or anything in paperspace.

arcs. you can export either polyline or spline entities. but do not properly read polyface meshes. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. and line entities. rays. arc. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. curves are approximated with polylines. circles. OLE objects. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. They are not converted to NURBS. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. 2-D curves are simplified. or anything in paperspace. arc. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. 50 . or circle. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. Rhino will not import images. AutoCAD line types are ignored. export curves as splines. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting.Rhino 2. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. use RAW instead. 3-D curves are never simplified. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. or circle. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. regions. This means if the curve is just one line. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. circle.

Rhino 2. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. and ellipses as NURBS curves. not the file header. and line entities. lines. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. If the simplify tolerance is too small. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. Click Save. In the Save as type box. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. or later DWG/DXF. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 .csv). The larger this number. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. line. For silhouette lines. or ellipse.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. In the File name box. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. click Export Selected. ellipses. arcs. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. but increase the number of polyline segments. type a name for the file.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. line. it is exported as a simple entity. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. arcs. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. circle. circle. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. From the File menu. select Object Properties (. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. Use simple entities Circles. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. it will be exported as such.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. arc. This setting uses current model units. ellipse. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. If the simplify tolerance is too large.

object render color and selected mass properties. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. The larger this number. You can give each shape the name you would like here. When exporting curves as polylines. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component.0. This setting determines how the station lines are created.0. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save.Rhino 2. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. object name. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments.S) or only half (. layer color. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. If you have previously selected a centerline. All component origin shift is considered 0. 52 . Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. Each component will have the same name as the shape. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. Rhino must approximate each polyline. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. Rhino produces one component for each shape.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name.C). Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape.

In the Save as type box. select Lightwave. In the Save as type box. type a name for the UDO file. Click Save. Each component will initially be a member of this part. Object names will be used when exporting the . In the File name box. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. click Import/Merge. In the File name box. Or. Note Object names are supported. If the same name is used for multiple objects. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. In the File name box.Rhino 2. click Export Selected. or Windage (sail). from the File menu. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Moray automatically numbers the objects. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Or. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. type a name for the LWO file. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. which does not have the 65. They are not converted to NURBS. Containment. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name.lwo file instead of a generic name. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. Or. click Export Selected. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications.535 points for the entire file. The LWO file is limited to 65. from the Files of type box. select Lightwave. Click Save. from the File menu. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. click Save As. click Save As. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a name for the LWO file.000 polygon limitation. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. 53 . In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Open dialog box. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. Click Open. click Open. select Moray UDO. from the File menu.

0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. If the file contains open surfaces. surfaces. select the target application for the export. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle.Rhino 2. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. only closed solids will be imported.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. Rhino creates a . Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. 54 . Or. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. surfaces.0 will not read in open surfaces. select Parasolid X_T. Planes are important primitives. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99." Solution The model probably exported just fine. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. In the Save as type box. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. click User Defined. In the File name box. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. To import the object into Moray. click Save As. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. from the File menu.INC file. click Export Selected. and colors. they will be ignored with no warning. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen.com/moray/. When you export to UDO. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. from Create menu. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. type a name for the file. Click Save. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. and curves Solid Edge 6.UDO file and a .stmuc.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. they display a blank window.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. You can lie to Solid Edge 6.

com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. click Export Selected. Click Save.rendering.Rhino 2. 55 . type a name for the RIB file. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www.bmrt. Or.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.rhino3d. click Save As. select RenderMan.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. In the Save as type box. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. In the File name box. ISBN: 1558606181. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN: 0201508680. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. from the File menu. however.graphics.rhino3d.

Rhino writes the surface. click Save As. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. and opacity statement for each object. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them.rib reboot your computer. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. select POV-Ray Mesh. click the big blue "R. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C.org. To test render the scene. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. In the File name box.1. from the File menu. click Export Selected. To cancel the rendering process. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings.org. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Or. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. and highlight.rendribrc. color. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer." Two windows will open. Click Save. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. The intensity is always set to 1.povray. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. transparency. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. Use Properties to set the object names. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. type a name for the POV file. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). The transparency color is the color of the object. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. In the Save as type box. however. 56 . Export to RIB file format supports render background color. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www.povray. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.

Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Textures are not exported. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. and highlight. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. Set up your scene with materials and lights. They are not converted to NURBS. but object colors are. click Save As. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. 57 . Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Or. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. from the File menu. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. In the Save as type box. Or. In the File name box." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. from the Files of type box. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. type a name for the RTF file.Rhino 2. select Raw Triangles. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Click Open. Click Save. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. In the File name box. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. transparency. This material name is exported for use by the renderer.inc and lights. or into one large POV file. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. select Raw Triangles. click Export Selected. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Import/Merge. type a name for the RAW file. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. click Open.

6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. Or. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. click Save As.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. type a name for the STEP file. The greater the number of polygons. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. In the Save as type box. use DXF instead. click Open. In the Save as type box. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. click Import/Merge. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. select SLC.Rhino 2. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. In the File name box.0127mm. In the Open dialog box. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. and use ExplodeMesh. from the File menu. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. Click Save. type a name for the STEP file. type a name for the SLC file. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Save As. from the File menu.0508mm and 0. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. 0.0381mm. The slices will be evenly spaced. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. Or. In the File name box. select STEP. click Export Selected. from the File menu. click Open. In the File name box. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. select STEP. 0. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. Import it back into Rhino. click Import/Merge. Or. from the Files of type box. 0. Click Open. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. click Export Selected.0762mm. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. From the File menu. Or. Export it in RAW format. Click Save. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane.0254mm.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. (For example. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. 58 . Consequently. from the File menu.

type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. Click Save. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. Instead. In the File name box. Use JoinMesh. then click Weld. type a name for the STL file. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. that is. type a name for the STL file. In the Save as type box.ini file to look like this. click Polygon Mesh. then click Join. to control STL accuracy. click Polygon Mesh. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. to get JCAD to work.Rhino 2. From the Tools menu. In the File name box. click Export Selected. From the Tools menu. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. select STL. if two triangles share an edge. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. If a mesh point is highlighted. They are not converted to NURBS. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. From the Tools menu. For example. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. click Polygon Mesh. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. 59 . then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge.) Select the new mesh object. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. but doesn't glue the edges together. then Weld (angle=180). from the Files of type box. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. click Save As. then click Unify Normals. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. then they have the same idea of up. from the File menu. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. select STL. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. Or. Click Open. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box.

Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. type a name for the WRL file. It does not support assembly and feature information. select VRML. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. In the File name box. Click Open. Click Save. Rhino now 60 . To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.axis toward the x. From the File menu. In the File name box. Or.Rhino 2. Click Save. It does not support representation of drawing information. click Save As. type a name for the VDA file. Texture assignments are currently not exported. from the File menu. click Export Selected. click Open. Or.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the Save as type box. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. from the Files of type box. views. from the File menu. symbols. In the Open dialog box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Or. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Export Selected. Render color. etc. shine. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. In the File name box. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Import/Merge. In the Save as type box. select VDA. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. from the File menu. click Save As.D geometry and topology information. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino.y plane. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. type a name for the VDA file. select VDA.

Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. Or. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. 61 . This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo.Rhino 2. You can download it from http://developer. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. click Save As. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file.com/software/mtx2html." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. Export options Version You can choose between version 1.viewpoint. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. select Windows Metafile. Render Mesh tab. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. In the File name box.) Outside of Rhino.pdf.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. In the File name box. you should try 2. click Save As. type a name for the WMF file. and if so. From the File menu. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. In general. This can be tricky. try 1.viewpoint. click Export Selected.0. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. but will make the WRL file much larger. from the File menu. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. click Export Selected. Click Save.0 first. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. (The MTS file contains the actual data. Click Save. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino.exe. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. If it does not work with your VRML viewer.0. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired.0 and 2. Or. type a name for the file.

click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. type a name for the DXF file. select an IGES type. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. select IGES. 62 . enter a name for the file.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. IGES units The units used for the IGES export.x is created. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Organization. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. click Export Selected. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. From the File menu.Rhino 2. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files.3ds A file yourfile. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. This means various settings have different values for each product. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. Click Save. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. in the Save as type box. from the IGES type box. 1 2 In the File name box. In the File name box. and click Save. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. Sender's product ID. Detailed options Author. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box.

Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.ini. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier.Rhino 2. To create an IGES import log. To import trimming curves as curve objects. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.ini. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. the IGES file will be empty. When Rhino 2. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2.2 or 5. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units.

it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window.Rhino 2. . an IGES level number is automatically selected.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". To see if this is the case. 2. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. 3.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import.) are ignored. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. Lines that begin with semi-colon (. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. Spaces and tabs are ignored. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . you need to do a bit of sleuthing. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported.. 1.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . if your file is called "iges_level_mapping.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. but this is not required. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. A flavor is terminated by a blank line.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino." For example.). When Rhino reads an IGES file. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile.. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. This file can contain multiple flavors.

you will get it.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. click New. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt.Rhino 2.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. Other(). If you do something like: open alpha.igs. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. 65 . regardless of type. If one of the Annotation().igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. Definition(). If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. set the options for the IGES type. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. accepting only entities marked as geometry. Rhino reads alpha. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.igs open gamma.igs. click Close. or Logical/Positional(). In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file.igs normally.igs and gamma.

3. and MacOS style line endings.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. Unix uses LF. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities.Rhino 2. select an IGES type. and MacOS uses CR. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. and click Delete. select an IGES type. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5.2 stores years using two digits and 5. from the IGES type list box. IGES arcs. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities.2 and 5. and click Copy Type. set the options for the IGES type. In most cases. The number must be bigger than zero. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. arcs. this number should be one. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. and click Edit. from the IGES type list box. Unix. 66 . To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. The difference is 5. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. click Close. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). IGES 184 entities. set the options for the IGES type. If the max degree is set to five. If the max degree is set to three. and maximum degree five. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. or IGES circles. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance.3 using four digits. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. click Close. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.

Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. maximum degree three.rhino3d. from the File menu. click Export Selected. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a name for the OBJ file.Rhino 2. If you get better results with one export type. click Save As. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. Click Save. Or. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. 67 . Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. when possible. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. when possible. In the Save as type box. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. If the max degree is set to three. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). Curves are not exported. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. when possible. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. try the following test. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Try to load both files into your product. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. select the options for OBJ export. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. In the File name box. the surface is split so each half has just one pole.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. select Wavefront OBJ. If the max degree is set to five. and maximum degree five. If you export geometry as polygon mesh.com/rhino so we can document this file format.

Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping.mtl file contains one material definition per object. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. To export to MAX. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines.obj file. mesh export is disabled. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. There are also references to these materials added to the . The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. The .mtl file with the same name as the . Options Skip Don't export meshes. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. If is far from 100% satisfactory. Export layer names should be cleared. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. CR (Mac OS) Return only.Rhino 2. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. By default. Export layer names Exports layer names. LF (Unix) Line feed only. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. Export object names Exports object names. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. 68 . Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet.ini file.obj file. Export material definitions Creates an .

and then restart MAX. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. In the Save as type box. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. After a large IGES import. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. type a filename. type a filename. select IGES. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. Note When merging an IGES file.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. it is recommended that you save your work first. click Export Selected. from the File menu. click Export or Save As. and flip the trim. make it independent.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. and set the display to wireframe. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. and Customize > Preferences. select the trim curve. To distinguish between separate entities.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. All data that is not grouped. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. In the File name box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. For the fastest import. it is recommended that you save your work. select the surface. try using OBJ format instead. select 3D Studio MAX 3. Or. select Alias V8. In this case. In the Save as type box.x. From the IGES Type box.

select IGES. type a filename. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the File name box. select IGES.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select AUTOFORM. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select Ashlar Vellum. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. type a filename.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

In the File name box.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. type a filename. In the File name box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select CADCEUS. 71 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. select IGES.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Breault Research's ASAP.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. select AutoShip. type a filename.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select CATIA. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select CamSoft. select IGES. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . In the Save as type box.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Surfaces and Solids. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. From the IGES Type box. select Cosmos/M. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. select IGES. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . even those that are trivially trimmed. click Export or Save As.

click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. 74 . select IGES. click Export or Save As. select IGES. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select Cosmos/M.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. select FastShip.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select FastSURF.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . From the IGES Type box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. type a filename. type a filename.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select IGES. select IronCAD. select Integrity Ware.

select Mastercam.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select LUSAS. select IGES. In the File name box. select IGES. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. click Export Selected. type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the File name box.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. select Maya. click Export or Save As. Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select ME30.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. 77 . type a filename. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. click Export or Save As. click Start and Global. To get the best results. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. select Mechanical Desktop.opt. In the Save as type box.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. You may set these options as you see fit. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.2 or 5. 78 . In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.IGESOUT dialog box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. (The MDT defaults work fine.3. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. select Microstation. click DE Mappings. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the File name box. select IGES. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. type a filename. set IGES Version to either 5. To save these settings. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. select IGES. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. and click OK. Version 5.Rhino 2.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . click Geometry. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Structure. Version 5. Surfaces and Solids. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. in the Description box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. type a filename. click Edit options.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. In the File name box. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces.

ini file. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. Multisurf 3. select NASA GridTool. select IGES. select Multisurf.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. the current version of Multisurf is 3.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If you add the following section to your Rhino. In the File name box.000000 79 .0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.1 using an IGES file.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.1.

In the Save as type box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the File name box. select NuGraf. select OptiCAD.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . select IGES. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

0001 will produce good results.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.01 units. click Export or Save As. Note With Pro/E version 20. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on.Rhino 2. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. In the Save as type box. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry. somewhere around 0. In the File name box. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. use these settings in the Pro/E config. From the IGES Type box.pro file or save them as rhino.pro file then read it in before exporting. use the "All Parts" option.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . If you set your tolerances right. when exporting to IGES. type a filename.001 to 0.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21.Rhino 2.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. Surfaces and Solids. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. then. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. there are now two types. Things like fillets and drafts . re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. If the curves are planar. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Surface replace is another good tool to use. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. The more trims you have.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. When modeling in Rhino. even those that are trivially trimmed. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. 82 . then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces.

Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. a surface. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. and a solid. In the Save as type box. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . There is no geometry information in it. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. select SDRC's I-DEAS. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. you will not get back what you sent. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. In the File name box. select IGES. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino.

click Save As.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.Rhino 2. Run iges2soft. select Softimage. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.7sp1 and 3. SGI and x86 (Intel). and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. 1.com Plugin download link page: www. select Softimage. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. Open Softimage.com. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. select IGES.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft. Softimage can also import 3DS. 3.phoenixtools. Check out their web site for more information: www. In the IGES Export dialog box.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. DXF.okino.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile.txt contains command line option information. 2 84 . Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. from the IGES Type box. Type a filename and click Save.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. from the Save as type box.phoenixtools.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. for SI versions 3. From the File menu.igs MyDSCFile.8: ftp://ftp. In the Save As dialog box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the IGES Export Options dialog box.phoenixtools. All three have their own problems and benefits. then click IGES.

) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. In the File name box. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. From the IGES Type box. Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. click Export or Save As. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.Rhino 2. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. select Solid Edge. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . select IGES. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. To export models to Rhino. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. select IGES.Rhino 2. Experiment with different settings for optimal results. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.001 or 0. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino.0001 before building the geometry.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. type a filename. select SolidWorks. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.0 Points=116 86 . In the File name box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. Nothing replaces experience. by nature..0001. select SUM4. 87 . etc. ribs. type a filename. select SURFCAM. to test feasibility. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. Also. leaving features such as fillets. which works on both edges and faces. From the IGES Type box. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. select IGES. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. Shelling. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Generally. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. then shelling is likely to fail. select IGES. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. In the File name box. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. shelling. type a filename. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. try to model with smooth. and investigate alternative approaches. click Export or Save As. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. for SolidWorks. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. which within human perception. SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. is tangent. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.Rhino 2.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. select TekSoft.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . From the IGES Type box. select Unigraphics. select IGES. In the Save as type box.

0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. type a filename. Surfaces and Solids. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Yamaha ESPRi. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. select IGES. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. From the IGES Type box. 90 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu.

In addition. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. For maximum speed.Rhino 2. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. and Blue boxes. and Value boxes. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. Saturation. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. Green. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. If no object is selected. type RGB values in the Red. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value.ini file to add or change menu items. actions related to objects appear in the menu. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. from the Named Colors list. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. The first item is always to repeat the last command. The same limitation does not apply to render color. 91 . you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable.txt in the Rhino install directory. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. Context-sensitive menu indicator. select a color. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. or drag to manipulate the view. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level.ini file. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. If context-sensitive menu is on. type values in the Hue. Edit the Rhino.0 Command Reference If an object is selected.

92 . Near. Quad. or can be activated for one pick only. As you pass your cursor over an object. the appropriate object snap displays. For example. End. right-click the Lock checkbox. and Knot object snaps can persist. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick.Rhino 2. All object snaps behave similarly. if End. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. Near. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. Only Near. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. Intersection. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. To display the Osnap dialog box. and Point will not work for that pick. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. on the status bar. After the pick. Tan. Midpoint. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. End. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. Point. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. click Osnap. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. When an object snap is active. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. Center. When activated. If object snaps are locked. Perp. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. To clear all persistent object snaps. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox.

0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .Rhino 2.

Center. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. Click to enter the endpoint. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. At the Persistent Osnap prompt.Rhino 2. Tan. from the Tools menu. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. Point. or just suspends them for one pick. Intersection. OrientOnSrf. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Perp. This command is useful for command files. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. and Knot. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. then click End. InsertKnot. End. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. Quad. with no spaces. Only these object snaps will be set. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. 94 . all others will be cleared. click Object Snap. If a command is active. separated by commas. The normal object snaps are evaluated first.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. Midpoint. for example in ExtractIsoparm. Valid options are NoSnap. Near. The marker jumps to the endpoint. it turns off all persistent object snaps. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections.

click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. and the "corners" of surfaces. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. The marker jumps to it.Rhino 2. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. click Mid. The marker jumps to its midpoint. click Point.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Click to enter the point. then click Point. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. click End. Move the cursor near a point. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. Move the cursor near a curve. the seam point on closed curves. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. On the status bar. then click Near. Click to enter the midpoint. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. 95 . The marker moves along the curve. click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. On the status bar. then click Mid. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. click Near. Click to enter a point on the curve. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. Near object snap Snap near a curve.

The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. On the status bar. The marker jumps to its center point.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. tangent to the curve. then click Center. Move the cursor near an intersection. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. then click Intersection.Rhino 2. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. On the status bar. 96 . Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. perpendicular to the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. The marker jumps to it. from the Tools menu. from the Tools menu. then click Tangent To. click Object Snap. Move the cursor along a curve. Click to enter the center point. Click to enter one of these points. click Int. click Cen. then click Perpendicular To. Click to enter one of these points. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a curve. click Object Snap. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Click to enter the point of intersection. click Object Snap. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor along a curve. click the Osnap pane. click Perp.

click the Osnap pane. click Tan. and finally choose the point for the original command. click Quad. without entering that point for the original command. and relative coordinate entry. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor near a curve. then click Knot. You can set this point. Click to enter one of these points. distance constraint.Rhino 2. Similarly. On the status bar. click Object Snap. angle constraint. 3 Example 97 . Click to enter the knot point. Move the cursor along a circle. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. then click From. then click Quadrant. or similar surface edges. Set your constraints relative to the base point. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. with From. From object snap Snap from a point. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. click the Osnap pane. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. pick a point. You can use another object snap to pick this point. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. At the Choose a base point prompt. type Knot. In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. arc or ellipse. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. without picking it. click Object Snap. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt.

The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. from the Tools menu. select the curve. for greater precision.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Near. 98 . At the Click near the curve prompt. Point. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. and Quad. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. from the Tools menu. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. then click Perpendicular From. click Object Snap. type 2 and press Enter. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. then click From. you can use simple snaps. then click Tangent From. select the curve. Int. Mid. snap to the end of the line.Rhino 2. At the Click near the curve prompt. End. The cursor moves only along the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. At the Choose a base point prompt. Cen. At the Choose a point prompt. from the Tools menu.

Near. Int. At the Start of tracking line prompt. Point. Point. Click to enter a point on the line. Mid. At the Start of base line prompt.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Near. type AlongParallel. At the End of base line prompt. Cen. click Object Snap. Mid. and Quad) for greater precision. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. and Quad) for greater precision. Int. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. 99 . Along object snap Track along a line. select a second point. from the Tools menu. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. The marker moves only along the line. Cen. Point. Cen. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. At the Choose a point prompt. you can use simple snaps (End. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. The marker tracks along the tangent line. Or. right-click the Along toolbar button. select a second point. you can use simple snaps (End. At the End of tracking line prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. and Quad) for greater precision. The marker moves only along the line. select a first point to specify the tracking line. Int. Note When selecting points during this sequence.Rhino 2. then click Along Line. Near. in the Object Snap toolbar. Click to enter a point on the line. you can use simple snaps (End. Mid.

Click to enter a point on the surface. End. Mid. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. Point. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Note When selecting a point on the surface. Center. you can use simple snaps. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. Near.Rhino 2. select the surface. from the Tools menu. but works on curves. click Object Snap. At the Click near the surface prompt. When Osnap projection is on. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. Intersection. By default. it is off. select Project to CPlane. The marker moves only along the surface.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. then click On Surface. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. and Knot. 100 . ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. and the cursor is over an object snap point. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. for greater precision. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or.

1. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects.Rhino 2. and the other positive integers. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Information Technical information about the command displays.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. Object Properties. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. and RenderMan RIB. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. or just the knot isoparms. and OBJ file export. 2. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. 101 . 0. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. POV-Ray. Isoparms at surface knot locations. The valid values are -1. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. go to the Options dialog box. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. General tab. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES.

From top left to bottom right. Turns light on or off. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. this tab displays the properties for that light type. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. finish. Material tab Edit object material properties. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. Color Sets the color of the light. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights.0 Command Reference Object Properties.Rhino 2. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. using a plug-in library. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. 102 . Light tab Edit light object properties. transparency. you can set the color. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. To change the material assignment of the layer. texture. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer.

Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. or a polygon mesh. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. 103 . From top left to bottom right. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. To change the color of the wireframe display.Rhino 2. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Unlike more advanced renderers. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. polysurface. Object Properties. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Clear this option to remove the texture map. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. Text tab Edit text properties. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab.

Example If your units are inches. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.25 inches.Rhino 2. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. Command string Command alias definitions. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. 104 . set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Options dialog box. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. When you place annotation text. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). The two sizes update each other. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

107

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

110

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. and the color-andshadows Render. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point.Rhino 2. click Options. you will see improved performance. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Render Mesh tab. Also. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. spotlighting. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. The next time you shade the same model. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Choose between the quick render preview. this shading mode may be much faster. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. click Use OpenGL. from the smooth geometry. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. 114 . The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. For highest quality results. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. On the Shade tab. shadows. and a backdrop image. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. highlights. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu.

Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. When you draw the plane. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Also. Jagged spotlight edges and self. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. which might appear in waves. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. so it won't be deformed. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. Self. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Render tab. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. you will see improved performance. 115 . and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems.5.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. from the smooth geometry. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them.Rhino 2. Rhino Render tab. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. Rhino takes that time to calculate. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. The next time you render the same model. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. of the view in the active viewport. Render Mesh tab. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. the patterns may probably disappear. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. In some situations.0 or 1.

but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. Change the size of the light. If the problems still persist. Correct shadow. If you increase it too much. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. If you’re getting self. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Sometimes the conversion 116 .shadowing effects. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. That will usually solve the problem. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. The scale of the objects is very large. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. Self-shadowing artifacts. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated.

and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. On Status of layer. Even if you got the card last week. available from Microsoft at www. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way.dll and Glu32. you may not have the current drivers. they look jagged.asp. When objects are on a layer. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. select them all with one selection. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. you can turn them all off at once. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Or you can organize your parts a different way.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. To update Windows NT drivers. please read section the next section. For example. If this does not fix the problem. if you were working on a human figure. To set the column width. Off Status of layer.com/windows/downloads/winntw. and since the polygons are flat. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. and download the latest drivers. This helps you organize your model. change the color of the wire frame.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros).microsoft. Start Rhino. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. Windows 95. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. contact Rhino Technical Support. 117 . Otherwise. To update your OpenGL drivers.Rhino 2. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Name Layer name. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column.

Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. you can set the color. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer.Rhino 2. You can snap to objects on this layer. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. To change the color of the wireframe display. finish. Unlike more advanced renderers. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. texture. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. transparency.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. polysurface. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. 118 . or a polygon mesh. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command.

type a new name and press Enter. You can select all layers. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. You cannot create new layers with these names. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. click New. Clear this option to remove the texture map. select the name on the list. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. and Invert the selection. 119 . In the Layer dialog box. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. If you don't remember the layer names. In the Edit Layers dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. select a set of layers. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino.

In the Edit Layers dialog box. click the color column of the layer you want to change. Click Delete. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. select all the displayed layers and delete. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model.Rhino 2. select a color for the layer. In the Show box. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. To delete empty layers. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. In the Edit Layers dialog box. from the list select the layers you want to delete. click a filter option. In the Select Color dialog box. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. use the Empty Layers filter. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. When a model has a large number of layers.

0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. off. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . type a string of characters to match the layer name to. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. set the desired filter options. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. click Filtered Layers." are on or locked. or locked. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word).Rhino 2. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire.

This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. generally. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. then the surface created by loft will. Think of each curve you select in Loft. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2.Rhino 2. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. Rules. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. If this doesn't help. The surface is smooth. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. then use the one closest to the top of the list. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Sweeps. 122 . The rail curve directs the surface along it. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. then try Loft. Lofts. then use a ruled surface. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. If you are after a flag-like surface. or accordion bellows-like surface. Sweep1. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. stair-like. try adding a few more cross sections. If you are after a tent-like.

123 . It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. If you have a several of closed curves. the surface will twist. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. use a Sweep2.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. while keeping the other end fixed.

Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. For each of these four ways. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. there are four ways to fillet. For a given radius. the intersection of the offsets can have one. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. several.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count.Rhino 2. or no curves. 124 . which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. and thus the fillet. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment.

for this choice of sides. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. These pieces can be grouped into connected components.0 Command Reference As mentioned.Rhino 2. there may be several fillet pieces. 125 .

then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. Because of this. When Extend = yes. If split. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. yes. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces.Rhino 2. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. and split. When that is the case. then the surfaces are left intact. If no. If yes. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. No. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. 126 .

0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. and a fillet will exist. then no fillets will be created. If two surfaces are tangent. their offsets may intersect. 127 . Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails.Rhino 2. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess.

and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. no fillet will be created. rather than arcs. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges.Rhino 2. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. 128 . Otherwise. If some fillets that should have been built weren't.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. except cross-sections are lines. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly.

129 . control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. a spherical patch will be made. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. it is projected. However. Once we have a curve on the surface. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. Do each surface individually. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. If one is a polysurface. then the result to B will work. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. do not pick A and B first. The result will have a hole at the corner. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. If both are single surfaces. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface.0 Command Reference In general. Additionally. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. joining A to C. no corner patch will be attempted. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. Often. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. Objects have overlapping surface areas. In this case. The picking order can make the difference. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. In this case. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. on an open surface or polysurface. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. B and C. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. When joining A.Rhino 2. If you do. but it may not fit. it doesn't. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A.

This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. or visa versa.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. not mesh objects. For success using the Booleans. This point is also called a singularity.Rhino 2. 130 . Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. the operation can fail. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. You can also move control points to the same location.

the two boxes are just touching along one side. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. click From Objects. the Intersect command may give different results. At the Select object to intersect prompt. and Intersection do not work. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. In this example. there are three possible intersection curves. 131 . select one object. and then click Intersection. In this example.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. In this example. In this example. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu.Rhino 2. Depending on the order the objects are selected. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. At the Select object for intersection prompt. we chose the cone first. The objects will Union. select the second object. but Difference. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean.

In our simple example. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. if your objects are polysurfaces. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. Therefore. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. you would expect to get all three curves. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. so we will Explode it.Rhino 2. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. this may not happen. however. If your objects are very complex. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . To get all the possible curves.

6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. select the two faces of the box as shown below. click Extract Surface. From the Solid menu. select the cone. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. 133 . 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. At the Select object to split prompt. At the Select cutting objects prompt. click Split. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu.Rhino 2. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. Explode the cone. Delete the small wedge of the cone.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone.

Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. So. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. intersection. A – B = A intersect ~B.Rhino 2. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. 134 . you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. difference. From the Edit menu.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. go through the same code. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. click Trim. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. and is achieved by flipping the normals. select the two curves. In this case. The intersection involves isolated points. There is no intersection. union. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans.

enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. 135 . Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. To understand the results. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. Find the setting you want to change. To edit the Rhino. select the check box for the toolbar.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Exit Rhino.ini file.Rhino 2.ini.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. cylinders.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. Double-click Rhino. the outside is the side to which the normals point. Surfaces overlap. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. find the folder where Rhino is installed. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres.ini to open it for editing. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. In Windows Explorer.ini and restart Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. planes. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. etc. Edit the Rhino. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.

136 . Release the mouse button to place the toolbar.ini file. This is a setting in the Rhino. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. type the new name. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. The toolbar moves to a new position. select the toolbar. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. it has no title bar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. The toolbar reshapes. Or. The toolbar appears or hides. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. The title bar appears on the toolbar. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The title bar appears. click Properties. which can be on or off the Rhino window. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. and click Properties. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. loses its title bar. and from the Toolbar menu. and is docked. until the preview frame of it changes shape. right-click the toolbar name in the list.Rhino 2. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area.

the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. Or. The linked toolbar appears. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. click New. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. Click Open. and from the Toolbar menu. and click Properties. Click Import. Or. click Import. Or. select the toolbar. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. select the toolbar. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. right-click the toolbar name in the list. click Delete. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbars to import. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. it will distort the bitmap icon. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and from the Toolbar menu. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Release the mouse button. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and drop in the desired position. select the toolbar.Rhino 2. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. select the toolbar. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. 3 137 . right-click the toolbar name in the list. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. and click Delete Toolbar. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. right-click the toolbar name in the list.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. which has the white triangle in the corner. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Or. and click Import Toolbar. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. Press and hold Ctrl. click Properties. and click New Toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. Or. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar.

you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. select Float to Top to make the link button float. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. and click the right mouse button. The toolbar is floating. The buttons rearrange. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. 138 . In this case. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. The linked toolbar vanishes. The toolbar appears. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. Move the cursor over a link button. Press and hold Shift. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. Press and hold Ctrl. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Press and hold Shift.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. clear Float to Top. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. or to a different position in the same toolbar. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button.Rhino 2. Or. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. Press and hold Shift. it will distort the bitmap icon. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Release the mouse button.

If you don't know what to enter. In the Delete Button dialog box. Use this area to edit your bitmap. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. Press and hold Shift. You can change the ToolTip. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. for example: Zoom In | Out. and click Add Button. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. click Add Button.Rhino 2. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. type text in the ToolTip box. the left and right mouse buttons commands. A blank button is added to the toolbar.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. capture a portion of the screen. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and click the right mouse button. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. type text in the ToolTip box. 139 . Press F2 to view the command history. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Or. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. Release the left mouse button. Click Close. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. and click the right mouse button. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Press and hold Shift. select the toolbar. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. You can clear the image. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click OK. and the bitmap icon. draw with the paint tools.

Note You can shift the image left. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. click Edit Bitmap. click Edit Bitmap. Or. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. Click the pencil tool. right. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. Press and hold Shift. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. and click the right mouse button. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. then OK. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. from the Edit menu. Or. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. and click the right mouse button. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. click Undo.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. Press and hold Shift. 140 . In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. from the Edit menu. To undo a mistake. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. the button is blank. click Grab. Press and hold Shift. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. from the Edit menu. click Edit Bitmap. A square replaces the cursor. up. click Clear.Rhino 2. Press and hold Shift. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons.

then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4.0 5. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list.Rhino 2. from the File menu. Click Save. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Click Open. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. click Edit Bitmap.4 -4. type a bitmap file name.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. The bitmap icon is saved to a file.-3 1. select a bitmap file. 141 .0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. and click the right mouse button. click Export Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.1 4. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. which stops the creation of point objects. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. command aliases. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. shortcut keys. from the File menu. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. from a text file.4 13. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. This script moves objects.-4 8. Press and hold Shift. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. click Import Bitmap.

is a fast. variable names. Press F2 to view the command history. Automation servers. then click Paste from Clipboard. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. the Web's only standard scripting language. These scripting languages allow loops. The default is 1. 1=Fit. queries. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt).0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. If you don't know what to enter. browsing for files. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. Mode is always 1. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command.Rhino 2. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. Microsoft JScript 5. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. Options are 0=Interpolate. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. Fit is the fitting method. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. From the Tools menu.5. layername2. click Commands. The default is 20. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. Divs is the samples per knotspan. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. portable. and Java applets. 142 . is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript.

trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. If your model doesn't pass Check.rvb. Rhino will let you do it. and join everything back together again. Some bad model parts. and Check doesn't check for those things. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. though. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. To fix broken edges. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. If a model passes Check. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . then edit the trim curves. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. The first one to try is the Check command. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. For more information on scripting. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. These damaged areas can cause problems. If your model doesn't pass Check. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. If you zoom in enough. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. If Rhino matches the large edges. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. then it will list some specific problems. you have to explode the model. you may find some of those microscopic edges. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. Another problem is having a tiny. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models.for instance.Rhino 2. see: http://msdn. re-trim the surface. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects.microsoft. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. 143 .

open up the kink by control point editing. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. 144 . Draw a Curve (Degree=3). Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. simple edge-to-edge matching. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible.4 10. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. Split the curve at the kink. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Trim again. To draw a non-G1 curve. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. Additionally. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. the Join command can get confused when that happens. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. You will get this error message. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. and Join. If there are lots of tiny edges. Solution: Rebuild the curve. you can Undo changing the degree.Rhino 2. Untrim or DetachTrim.0 5. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. This test does not check the geometry.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode.10 5. Thus. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.0 5. FitCrv.5 5.

One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. Solution: Rebuild the edge. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. Usually. The warning lets you know when this has happened. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Draw a Circle. Rhino 2. You will get this error message. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can put control points very close to each other.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. and then control point edit the extrusion. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. Some operations. 145 . fix curve and retrim. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. Internal control points are coincident. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. Solution: Open up the stacked points. but not right on top of each other.Rhino 2. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. Join and Booleans in particular. In short. Extrude it. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Solution: DetachTrim. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. but not right on top of each other. Use this to install as a standalone node. You can put control points very close to each other. You will get this error message. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. Edge direction.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model.

If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. unlike standalone Rhino.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation.rhino3d. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. Very little administration is required. This is an installation option. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. contact your network administrator. the license is added back to the available license pool. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo.Rhino 2. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo.0" as a workgroup node. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. For details on setting up a workgroup.rhino3d. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. 146 . The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. When a node shuts down. When a Rhino workgroup node starts.com/plug-ins. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. visit www. it does not modify the shape of the surface.htm.com/plugins/developer. No special hardware is needed. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals.0 as a workgroup node.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Thus. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo.

0.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. and tolerance values for each of the curves. 2. When using elevator mode. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. After the initial grid is made. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. the draft angle is 0. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. called the pedge.D edge is to the surface. the cursor turns into a crosshair. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). Marker. the marker will snap to the snap point. 1/3. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 1. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. then e_tol tells how close the 3. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. For example. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces.90 degrees The range is from . The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation.Rhino 2. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. 0.D curves. 8/3. Each 2. The 3. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. 147 . called the edge. 3. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. Cursor.D edge. trim curves are ignored. Rhino meshes all trim edges. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. If an object snap is on. 1.90 degrees to 90 degrees. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. When the initial mesh grid is made. 2. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. two 2. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3.D curve.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected.D curve (the one you see). which also approximates the intersection.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. 3. and pe_tol tells how close the 3.

Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. or a polysurface. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. However. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. When you have a finished solid. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. etc. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. Solid objects do not have naked edges. red on the other. The other side is the inside. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). or reflective metal on one side. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. If you hold it at the ends. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. blue on one side.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. flat constant on the other). the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. Imagine a rope.Rhino 2. 148 . there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. Some renderers support double-sided shaders.) with a polynomial definition. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. the stiffness of the rope. when you have a single surface.

It is a mathematical way of defining curves. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. and solids. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. In some other 3-D programs. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. 149 .Rhino 2. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. surfaces. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Ortho pane. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Snap pane. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. it is also a solid. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. this is called a "quilt. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode.

and tolerances. v. You can display the u.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. u. Esc turns off the points.direction is indicated by the red arrow. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. 150 . grid size. If objects are selected and no command is active. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. v. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. A rectangular surface with the u. and normal. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. When no command is active. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. units. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. Esc clears the command prompt. no objects are selected. and the v. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. The u. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. Esc deselects all objects. U. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. If a mesh is generated from a solid. You can save your own templates to base future models on. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. The u. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino.direction is indicated by the green arrow. there will be no holes in the mesh.Rhino 2. Surfaces have three directions. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow.

Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface.Rhino 2. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Or. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. At the Fourth corner of polygon.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Second corner of polygon. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Press Enter for triangle prompt. 151 . Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. and Third corner of polygon prompts. 4View Four-viewport layout. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. 3View Three-viewport layout. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display.

Select a point on the surface. Start the AddNextV command.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. 152 . The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddNextU command. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection.Rhino 2. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection.

Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddPrevU command.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Surface with four control points selected 153 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.

Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. 2 At the Select groups. Use the Group command to group objects together. 1 At the Select objects prompt.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. 154 . prompt select the group or enter a group name. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. Start the AddPrevV command. select an object to add to a group.Rhino 2.

with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. or World Right.Rhino 2. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. 1 2 Select the objects. World Front. At the Select curve to change prompt. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. 155 . pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. The curves must be planar. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. AlignProfiles Align two curves.

At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. End of first line prompt. 156 . AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. select a point that defines the start of an angle line. Start of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line.Rhino 2. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt.

0000 degrees. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. and fitted onto the selected surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. 157 . Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. If the surface is trimmed. select the surface on which to apply the curves. select the surface to apply the mesh. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface.

although if you understand the process and work at it. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. enter the end point of the arc. At the End point or angle prompt. But that swaps u and v on the surface. ApplyMesh guarantees that. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. enter the center of the arc's radius. Then. mesh the most complex surface first. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. Arc Draw an arc. you can make such morphs. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. Start. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want.Rhino 2. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. If making morph targets. enter the start point of the arc. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. At the Start of arc prompt. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. enter the center of the arc's radius. Or. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. one of which has been squished around in some way. 158 . and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. so if you Mirror something. If you use the Mirror transformation. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. enter the angle for the arc. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. For example. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. Generally. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going.

Arc from three points 159 .0 Command Reference Arc from a center point.Rhino 2. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. enter the end point of the arc. enter the start of the arc. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. At the End of arc prompt. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the Point on arc prompt. enter a point on the arc.

Direction At the Start of arc prompt. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. At the Radius prompt. End. Arc from start point. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. enter the radius of the arc. enter the start point. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent.Rhino 2. enter the start point. At the End of arc prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. enter a radius value. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. end point. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. select the first curve. At the Choose arc prompt. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. enter the end point.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the Direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. and radius. At the Radius prompt. At the End of arc prompt. End. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. Tangent. select the second curve. If the radius value is too small. 160 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. enter the end point. end point.

AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.0. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. If you cannot see the entire report. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. second moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1.1. product moments. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.8545412. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 (+/.1e-006. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).014). and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. First moments. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.0).34 (+/. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.7e-006.4601236.1.Rhino 2. 161 . area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.

0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.77350269 (+/. Area = 60 (+/. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-009. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.73205081 (+/. if you select a box polysurface.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-009) Ry: 1.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.73300329 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 .1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.5. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/. As an example.88675135 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.1e-009) Rz: 3.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/. with a surface or open polysurface. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.1e-007) y: 300 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.Rhino 2.0 (+/.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need.0.0 is shown below.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.1e-009. and sometimes contradictory.0 and 6. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 6. For example.36650165 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 3.10.46410162 (+/. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.0) zx: 0 (+/.

Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. The relationship between the area first moments. area first moments. the area. In particular. In terms of integrals. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area.Rhino 2. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. In terms of integrals. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. and area product moments. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. area second moments. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area.

type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. The array directions are the x. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter.and y-intervals. 164 . Or. At the Number in X direction prompt. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. type the y-interval and press Enter. At the Number in Z direction prompt. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. Transform.Rhino 2. to indicate the x. those distances are applied to the array directions. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. type the x-interval. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. press Enter. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. At the Number in Y direction prompt.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals.

In the Array Along Curve dialog box. specify twist behavior. In the Array Along Curve dialog box.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. Or. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. type the z-interval and press Enter. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. or the spacing distance along the curve. choose two points that define the z-interval. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. At the Select path curve prompt. 165 . set the number of elements to array. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects.Rhino 2. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items.

Enter a value of 1 or more.Rhino 2. 166 . curve on surface. At the Angle to fill prompt. Surface. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. select a curve on a surface.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. At the Center of polar array prompt. type an angle and press Enter. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. type the number of copies and press Enter. You can continue to place objects. choose a center point for the array. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. select objects to copy along the curve. At the Basepoint prompt. At the Select the surface prompt. Objects arrayed along line. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. and object to array.

rotated around the axis defined by the center point. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. At the Select surface to array along prompt. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. Array along a surface 167 . At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. If the surface is a trimmed surface. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. type a number of objects. choose the surface to array along.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. type a number of objects.

Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. otherwise you must select a folder. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. the model's folder will be used as the default. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. 168 . and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. enter the end of the arrow. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. the path. enter the start of the arrow.Rhino 2. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader.rhp Options set the resolution. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. At the End of line prompt. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. If the Audit command detects a database error. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. it prints a detailed description of the error. See the PluginManager command. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model.

Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave.ini. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Note By default. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Files tab. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. choose a radius. Back Set to world back view. By default.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Files tab. choose a center point.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. automatic Autosave is turned off. 169 . The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. you must edit your Rhino. General tab. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino.

At the End of first axis prompt. To bend the entire object. choose an endpoint. At the End of spine prompt. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. Bend 170 .Rhino 2. choose an endpoint. At the End of second axis prompt.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the amount of bend. Bend Bend objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. choose a center point. place the point outside the object. place the point outside the object. At the End of third axis prompt. choose the second endpoint of the line. choose an endpoint. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the Start of spine prompt. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. To bend the entire object. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object.

only control points. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. or enter a length and press Enter. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The remainder of the object is kept straight. and meshes. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important.Rhino 2. enter the start of the bisector line. 171 . At the End of angle to bisect prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. Bend moves the control points of objects. curves. You can't bend a polysurface . you will only bend that part of the object. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. enter the start of the angle to bisect. surfaces. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. enter the end of the angle to bisect.

Rhino 2. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. 172 . Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves.

The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. select adjacent edges. select a surface edge. tangent direction. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. 173 . it applies only to the second end. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. tangent direction. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point.Rhino 2. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. delete the arc. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. tangent direction. In either case. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. and curvature. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. To do this. and one of the curves is a blend curve. If a blend appears to tight or loose. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. tangent direction. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. tangent directions. it applies to both ends. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. At the Select first set of edges. tangent direction. and curvature is called a G2 blend. tangent direction. A blend curve that matches location. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. The Blend command creates G2 blends. then you should probably use InsertKnot. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. Note The location. If you need a G1 blend. If you are joining curves. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). If you are going to export the curve to other applications. or press Enter. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. If it is invoked after picking the first end. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. The location. and curvature. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

This gives you more control over the shape. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. click the new layer. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. the greater the number of control points.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. it will no longer be periodic. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. the higher the degree.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. If you raise the degree of a surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. 183 . but adds control points between each knot span.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. To check a license back in. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. Diagnostics. You must have the workgroup license manager installed.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. enter the radius point. use the CheckInLicense command. Select objects. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. 184 . run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. select one object. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. Circle Draw a circle. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. When users get back in the office. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. enter the center point. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. When the user gets back in the office. Note Delete or rebuild the object.Rhino 2. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network.

Rhino 2. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . You can enter the number of control points. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.

enter a second point on the circumference. At the Third point on circle prompt. delete the extras. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. select the second curve. enter a point on the circumference. select the first curve. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter a third point on the circumference. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. enter a radius. You can enter the number of control points. 186 . There may be multiple circles. At the End of diameter prompt. Tangent. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. enter the end of the diameter.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. At the Second point on circle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt.

187 . select the second curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. or are tangent to a second curve. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. There may be multiple circles. delete the extras. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Note To reduce the size of the model file. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. select the third curve. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. select the first curve. At the Third tangent curve. Point Select a point for input.Rhino 2. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves.

Note To show the list of recently-used commands. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. enter a point. At the Base point for closest point prompt. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. Note Point objects display as small squares. CommandHistory View command history. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. 188 . pick it from the list. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. To start one of those commands. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window.Rhino 2. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. right click in the Rhino Command History window. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Press F2 again to close the window. or in the Command area. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session.

Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. Commands List all Rhino commands. If there is text in the Clipboard. Without the command area. it is pasted as a command script. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. Cone Draw a cone. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Or. look at the Command List in this help file. choose a center point for the base. it is pasted. choose a radius.Rhino 2. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. At the Radius prompt. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. At the End of cone prompt.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. enter the end point for the conic. Or. Conic 190 . This point partially defines the plane for the conic.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Conic Draw a conic section curve. enter the start point for the conic. enter the middle point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. At the End of conic prompt. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. At the Reference vertex prompt.

let T be the point where line(B. type T to select tangent curves. Point on first curve prompt. Second reference curve prompt.0 and less than 0. Parabolic Rho value of 0. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0.C). pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A.S) intersects chord(A. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. First reference curve prompt. Point on second curve prompt. If you work out the details.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.5. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number.5.5 and less than 1. select a curve.Rhino 2. B. Curvature point or rho prompt. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. select a second curve. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form.

ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. Parabolic Rho value of 0.5. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0.0 and 0. End control points are at the same location. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. At the End of conic prompt. 192 . type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. so the w<1 case is elliptical.5 and 1. This point partially defines the plane for the conic.Rhino 2. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. enter the end point for the conic. Or. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. enter the reference vertex for the conic.5. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt.

Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Position.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. polysurfaces. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. and meshes for contour line creation. choose a base point. curvature. Match. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. 193 . Blend.Rhino 2. BlendSrf. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. At the Contour plane base point prompt. One of the contour planes will go through this point.

generated in both directions from the base point. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. The higher this number is. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. the less dense the control polygon will display. At the Control polygon display density prompt. 194 .Rhino 2. At the Distance between contours prompt. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density.

Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. while smaller angles result in finer polylines.Rhino 2. use the ExtractWireframe command first.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. select curves and press Enter. Edges can't be converted with this command. 195 . The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. select an object to create polylines from. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. The original curves are removed. At the Angle tolerance prompt. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments.

it is created when the object is pasted. Or. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. to move the copy vertically. snap spacing. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing.Rhino 2. to copy the object in the same place. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. Or. type v and press Enter. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Object properties and location are stored with the object. If the layer does not exist. 196 . CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. choose a point to move the copy from. type I and press Enter. At the Point to copy to prompts. choose locations for copies. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard.

At the CPlane orientation prompt.Rhino 2. choose the new origin. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. 197 .axis. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane elevation prompt. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the x-axis. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. choose a point on the y-axis. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. At the X axis direction prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. choose the new origin. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. drag the construction plane's new x. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3.D. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.and yaxes to a new location.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. 198 . Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point.Rhino 2. At the CPlane origin prompt. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. for example. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. in the dynamic preview.D location where it needs to be. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. Once your construction plane is positioned.

At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. 199 . Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. select a curve or surface. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane.

Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose a point on the x. choose the new origin. choose a point on the z. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt. 200 . At the X axis direction prompt. choose the new origin. choose a point on the x. choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt.Rhino 2. At the Z axis direction prompt. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. At the X axis direction prompt. At the CPlane origin prompt. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view.axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis.axis.

Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. the original surface must be developable.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. cut openings in the unrolled surface. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. select the first planar curve.Rhino 2. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. Use UnrollSrf. Top view of profile curves 201 . At the Select planar curve prompt. select the second planar curve. select a surface.

The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane.Rhino 2. From 2 Views. Look in the index under "Curve. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide." 202 . Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Example For an example.

Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. pick a new location for the seam point.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. and move it along the curve. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. press Enter. They are connected with a line. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. joining the ends of the overlap interval. For each overlap interval. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. At the Location of seam point prompt. press Enter to turn off the deviation display.Rhino 2. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. pick on a seam point marker. When you are done adjusting the connections. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. 203 . Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves.

Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. reversing the direction of the curve. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. 204 .Rhino 2.

Press Enter to stop creating curves. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. press Enter to end the command. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. that passes through the profile curves. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . At the Start of cross-section line prompt. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. end the line for the cross section plane. V or Both directions. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. At the End of cross-section line prompt. with the control polygons. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. The control point for the surface appear.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. pick near a control point.Rhino 2. select a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. At the Select point on the surface prompts.

space the cross section curves relatively evenly.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves.Rhino 2. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. For best results. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 .

press Esc to end the command without change. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. click to create the circle object. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. the curve is locally flat.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. 2 207 . Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface.Rhino 2. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. select a curve. This does not automate finding the inflection points. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. Or.

A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. In the Curvature dialog box. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. For example. set the style and range. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. and other important properties. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. curvature. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Options Gaussian In the images below. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis.Rhino 2. 208 .

Rhino 2. (Planes. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. Blue areas should be safe. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature).>1000) and the red close to infinity.>100. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. In the case of the mill. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. In the case of an offset. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Set the value for blue rather high (10. cylinders. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. 209 .

the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. A soap bubble. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. unlike a simple soap film. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. these values may not be appropriate. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. this may result in a rather uninformative image. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . then we establish a convention. the normal to the surface at that point. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. As a starting point. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. If we care about this. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. At any point on a curve in the plane. or to the right of the curve. These meshes can be large.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface.Rhino 2. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. both free and attached to objects. and the direction. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. This is known as signed curvature. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces.

Rhino 2. such as wire loops. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. Adjust the length. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. This contrasts with a soap bubble.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. close the dialog box. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. even when other commands are started. frequency. u. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. 211 . To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. Curvature graph on surface.

They are not curvature continuous. or tangent only. However.Rhino 2. Degree 5 curve 212 . Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. In other words. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span.

Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. 3." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. that is. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area.D point. Gaussian curvature. negative when the circles point opposite ways. If isoparm display is turned off. To see the circle. At any point on a curve (except lines). use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. Press F2 to show the Command History window. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. If the graph changes smoothly. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. 3. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. pick a point on the surface. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface.Rhino 2. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. To better grasp this. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius.D normal. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. maximum principal curvature. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . Curve Draw a curve by control points. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). minimum principal curvature. As you move your cursor.

Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. enter the start of the curve. When drawing a high degree curve. Sharp When you make a closed curve. press Enter. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11.Rhino 2. The curve closes.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. At the Next point. and pick. enter additional control points. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. To end the curve. enter an additional control point. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. At the Next point. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered.

At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Object properties and location are stored with the object. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.Rhino 2.1.1.4601236. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. If the layer does not exist. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.1. First moments. select the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.014). A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0 (+/. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. second moments. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. When you Paste objects into Rhino. 4 215 . it is created when the object is pasted. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box.1e-006. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.7e-006.34 (+/. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.8545412. select the box.0). CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.0. product moments. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the first point of a line to define a plane. 216 .0001).Rhino 2. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. At the End of cut plane prompt. At the Start of cut plane prompt. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. select the box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes.0. select the end point of a line that defines a plane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. press Enter to stop making cut planes.3921 (+/.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects.

choose a center point for the base. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.4601236. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.0). select the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. Solid cylinder 217 . Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder.1e-006. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.1. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.7e-006. At the End of cylinder prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. At the Radius prompt.0 (+/. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. First moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. choose a radius. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. product moments.1. choose a point for the center of the top surface. select the box. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1.8545412. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0.Rhino 2. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. second moments.

Select the control points on the curve to delete. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. 218 . Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. To start a new model. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. If you want to post-select objects to delete. saved views.Rhino 2. use New command instead. Press Delete. use the Erase command. Layers. All objects in the model are deleted. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Delete Delete selected objects. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model.

and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. use the arm to choose an x. Similar to Untrim .0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface.Rhino 2. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axis in the real world.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Microscribe.axis in the real world. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. select your digitizing arm. You do not need to ensure that the y. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. 219 . Rhino will do it for you. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. choose an origin in Rhino. select the proper serial port and baud rate.axis. In the Baud Rate dialog box. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.axis is perpendicular to the x. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. select a boundary to detach. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. use the arm to choose a y. and the trim curve is created.

Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. You can draw lines. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. choose a y. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. and is assigned to the F12 key. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. choose an x. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. and curves with the digitizer. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the third set of reference points. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. If it is more convenient. recording reference points as you go. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. you can use the digitizer. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Digitize the first two sets of reference points.axis in Rhino. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. arcs. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. or the object moves slightly.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Whatever the reason. Thus. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. circles. 220 .

axis on the table. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. click Digitize. and then click Calibrate. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. From the Tools menu. If the digitizer or object moves. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. X. and y. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer.axis on the table. and Y for the origin. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. This is the reference polyline. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe.Rhino 2. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. or you need to close and restart Rhino. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Label each point O. use the arm to choose a y. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline.. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . use the arm to choose an x. click Digitize. and O. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Y. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. x.axes. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. From the Tools menu. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data.

At the Third point on plane prompt.54. Type C to create a closed curve. enter 2. To digitize in millimeters. enter a second point on the base plane. At the Second point on plane prompt. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. enter a point on the base plane. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. When you finish digitizing points on the object. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. Press Enter when you are finished. a point is sampled. To digitize in meters. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer.0254. direction.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. enter the start of the section plane axis. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object.Rhino 2. At the Start of axis prompt. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. enter a third point on the base plane. As long as the pedal is depressed. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. The planes are defined with a base point. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. hold the pedal. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. enter 25. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. specify how you want to space the planes. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. You can space the planes at intervals. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. 222 . To digitize in centimeters.4. type the scale factor for all digitized input. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. enter 0. and spacing. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to.

pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the Select second line prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. When you release the pedal. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. pick a line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. pick a second line. a point is sampled. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. Rhino samples points.Rhino 2. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Place the dimension prompt. 223 . The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. As long as the pedal is depressed. At the Second dimension point prompt. enter the distance between sampled points. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command.

0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. At the Second dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a curve. pick a point on the model to dimension to. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension.Rhino 2.

pick a curve. At the First dimension point prompt. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. enter an angle for the dimension line. Or the first point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. enter the second point of a reference angle. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. 225 .Rhino 2. At the Second reference point prompt. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.

The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. At the Dimension line location prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. surface or polysurface. At the Dimension line location prompt. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. type F.Rhino 2. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a point on the model to dimension to.and v. to change the direction. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Press Enter to terminate the display.directions at the point. select a curve. At the Second dimension point prompt.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. Dir Show direction display. pick a point for the dimension line location. Curve direction 226 . red and green arrows show the u. pick a point on the model to dimension to. On surfaces.

The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. 227 . The location of the directional light does not matter. unless you apply textures. pick a location for the directional light.and v. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.order and direction. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. VReverse. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. The directional light icon does not render or shade. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. At the Start of light direction vector prompt.Rhino 2. the UReverse.

Distance Measure the distance between two points.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. light the scene less. Darker colors. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. pick a point. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. clear the Disable checkbox. like gray. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. When Object snaps are disabled. right-click the Disable checkbox. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. 228 .Rhino 2.

DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. reversing the direction of the curve. At the Number of segments prompt. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. 229 . Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. use the Split command.0000 units. Point objects are not a part of any other object. select curves and press Enter. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. select the curves to divide and press Enter. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Note Point objects display as small squares. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. At the Length of segments prompt. type an integer number and press Enter. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.

Rhino 2. If you want points to start at the other end. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. 230 . DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. or polysurface to evaluate. surface. use the Split command. use the Dir command to flip the curve. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. When a polysurface is picked. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. select a curve. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares.

231 .0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. You can check this with the Dir command. At the Location of dot prompt. type the text to show in the dot. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. enter the location of the dot.Rhino 2. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough.

Rhino 2. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .

For example. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. then select the edge to duplicate. select an object to duplicate. To limit your selection to surfaces. surfaces. type f (face). Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. The Dup command only duplicates curves. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. Because of this. meshes. but it only makes points. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. and solids. surfaces. and polysurfaces. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. type c (curve). edge.Rhino 2. It does not duplicate points. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. or lights. and press Enter. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. textblocks. the surface will always sag more than the original. The object will be duplicated in place. dimensions.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. Dup Duplicate an object. Duplicate border curve 233 . to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. or bnd (boundary).

234 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the fourth curve. select the second curve. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. select the first curve. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. Or. press Enter to create a triangular surface. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. select the third curve.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. For many surface creation commands. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. select the edges of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface.

For a surface from closed planar curves. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. select a dimension.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. type new text.Rhino 2. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. EditDim Edit dimension text. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. You can use surface edges.

Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. They are not the same as knots. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. 236 . set the options.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Type the new text. select a text block. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. In the Edit Text dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Example If your units are inches.25 inches. At the End of first axis prompt. You can enter the number of control points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. When you place annotation text. enter the endpoint for the second axis. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. enter the center point. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the endpoint for the first axis. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. At the End of second axis prompt.Rhino 2. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. The two sizes update each other. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes.

enter the end of the axis. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. Draw an ellipse from focus points. At the End of second axis prompt. enter a focus point. At the End of first axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. 238 . enter the end of the second axis. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. enter the second focus point.

239 . End of third axis prompt. choose a center point. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. enter the second focus point. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint. enter a focus point. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. or type a height and press Enter.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint for the major axis. End of second axis prompt. End of first axis prompt. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points.

and other important properties. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. 240 . This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. curvature.Rhino 2. These meshes can be large. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. When you use the EMap command. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. select a bitmap file to use for mapping.

in the Options dialog box. 241 . the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. on the Shade tab. under Zebra and EMap. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. but will always work. When More reliable is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. When Faster is selected. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. select More reliable.Rhino 2. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers.

drag point indicators. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. One-point-per-end mode. At the Start of region to edit.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. you are moving control points of the curve. 242 . drag control points to edit the edge bulge. At the End of region to edit. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. as with the Blend command. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. maintains the tangent direction. In each case. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces.Rhino 2. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. select a surface edge. No means there is one drag point. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve.

0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.Rhino 2. After editing. During EndBulgeSrf editing. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. the script Circle 0. 243 .2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. For example.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. aliases. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does.1 2.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1.1 2.

At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. Press Enter when done prompt. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. click points on the surface. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. Note When a polysurface is picked. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). Or use the C option to suppress creating points. A point object is created on the surface. If the surface is trimmed. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. Exit Exit Rhino. select the objects you want to erase. 244 .z format. select the surface to evaluate.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. the untrimmed surface is used. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. Note Erase is the same as Delete. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. At the Select objects to erase prompt.y. and the U. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino.Rhino 2. select a point.

and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. 245 .0 files. Click Save. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. File. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. object name. In the File name box. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Click Save. In the Files of type box. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. type a filename. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. Rhino supports several file types. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. In the Files of type box. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. Export Export selected objects to a file. and selected mass properties. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a filename. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. layer color. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. This command is obsolete. In the File name box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Use the Explode command. select objects to explode.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects.Rhino 2. select the file type you want to use. object render color.

type a filename. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. select objects to extend. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. 246 . Extend Extend a curve. At the next Select boundary objects. At the next Select object to extend prompts. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. select Rhino 2 3D Models.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. Or. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file.Rhino 2. Click Save. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. In the Files of type box. Or. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. select a boundary object to extend to. The extension is joined to the original curve. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Press Enter when done prompts. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. In the File name box. enter a name for the text file.

Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. type a number for the radius and press Enter. surfaces. Or. type an angle for the arc. At the End point or angle prompt. enter the end of the extension. Type=Line Makes a line extension. Note You can use any combination of curves. and solids as boundary edges. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. select a curve to extend. At the Radius of arc prompt.Rhino 2. 247 .0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc.

Rhino 2. At the End of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Select near the end of the curve to extend. select a curve to extend. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. use Extend a curve. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. the extension will be joined to the original curve. use Extend a curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. the extension will be joined to the original curve. enter the endpoint of the extension.

select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Or. the extension will be joined to the original curve. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. select a curve to extend. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. if possible. type a distance to extend and press Enter. Options Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. near the end you want to extend.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. select the curve to extend.Rhino 2. At the End of line or length prompt. 249 . enter the endpoint for the line extension. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines.

0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. The extension length is based on parameterization. or pick two points to specify the distance. Then the surface is extended on the end. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. Note With the linear extension. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. enter an amount to extend.Rhino 2. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. This fixes the original. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. 250 . depending on the shape of the object. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface.

use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface.and v-directions of the surface. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. If you need to place an object on a surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way.Rhino 2. In contrast to InsertKnot. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. Extract several isoparms. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. and polygon mesh objects. and Loft a surface through them. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. The marker is constrained to the surface. surfaces. v or both directions. use Project or Intersect. If you need angled cross sections along surface. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. choose a point. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. and isoparms display at the marker. If you need curved cross sections. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf.

Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. If you choose the Copy option. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. The original surface is left intact. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. Solid Tools. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. Note ExtractPt works on curves. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. the surface is copied. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. At the Extrusion distance prompt. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. 252 . The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. select curves and press Enter. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. surfaces. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. drag the desired distance and pick. and polygon mesh objects. or type a distance and press Enter.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt.Rhino 2. select surfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Main.

Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. The choices are Sharp. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. and Chamfer. Round. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. Smooth. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 .Rhino 2. then the extrusion is in that direction. This option does not appear for open curves.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. Otherwise.

At the Point to extrude to prompt. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. To draw a deformable plane. At the Extrusion distance prompt. or enter a distance and press Enter. select the curve to extrude. use Create a 1-Rail sweep.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. 254 .Rhino 2. At the Select path curve prompt. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. The default is vertical to the construction plane. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. select the curve. choose the point. select surfaces and press Enter. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. draw two lines at right angles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. select the path curve. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. pick a point.

Rhino 2. Or. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. Join To change the Join option. 255 . Fillet Fillet two curves. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. type the fillet radius and press Enter. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. At the Tolerance prompt. type R and press Enter. type J and press Enter. enter a number. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. select curves and press Enter. or accept the default and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface.Rhino 2. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. choose the second surface to fillet. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. choose the first surface to fillet. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces.

If you have a dense string of points. 257 . FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. select curves and press Enter. enter a tolerance. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed.Rhino 2. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. The curves are refitted. The original curves are unchanged. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. For scripting. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. In general. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. At the Fitting tolerance <0.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve.

The grid. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. this shading mode may be much faster. object highlighting. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. 258 . Each face has a constant monochrome color.Rhino 2. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. click Use OpenGL. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. axes. the OpenGL shade options will be available. On the Shade tab. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. If OpenGL shading is turned on. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. click Options. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.

each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. click Options. On the Shade tab. the OpenGL shade options will be available. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Use OpenGL. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0.Rhino 2. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. enter a number and press Enter. but their directions are reversed. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. select curves. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. such as Union instead of Difference.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. If OpenGL shading is turned on. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. The objects looks exactly the same. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. If Booleans give unexpected results. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. At the Increment size prompt. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. this shading mode may be much faster. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. 259 . and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. that define the outline of the flattened surface. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line.

Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. Front Set to world front view. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. At the Original backbone curve . Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. At the New backbone curve . select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. Flow does not work on polysurfaces. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Instead of drawing a line before the command. select the new backbone curve to flow to.Rhino 2. This curve will be used as a new backbone.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. especially those with trimmed edges. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. Flow works on the control points of an object . All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 .0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve.

Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. At the Second curve .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. select the second curve near the coinciding end.select near end prompt.select near end prompt. Grid Toggle the display of the grid. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. you must edit your Rhino. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.Rhino 2. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. 261 .

Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. 262 . Group Place selected objects in a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.Rhino 2. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. A handlebar displays on the curve. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. select the curve or surface to edit. You can then apply commands to the entire group.

Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. adjust options. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt.Rhino 2. select a bitmap file. pick a point. pick a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. Height The scale of the height of the surface. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. 263 . The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. A handlebar will display on the surface. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. At the First corner prompt. or enter a length. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. At the Second corner or length prompt. select the surface to edit. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. In the Heightfield dialog box. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap.

enter the radius for the helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. the helix will twist counterclockwise. enter the number of turns for the helix. enter the end of the helix axis. 264 . enter the start of the helix axis. select Turns or Pitch.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. If you select Pitch. At the End of axis prompt. This is the line the helix will wind around.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. If you select Reverse twist. If you select Turns.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. 265 . HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Visibility. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. Organic. close the Osnap dialog box. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. Status bar: Osnap Or. select the objects you want to hide.Rhino 2. If you exit the model and reopen it. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide.

from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. (This is a limitation of the command. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. Longitude=X. Use 1.axis or the y. The visible objects hide. The information displays in a separate window. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. and press Enter. The longitudinal direction.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. enter a number between 0. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. the more concentrated the hotspot. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. Waterline Length Length at water line. that is. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. the command does nothing. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. The smaller the number. not a statement of a physical principle. 266 . only half of the model needs to be given. ) prompt. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal).Rhino 2. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set.0 and 1. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water.axis.

Note Rhino supports many file types. select Rhino 3D Models. The objects are reparameterized. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. 267 . type a filename. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. select curves. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. and STL Tools File menu. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. the command will fail. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. Click Open. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. the objects are placed on the current layer. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. File. Import Import or merge objects from another file. In the File name box. If the imported file type does not support layers. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.txt Improve Reparameterize an object.Rhino 2.

3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. y. choose a start angle. it does.3dm tricky 1a. and z-directions. Click Open. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.3dm bg 32986. or a point to rotate from.3dm tricky 1a 2.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. select Rhino 3D Models.3dm bg 32985. Press Enter to place the model at 0. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm hi 1.3dm tricky 1a 1. In the File name box. type a filename.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. choose an insertion point for the imported objects.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects.Rhino 2. Scale Scales the objects.0. and rotate. At the Scale factor <1. If you say no.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm hi 2. At the Rotation Angle <0. Options Rotate Rotates the objects.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. scale. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. If you say yes. etc. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. 268 .000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object.

The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. After inserting kinks.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. choose points where you want to insert a kink. press Enter to end the command.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. select the curve to insert edit points to. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. 269 . click a point on the curve to insert an edit point.

0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. V. 270 . At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. or Both.Rhino 2. pick points of the surface for new knots. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. pick points on the curve for new knots. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. select a surface. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U.

Main. At the Next point of curve. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. enter the start of the curve. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. and the parts are joined. At the End of line prompt. enter an additional point. To end the curve. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. 271 . At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. enter additional points. and pick. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). A straight line replaces part of the curve. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. press Enter.Rhino 2. The curve closes automatically. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. At the Start of line prompt. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve.

Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. 3. The marker is constrained to the surface. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. At the Start of curve prompt.Rhino 2. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. 9. When you draw an interpolated curve. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). 7. At the Next point on curve. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. choose the first point of the curve.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. select a surface. Valid degrees are 1. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. choose an additional point. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. 272 . and 11. 5. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt.

Near. Cen. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Midpoint. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Knot. 273 . Close Creates a closed curve. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. and Intersection work. Object snaps End.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve.

Intersect Intersect two objects. Invert Invert the selection. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. select the objects.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Non-polyline curves are rejected.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. use the BooleanIntersection command. To create surface and solid intersections.

The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Points selected. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. which also selects other objects.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. Join Join objects. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. Invert also selects the polysurface. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Contrast this with the Invert command. When you are finished selecting objects to join. select objects.Rhino 2. 275 . You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges.

If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other).D edge curve is to the curve it approximates.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. or Patch. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. BlendSrf. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. Do you want to join these edges?". use MergeSrf. 276 . but are not coincident. then the second one gets moved. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. If the edges are too far out of line. For the group joiner. If you use JoinEdge. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. NetworkSrf. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>.Rhino 2. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. For simplicity. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. doing a Join. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. use MergeSrf. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. depending on what you may do with the model. Using the Millimeter template. and resetting the tolerance. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. BlendSrf. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing.015 units apart. Booleans. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). a 3. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Booleans.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. you can have some problems later on. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. no join occurs. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. If not. or Patch. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. When two edges are joined. NetworkSrf.

The action performed is reported on the command line. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. y. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. Booleans. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. This command does not work in all cases. NetworkSrf. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. The picking order can make the difference. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. BlendSrf. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. If there are naked edges. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. merged or deleted. Meshes are joined so they select as one object.Rhino 2. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. No mesh points are moved. 277 .000 Precision=4 ) prompt. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. use MergeSrf. or Patch. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. select curves. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint.

0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. Click the Lock option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Lasso Select points with a lasso. Select Points. Start the Lasso command. but you cannot select them. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers.Rhino 2. select the layers you want to lock. 278 . Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. press Enter to close the lasso. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. See the PluginManager command.

0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt. separate the layer names with commas: One. type the name of the layer to lock.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. LayerOff Turn a layer off. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Rhino 2. unlike the Lock (object) command. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Click the On option.Layer Three" 279 . From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). type the name of the layer to turn off.Layer Two.Layer Three".Two. select the layers you want to turn off. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. type the name of the layer to turn on. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.Layer Two. In the Edit Layers dialog box. separate the layer names with commas: One.Layer Two. from the list select layers you want to turn on. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Three".Two. LayerOn Turn a layer on. Click the Off option. from the list. Note For layer names with spaces. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. Note For layer names with spaces.Two. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. Note For layer names with spaces. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. separate the layer names with commas: One.

Press Enter when done prompt.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. pick the start of the leader. This is the arrow end. At the Next point of leader. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.Rhino 2.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . pick additional points. pick the next point on the leader line. At the Next point of leader. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. Press Enter to stop the command. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. They will not show in the perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. Left Set to world left view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt.

including lines and polylines. The line extends on both sides of the start point. pick the start point for the line. ellipses. BothSides option selected 281 . Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. pick the end point for the line. At the End of line prompt. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines.Rhino 2. and meshes. and can be used to create other curves. Line. surfaces. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. polysurfaces. circles. you can select any of these curve objects. select a curve or edge.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. arcs. Line Draw a line. polylines. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects.

enter the start of the base line. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. 282 . enter the start of the line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. At the End of line prompt. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line.Rhino 2. enter the start of the base line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. enter the end of the line. enter the second point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. At the End of base line prompt. At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments.

choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. 283 . LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. and parallel to the current construction plane. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. enter the end of the base line. At the End of line prompt.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. At the Select object prompts. pick the end of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. At the Pivot angle prompt. enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. type an angle and press Enter. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. When you are finished drawing lines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. At the End of line prompts. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. enter the start of the first line segment.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. 284 . Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. press Enter. enter pick endpoints for segments.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. enter the end of the line.Rhino 2. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. 285 . LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. At the End of line prompt. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.

286 . select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end.Rhino 2. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line.

0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. Line vertical to construction plane. BothSides option selected 287 . enter the second endpoint. LineV Draw a vertical line. or enter a length and press Enter.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.

Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. See the PluginManager command. 288 . If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions.rhino3d.Rhino 2. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. the code interpreted and run immediately. from www. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. enter an integer.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. You can download plug-ins. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. If the script file just contains script expressions. or press Enter to accept the default. select one object.com/plug-ins. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Close Closes the dialog box. on the Options dialog box. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Load Loads a selected script file. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user.

In the Loft Options dialog box. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve.. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. At the Location of seam point prompt. adjust options. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. In the scripts folder (e.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script.g. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead.0 Beta\System). pick on a seam point marker. Select open curves near the same ends. Preview. select the objects you want to lock.0 Beta\Scripts). then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. When you are done adjusting the connections.g. In the folder where Rhino.g. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. and move it along the closed curve. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. press Enter.. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Note You cannot select locked objects.exe is located (e.0 Beta). You can snap to locked objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. In the install folder (e. Lock Lock objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. The unlocked objects lock. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. 289 . Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers.Rhino 2. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .

The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. reversing the direction of the curve.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. 291 .Rhino 2.

Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. This is also known as a ruled surface. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Units tab before lofting.Rhino 2. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Available when you have selected three shape curves.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. 292 . You must use at least three curves to activate this option. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box.

Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. These are called ruling lines. If the curves have kinks. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. and some steel ship hulls. you may get unexpected results. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. You may get no surface or a partial surface. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. cones. too. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. 293 .Rhino 2. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. If the surface is not linear in one direction. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. the surface is not developable. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Preview Click to preview the loft.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. tear. or wrinkle. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface.

These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. You just have to be careful. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface.Rhino 2. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. thereby smoothing the surface.D surface. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. 294 .

I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original.y-plane. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane.Rhino 2. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. aluminum). select the layout and object visibility options. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. 295 . though. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. expand the plates.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp.D models. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical.

There is no way to avoid this. they may not appear on the correct layer.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. If two surfaces pass through each other. Note This command does not create 2. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. 296 .D drawings from mesh objects.D view. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2.

To get a feel for what the command does. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. At the Select curve to match . This command tries to fix those surfaces. it is closed. Sometimes.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. 297 . Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves.Rhino 2. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. select the first curve at the end that will move. Close the dialog box. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt.pick near end prompt. Then use control point editing on both curves. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. If a joined curve is made periodic. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. select a curve to make periodic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Other closed curves. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Match Match two curves. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. If the curve was open. At the Choose an object prompt.

Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity.Rhino 2. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. 298 . Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.

Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. Merge Only available with the Curvature option.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. 299 . The curves are merged together after the match. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other.Rhino 2. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. If you edit this curve with control points. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects.

In the Match Surface dialog box. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. If the target surface is also untrimmed.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. select the edge of the target surface. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). choose the type of match. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change .select near edge prompt. 300 . You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. select the edge of the surface to match. At the Select target surface .select near edge prompt. reversing the direction of the curve. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.

knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. If necessary. 301 .Rhino 2. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. Generally. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge.

Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. in degrees. 302 . Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. percent. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. in units. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined.

Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. but it will still be a valid trim. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. If it is roundish.knot spacing to curvature vector. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. but if the conditions are wrong. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. it can twist the surface near the edge. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. If refinement is specified. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. That may be several seconds. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other.Rhino 2. In these cases. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. it may be useful to preview without refinement. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. it will stay roundish. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. If you need to match to part of an edge. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. 303 . especially if tight tolerances are specified. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. If refinement is interrupted. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. If the surface being changed is trimmed. Something like position = 0. This is sometimes useful. but you will get something. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. If it isn't.2. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms.) In usable terms. This is the hardest condition to meet. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction.

0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. 304 . then click Maximize. double click the viewport title bar. if possible. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. and the prompt repeats. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge.1 ) prompt. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. Right click the viewport title bar. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. double click the viewport title bar. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. select the first surface to merge.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. then click Restore. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. select an adjacent edge. Or. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. must share an endpoint. Note The edges must be naked. select the second surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Maximize Maximize Rhino. must belong to the same surface. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. Or.

notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 . but may alter the shape of both surfaces.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.Rhino 2. End view of original surfaces .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . Smooth The surface will be smooth.

Once you have trimmed surfaces.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . Generally. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. with finer or coarser mesh. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. 306 . the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. This is useful for modeling half of an object. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. A mesh can be preview and then created. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. mirroring it. you have to approach things differently. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out.Rhino 2. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. editable surface. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. For closed surfaces. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. In some ways. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). The resulting surface can be edited. The default is 1 (full smoothing). Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink.

0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. The default is zero. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. 307 . refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). Default is 0. Limits the size of the polygon edges. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. When the Refine is checked. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. which is the default. more accurate meshes. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Max dist. Max dist. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. and lower polygon count. which is the default. Simple planes is not selected. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Jagged seams is not selected. Zero means no minimum. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. less accurate meshes. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). Scale independent. and higher polygon count. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. By default. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. Scale-dependent. after initial meshing. By default. more accurate meshes. Scale independent. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. and adjustment for trim boundaries. and higher polygon count. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces.Rhino 2. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. When this Refine is checked. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. When the Refine is checked. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. No refinement results in faster meshing. Scale independent. edge to Srf options. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. Zero means no limit. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. In practice. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made.

At the End of cone prompt. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. or type in a width and press Enter. at the Width prompt. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. not editable. choose a center point for the base. 308 . Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. or type in a height and press Enter. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. choose the cone's point. choose a radius. choose a corner of the box. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. choose a diagonal corner.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. At the Height prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. choose a height. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base.Rhino 2. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. Or type in a length and press Enter. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. If a length was entered. choose a width by picking.

choose a radius. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. choose a center point for the base. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. joined from a base and top circular meshes. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. and a open cone-shaped mesh. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. At the Height prompt. choose a height.Rhino 2. joined from a base circular mesh. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base.

Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. or type in a width and press Enter. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. choose a width by picking. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. choose a corner of the plane. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. At the Other corner or length prompt. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. 310 . to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane.Rhino 2. at the Width prompt. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. If a length was entered. choose a the diagonal corner. Or type in a length and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.Rhino 2. choose a center point.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. At the Radius prompt. choose a radius. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. 311 . MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. Move Move objects. Note Mirror makes a copy. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. As you move the cursor. Minimize Minimize Rhino. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Press delete to delete the original. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Select the objects. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. choose a point to move the objects from. Mirror Mirror objects.Rhino 2. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. 312 . The original is left selected. choose a point on the mirror plane.

313 . or z-direction. Along control polygon The u. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. corner2. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. choose a location for objects.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. to move the objects vertically. UV Move mode Along tangent The u.Rhino 2.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. and n. pick a base point. Modeling Aids tab.0 Command Reference Or. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. At the Choose offset point prompt. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. you can type corner1. At the Point to move to prompt. During the command.sliders to move the selected control points. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. corner3. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. To move objects small amounts. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. type V and press Enter. y-. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. pick a new location for the base point. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. Slider scale affects this mode. v-. MoveUVN Use u-.

Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. NamedView Edit named views. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. rename or delete unwanted named views.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. All points to edit have to be selected. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. 314 . All points to edit have to be selected. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape.

you can turn the automatic sorter off. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Edge Matching After the command is done. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. the surface will have four edges. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge.Rhino 2. 315 . Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. the best guess is made at the surface. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. The surface will be created. If you want to select the curves individually. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. be sure to select the surface edge.0 Command Reference Select the curves. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. The default is the system tolerance x 10. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. The default is the system tolerance. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. If a curve and surface edge overlap.

or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Position.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Select from Loose. Tangent. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces.

This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. viewport layout. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. units. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. 318 . and tolerances.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. New Create a new model.Rhino 2. layers. For example. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. Use New to open the template you want to change. select a template to base your model file on. drag a window for a new viewport. grid settings. NewViewport Create a new viewport. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. Start the NextV command.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. The next control point in the u-direction is selected. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 . Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. Start the NextU command.

The marker is constrained to the surface. or enter a length and press Enter. At the Point on surface prompt. select a surface. 320 . At the Length of line prompt. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. pick a point for the end of the line. choose a point on the surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current.

BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. copy. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . Line normal to a surface. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Offset Offset a curve. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box.Rhino 2. type information you want to save with the model. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. it will be open next time the model is opened.

If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. the resulting surface is exact. A surface and its offset 322 . Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. sphere. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. select a curve or edge. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. cylinder. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. or cone is offset. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. click on one side the curve. Otherwise. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. torus. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Negative values offset the other way. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. When a plane. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Note For best results. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. OffsetSrf Offset a surface.Rhino 2.

type a filename. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. When you turn the layers back on. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. In the File name box. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. select Rhino 3D Models. so the fact that they are locked is lost. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. 323 . Note Rhino supports several file types. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. Open Open an existing model. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. not the trim edges. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Click Open. All other layers will be turned off. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. File.Rhino 2. select the layer to turn on. they are not converted to NURBS objects. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. they are also unlocked.

to orient copies of the objects.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. click Open. or some of them may be hidden. whether it is floating or docked. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. pick a target point for the second reference point. the buttons in them. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. Or. from the File menu.Rhino 2. 324 . select a workspace file. Options Opens the Options dialog box. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. the screen position of each toolbar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. pick a target point for the first reference point. Scale If Scale=No. The objects are moved. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. type c and press Enter. but objects remain the same size. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. and the number of columns when floating. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. type s and press Enter. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. The prompt will change to Scale=No. and whether it is hidden or showing. In the Open Workspace dialog box. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars.

This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. select objects and press Enter. pick a point that. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. 325 . defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. If the curve does not start on the edge. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. Or. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. The three points are not interchangeable. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. to orient copies of the objects. type c and press Enter. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. The two triplet of points define two planes. At the Select surface to orient on prompt.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. select the surface. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. with the other two reference points. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order.

326 . Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. The Mirror option toggles between them. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. SwapUV Swaps the surface u.Rhino 2. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. As you move the cursor over the surface. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface.and v-directions. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. There are four possible orientations on the surface.

At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. you will get different end results. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. At the Base point prompt. Shift Note The Ortho command.Rhino 2. select a base point on the object. The cursor tracks along the curve.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. 327 . The object will be perpendicular to the curve. select the curve you want to align the object to. click a point on the curve to move the object. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. If you pick this point in different views. are all toggles. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. and the F8 key. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve.

You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Packed textures. When Ortho is on. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. When polysurfaces are meshed. 328 . and Toggle. At the Ortho Angle prompt. the packed texture coordinates are created. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. Modeling Aids tab. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. The default angle is 90 degrees. type the new angle and press Enter. If more than one object is selected. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. Note When Ortho is on.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. Polysurface made of four surfaces. Off. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. The default angle is 90 degrees.

Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Front. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Pan Pan the view. PanLeft Pan the view left.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. use the Pan command.Rhino 2. PanRight Pan the view right. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. Plan parallel views like the default Top. 329 . use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanDown Pan the view down. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

enter a point for an end of the parabola. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. and then click Vertex. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Focus From the Curve menu. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. From the Curve menu. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. This is the "open" direction. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. Focus. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. and then click Focus. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. click Parabola. use the Pan command. click Parabola. This is the "open" direction. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. show a direction for the parabola. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. 330 . Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. Direction.

enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. 331 . The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. End. 4 Focus and direction. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Uncapped paraboloid.Rhino 2. 4 Vertex and focus. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.

When you Paste objects into Rhino. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. If the layer does not exist. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Uncapped paraboloid. they are pasted into your model. 332 .0 Command Reference End. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.Rhino 2. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. it is created when the object is pasted.

Even for a relatively flat patch. select the point objects. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. you may need a starting surface. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. adjust options. For a trimmed patch. use a starting surface with a similar shape. These don't have to be connected. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. curves. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. select curves that form a closed shape. but it also can produce some unexpected results. 333 .Rhino 2. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. but with proper configuration.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. To make a highly curved surface. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. it will be very close to reasonable input. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Minimum of 8 points per curve. In the Patch Options dialog box. and edges to base the patch on. Note This command can be very useful. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). you must edit your Rhino. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. Pause is a built in command option. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. 2 The wallpaper image.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. Perspective Set to perspective view. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. 334 . aliases. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. and type PerspectiveMatch.

0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. All points picked on the image. The first point on the image. The first point on the model. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.Rhino 2. 335 . then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. 4 All points picked on the model.

Sloppy picking gives you garbage. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. changed the viewport settings.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. you have modified your model. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. Make the image view large. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. At the Length of picture frame prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 .Rhino 2. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. If possible. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. Pick carefully. Note The image must be a true perspective image. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. select a bitmap file to use. This aids in accurate image point picking. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. In particular. Pipe Draw a pipe. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. etc. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image.

For an open curve. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. 337 . enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the Second corner or length prompt. if the curve is closed. select a curve. At the Second end radius prompt. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. At the First corner prompt. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. Or. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. and the closed pipe is created. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. at the End radius prompt. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. Click Open. type T and press Enter. select a bitmap file. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. At the Second start radius prompt. select a curve.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. At the Starting radius prompt. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. enter the radius for the pipe. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. At the Starting radius prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. If the pipe objects are capped. At the First end radius prompt.

At the New target location <X. and JPG. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. To place a backdrop behind your model.Y. see Place a bitmap backdrop. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. Placing a second deletes the first. PCX.Rhino 2.Z> prompt. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane.Z> prompt. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera.Y. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. enter the camera point. enter the target point. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. BMP. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. 3-D Digitizing. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. align it (move and scale in one operation). You can move the background bitmap. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. TGA. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). 338 . the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. scale it. Front. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. In PARALLEL viewports. By default the Top. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. and temporarily hide it. remove it.

then those objects are not visible on the screen. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. PlaceTarget Place the target location. Toolbar: Menu Set View. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. then those objects are not visible on the screen. regardless of where the previous point was picked. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. Without Planar on. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. click Free-form. then click Control Points. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). In PARALLEL viewports. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. 339 .Z> prompt. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. From the Curve menu. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. 3-D Digitizing. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. enter the target point.Rhino 2. In PERSPECTIVE views.Y. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. Planar Toggle planar mode. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. In PERSPECTIVE views. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

start the polyline. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. enter the start point of the polyline. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. enter additional vertices for the polyline. To end the polyline. making a closed polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt.Rhino 2. enter additional vertices for the polyline. select a mesh object.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. 349 . press Enter. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. At the Next point of polyline prompts. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. press Enter. To end the polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Press Alt to suspend autoclose.

PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. making a closed polyline. 350 . Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order.

The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. 351 .Rhino 2. Start the PrevU command. Start the PrevV command. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected.

Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Always. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. the central part of the view is printed. No viewport edge is printed. If you fit the image to the page. print scale. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. the contents are printed on top of each other. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. If viewports overlap. The part that does not fit is not printed. color. 352 . If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. and number of copies. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. print to a file. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. the objects outside the viewport are printed. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport.Rhino 2. and each viewport is printed in its area.

Then. Curve projected to a surface 353 . and same orientation. It will crop objects that are visible. PrintSetup Set up your printer. if they don't fit on the page. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. If you want to print at some other scale. not printing from perspective viewports. (Actually. Light objects do not print. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command.Rhino 2. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. If the objects don't fit. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. too. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. Print. hide them. as the paper you're printing on. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer.

Properties Edit object properties. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. curves.Rhino 2. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Project will never work correctly for this. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. Basic shapes like ellipses.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. surfaces. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. circles. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. and free-form curves work well. however. choose to keep or delete the input objects. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. set the projection type for the viewport. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. This command works on points. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. lines. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild.

Point Editing. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. surfaces. To control point edit a polysurface. Organic. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. Organic. Point Editing. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. STL Tools. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main.

0000. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. select a curve to measure. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. When drawing the curves. use the fewest control point possible. Then. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. select the surface to pull the curves back to. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. Both commands ask for the viewport name. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. Use curve commands to draw the curve. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.Rhino 2. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used.Rhino 2. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. In this case. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. select a rail curve. the result looks exactly the same both ways.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. Profile curve. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. select a profile curve. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. in addition to being revolved. rail curve. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. At the Revolve axis direction prompt.

1 26. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.4. Note When building command files.2. The file contents are copied into the command line.8. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box.0 27.4.1.txt Click the button to read the file.5. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis. If you read in a particular file often. select the file to read.1.1.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.0 23. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis. If the rail curve is closed. readcommandfile myfile.0.2. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.0 23. You can then select a file from the list. If you leave off the filename. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar.5.9.7. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin. a file dialog box appears.5. use the Enter command.9. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved. ! Interpcrv 23. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.9 Enter etc….8. 358 .1. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename.Rhino 2.4.

Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. When you are satisfied with the results. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. click OK. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. but a more accurate fit. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. 359 . click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. leaving only the rebuilt curves. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. Delete Input Deletes the original curves.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file.Rhino 2. If more than one curve is selected. the highest number of control points is shown. use the FitCrv command. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced.

The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. Joined and exploded polysurface. in the Point Count boxes. To see what it does. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. Edges are pulled away from the surface. in the Degree box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. draw two planes several units apart. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions.Rhino 2. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. select an object. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces.

Rhino 2. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature.an v-directions. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. 361 . choose a corner for the rectangle. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. You will be prompted for the width. enter the length of the rectangle. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Or. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt.

Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. At the Width prompt. select a corner point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. enter the end of the same edge. 362 . Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. enter the length of the rectangle.Rhino 2. Or. At the Corner or length prompt. enter the width of the rectangle. At the End of edge prompt. select the center point of the rectangle. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. You will be prompted for the width. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center.

0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. At the End of edge prompt.Rhino 2. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. At the Height of rectangle prompt. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. 363 . drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter.

Rhino 2. This makes this command scriptable. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. General tab. To see the results of the reduction. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. click Preview. set the polygon count. 364 . RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo.

this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. type c and press Enter. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. For one thing. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). After RefreshShade. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model.Rhino 2. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. Or. 365 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. which may be undesirable in some cases. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. To reduce the size of the model file. to remap copies of the objects. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. avoid clearing meshes. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. use the SaveAs command and check Save small.

366 .0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport.Rhino 2. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. 367 . The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. select objects. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. which is equal to the degree. At the Click knot to remove prompt. In particular. select a curve. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. Sweep2. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. At the Select knotline to remove. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. select a surface. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. Use the Group command to group objects together. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. and Blend commands.

RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. and render again. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. expanded to fill the page. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. When on. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport.Rhino 2. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. the current working folder. Render tab. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. 368 . it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. increase the size of the viewport. It has a single menu: File. Render tab. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats.

Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. Does not show shadows. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. or bump mapping. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. Toolbar: Render 369 . zoom. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option.Rhino 2. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. When on. Basically. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. let's call them lefty and righty. In this example. the x. 370 .length for both is about 22 units. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface.Rhino 2. At the New U begin domain prompt.and vdomains for the surface. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. it is distorted. First you must set the u. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. (In this example.and v. the texture is not distorted. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. The y. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. and similar prompts. Example You have two surfaces side by side.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. The x. set the new limits of the u. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. including the domain unless you apply textures. However.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units.length of righty is about 11. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.

Revolve Revolve a curve. select the named view to restore. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. RestoreView Restore a named view. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Use the NamedView command to edit named views.Rhino 2. then click the name of the view to restore. select the construction plane to restore. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. 371 . Right click the title of a viewport. or to restore only the view. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. select one or more curves. then click Set View. Or. choose a point on the revolution axis.

If you choose Deformable. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. enter the number of control points.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. In the Revolve Options dialog box. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. select a curve. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. defining the revolution axis. select a surface that is not a polysurface. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. The marker tracks on the curve. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. Enter the Start angle and End angle. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation.Rhino 2. click Exact or Deformable. choose a second point. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. 372 .

If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. 373 . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. choose an end angle. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance.Rhino 2. you must edit your Rhino. choose a start angle. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. type C and press Enter. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. to rotate copies of the objects.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Right Set to world right view. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Or. or a point to rotate to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. or a point to rotate from. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. choose a point to rotate the objects around. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance.

RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. choose a point on the rotation axis. 374 . At the Start of rotate axis prompt. type in an angle. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. Or. At the End of rotate axis prompt. type c and press Enter. or choose a point to rotate from. the following prompt appears.Rhino 2. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. If you entered a point to rotate from. choose a second point on the rotation axis. to rotate copies of the objects. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. etc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects.

This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis. pick a point. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. place the construction plane. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. etc. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis.Rhino 2. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. At the End of rotation axis prompt. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. etc. etc.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. enter the end of the rotation axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Second reference point prompt. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. 375 . This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. Or.

376 . use the RotateView command.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. RotateView Rotate the view. Press the arrow keys. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Name of program to run prompt. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Run Run another application from Rhino.Rhino 2. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command. RotateUp Rotate the view up. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. type the name and path of the file to run. RotateRight Rotate the view right. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command. File. Save Save your model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Click Save. Cancel Closes the dialog box. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. or SaveAs dialog boxes. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. Language Specifies the language of the code. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. type a filename. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. In the File name box. Push Pin When the button is depressed. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Save.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Note Rhino supports several file types. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file.Rhino 2. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. 377 . you can use RunScript command. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Otherwise. select Rhino 2 3D Models.

You can set up grid settings. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. Save. In the File name box. 378 .0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. viewport layout. type a filename.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. Files tab. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Note Rhino supports several file types. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. type a filename. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. You can also save default geometry with the template. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Click Save. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. and tolerances and save them in a template. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. units. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Click Save. layers. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. or SaveAs dialog boxes.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

?. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelNone Deselect all objects. 388 .) to select multiple objects." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. etc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. SelPolyline Select all polylines. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Note You can use wild cards (*. enter an object name.Rhino 2. This command is "transparent. all objects with no name are selected. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt.

" It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Start the SelU command. 389 . SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. SelPt Select all point objects.direction based on previously selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. SelSrf Select all single surfaces.

direction. Press Enter to finish selecting rows. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. A surface with control points selected 390 .and v.Rhino 2. select the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. At the Select row of points prompt. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. The control points on the surface display.

This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. or both directions.direction based on previously selected control points. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . Start the SelV command.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction.Rhino 2. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. v-direction.

Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. Shade tab. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. from www. and FlatShadeAll. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.rhino3d. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.com/plug-ins. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. ShadeAll. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. FlatShade. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. Note Type w to start a window selection. This is not the same as restoring a named view.Rhino 2. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. You can download plug-ins. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. 392 . Note A viewport with the name you type must exist.

393 .0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list.0 to 255) Transparency (0. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name.0 to 1. The Undo command will work.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. select the layer to set current. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script.Rhino 2. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. SetLayer Set the current layer. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. In the Edit Layers dialog box. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. Lets you name or rename a group. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. select an object on the layer you want to be current.

It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. double-click the viewport title bar. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Note The object material can be used by RIB. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Moray UDO. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. Or. This is not the same as restoring a named view.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. To set names for a group of objects. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command.Rhino 2. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. and RenderMan RIB. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. 3DS.0 to 255) Transparency (0. Rhino uses a generic name. 394 . Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. Or. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. If the object name has already been used. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. Object names are exported to IGES.0 to 1. If no object name is defined. and OBJ material/shader export. POV. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. POV-Ray. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name.

New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. At the Ortho is Off. At the Planar is On. and RenderMan RIB. Starting number Sets the starting number. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. check the coordinates you want to set. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. POV-Ray. Object names are not used in Rhino. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. Select the objects. use the SetObjectName command. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. For example. To set names for individual objects. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. enter one of the options. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. 395 . specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. enter one of the options.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. In the Set Points dialog box. if you selected ten unnamed objects. SetPt Set control point location. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command.Rhino 2. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt.

SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. At the Grid snap is Off. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. etc. enter the viewport width in pixels. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off.Rhino 2. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. enter the viewport height in pixels. At the Viewport height prompt. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. You still see interactive drawing of curves. 396 .

Pan.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. and no antialiasing. On the Shade tab set the options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. with no shadows. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. and a special background color appears. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Subsequent renderings may be faster. The grid and axes are not shown. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. click Options. If OpenGL is turned on. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Note Be patient on the first shade. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . this shading mode may be faster. Shade Shade a viewport. select the working directory. monochrome. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu.Rhino 2. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. zoom. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. It may not be very quick the first time.

see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. click Options. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. On the Shade tab. click Use OpenGL. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. object highlighting. On the Shade tab. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. and a special background color appears. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL.sgi.org/ and www. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. axes. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. If OpenGL is turned on. The objects in current viewport are shaded. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. this shading mode may be much faster. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. then Rhino will use it. For more information. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2.opengl. zoom. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. It may not be very quick the first time. If you use OpenGL Shade. monochrome. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. the OpenGL shade options will be available. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. and no antialiasing. Subsequent renderings will be faster. The grid and axes are not shown. click Use OpenGL. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.com/software/optimizer/. 398 . If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Be patient on the first Shade. see www. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. The grid. Pan. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. with no shadows. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front.

Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. The click cannot be near curves.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. select the objects to shear. you can click on a shaded object to select it. Shear Shear objects. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. or annotation or the object will be selected. You do not have to select an isoparm. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected.Rhino 2. isoparms. points. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. 399 . ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports.

Show Show hidden objects. The edge is highlighted. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. 400 . pick the base point for the shear. At the Reference point prompt. Visibility. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. select objects and press Enter. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. If your object has broken edges. If you exit the model and reopen it.Rhino 2. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. The base point does not move with the shear. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. Broken edges show in the selected objects color.

0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. terminate the command. Status bar: Osnap 401 . Naked edges of the selected object highlight. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display.Rhino 2. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. press Enter to terminate the command. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. Camera icon. If you cannot see the naked edges. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. At the Press Enter when done prompt. The edges highlight. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Edge Tools. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. Sometimes. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface.

Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. When textures are applied to surfaces. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. To fix this. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. You will see no visible change in the surface. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . At the Select objects to show prompt. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible.Rhino 2. Original trimmed surface. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. select the objects you want to show. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Organic. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface.

if you look at a doughnut from the top. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. only backwards. 403 . Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off.Rhino 2. For example. the silhouette is two circles.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). the silhouette looks like an oval. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. Then the remaining control points are thrown away.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. If you look at a doughnut from the side. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view.

a polyline appears along your path. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Or. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command.Rhino 2. Release the mouse button.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. Sketch Sketch a curve. drag the mouse. 404 .

Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. type C. Or. select the surface to sketch on. Sketch on surface 405 . The marker is constrained to the surface. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. press Enter.Rhino 2. At the Click and drag to sketch.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. drag a curve. Type C to close the curve mid-drag.

Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. then click Control Points On.Rhino 2. From the Edit menu. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. meshes. The selected entities will appear to melt. too.00. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. Smooth works on mesh objects. In the Smooth dialog box. Smooth Smooth objects. adjust the Smooth factor.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. The larger the number. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. From the Transform menu. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. smoothing the curve or surface. select the curves. click Smooth. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. The selected control points will move slightly. click Point Editing. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces.2. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail.01 and 1. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. 406 . Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. The default is 0.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode. Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .

At the Radius prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Modeling Aids tab. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. choose a center point. or enter a distance and press Enter. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. 408 . Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. A sphere is single closed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. it is grayed out. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Note When Snap is on. choose a point for the radius. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Note This is different from the grid size. When Snap is off. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. Grid tab. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Sphere Draw a sphere. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. SnapSize Set snap size. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Second point on sphere prompt.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. 409 . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the first circumference point. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter.Rhino 2. A sphere is a single closed surface. At the Third point on sphere prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose the second circumference point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. choose the third circumference point. choose an endpoint for the diameter.

At the Radius prompt.Rhino 2. If you select Pitch. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. enter the end of the spiral axis. This is the line the spiral will wind around. 410 . Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. enter the radius for the spiral. If you select Reverse twist. At the End of axis prompt. enter the start of the spiral axis. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. enter the number of turns for the spiral. If you select Turns. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. select Turns or Pitch. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. the spiral will twist counterclockwise.

select the objects to split. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. press Enter. 411 . If you select polysurfaces with other objects. and points. surfaces.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. select the cutting objects.Rhino 2. select the curve to split. type p and press Enter. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. The marker moves along the curve. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. the polysurfaces are ignored. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. At the Select cutting objects prompt. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves.

the marker is constrained to the edge. At the Point to split edge prompt. and Right view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. or b. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. surfaces and polysurfaces. Options control the direction of the split. At the Split point prompts. to access option directly. The edge is split into two edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. Select a surface. select a point. 412 . SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. select points at which to split the surface. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms.Rhino 2. v. Front. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction.press Enter when done prompt. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Type u.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve .

Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. and then deleting the extra isoparms. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. then Split. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. 413 . and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.Rhino 2. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u.and v-directions of the surface.

The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . like gray. and position. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . At the End of cone prompt. set the radius of the spotlight. length. At the Degree in V prompt. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. The spot light icon does not render or shade. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. hotspot angle.Rhino 2. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. pick a target point for the spotlight. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. pick a location for the spotlight. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. Darker colors. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. Or. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. light the scene less. beam angle. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. enter a v-direction degree for the surface.it stays the same. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. not the range of the light. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects.

Or. choose the first corner. choose the fourth corner. At the Point prompts. 415 . enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter points until all the points have been entered. At the Second corner of surface prompt. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. At the Third corner of surface prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. At the Number of points in a column prompt. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. enter points until all the control points have been entered. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. choose the third corner. choose the second corner. press Enter to create a triangular surface.Rhino 2. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions.

33.-2.5.0 -4.33. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.5.-2.5 -4.0 0.10 -4. the surface is created but not point objects.10 -4.33.10 0.5 0. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.5 4. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order. The marker is constrained to the curve.5.0 4. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.5.-5.10 4.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.33. At the Start of curve prompt. click in the other viewport to swap.33. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.10 4.-2.5 -4. At the End of curve prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface.5.5.33. SwapView Swap views of two viewports. KeepPoints When on.33.33. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.0 -4. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0. 416 . pick a point for the new end point.-2.0 0.5.5.5.5 0. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.and v-directions of a surface.5. When off.33.33.2.2.33. pick a point for the new start point.2. copy it.Rhino 2.-5.5.5 4. select the following text.5. SwapUV Swap a the u. select a curve.5.5.5.2.2.2. and run the CommandPaste command.-2.0 4.33.-2.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.-5.

Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. reversing the direction of the curve. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. adjust options. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. the new surface should also be tangent. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. 417 . Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. the shape will twist with the surface edge.Rhino 2. select the single rail curve for sweeping. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface.

Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. The swept surface is created. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. 418 . If you use the Smooth option.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves.Rhino 2. the cross section curves need to be compatible. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. Preview Click to preview the surface. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. With closed rail curves. reversing the direction of the curve. If you don't use Smooth. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. (The original curves are not modified. Note To create a single surface. adjust options.

use the Maintain height option. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. 419 . Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling.Rhino 2. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.

0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. but want to control where the sweep ends. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. one of two possible surfaces appears. If you use the Rebuild option. If you get the wrong surface.) With closed rail curves. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. and continues to the ends of the rails. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature.Rhino 2. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. To create a single surface. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If you don't use Rebuild. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. (The original curves are not modified. Preview Click to preview the surface.

enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. At the End of taper axis prompt. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. At the Start of taper axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. 421 . Taper Taper objects. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them.Rhino 2. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing.

The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. Taper moves the control points of objects. You can't taper a polysurface . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. End of cone prompt. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. second Radius prompt. TCone Draw a truncated cone. choose a radius for the base of the cone.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter.Rhino 2. curves. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a center point for the base. 422 . All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. and meshes. surfaces. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. you will only taper that part of the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt.only control points. Radius prompt.

Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. It will not show in a perspective view. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. in the form of curves. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. surfaces.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text.25 inches. and XP. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. When you place annotation text. In the Edit Text dialog box. Example If your units are inches. The two sizes update each other. 2000. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Type the text. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.Rhino 2. 423 . The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. set the options. enter the start position for the text. or solids based on TrueType fonts. or solids. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor.

select a font. select Surfaces. In the Font Style box. Under Create. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . in the Font box. in the Font box. In the Text height box. In the Text box. The text appears in the Sample window. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.Rhino 2. In the Text height box. specify the height of the text characters. select Solid. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. In the Font Style box. select a style. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Under Create. select a font. type text characters to make into surfaces. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. select a style. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. specify the height of the text characters. The text appears in the Sample window. In the Text box. type text characters to make into solids.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box.

adjust the size of buttons. Top Set to world top view. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. the screen position of each toolbar. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. create new toolbars. add new buttons to toolbars. 425 . the buttons in them. import toolbars from a different workspace file. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. The workspace holds the toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.Rhino 2. and whether it is hidden or showing. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box.

Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. choose a center point. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. select objects you want to trim other objects with. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. At the Radius prompt.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. press Enter. you must edit your Rhino. When you are finished selecting objects. At the Second radius prompt. press Enter. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. click the parts of objects to trim away. 426 .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. When you are finished trimming. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

At the first Radius prompt.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. surfaces and polysurfaces. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. At the second Radius prompt. 427 . imaginary extensions of the line are used.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Tube Draw a tube. To trim a surface with more than one curve. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. or use Split. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. and Right view. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. Front. use trim several times. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. choose a center point for the tube's base. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. choose a radius for the tube wall size.

Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Note The view rotates about the target point. Press Esc to stop the turntable. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces.Rhino 2. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. and Render Preview. Twist Twist objects. 428 . Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. Shade. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable.

Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. At the End of twist axis prompt. and meshes. the following prompt appears. General tab. If you entered a point to rotate from. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers.only control points. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Or. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. or transform commands. edit. curves. 429 . The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. type in an angle. you will only twist that part of the object. surfaces. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. type c and press Enter. choose a second point on the axis. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. viewports. choose a point on the twist axis. to twist copies of the objects. The opposite to undo is Redo. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo.Rhino 2. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. Undo Undo the last command. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. You can't twist a polysurface . or construction planes. Twist moves the control points of objects. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted.

Rhino 2. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. their normals are flipped.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. 430 . all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. Render your mesh. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. For example. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. This makes this command scriptable. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. If some of the faces that should render disappear.

Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. Use UnifyMeshNormals. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. normals point the wrong way. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. When polysurfaces are meshed. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. If you see inside the mesh. the packed texture coordinates are created. The 431 .0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. Once the normals are correct. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. If more than one object is selected. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. select the objects you want to unlock. Export in desired format. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. 3DFace object. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal.Rhino 2. For example. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. In general. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. explode it. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. All polygons have a face normal direction. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. re-join the meshes. UnLock Unlock locked objects.

If the surface is developable. 432 .0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. Unpacked textures. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. Polysurface made of four surfaces. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. select a surface or curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. Packed textures.Rhino 2. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point.

or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. Surface Tools. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. 433 .Rhino 2. you can remove the trim curves. it may be geometrically developable. an information message is printed at the command line.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. Surfaces such as spheres. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. In Rhino. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. Toolbar: Menu: Main. This command may take some time. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. removing any attached geometry. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. This is not like folding out a box. Curves on a surface can also be developed. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. a developable surface has to be single span linear. tori. but not meet that requirement. an information message is printed at the command line. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. If the surface grows or shrinks in area.

Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Trimmed surface. Untrim removes the trimming curve.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. Untrim joined polysurfaces.Rhino 2. 434 .

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view.

Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box.0001). Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Appearance tab. you can change the lens length of the camera. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. 436 . Target The camera target location in world coordinates.3921 (+/. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap.0. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu.Rhino 2. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target.

second moments. If an edge point was picked. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. 437 .6.7e-007). enter a radius for this point. select a surface or part of a polysurface. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.-4e016. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. choose a point on the edge. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.2e-007.Rhino 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt.9553974. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. product moments. At the End radius <x> prompt. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.3. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.1. select a surface or part of a polysurface. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.7e-007. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt. enter or drag a radius. At the Start radius prompt.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. First moments. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.6.4649522 (+/. At the Point on edge prompts. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.

use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. or rotate your view.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. pan. Weight Edit control point weight. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. 438 . The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. It does not change when you zoom. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges.Rhino 2. In other cases. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider.

C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. see the SetPt command. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. 439 .0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. To get this to happen.Rhino 2. To perform a similar operation with control points. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. At the Angle tolerance prompt. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. texture mapping on mesh objects. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. and file export for stereolithography. In our case. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. No points in the blue mesh are welded. If we want a smooth roof. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. they are replaced by a single mesh point. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. When shaded. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. we can use weld with an angle of 40. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees.

To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. See Importing and exporting STL files. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. then Weld (angle=180). 3D Studio MAX). It does not physically fuse the vertices. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. they always get welded. Welding in MAX is different. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. they must be joined before welding is effective. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. the bottom right is (1. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. top left is (0. Thus. 440 .1). This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image.1) and top right (1. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information.0). Weld does not report the results on the command line. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. Use JoinMesh. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values.

Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. At the Select object prompt. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. surface.0 Command Reference What Display object information.Rhino 2. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. World axes icon on 441 . axes. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. object highlighting. the grid. The wireframe of the objects. select a curve. or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. In the Zebra Options dialog box. When objects are rendered in Rhino. where white is the closest to your eye.Rhino 2. and color. 442 . Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering .0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. WorldYAxisIcon=. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. on the Shade tab. set the stripe direction.ini file set the color for the icon. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. and black is the farthest away. size. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it.

the surfaces touch. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. curvature. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. 443 .0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. this means the position. and curvature between the surfaces match. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection.Rhino 2. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. tangency. These meshes can be large. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. MatchSrf. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. Tangent matches. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. and other important properties. Position. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. curvature. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network.

on the Shade tab. but will always work.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. in the Options dialog box. select More reliable. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. 444 . Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom.Rhino 2. When Faster is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. under Zebra and EMap. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. If you have a wheel mouse. When More reliable is selected. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. ZoomNext Redo the last view change.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport.

When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. drag a window to zoom. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. This is particularly useful in perspective views. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. 446 . type a zoom factor and press Enter. At the Zoom factor prompt.Rhino 2. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. pick a point for the center of the view. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. ZoomWindow Zoom window. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. Note In a perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. If you have problems with ZoomWindow.

139 AlignOnSrf command. 5. 151. 5. scale factor. 152 AnnotateDot command. 5. 135 4View command. 251. 151 arrow annotation object. 137 AddPrevV command. 62 447 . 127. 152. 149. 5. 205. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command.Rhino 2. 5. 143 ArcDir command. 144. 206. 206. set up function key for click. 149 ArrayPolar command. 29 3DFace command. 5. 162. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. circular. 207. 5. 203. 140 Along object snap. 232. 141 ApplyCurves command. 5. 187. 139 Align3D command. to suspend object snaps. DOS. 215 annotation. 31 AG file exchange. 340. 88. 28. 136 AddNextV command. 149. DWG file exchange. 265. 205. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange.0. 33. import. 206. rectangular. 27. 140. 5. 170 2-D drawings from model. 149. 5. 215. 144 Arc command. 141 arc: extend by. 255. 5. 204. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 5. Release 12 export. 368. set ortho. 144. 231. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 143 3Box command. 207. 169 3CPlane command. 206. 150 ArraySrf command. 150. 305. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. profile curves. 149 ArrayCurve command. MAX 2. 125 array: along a curve. 151 ArraySurface command. create planar sections. 27. disconnect.5. 212. 140 angle:. 10. 135 ACIS file export. 53. DXF file exchange. 139 AlignTrace command. 385 analyze:. 251. 312 AngleLine command. 150. shortcuts. from start. 5. 205. 5. 152 AutoCAD. with a MicroScribe. to copy while dragging. 203. 148. 330. 393 34View command. 5. 2. 144 arc:. from three points. MAX 2. 205. pause input. 145 AreaMoments command. 142. 141 ApplyCrv command. 204. 220. 146 arguments at the command line. 307. MAX 3. 5. 127. 324 3Rectangle command. 123. from the last point. 221. 203. 144. 14. 5. 150. toolbar button function. polar. 5. built into Rhino. 82 AlongTan object snap. 163 3Circle command. end and direction. 32 AGLib file exchange. 407. 279 2Sphere command. 150. 3. 180. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 152 ASAP file exchange. 281 AttachEnd command. 34. 135 3Arc command. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 55 Ascii STL tag. initialize. 30 add object to selection.0 OBJ. 24 AddNextU command. 139. 143. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 393 3View command. 152 Arrow command. 5. 151. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 207. 221. 426 Analyze toolbar. 28. 5. 152. 152 Attach command. 5. set spacing between points. 5. export options. 197. 322.0 IGES. 28. 251. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 152. 143 Arc3Pts command. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 148 Array toolbar. 206. 140. dot. measure between two lines. 5. 298. 312 Angle command. MAX 3. 5. 412 Annotate toolbar. 251. 5. 323 3-D digitizing:. 245. 426 angle: constraint. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 27. 204. 144 Area command. 205. 251. 34. command aliases. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 198. 151 array:. 361. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 26. 305. options. 362 3Plane command. suspend autoclose. 29. 76. 138 AddToGroup command. 144 ArcTTR command. 143. 142 Arc toolbar. 230. 123 Arrowhead command. around a pole. 333. 138 adjust end bulge. 149 Array command. set scale. MAX 1. 53. 35. 232 Arc3Pt command. tangent to two curves. 53 aliases. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. export. extend to a point. 33. add notes to the model. 180. 215. 210. arrowhead on curve. 346 3Sphere command. 133. 195. 29. 333. 309 AlignProfiles command. 229. 150. 144 ArcSER command. 29. 151 ArrayCrv command. end and radius. 148. 10. 135 3DM file exchange. 205. 145 AreaCentroid command.2. calibrate. 143. 255. 192. 139 All command. 28. 168. on a surface. with FaroArm. 33. 140 Align command. dimension. 255. 123 2Circle command. 239. 88 align: background bitmap. VIZ. 231. 2. 281 Audit command. 141 ApplyMesh command. 5. 152 arrowhead on curve. 136 AddPrevU command. 5. 152. 308 align:. 140. 207. 3DS file format. 5.0 Command Reference Index !. 230. 82 Alt key. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. sketch curve with. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 266 animate view. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 14. arrow.

from three points. 167. edit button icons. surface degree. 363. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 322. 168 CheckInLicense command. 292 Box command. 115. 245. toolbar button image. 122. 321. 366. 232 Clipboard. from three points. 163. 425. 156 blend:. 170 CircleTTR command. 168. copy toolbar button. 124. 351. 170 Circle command. 365. 162. 158. 322. 165 Chamfer command. object properties. place. 166 ChangeLayer command. 184. move background. 168 Check command. 292 Box3Pt command. sphere. paste from. 198. tangent to two curves. 133. 351. 297. 124. 39 Boolean. radius. 171. 369 C2View command. 122. 161 Bottom command. 157. 321. as 256-color bitmap. 123. 322. 198. set construction plane x. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. center of. 162. 363. edit toolbar. 124. 243. 368 Baseball command. 79 center:. 153 BD command. 249. 54 autosave: file location.0 file exchange. 5. 159. 229. 163 box:. 130. union. 172. move toolbar button. 160. 85. 184. 90. 90. area. 157. 163. 122. display grid. polygon mesh. 170. 168 choose one object. 90 ChangeDegree command. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 249. toolbar. 349 ClearUndo command. 164. 321. 171 clear. 384. 113. 5. 169 CircleD command. 123. 168. 161 BooleanDifference command. ellipsoid. 164. two surfaces. background. 297. scale. 171. 133. 338. 123 Cap command. 139. use. 232 CATIA file exchange. 101. 384. remove background. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 321. command. 351. 2. 90. 179. 116. 162. copy to. 162 box: from length. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 124. 133. 184. 365. 312. clear undo. 169 Circle3Pts command. 322. 123. to the Clipboard. 154 Between object snap. 125. to current layer. 118. 133 BU command. 124. set construction plane z. 351. render meshes when saving file. 145. from center. save button image to file. 425 Back command. undo buffer. 123. 161 buffer. align backgound. settings. 154. 249. delete toolbar button. remove. time control. as bitmap. troubleshooting. show hidden background. 123. 5 bumpmap for rendering. with toolbar button. 139. 384 bad objects. 168. 250 centroid. 171. 166. 249. edit button image. 160 Bend command. floatation. 123. 102. 170. layer. 39 BMRT support. 421 BlendSrf command. 169. 169. place background. 162 bottom view. tangent to three curves. 101. 366 CArc command. 154. 24 circle: by diameter. 5. 170 CircleTTT command. 162 BoundingBox command. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 321. 153 back view. 250. 165 change. 165 ChamferSrf command. 172 CLine command. 153. 322 blend: curve. 320. 133. 171 Circle3Pt command. 365. 122. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 124. 199. 172. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 139. 168 check objects for errors. 163 B-spline. 153 background bitmap: align. 161. difference. 170. 384. snap size. 161. backdrop for rendering. 160 BooleanUnion command. 12. 168. selection. 316. 5. 56 cancel command. 366. 365. 168. 166. 160 bi-rail sweep. 5. 179 BI command. 245. 365. 392. 123. 164 cap open planar ends. 231 CArcPt command. 56 center: buoyancy. 362 ClearMesh command. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 409. lock. 312. 5. 162 Box toolbar. 5. 55 BringViewportToTop command. capture button image. 164 chamfer:. 249. render meshes. 250 button. 123. 156. toolbar button tooltip. 320. cut. 322. 297. 154 baseball-style seams. use for tracing. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 421 Blend command. 5. 163 Box3Pts command. 156. 160. 402 Bisector command. 297. 384 background bitmap:. 171. 125. 124 capture viewport. 139. 13. 243. height. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 171 circle:. hide. 204 camera. 180. move. 392. 316 448 . ortho angle. 114. 5. variable radius between surfaces. width. 250. 155 bitmap. 157. 367. 250 Center object snap. 338 buoyancy. 124 C command. scale background. intersection. 170. 297. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 160. 180. convert NURBS curve to. toggle world icon. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 367. 351. 124. 90 Autosave command. 152. clear button image. 139. surface. 55 axis. 172. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 145 chamfer: two curves. hide background. 172 built-in aliases. 152 autosave:.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 84 Bezier curve. toolbar layout. 168 Circle toolbar. import button image. 167. with Esc key. 323. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. the layer of an object.Rhino 2. place. undo levels. show. 39 BMP file format. 5. 5. select. 368.

181 CopyViewToAll command. holes in surfaces. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. relative polar coordinates. 183. 155. turn grid on or off. view to all viewports. 35 command: alias. 172 Closest point to an object. view bottom of. 138. previous. set extents of. 413 command aliases. 140. 90. 126 conic: curve. 115. 327 Cob command. 235. 10. copy settings of one to the all. 182. 176. set distance between grid lines. 115. 88. toggle world coordinate entry. 173. set front. 406 Cone command. named construction plane. 119. 21. objects. 343. view back of. 5. options. read from file. 180 copy:. 10. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 182. 179. 155. settings of one construction plane to all. 5. 373. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. options. 173 CommandPrompt command. 218 Contour command. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 228. select next in u-direction. 292. add previous in u-direction to selection. 180. 11. 184. 14. wheel. 75. 173 command names. 339. 5 CPlaneObject command. 339. 181. curve. select previous in u-direction. 336. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 375. 419. 131. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 195 cone: cone. 195 color. display axes. 154. 173. hide. 122. 75. 5. 18. 419. 182 CPlaneO. 172 cloud of points. select previous in v-direction. 183. 13. 245. 374. 183. 131 control points. 398. 125. toolbar button. 136. 57 CPDash command. 126. assign to mouse buttons. 2. turn on. 202. 12. display. 245. 177. 75 comma-delimited file export. set to view. 422. 176 ConicPerp command. set weight. 174. 10. 164. 84. move all through a point. history. set right. 362. 12. 11. place point objects on. 172 CloseViewport command. 375. 172. add previous in v-direction to selection. 166. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. macro. 181. 173 COn command. 234. move to coordinate location. 172. 125. G0. 180. 180. 138. 250. 2. 177 contour curves. 123. 183. taper. 184. 133. 177 continuous shading. 75. 178 CPHighlight command. 180. 85. 245. 173. select next in v-direction. 419. 173 commands: list of all. 422. 180. 5. project object snap to. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 175. bend. 181 CPlaneFront command. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 342. 183. curve and surface. 342. 338. relative coordinates. move in u-. 380. 176. 246. next. add next in v-direction to selection. plan view. weld. 249. 178. project objects to. 359. 303. 122. 5 command:. 136. 298. 90. 298. set normal to curve. 405. Esc to cancel. turn off. 343. set the number of thin gridlines. 235. 179. display in clipboard or history. 5. 179 Coons patch. 137. 11. undo. 136. 5. move through a point. 84. 303. rotate. create curve from. 123. 345. 11. 173. and ndirections. 406. 181. 245. 174 conic:. 15 construction plane. toggle display. 88. 362. set top. 173. 197. dialog box. set origin of all construction planes. draw curve using. 131. 386. set to previous. 11. 88. 373. 89. 303.0 Command Reference close. layer. 181 CPlaneNext command. 88. 172 ClosestPt command. make all have same orientation. 183. 181 Copy command. 5. entering coordinates. 335. angle. highlight. 114. view left of. polar coordinates. 5. 174. 119. 386. 126. 182. 217 COff command. select row on surface. 335. 181 CopyClip command. 172. 398. 176 constraint. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 131 command history. 359. list. construction plane coordinates. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. paste from clipboard. 419. 406 ConfigScript command. 419. 181. 182 449 . 5. 183. 181. 323. 379 control polygon. render window.Rhino 2. set to object. 181. view front of. set to vertical. along line. list all. render window to Clipboard. 245. extract. display for a point. viewport. 133. G1. 323. 137. 338. world coordinates. 173. 182. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 178. 246. 5. 419 context menu. 11. 184. set display density. set to x-axis. 166. 12. 114. render. rendering to Clipboard. 251 command area. 246. 184. distance. set to 3 points. 173 Commands command. 339. 173. G2. 379. 2. shortcut. 338. 180. set to z-axis. 292. 11. 246. 178 control point definition. view right of. 4. 335. 140. View top of. 173 commands:. toolbar. 219 coordinate entry. set to next. 172 ClosePoint command. false. 125. display recently used. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 74. select row in vdirection. 178 control vertex. 379. 234. 104. 11 copy: command shortcut. 104. objects to Clipboard. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. toggle construction plane entry. set origin. show hidden. v-. 88. 176 Conic command. 174. 304. 11 coordinates. import from 3DM file. 181 CPlane3Pts command. for spotlight editing. script. old. 297. 89. 182. move along Z. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 181. 406. 2 command line. save. coordinates. 182. 172. 173 cone:. 172 CommandPaste command. 75. 14. coincident. 184. 89. arguments. toggle display of. 131 ControlPolygon command. 126. 419. 327. 177. 245. 344. AutoCAD. add next in u-direction to selection. 297. perpendicular to curve. 15. 249. delete from a curve. add to surface. 197. 228. 125. truncated. 164. 75 continuity. 75. 413 CommandHistory command. 202. polygon mesh.

258. 236. 184 CPlaneX command. 269 Curve command. 4. 235. 258. 187. 187 CrvStart command. 232. helix. line normal to a surface. 2. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 177. 164. ellipse. 143. 183 CPlaneRight command. extract wireframe from surface. 268. 141. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 4. 369. 141. 144. smooth. 4. circle by diameter. 15. 25. 311. fair. line. 235. 330. 239. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 217. 202. 222. 253. 196. 185. 281. 248. 143. 226. sketch on polygon mesh. 343. 191. 187. curvature graph. 255. bounding box. 268. 197. 202. 139. 330. 233. 197. 369. 131. 177. 170. 198 Ctrl+Y. 142. select all. 238. 4 Ctrl+V. 307 Ctrl+P. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 190 CullCP command. 4. 162. 162 CrvDeviation command. 194. fillet. 398 CreateUVCrv command. extend by line. 268. 190 cursor. sketch on surface. 257. 256. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 156. toggle. 369 crossing selection. 133. 90. 265. line perpendicular to two curves. 256. 231. 24 curvature: analyze curve. direction. 267. 218. match ends. 323. polyline. 184 CPlaneView command. extrude along path. 257. 3 Ctrl+C. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 2. 226. 174. 2. 254. point. 2 Ctrl+S. 168. points. 218. 162 CurveEnd command. 165. 157. 255. from point cloud. 387 Curve toolbar. 255. 187 CurveSketch command. 183 CPlaneToView command. 165. 213. interpolate through polyline. 298. 213. line vertical to construction plane. 333. 316 Ctrl+X. simplify. 189 crosshairs. 195. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 2. 346 cross sections through profiles. 3 crossing:. 305. 245 Curvature command. conic. arc. 236. 389. end. pull to surface. apply to surface. extend to surface boundary. 217. 236. 216. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 395. 195. 390. raise degree. duplicate edge of surface. 183 CPlaneTop command. 4. silhouette. adjust seam point. 343. 197. 144. 387. circle tangent to two curves. 165. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 339. measure radius. circle from center. 298. extend by arc to a point. 189. 388. 387 curve:. 394. 387. 155. crosshairs. mean. 232. 24. refit. 256. polyline through point objects. analyze surface. 305. 281. 156. align in two views. 238. adjust end bulge. 281. 197. 334. circle from three points. 340. 389. 189. 174. 369 Crv2View command. 170. 15. 192. 15 crossing: select with mouse. display graph. interpolate on surface. graph on. marker. extend by arc. radius. 169. parabola. tracking line. 133. 165. contour. 231. 239. 168. 269. 267. 268. 170. 3. 239. 189 CSV export. 195. periodic. 187. revolve. 2. 14. 258. from 2 views. 254. 195. constrain to ortho. convert to Beziers. 351. 391. intersect two objects. insert edit point. 131. 238. 195. 230. arc tangent to two curves. 255. 333. 235. 164. remove knots. 241. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 184 CPlaneZ command. 141. 155. 339. 182 CPlanePrev command. 355. 2. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. line segments. make periodic. curvature graph off. line tangent to two curves. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 304. rebuild. 169. 226. 389. 189. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. Gaussian. sketch. add knots. 230. 265. 327. 184 CPTog command. 13. arc from three points. 217. 241. 339. 270. 156 CurveBox command. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 348 Ctrl+Z. 314. extract isoparms from surface. 185 CRectangle command. place point at start. 175. from interpolated points. extrude to point. 197 curve degree. surface from network. 194. 302 Ctrl+O. 388. 186. 271. 367. 185 CrvBox command. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 306. 185. 198 CutPlane command. 189 CSec command. 187 CrvSeam command. divide by number of segments. arc from start. 188. 164. project onto surface. extrude straight. 367. 271. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 187 CrvEnd command. 304 Ctrl+A. 144. 387. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. selection. 197.Rhino 2. 179. 337. measure between two curves. 195. 187 CurveOverlap command. flatten section of. 197 curve. 2. 221. 327. 394 CurveBlend command. 241. 180 Ctrl+N. 15. 257. bisector line. constrain along line. delete control points. 233. 253. 174. 179. 187 CurveSeam command. 184 CPlaneV command. 326. 142. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 248. 169. 389 CurveStart command. 179. 343. 194. 195. 162. 239. 249. convert to polyline. blend. 221. 248. graph off. 197. 279. 4. 326. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 337. 311. 356. 232. 234 CreatePCurves command. 90. 24. 156. 156. 195. 314. 305. 178. 216. 236. 390. 218. 24. section. 367. 388. extend. 4. 139. place point at end. tangent line. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. 355. 337. single line. 304. from control points. 323. 239. constrain to plane. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 305. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 334.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 281. 191 curvature:. 191. offset. duplicate border of surface. 270. 200 450 . 177. 340. 389. 230. 188. chamfer. spiral. 351. 185. cross sections through profiles. constrain parallel to view plane. 187.

212 disconnect digitizer. 293 data structure for object. vertical. 209. options. 197. 215 drafting. in Trim command. 243 DirectionalLight command. toolbar. polygon mesh. set scale. 210. radius. 215 draft angle. objects. 122. 288. 201. toggle. 384. aligned.Rhino 2. 207. shortcuts. edit text. 425. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 202. lines. 196. 206 DigSection command. 372 Deselect command. tolerances. border of surface. button image. 203 develop a surface. 127. 210 Dir command.ini. 217 draw. 245. 201 cylinder:. 416 developable surface definition. 205 DigDisconnect command. 288. 218. 34 DXF file exchange. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 206. 219. 2. 166. 293 Cylinder command. reverse object direction. 384. 344. 385. 251. 239. naked edges. Boolean. 15 Distance command. 168. edge of surface. 204 DigClick command. 202 delete:. 212. 160. 195. 212 display:. 250 display: bitmap window. 105. 45 dirty looking rendering. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 178. 197. 209. 215 dot:. recenter text. set up function key for click. 18. planar section. 208 difference. 251 dot: annotation. 209 DimVertical command. 144 direction. 265. 206 DigSketch command. 206. curve. 208. 217. 368. 211. 106. 3-D digitizing. 338. 279 Dragmode. 260. Render Mesh tab. viewport properties. 210 DimHorizontal command. rotated. 119. horizontal. points at naked edges. grid axes. 23. 272. calibrate. 395. 208. 298 DigPause command. 205 DigScale command. 207 DimAligned command. 279. 265. control points. object. 123. select all objects. 210 DirArc command. diameter. 127. 384. edit points. 218. object discription. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 22. 245. 385. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 370. 17. 210 Dimensions toolbar. toolbar button bitmap icons. change. display curve or surface. 131 Ebroken command. 10. 410. 218. 122 Delete command. 10. 212 distance: constraint. 107. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 33 DynamicShading command. 216 Drape command. intialize. 213 dock a toolbar. 213 Divide command. 207. 91. 208 DimRadius command. 277 diagnostics. 196.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 370. command button. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 330. Notes tab. 133. 202. 2. 384 diameter dimension. 209. 208. isoparm density. 19. create 2-D curves. 120 document properties: notes. 205. in Split command. display broken. 260. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. Rhino. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 15. 206. 411. 121. 209. 205 digitize. 204. 217. 23 distance:. 209 DimRotated command. 214 domain: match. 213. toolbar button. 202 DeleteAll command. 220. set spacing between points. 123 451 . 12. change degree of surface. 3-D polygon mesh face. 344. 214 domain:. 251 Domain command. 17. 384 edge: create curve from. 19 DocumentProperties command. 372 DetachTrim command. 219. 205. 207 DimDiameter command. 108 Dup command. raise curve degree. 217 DupBorder command. 209 DimRecenterText command. 206 DigSpacing command. 215 Dot command. sketch curve. grid. 19 document properties:. 212. 160 Dig command. 217. 396 edge:. 124. 217 DrapePt command. 216. 203. 19. layer. 218 e_tol. 212 distance display. 208. wallpaper. 218. pause input. 212 DisableOsnap command. annotation text. 104. 330. select all. 260. 396 EdgeSrf command. 121. 165 Delcam file exchange. 344. polylines. naked. 210. 22. persistent object snaps. 202. merge. 202 Deselect All. 220. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. surfaces. 372 DeselectAll command. 217 drape surface. 220. hydrostatic calculation. join two out of tolerance edges. 218 duplicate. 208 dimension. 135. curve by number of segments. 243. split. 88. 385. 165. 135. 209. 22. options. 85. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. with FaroArm. 210. 104. 370. 207. 203 DigCalibrate command. 213 divide:. 132. 17. 207. 422 Display command. 208 DimOptions command. 395. render mesh settings. disconnect. 127. units. 205 displacement. 370 DWG file exchange. 132. rebuild. broken edges. 15 divide: curve by length. 166. with MicroScribe. 99 disable. 207. 385. 22 degree. 168. 123. 12. from last point. 219. control polygon. 272 date. 207 DimAngle command. 201. 250. 205. angle between lines. 330. summary. 167. show. 211 DirectX file export. 288. 19. dimension text. 217 DupEdge command. 58 delete: all objects. 213 DivideByLength command.

42. 13. Maya (IGES). 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 228 error messages. 219. surface into a solid. 220. FastShip (IGES). 236. LUSAS (IGES). 41. 123 edit:. 73. 35. 253. Delcam (IGES). 2. 30. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 220 EJoin command. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 220 EditText command. 232. 233. DirectX. 236 extrude: curve. 36. Softimage (IGES. 53. SURFCAM (IGES). 31. wireframe curves from surface. from focus points. 131. curve to surface boundary.0 (IGES). SAT file format. 46. 3D Studio MAX 3. 32. Lightwave (LWO). 133 EShow command. 72. Unigraphics (IGES). 64. Yamaha ESPRi. 63. 45. 41. 222 ellipse:. Multisurf (IGES). 229 explode:. 119. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 429 End object snap. 238. AutoCAD (DWG). 234. CAD 3D SUM 4. 58. 343 ElmoSrf command. 260 elevator mode. control polygon. 416 explode: NURBS objects. SolidWorks (IGES). 232. 40. 46. 238. 237. 47. 236 Extrude toolbar. Integrity Ware (IGES). 232. 35. 131 FAQ. 33. 30. 55. 61. 45. 45. 43. 54. 224 erase objects. 52. 1 Faro command. Cosmos/M (IGES). 238 F1. 60. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 230. 44. 385 ESplit command. 40 errors in model.0 (OBJ). object properties to file. 231. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). GHS. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 2. 235 ExtractPt command. 26. turn on. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 58 FastSURF file exchange. curve. 127 Esc key. 26. 62. 55. 45. 59. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. curve by offset. 229 Exit command. 65. 55. 78 EndBulge command. 42. 229. 55. 229 Explode command. 92. 236. 40. 57. 62. 238. 37. 223 elliptical conic curve. 3D Studio (3DS). Alias (OBJ). 41. 26. 35. 229 export:. 230. 63. 73. IGES. 51. Mastercam (IGES). 231. 63. 67. 230. TekSoft IGES. 231. Metastream. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). Alias (IGES). 30. VRML. 233 extend:. 69. 61. 228 expand a surface. 232. 71. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 356. 74. 236. 235. polygon mesh. curve along path. CADCEUS (IGES). 229 export. 58 452 . insert on curve. 70. 54. 60. 69. 231. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 59. 396 EvaluatePoint command. 69. 13. surface from polysurface. 56. unable to run program renrib. 230 extend. 239 FastShip file exchange.Rhino 2. 33. 221. CamSoft (IGES). 227. turn off. 233 ExtendByArc command. show. surface. 227 environment map. Solid Designer (IGES). 12. 58. PostScript. 12 Enter:. 51. 56. 45. 234 Extend command. Moldex DXF. 222 EllipseEnds command. export to. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 239 false color display.0 Command Reference edit points. 233. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 234. ME30 (IGES). Catia (IGES). 133 enter coordinates. by line. 154 Ellipsoid command. 29. 233 extract. 45. Wavefront (OBJ). 74 Export command. 238 Extrude command. CSV file. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 73. NASA GridTool. 239 fair curve. arc to a point. 356 extrude:. by arc. 60. 72. Plug-in). 46. command aliases. 64. space and rightmouse click. 385 EnakedPt command. 42. triangles. 11. 65. 46. 57. 62. 133 Escape key. Microstation (IGES). 253. STL. 228 exit Rhino. curve on surface. 71. Pro/E (IGES). Tebis IGES. 31. 4 F9. 236. 232 ExtendByLine command. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 64. 58. 223 ellipsoid:. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 236. 219 EditPtOn command. 230 Extend toolbar. AutoShip (IGES). 233. IronCAD (IGES). 61. Commadelimited file. 222 Ellipse command. 71. 228 Excel. 344 EMap command. 221. 53. 35. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 53. FastSURF (IGES). Applied Geometry (AG). 58. 36. 54. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 63. 128. AUTOFORM (IGES). 224 EMerge command. 68. Solid Edge (IGES). 420 EditDim command. 32. 288 Enaked command. 231. raw triangles (RAW). 92. 228 EvaluateUV command. mesh to IGES file. 37. 226 endpoint object snap. POVRay (POV). isoparms from surface. 31. 52. 235. 3D Studio MAX 3. 3. 330 End key. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 35. 67. AutoCAD (DXF). 4 F8. 29. 10. 73. 202. 68. 37. 229. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 4 Fair command. 123. 233 ExtendSrf command. 45. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 124. 12 ELine command. 93. 70. 228 EvaluatePt command. surface. 174 Elmo command. SLA. 220. 33. 230. ACIS. 235 ExtractSrf command. Viewpoint Technologies.0 (IGES). 133. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. NuGraf (IGES). 36. 221 EllipseD command. 48. 236. 53. OptiCAD (IGES). 59. curve to point. 44. 2. Moray (UDO). 4 F2. options. 56.

249 HidePoints command. 244 Flow command. 81 Front command. 380 GridAxes command. 194. 362 File toolbar. 379. 1. run application from inside Rhino. new. 55. objects. 46. 240 filter the layer display.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 279. 64. 242 flatten. 377. 307. 415 GHS file export. 104 fit a plane through points. 241 FlatShade1 command. text. 133. 133. 2 hidden layer name. 2. center of. 246 GridSize command. 172 hold. 249 highlight in rendering. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 250. 192. edit toolbar button. 61. 133. 2. 50. control point. 386. 49 IGES export:. shortcut. 122 font. 249. 361. 236. 60. 249 HidePt command. 220. wireframe. 278. 277. 131. 262. curve. 395. Breault Research's ASAP. 245. CADCEUS. 120. 246. 58. panes. 249 HideCV command. 168. 302. toolbar. command area. texture mapping coordinates. 244 Flowline command. objects. 362 file:. AUTOFORM. 245 GridOptions command. 54. 65. 46. 251. 425. periodic curve. 36 glossary terms. set snap size. control points. edge of polysurface. 246. 131. 220. 330. 134. 174 icon. save. swap hidden status. 250 Hyperbolic curve. snap to. 53. 302. 18. 246. 368. 133. text. 390. naked edge. 338 history. IGES export type details. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 67. 214 fillet. 362 FileProperties command. 250 hide: background bitmap. 251 floating license. 130 Flow along a curve. 119 HideToolbox command. 55. tolerance. 12. 171. 59. set distance between lines. set the number of lines. 49. 70. 250. objects. 135. show hidden control points. 176 Gaussian curvature. 273. 273 freeze:. 380 GridThick command. 239. 1 From object snap. 246 HBarSrf command. edit points. 133. 249. 246 HBar command. 73. spacing. 50. 72. axis lock. 246. 68. 53. 119 Hide command. 131. 248 help: display Help file. 336. 262. 378. 262. toolbar. units. 277. 133. 255. 244 front view. keep last used on top. 246 Group objects for selection. 325 FixCurveEnd command. initial mesh grid. save as. 235 FltE command. 249. 124. 212 frequently asked questions. 63. 123. 396. 1 Help command. edit using. 103 hidden objects. 246 handlebars. 426. 46. 377 Group command. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 240. 203. definition. NURBS. 378. 386. 348. 262. 273. 229. 380. Enter key. 119 HideTrace command. 122. 228. 74. 242 FlatShadeAll command.0. 1. object names. 245. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 130. 273 ghost:. show selected. 62. 241 FitPlane command. 55.Rhino 2. 360. 250. 407. 251. periodic surface. normal. 52. 385. open. 47. 429 Horizon command. 134. 273. 5. developable surface. 307. 246 Gridsnap command. Unicode. unlock locked objects. 261.turn on or off. import. section of curve. 133. 194 GCon command. 386. 413. 379 IGES file types. polygon mesh export. 240 FilletSrf command. 131. 240 FilletEdge command. name. 325 FitCrv command. 132. 46. 305. 386. 415 Freeze command. 416. Alias|Wavefront. 360. 249 HideSwap command. 176 G2 continuity. 54. 281 FlatShade command. 132. command line. 46. 453 . AutoShip. 57. 131. 134. 273. 56. 249. 46. 132. Esc key. 239 fillet:. 417 FlattenSrf command. 55. 3D Studio MAX 3. 172. 251. 119. 249 HidePts command. 133. 245 GridSections command. 415 Ghost command. 131. template. 71. 1 help:. 259. 53. 123. types. 132. 260. 171. 246. 54. cursor. 131. 48. 135 grid: axes . 240 Flyout a toolbar. 251. turn on or off. marker. 131. 246 Heightfield command. isoparm. Ashlar Vellum. 243 Flip command. false color. 417 ghost: a layer. technical support. 416. 75 Hydrostatics command. 361. 249 hide:. 221 fonts. 229. 249. 120. simple controls. 386 HideAll command. 229. 246 group. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 122. 249. reduce size of model. 134. 176 G1 continuity. 229. surface. 250 HideToolbar command. Osnap dialog box. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 387 HSV color. 75 hue. 339. 339 HideOsnap command. seamless mesh. 245 grid:. 240 Fillet command. 407. tracking line. 337. polysurface. 380. 384. 410. 244 G0 continuity. flyout toolbar. unlock locked objects. world axes. 131. 239. status bar panes. 425 IGES: file exchange. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 133. 245 Grid command. 255. 247 Helix command. 69. 307. 250. troubleshooting import problems. set the extents of. 130. two surfaces. 243 floatation. 361. 407 freeze: a layer. 302. 123. 12 Home key. bumpmap.

255. 130 license:. 135 jagged shadows. 160 Invert command. 63. 255 Int object snap. 56. 377 LayerLock command. 132. 58. 168. 259. change to current. 70. AUTOFORM IGES.Rhino 2. FastSURF IGES. 377. 307. 76. 68. 41. 58. 104. 261 JPG. 259 join:. set material properties. 119 initial mesh grid. 63. 135. 69. 167. 41. 59 isoparametric curve. 260. set material. Microstation. 283. 55. 74 Import command. AutoCAD DXF. 46. 61. 152 Leader command. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 71. 69. 253. turn off. aliases. 72. 60. 56. new. 71. 46. 263 LayerOn command. NuGraf IGES. 351. 152. CADCEUS IGES. rename. 264 length: measure curve. 32. 263. 41. ME30 IGES. 307. Pro/E. Unigraphics. 65. 3D Studio MAX 3. Solid Designer. FastSURF. 251 import:. 99 JCAD STL export. 33. 56. 54. 56. Mastercam IGES. 104. 59. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 3D Studio 3DS. 57. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 322 JScript. 64. 71. 132. 338. SDRC's I-DEAS. TekSoft IGES. 3D Studio MAX 3. 63. 168. 60. translate IGES/Rhino. 52 import. NASA GridTool. arrowhead on curve. kink in curve. IronCAD. toolbar from another layout. 251. 101. 91. AutoShip IGES. 258 intersect:. 262. Delcam IGES. 69. 261 Lasso command. 371. 168 license manager. 65. 140. 265 Length command. 58. 15 lathe. 10. OptiCAD. 73. management. 53. CATIA IGES. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 254. definition. 74. 264 left view. Integrity Ware IGES. ME30. 168 454 . insert in surface. 57. 343. select objects by. 33. two objects. 140. 90. 58. 371. FastShip. 396. 70. 259. insert on curve or surface. curve on surface. one layer on. knot. 253 InsertKnot command. 312. 59. 343. 37. 258 IntersectCrv command. 425 ini file. 81. Softimage. 64. 60. CATIA. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 260 JoinFaces command. 63. 254. 131 insert: edit point. 59 InterpCrv command. angle from. 126 kink. 73. 104. check out from workgroup license manager. named views from a 3DM file. 42. 14. filter display. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 53. 257 intersect: Boolean. 78. 251. 103. 63. 253. 61. 61. 104. SURFCAM. 59. 62. 101 Layer pane. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. Cosmos/M. 65. Pro/E IGES. 64. 168. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 10. remove from curve or surface. Multisurf IGES. 256. 63. 70. 377. 258 intersection. 32. 68. 262 LayerOff command. 59. 101. match. 71. 104. 253. 121. match attributes. 61. 26. Maya. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 258 Intersect command. 71. 14. Softimage IGES. FastShip IGES. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 73. 46 IGES:. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. turn all layers on. 253. 261 JoinEdge command. 251 Improve command. 103. 78. 355 layer: change color. SolidWorks. 85. NASA GridTool IGES. 283. 255. 42. 70. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. SURFCAM IGES. 367 JPG file format. Solid Edge. 48. Yamaha ESPRi. 61. 46. 396. 102. 67. 257 InterpPolyline command. 66. 101. Adobe Illustrator AI. TekSoft. 73. 55. 67. 265 length:. SolidWorks IGES. 67. 101. 312. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 33. Multisurf. 262 last point. 104. IGES. 46. 103. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 132. 54. 62. 59. 264 leader:. 55. 69. 81. 263. 55. 132. Unigraphics IGES. 102. 307. 46. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 140. 72. 64. 261 JoinMesh command.0 Command Reference CamSoft. split surface at. 262 lasso selection. 253 knot. 254. objects. 29. 54. triangles. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 160. IronCAD IGES. 60. 363. 71. Raw triangles RAW. wireframe view. 56. curve.0 OBJ. 37. Microstation IGES. 26. 252 information. insert in curve. 256 interpolate. Delcam. Integrity Ware. 257. 255. 68. 132 isoparm. turn off by selecting an object. 261 JoinSrf command. 104. 53. 263. object snap. display density. Mechanical Desktop. LUSAS. 160. 256. 31. 67. 252 insert:. 121. 260. 167. 254. 253 InsertKink command. 152. 253 InsertKinks command. 57. Applied Geometry AG. Tebis IGES. 261 Join command. 160. 77. 263 Layer command. delete. select from list. construction planes from 3DM file.0 IGES. CamSoft IGES. dialog box. display for object. OptiCAD IGES. Alias IGES. 103. snap to. Ashlar Vellum IGES. turn on. 263 leader: arrow. 377 layer:. 283. 58. 254 InsertKnots command. 64. CAD 3D SUM 4. 103. 254 Insert command. SUM 4. 15. Boolean.0 IGES. 307. distance from. 264 Left command. 62. 58. Mastercam. Tebis. 366. Lightwave LWO. Maya IGES. 258 InvertPt command. AutoCAD DWG. Solid Designer IGES. Solid Edge IGES. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. change for an object. 62.0. 29. purge empty. stereolithography STL. 63. 10. 59. 72. Cosmos/M IGES. 62. surfaces. 103. 42. 73. set current. 160. 73. surface or polysurface. 60. 31. 425. 2. 69. 133 Layer toolbar. LUSAS IGES. 251 IncrementalSave command. 167. 69. definition.

84. 421. 377. 337. 62 menu: context. 266 LineAngle command. 357. 135. 304. 265. 101 manage:. 292. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 145. 105. breaking apart. unlocked objects. 331. volume. from NURBS object. 141. swap status with unlocked objects. paste script from Clipboard. 145. 131 mass properties. 212 LockSwap command.Rhino 2. perpendicular to curve. 171. 270. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 334. 194. 173. geometric continuity. 281. 155. 338. 338. 90 Main toolbar. 255. 288 Menu command. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 212. 39. 130 manage layers. 191. 267 LinePerp command. 251 merge:. 52. 339. 417 Make2D command. area moments. 268 Lines toolbar. set properties for layer. 38 match: curve ends. 210. bump. 349. 398. normal to a surface. 326. 130 map. 273 LockOsnap command. 421 MeasurePoint command. 268. seamless. 371. 279 Make2d4View command. 37 line: at angle from line. 125. create. 333. 74. 146. surface. 342. 288. 365. snap to. 268. 399. cylinder. 187. plane. 267 LinePP command. segments. clear render mesh. pop up at cursor. 272 LoadPlugin command. 212. 338. 288. 211. explode. run from shortcut key. 23. 265. select all. 330. 232. 292. select all. 358. 290. 41. 104. Rhino. 338 mapping coordinates. viewport. 284 material: for rendering. 265. 194 measure: angle. run from an alias. set for export. definition. 271. 266. 415. from closed polyline. 102. 255. 269. 334 Line4Pt command. 262. 420. 145. 213 measure:. 294. persistent object snaps. 273 lock:. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 40. 221. volume moments. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. distance. 266. 294. apply to surface. 37 M command. 296 macro. 273 Loft command. 290. 292. 123. 304. 84. 284 MatchLayer command. 420. 140. 378. 268. 281 manage: license. 12. 140. 228 LooseLoft command. 421 Measure command. 229. 61 mean curvature. texture. 92. tangent to a curve. 288 menu:. polyline through point objects. 39. 273 Lock command. 371. curve curvature. 268. 334. export to IGES file. 213. 86 lights. 333. 288. 267. toggle display. 173. 255. 296. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. single line. 273 Logoff command. 12. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 211. 261. 269. 410. 240. 267. extend by. 377 Maximize command. 273. 266. clear render mesh for all objects. 283 MatchSrf command. 363. 135. 268 Lines command. 293. 245. 334 merge: surface. volume centroid. 272 list data structure of an object. 340. decrease number of faces. density for primitives. 262. 86 material:. polyline. 228. 194 MaxViewport command. length. 288 maximize:. spotlight. 239. 228 Logout command. 288. 378 maximize: current viewport. vertical to construction plane. 273. layer attributes. 179. axis. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 187. 288 Merge command. 281. insert straight segment into curve. 290. options. 74. 88. 261. 290. 296. 155. BMRT. 293. 256. 24 menu bar. 329. 23. 265. 328. set viewport. 232. 145. 348. 288 MergeSrf command. 329. 145. box. 62 ME30 file exchange. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 334 LineTan command. 371. from four points. detailed options. 281 match:. 245. 125. 126. 333. area centroid. 212. objects. 103 locked objects. 265 line:. 33. select naked edges. 345. two adjacent edges of a surface. 333. 269 LineTP command. 259. 283. reduce density. 266 Line4pts command. 420. run with middle mouse. deviation between two curves. 212. 415 locked layer name. 75. 267. 271 List command. deviation of points and curves from a surface. 225. 224. 180. tangent to two curves. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 377 maximum curvature. 155. 271. unlock locked objects. 269. 289. 272 LoadScript command. 92. 342. 61 MDT IGES options. 288 Maya file exchange. 148. 229. 88. 270 LineTT command. 123. layer. clear at save time. 270. 395. 191. 212. 161. run from toobar button. 145. perpendicular to two curves. 287 Match command. 286. 396. 291. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 134. 3DFace. 338. 340. run from external file. 371. 377 Material properties. point. 192. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 283. directional. 142. 271 Line command. environment. 288 MergeEdge command. 228. convert each face to NURBS surface. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 134 marker definition. 156. area.0 Command Reference Light tab. 273 lock: a layer. 288. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 162. 285. radius. 304. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 273. 288 mesh: 3D face. 328. 225. 224. 284. 141. cone. 236. 348. 420. 270 LineV command. 220. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 290. 265. 266. 270. 60 LWO file exchange. join. 270. 268. 91. 455 . set for layer. 273 loft surface. bisector.

90 Midpoint object snap. 302. 84. 409. 305. 12 None command. 304. 425. 298 NamedView command. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 133. 80. 296. 62 middle mouse button function. 81. 131 NoElev option. 311. 296 mirror objects. 421 Moray UDO file export. 37 morph target. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 12. 121. 303 NextU command. center. 229 Microstation file exchange. 115. 338. set for single object. 212. 414. viewport. export to. 120. 63 Near object snap. 251. 309. 123. 251. 212 object snap:. 304. 92. 171.Rhino 2. 140. 294. scale and rotate. 2. 37 object: description. 79 minimize: Rhino. 409 object:. 133. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 343. set for multiple objects. 132. 2. view. 141. 215. snap to a curve. surface display. surface. 414. 414. 338 OBJ file exchange. quadrant. 305 offset:. near. 297 Mscribe command. 4. 366 normal: definition. 79. 78. show toolbar. 290. 296. set persistent. ortho viewport active. 90 move: background bitmap. 117. 41. 132. 64 NURBS. 297. 298. end. 305 notes in Rhino file. 84. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 81. and n-directions. 306. 249. 90. 296 minimize:. objects to new construction plane. 30. 304 node. 307 Offset command. reparameterize. 30. 378 object properties. surface. 308. 414. 355. 297. 297 MoveTrace command. 78. perpendicular to a curve. 385. tangent from curve. 298. 423. 338. between two points. toolbar. 243 456 . 293 MeshDensity command. viewport to top. 362. 292. 355. 290. point. 92. 135. 118 Normal command. unlock. 84. 415 object names. tangent to a curve. 338. 302 New command. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 78. 83. surface control points in u-. 82. 122. 121. 384. 384. 293 MeshPlane command. scale and rotate on surface. 322. 113. toggle persistent. 298 Microscribe toolbar. options. 148. midpoint. viewport active. 81. 295 MeshToNurb command. 132. 385. 183. 309. 305 N-sided patch. 92. 311 OBJ export properties. 302. 296. show hidden. 297. 79. 308. move control points. 292 MeshCone command. 194 Mirror command. 249. 80. project to construction plane. 293. 312 mold. 296 Metastream file export. to move objects. 4. 387. 294 MeshPolyline command. 52. 80. 12. 78. 216 Moldex command. 297. 317 nudge. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 311. 203. 343. 2. 355 NamedCPlane command. 229. draw line. 379 Named Colors list. 363 name:. 363. 298. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. intersection. 348. options. 423 MeshBox command. 92. 35 object snap: along. 46 moments. 113. 298. 183. 425 offset: curve. 378. 93. 355. restore. 79. 81. 423 mesh:.0 Command Reference sphere. 379. 302. 363. 362 named view. 212. 141 mouse. 85. 146. 114. 371. 296. wheel function. set mesh the same. 295. definition. export to file. 424 Mesh command. 251. 212. 83. improve. 298. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 348. 298 new: file. 296 minimum curvature. read from file. 377. 229. 215. display. 306 OffsetSrf command. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 80. 385. 132 O command. 79 NetworkSrf command. 79. 309. 243. 103. turn off. 134. 251. 304 normal:. 80. read from file. 297. remove flipped. 378. 79. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 296 Minimize command. 372 non-uniform scale. 298 NamedViews command. 338. reverse direction. 378. 303. toolbar. 349. 362. disable. 338. 84. construction point through point. 81. toolbar button. 3. 2. 63 naked edge. 206. 379. 132. 140. 296 move:. 84. export to RIB. construction planes through a point. weld. 82. 302 next. multiple objects. 290 Mesh toolbar. 305. 303 NextViewport command. group. set properties. 243. edit. 205. on surface. 295. 122 Move command. 379. 120. hide toolbar. from. 234. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 414 NoSnap command. 385 name. objects. parting line. v-. 296 modeling aids. 387. 292 MeshCylinder command. 306. 294. 343. show. 293. save named construction plane. off construction plane. knot. 103. 84. 79. 302 NewViewport command. export to OBJ. 323 Microsoft Excel. 343. 377. 204. 229. perspective viewport active. toolbar button. 83. object to align with curve. 304. save. 141. 243. unify normals. an object. 297 MoveUVN command. 132. 295. 261. 82. 80. 78 Notes command. 304. 261. pull direction. restore. definition. 91. 123. 75 named construction planes. layer. 303. 303 NextV command. lock. a view. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 362. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. perpendicular from a curve. 292. 385. 297. 82. 294 MeshSphere command. 82. 349. 145. 135. 79. 33. 35. parameterization. 3. viewport. export to IGES. 302 new:. 415. 147.

322. 133. curve. 78 Osnap:. 313 PanUp command. 2. 323 Pa. 133 PanLeft command. 325. set. 92. 94. place at end of curve. 363. 29. press shift to toggle. 281. 338. 272. 311. 373. view. 330. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 133. 326 Point Editing toolbar. shade. 88. 2 Pan: down. 318 Perspective command. 290. 330 457 . 325 plug-ins. 88. 80 Perpendicular line. 96. 325. 90. 90. 2. 313. autosave. 323. place at start of curve. 333 PluginManager command. 133 P command. 119. right. 375. options. View tab. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 206.set. 323 Planar command. 96. 64 options: aliases. 309. 133 OrthoAngle command. 95. 323 planar section. 92.Rhino 2. Keyboard tab. 224. 339 POffSelected command. 96. General tab. 308. 327. 68 PictureFrame command. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 97. 326. 90. 90. 363. make curve periodic. 308 Options dialog box. 190. 68 PNG file format. 92. 133. troublshooting. 312 Osnap: pane. select all. 330. 324 Plane toolbar. 253. no-repeat commands.0. 38 parting line. 339. 249. 318 perspective view. 323. 205 pause for user input in script. control polygon appearance. 379. Modeling Aids tab. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 90. 220. place multiple. 322. on surface from UV coordinates. startup commands. 307. 325 Plane3Pt command. grid of. 40 perspective angle . 313 PanRight command. 366. 5. 313 Panes. 376. 339. 379 Ortho pane. 206 PlanarSrf command. 12. 130. by three points. options. 323 Plan command. detailed polygon mesh. 327 Point command. 174 parameterization. Shade tab. 379. 133. 130. 326. 351. make surface periodic. 290. 68. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 426 OpenGL:. surface. 321. 316. 90. 92. 90. 84 OneLayerOff command. Ortho. 318. 325 Plane command. 281. 311 Orient3Pt command. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 314 Pan command. 92. Osnap. 94. on a surface. select method. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. options. 307. 92. 367 pe_tol. 92. 272. 4. 27. shortcuts. 93. 281. object snap radius. trim options. 386.5. Snap. 313. 320 place. make surface non-periodic. 92. 312 PageDown key. 373. 98. load. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. background bitmap. Softimage. 328. 351. 88. 84 open: file. 324. 101. 2. 281. 96. 2. fit through points. 4. 88. 322 PlaceTarget command. 309. 311 ortho mode. target location. 176 PCX file format. 96. create curve from. 373 Point toolbar. 317 pause digitizer input. 379. 96. Planar. 90. 308 Orient command. 187. 133. 324 Plane3Pts command. 316. 2. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 218. 133. ortho angle. 92. 92. 253. 133. 254. 101. 314 PanDown command. 200. 90. redraw speed. 29. middle mouse button function. undo number. 367 POff command. 133. use for shade. 290 Organic toolbar. 188 point cloud. 318. 326 Point object snap. 96 options:. snap increment. 200. 307 OnSrf object snap. 98. 94. change interface appearance. 131 pedge. 322. 314 Parabola command. 119 Open command.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 308 OpenWS command. camera and target location. Aliases tab. 324. click ortho pane to toggle. 3DS MAX 1. trackball motion. 308 orient objects. about. 309. 88. file locations. toolbar. 88. 258. 311. toggle. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 312. 326. 422 Point filters. 307 OneLayerOn command. objects from the clipboard. toggle. shortcut keys. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. digitize. 325 plane:. 133 Perp object snap. 96. 314 parabola. 96. 311 Ortho command. 425 Orient. 325. Layer. 92. manager. 313 Pan:. 246. 376. up. 131. 387 paste. 5. 79 point objects. 330. lock to axis. 90. 374. isoparm density. 94. Files tab. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 307 open:. 2 PackTextures command. from three points. 312. Appearance tab. shortcuts. 2 Patch command. 3DS MAX 2. 94. 90. set angle. 90. 96. 321. polygon mesh. 28. 213. 313. 28. 324 plane: cut through objects. turn on or off. 27. 88. set. 131 periodic. to curve. left. 98 Options command. toggle. 133 Osnap command. 172. 320 Pipe command. place one. 325 PlaneV command. 329. 82 PerpLine command. 92. 366. 262. 2. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 311. 92. 200. 2. 92. 130. 323 planar mode. 329. 325 Pline command. 267 PerpFrom object snap. pan distance. 313. 133. nudge increment. saved toolbar layout.2. 3DS MAX 2. 133. developers. 94. 339 point: control. 318 PConic command. 314 parabolic curve.

340 Radius command. document. 423. object. surface.0 Command Reference point:. 296. 220. 261. 425. 338 project: curve to surface. 261. 328 polar array. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 228 radius: dimension. 337. 343. add previous in v-direction to selection. 303. 414. 368. 64. 336 print. export to file. display information about an object. 345 Rebuild command. add next in v-direction to selection. absolute. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 10. select object to turn off. 12. 339. coordinate points. 141. 85 Properties Material tab. 328 PointGrid command. 141. 344. interpolate curve through. 367. edit points. plane. 294. 338. 19. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 330 PointsOff command. 21. 254. 414. 340 RailRevolve command. cone. select naked edges. 135. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 136. 137. 338. 382 Quad object snap. notes. to Clipboard. 339 PointsOn command. 425 PtOff command. 209. add previous in u-direction to selection. 35. explode. 86. 131. select previous in u-direction. 121. 372. 368. 136. join. render using OpenGL shade. 344 RebuildEdges command. 303. 171. create from control points. 197. 137. 257. relative. control points. 292. weld. show edit and control. 257. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. clear render mesh. 81 QueryDomain command. 303. 353. 292. 361. 340 rail revolve. 424. 187. 333 polyline:. 292. 379 preview. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 188 PointCloudSection command. 17. 86 Properties Text tab. 334 polysurface. 338 Project command. 382 QRenderAll command. Polytrans Softimage translation. 420. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 339.Rhino 2. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. render. 121. 329 PointLight command. 423 Polygon toolbar. 339 PopupMenu command. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 338. 340 QRender command. 336. 337 ProjCP command. 197. material. 339 PtOn command. 332 PolygonEdge command. hide back. from NURBS object. 420 Properties command. 332. select next in u-direction. invert selection. 343 rebuild:. 293. 366. join. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 339 PointsOffSelected command. objects to construction plane. set normals the same. 413 Points command. 381 QRender1 command. 366 PrintSetup command. select with lasso. 340 RailRev command. 338 Projection command. delete control on curve. 290. 344. 412. 327 PointDeviation command. 335. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 90 458 . 337. 136. select previous in v-direction. 85. 259. 229. 40. 344 RebuildSrf command. 86. draw on mesh. 371. 295. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 249. 19. 18. from closed polyline. 68 POn command. 339 purge empty layers. 190. 378. inscribed. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 259. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 296. 371. hide edit and control. 259. 290. 87. from edge. sphere. 220. 19. 260. 333. viewport layout from file. 386. 335. 262. 386. 334. 343. 228 quinitics. named construction planes from file. 291. 12. knot. 35. draw. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 135. 254. 123 Proj command. 171. box. select next in v-direction. measure. 138. 41 POV-Ray file export. 209. 41 read. 339 Pull command. 343. 259. 372 Polytrans. image of model. through point objects. show control. 339 pull curve to surface. 335 PrevV command. 294. 12. 339 PointTest command. 349. 262. 229. select connected. 10. density for primitives. 235. options. 330 PointsFromUV command. explode. 50 Quit command. 235. cylinder. 68. 334 PostScript file export. 335. 229. 331. 179. clear render mesh for all objects. 337 project:. 337 Print command. 343. grid. toolbar. viewport. 65 program toolbar functions. twist. 335 PrevViewport command. 229. 331. select all. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 293. 339 PtOffSelected command. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 343 rebuild: curve. 361. 179. 64. 295. 293. 343. 290. render mesh. 333. 353 previous viewport. 36. 87 properties:. 330 points:. 340 radius:. 339. 202. 331. 334 Polyline command. 138. apply to surface. 150 polar coordinates. 190. 19. 294. 331 polygon mesh. 2 PrevU command. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 334 PopupToolbar command. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 338 properties. 344 recent commands list display. 333. named views from a 3DM file. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 202. 249. to file. 331 Polygon command. convert each face to NURBS surface. 223 PolarSphere command. 349. 332 polygon:. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 372. 3D face. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. select all.

clear render mesh for all objects. 348 Redo command shortcut. 357. bumpmaps. 353. 309. 19. 351 RemoveKnots command. 352 rename. 338. 94 RIB file export. 181. 355. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 96. preview using OpenGL shade. 39. named view. 351 RemoveKnot command. up. 352 RenderCrv command. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 347 redo: last undone command. 24. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 338. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 2. 346 RectV command. 181. 351 RemoveTrace command. objects in 3D space. 361 S command. 358. why the name. materials. 2. 348. 348 refit a curve. 363. Rhino from being minimized. 75 Rhino 1.0. 360 RotateRight command. 346 RectangleV command. down. 19. 171. 347 rectangular array. 358 RotateCamera command. 2. 363.0 file exchange. 355 restore:. 320. 121 render: BMRT. 353 RenderEdges command. Rhino 1. 349 RemapCPlane command. corner. 3. 382. 347 rectangle:. 96. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 4. 3. options. 39. 148 rectangular surface. vertical to construction plane. 10. 338 Render command. 357. create background image. 379 RenderOptions command. view change. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 325. 348 ReduceMesh command. 3. 360. an object. 378. 2. 273 ruled surface. 325 RectCen command. named construction plane. 355 RestoreView command. autosave. 3. 355. 349 remove. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 183 Restore command. 2. 324. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 171. 251. 346. 125. 338 Ribbon command. 152. save image in render window. 346. 252. 345 Rect3Pt command. 338. mesh settings. 1 RhinoScript options. 338. 354 reparameterize. Top construction plane. through three points. 425 render:. 360 RotateLeft command. 355 revolved surface. 459 . 358. move and scale. 5. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 181. edges of polygon meshes. 348. 30 save: as small file. 324.Rhino 2. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 429 Redo command. 24. highlight. 352. 360 Rule command. surface using rail curve. 355 Rev command. 391 SAT file export. object from selection. 39. 353. 3. button image to file. 351. left. 429 RedoMultiple command. 362. 30. 352 render plug-in application: options. command aliases. 203. 353. 360 RunScript command. 361. 355. 359. 356 Right command. 416 rotate: construction plane. 324. 346. 288. 4. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 119 Rhinoceros. 359. 360. 412 Rotate3D command. toolbar. transparency. 353 RenderCurves command. 354 repeat command exclude list. 352. textures. 360 RotateView command. ii roll out a surface.0 Command Reference Rect command. 398 RenderAGEdges command. close render window. 39. 4. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 340 Revolve command. curve knots. 357 rotate view. 203. 398. 360 RotateUp command. wallpaper. 360 Run command. 133 right view. view continuously. 359 RotateCPlane command. 103. right. 40. 355 RevU command. copy to Clipboard. 5.ini. 360. 288. 340. 363. 351. 1 Rhino. 363. 2. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 363. from three points. 320. 381. 338. scale and move on surface. 360 rotate:. 99 Render toolbar. a surface. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 354. clearing render meshes. objects. 353 Renderman RIB file export. sequentially numbered versions of model. layer. 338. 359 RotateDown command. Front construction plane. 2. 126. place lights. vertical. 357 right-click menu. 356 RGB color. 338. 398. 352. 354. 363. 171. 25 Rhino web page. 353 RenderPreview command. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 90 reshape a toolbar. 308. 4. length and width. 309. background bitmap. 309. 120 restore: current viewport size. named construction plane. edges. 360. 356 RevV command. 120. 351. 25. 355. 120. file to a different file name or file type. 1. 349 relative coordinates. 357 right mouse button. 3. 353. 4. 20 render problems. file. 346. 30. 183. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 241 RefreshShade command. image in the render window. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 230. curves. 308. 172. 345. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. shine. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 172. 2 redo:. 346 RectangleCen command. 352. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 355 revolve:. 103. 362. 346 rectangle: center. 4. trim curve from surface. named view. 347 Rectangle command. 181. 412 Rotate command. 353.

367 screen:. 303. 373 SelSurfaces command. rotate and move on surface. 172. 368. add previous control point in v-direction. previous control point in udirection. 363 SaveView command. 363 SaveWS command. bad objects. 303. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange.0 Command Reference shortcut. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. with mouse method. 24.Rhino 2. 354. 363. 379. 252. 369. 368 SelectID command. construction plane to view. 372 SelPoint command. 288. 374. 367. 369 SelCurves command. 50. 362 save:. 361 save template. 369. 129 scripting tools. 365. 370 selection menu. 367 Section command. 184. 137. subparts of objects. 367. objects by name. construction plane to previously used. 126. 366 scale:. 383. 152. 178. 362. 90 Select Color dialog box. 308. 366. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 374 SelV command. 182. 258. 373 SelPts command. curves. construction plane to object. coordinates of points. 138. 90. template. 371 SelectName command. 125. 309. 364 Scale2D command. 335. 184. 370. objects. by layer. 258. front construction plane. 126 scripting:. distance between grid lines. 373. to file in 256 colors. objects in two dimensions. 366. construction plane origins to a point. 375. 372. 373 select:. duplicate objects. 364. 371 SelName command. VBScript. 335. 366. 126. meshes. 25. 371. spotlights. 339. 373 SelSolid command. 369 SelDim command. 365. 368. 372 SelSrf command. next control point in u-direction. 363 SaveWSAs command. 371. next control point in v-direction. objects non-uniformly. 138. 366 Scale1D command. 303. objects by layer number. 367 SelAll command. 303. 371 SelLight command. 246. 103. 370 SelDup command. by object ID. 362. polysurfaces. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. polylines. 181. in shaded viewport. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 262. 368. 372 SelPrev command. construction plane to zaxis. 50. 383. 125. 371 SelMesh command. 372 SelSolids command. construction plane to next used. rows and columns of control points on surface. 377. 25. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 246. objects uniformly. 184. 364 Scale toolbar. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 373 SelSrfs command. 137. 262. 373 SelU command. 335. 367. 182. 361. move and rotate. 230. 373 SelSurface command. 415. 366. 363. JScript. 371. 136. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 364. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 136. 375. add next control point in v-direction. to Clipboard. 137. 369 SelCurve command. layers from list. construction plane vertical. 368 SelColor command. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 370 SelID command. invert. 181. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 262. 259. 376. add previous control point in u-direction. previous control point in vdirection. 376 set: active viewport by name. objects instead of control points. with a window. 370 SelDups command. 365. 308. 369 SelCrv command. 365 ScaleNU command. 375 Select toolbar. construction plane to x axis. 182. 367 section curves. maximized viewport by name. 370. 383. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 367. 371. 372. 368 SelectConnected command. 25. toolbar layout. row of control points in udirection. 369 SelCrvs command. 362 SaveCPlane command. 376. 371 SelMeshes command. toolbar layout as different name. 339. to file. 373 SelUV command. 136. 366 ScaleTrace command. objects to unlock. 206. digitizing scale. 371 SelLights command. connected points. 309. 373. 370 SelLast command. 370. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 2. 246. points objects. 103. 363 scale: background bitmap. objects to shade. invert point selection. 460 . objects in one direction. current layer. 258. 373 SelPt command. 184. 373. 335. 370 SelLayer command. 377. 369. 367 SelBadObjects command. 259. 376. 51. 373. all objects. 372. extents of grid. 262. 138. 368 SelCrossing command. 67 Sect command. 364. 365. control polygon display density. 372. 371. 365 screen capture. 363 Save command. 24 SelectLayer command. 354. 370. 372 SelGroup command. 183. construction plane origin. 309 Scale command. with crossing window. 24. construction plane with 3 points. 181. 372 SelNone command. 136. lasso. 369. 364. 363 SaveSmall command. 372 SelPolysrf command. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 374. 372. 375 SelWindow command. 183. 363 SaveAs command. 366. deselect all objects. 368 SelConnected command. 75 Select Points toolbar. 370. IGES. 368. 372 SelPolylines command. 374. 372. 371. 373 SelPolyline command. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. surfaces. 373. dimensions. objects for render preview.

120.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 389 skinning. 318 SetPlanar command. 183. 381 set construction plane. 84. 298. 183. 2. 318. 388. 2. 84. 377. 425 Shade1 command. near a curve. 389 SketchOnMesh command. viewports. 386 ShowPt command. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 42 Smooth command. 242. 381 shade:. working directory. with no smoothing on mesh. 385 ShowOsnap command. 182. z-axis. 96. from a point. 261. OpenGL. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 355. x-axis. selected objects. 426 ShowAll command. 5. 173 ShowCV command. 2. 339. 119. 98. 386 ShowSelected command. 382. top construction plane. 80. 246. 379. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 384 show:. toolbar. grid. 377 SetHotspot command. 79. 298. 119 ShowTrace command. 387 SimplifyCurve command. continuous in perspective view. 242. tangent to a curve. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 378 SetObjectName command. 2. 42 SLC file exchange. 323. edges of surface or polysurface. 82. right construction plane. 362 Set View toolbar. 359. 78 461 . 383. onto a curve. scripting tools. Right. naked edges. 388. bitmap in a separate window. with wireframe. options. 381. 92. 386. 382. flat with grid. 390 smooth curve or surface. to previously used. 206. 392. 383 shadow. 337. 381 shade: continuous. 84. 337. 376. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 386. 273 SLA export. 23. 81. 355. 385. 183. 380 Settings command. 385. 94. display context menu. 250 SetLayer command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 244. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 5. 245 ShowMenu command. 389 SketchOnSrf command. with grid. selected objects in all viewports. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 184. 79.Rhino 2. 385 ShowPoints command. 95. to the view. 3 Points. 382. to the intersection of two curves. 182. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 400 ShowTitle command. 385. 5 shine in rendering. on surface. 182. hidden objects. 384. 119 ShowToolbox command. to next used. broken edges. z-buffer. 242. 242. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 363. 383 ShadeSelected command. 184. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 78. 23. 218. 77. 357. 425 Shade command. 183. 218. 343. 78. 246. 21 Shear command. vertical. 140. 81. to the center of a circle. 92. to the midpoint of a curve. 2. 80. 184. curve on polygon mesh. Top. 207 SetSnap command. 385 ShowGrev command. 220 ShowGrid command. 383 ShadedViewport command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 387 silhouette curves. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 338 shortcuts. 389 Sketch command. perspective angle. 84. 383. by key. 181. continuous shaded mode. handlebars. 4 Shift+PageDown. 383 ShadeOptions command. 94. along a line tangent to a curve. 183. 409 set:. 387 sketch: curve. 390 snap: along a line. 92. 78. 384 ShowCamera command. 383 Shift key. built-in aliases. shortcuts. hidden control points. 382 ShadeAll command. 94. 385. 206. 183. 322. 183. to a surface. 384. 379 SetPts command. 384. 79. 182. 183. 162. 382 shaded display. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 119. 98. 376 SetGLShade command. 181. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 384. 409 ShowToolbar command. 376. spotlight hotspot. turn off object snaps. object. 178. 386 Silhouette command. 181. 241. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 380. 220. 153. 184. 386 ShowPts command. 250. to an object. 79. to surface isoparm. 212. midway between two points. 388 sketch:. 376. 383 shear objects. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 183. 241. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 81. edit points. 376 SetGridSnap command. project object snaps to construction plane. 379 SetPt command. Osnap toolbar. to a point object. 246. toggle OpenGL mode. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 382. curve with digitizer. to construction plane. 389. 2. 339. 218. 94. control points. 409. selected hidden objects. printer. 184. 206. pane. 379 SetOrtho command. 76. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 5 Shift+PageUp. perpendicular to a curve. options. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 74. 386. toggle object snaps. 426 Show command. by function. 76. 125 show: background bitmap. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. in all viewports. 220. 78. 261. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 318. 264. 250. 383. 133. change size. 380 SetGroupName command. 181. 125. 82. 339 ShowEdges command. 80. 241. 184. flat in one viewport. keys. to the end of a curve. 3. flat in all viewports. 212. 318. 391. 381. 83. to a knot. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command.

68 solid: Boolean difference. 160 summary information. file exchange. 238. 380. viewport horizontally. 393 sphere:. 417. hide backfacing control points. 416. 338. 295. 113. 15. untrim. 298. 410. revolved. extract from polysurface. 262. 277. 395 split:. 392. 104. 396. 328. 276. 382. 416. 250. 234. from planar curves. comma-delimited file export. 2. 247. 38 SortPoints command. turn on or off. loft. 162. 391. 344. 92. 411. 411 SolidWorks. 189 SrfMatch command. 391. 384. 243 Surface toolbar. 19. from three points. 154. 385. 233. 321. 396 SplitSrf command. 344. 386. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 317. create variable radius fillet between. 38. extrude. 69 Solid Edge. from heightfield bitmap. select all. blend. 398. 398 spreadsheet. truncated cone. 360. 182. 192. 238 Standard toolbar. cone. 372. 83. 428. 4. maximum radius of curvature. 94. 251. 105 surface normal. 402. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 284 SrfMerge command. 82. 396. 401. 263. 132. 393. 190. 133. 2. 372. 330. 161. 281. 42 StopScript command. panes. draw curve through control points. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 160. 371. 158. 251. 289. 153. 247. offset. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 287. 192 Surface menu. 2. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 397 SplitEdge command. polygon mesh. 398. 398. 398 spotlight:. 325. 164. 157. viewport vertically. 180. from grid of points. 391 snap mode. 344. 288. 78. merge. 35. 340. 340. 284. 399 SrfPt command. 320. from 3 or 4 curves. 164. 160. 275. 284. 157. 399. 201. 240. create fillet between. 417 surface:. 373. 302. 133 sphere. 417. hotspot. 90 status bar. create. sweep along path. 216. sweep two rails. 273. 356. 163. 238. 400 StatusBar command. 165. 233. 324. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. minimum radius of curvature. 190. 161. 236. 84 Softimage file exchange. 393 SphereD command. split. 426 462 . 42 Stereograms. 400 SubCurve command. 42. 281. 396. drape. 240 solid:. 133. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 203. 298. 198. trim. 88. 281. 325. 241. 243. 202. 132. 399. chamfer. 38. 407. 398. extrude curve to point. unroll. 76. 401. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. rule. display. 189. 10. for rendering. 309 SrfBlend command. 392. 354. 238. 416. plane. 173. 406. from grid of control points. 334 spacebar. 273. extend. 380. 192. 229 SrfAlign command. 223. 395. 115. 313. tolerance. 306. 426 surface analysis:. 393 Spiral command. shortcuts. 229. 295 Sphere command. 3. 114. 392. Booleans. 84. make nonperiodic. pipe. 166. 200. 421. 392. change degree. 236. 192. 285. 273. 153. 242. mean curvature. 223. 96. 42. 5. 397 Split command. 103. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 364 SubCrv command. 393. 163. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 224. 361. 307. 391. tube. 133. 371 Spotlight command. 320. toolbar. plane from three points. 286. surface at isoparms. 240. 233. 398. Boolean union. 429. 316. patch. 324. 410. 255 split: edge of a surface. 352. skin. 367. 236. 38 Solid toolbar. 317. developable. 377. X_T file export. 392 SnapToLocked command. 250. center. 218. 381. IGES file exchange. 406. 399 SrfSum command. 162. 396. 133. turn on or off. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 159. extrude curve along path. 160. 277. 69. 417. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 162. 395. 15. 386. 243. 261. 306. 426. 402. 80. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 414. 236. 218. 410. 237. 406. 160. 355. 164. 81. 400 STEP file exchange. 69. 92. 238. 273. one object with another. 281. 395. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 290. 399. 238.Rhino 2. from curve network. 273. 166. 324. 118. 249. cylinder. 200. 133. reverse direction. 400. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 298. rebuild. 355. 361. 165. ellipsoid. 114. 249. 306. 392. 1. 223.0 Command Reference Snap command. 22 support. 70. box from three points. 393 Sphere2Pt. 426 STL: ascii tag. 70. 165. cap planar ends. 171. cutting plane. periodic. 79. 380 snap to locked objects. 228. 84 snap:. develop. 413. X_T file export. 354. from 3 or 4 points. 339. 201. 90. 218. 10. 366. 398. 409 SnapSize command. 216. 421. 153. 35. 288. 307. Boolean intersection. torus. plane vertical to construction plane. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 161. 373. 173. 279. 216. 229. 68 Softimage plug-in. 240. 393 Sphere2Pts. 430 startup commands. 372. toggle. 401. 217. 247. extrude into solid. 409. 423 STL:. 288. 317. select all. reparameterize. 394 spline. baseball sphere. 278. 163. select all. 238. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 236. make periodic. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. match. 385. 399. 288. 36. IGES file exchange. 192. 395. 277. box. 324. 189. 201. 398 SrfCV command. 135. 320. 399 SrfPoints command. 229. 317. 284. 392 Sphere toolbar. 392. 173. 43 STL Tools toolbar. export object properties to. 126 Stretch command. by diameter. 397. 348. 101. 16. 166. 324. 307. 399 SrfPts command. 157.

toggle toolbar on and off. dock. 388. new button. 210. 330. 178. 363. scripting. 323. 234. 124. 78. 185. 124. 208. toolbar on and off. 369. 400. 5. Curve From Object. 288. 121. IGES export. 244. 338. move toolbar. 15. 385. 124. 122. 119. scaled size. 198. change button size. 339. 195. 210. display viewport. 385. 308. edit button image. planar mode. 335. 162. 3-D Digitizing. 180. 171. Diagnostics. 272. 197. 293. 238. 185. 120. rename toolbar. 352. 409. 177. 124. 407. display program. 164. 179. 257. 340. 284. 228. 124. 359. 170. 206. 400. 121. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 233. 302. perspective view on and off. right. 409 title bar. 400. CPlane View. 346. 420. 230. 263. change. 355. 122. 423. 245. 298. 361. display of menu bar. 164. capture icon. 179. 393. 229. 351. 124. 71 Swap. ortho. 90. copy. 151. 363. 139. reshape toolbar. 305. 121. 212. 344. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. menu bar. 297. 407. 143. 204. 171. 207. new file. 177. 125. delete button. 267. 90. 320. 190. 122. solids. 323. 401. 236 SynchronizeViews command. save. 394. 184. 90. snap mode. 1. 187. 156. title bar on or off. 364. 248. 288. 140. 388. 189. 257. 328. 220. 420. 165. open toolbar. 124. 309. 401. 363. 19. surface u and v. 173. 174. 269 TanLine command. 82. 368. 389. 121. 370. 402 Sxtrd command. angle. 302. 212. 203. 288. 390. 395. 90. 151. 330. set viewport. 121. 144. 307. rendering of curves. 389.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 209. 372. 204. copy button. 242. 330. 120. 255. 201. 304. 216. cascade. 216. surfaces. 121. 218. 409. 367 Thaw command. 353. 13. 120. 419. 279. Extend. 262. 260. 221. 397. 403. 148. edit. 406. 407. 239. 353. 84. control polygon highlight. 349. 230. 269 Taper command. 362. 15. float icon to top of cascade. viewport title. 150. model size. 367. 416. 122. 138. 324. 125. pop up with middle mouse. 72 technical support. 294. 123. import from another layout. left. 396. 169. 281. control polygon display. tear off flyout. 169. 420. 246. 121. 170. 323 TCone command. 358. 215. 200. move button. 221. clear button image. 404 Sweep1 command. crosshairs on and off. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 409. 245. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 220. 362 text: annotation dot. hide flyout. 120 tolerance. 119. 224. 392. 3-D Digitize. 220. 352. 390. 120. 119. 216. 142. 279. 383. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 311. file location. delete toolbar. 247. show toolbar. 149. 217. 121. 207. 163. 223. 357. 264. 421. hide toolbar. 217. 134. 122. 342. 409. 253. 311. 90. 245. 256. programming. 269. 420. 137. 160. float toolbar. world axes on or off. 241. 407 Texture command. display of viewport title. 143. 218. 230. 249. 365. 140. 81. 144. 391. 316.Rhino 2. Array. 325. 323. 134. 80 TanFrom object snap. 409 TogglePerspective command. 121. 311. unlink flyout. 333. 198. 179. 417. two rails. 241. 425. 463 . 265. ortho mode. 409 toggle. 168. open. 254. 367. 178. 123. 103. 248. move. 243. 412. 337. 120. 236. dragging based on view plane. 408 Text command. Analyze. 119. 391. 408. 162. 123. 51. 104. 356. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 292. 332. 407. 39. 189. 206. capture button image. 321. 326. 353. Arc. 409. 338. 305. 387. 363. 79. 23. 407. 374. persistent object snaps. 14 Tan object snap. 148. 348. 260. 22. display of status bar. 409. 295. create cascading toolbar. 135. 256. save. 251. 302. 409. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 428. 192. 365. 122. 231. 168. 92. display of title bar. 187. 343. 22. 226. 415. 336. 401 Sweep2 command. 384. 399. 165. 187. 377. 181. 396. 368. 392. 353. 245. Annotate. 255. edit bitmap icon. 398. 409 toolbar layout. Background Bitmap. 402. 231. 221. 395. 122. 360. 208. 141. 152. 261. 268. 120 ToggleToolbox command. Dimensions. 322. 422. 401. 80. 120. 258. rendering of edges. 404 TAB key. 407. Ellipse. 288. 122. 366. 420. 124. Box. 384. 387. 313. Curve. 344. 192. 323. 430. 379. 308. 123. 154. change name. 352. 308. 195. 173. 330. 210. 197. display of command prompt. 182. 88. 400 SwapUV command. 425. 271. Circle. 136. 150. 239. 322. 337. 152. 400 SwapView command. 347. properties. 215. 82 tangent line. 297. 168. 270. 232. 351. 120. 226. 379. 258. 272. 96. 155. 232. 288. 407 TextObject command. definition. 259. 235. grid axes on or off. 120. 407 text:. 39. 172. 283. 240. edit annotation. 40. 290. 400 sweep. 404. 255. 125. 203. 213. 134 TGA file format. 405 target. 425 Toggle34View command. 149. 119. 235. 338 texture for rendering. 183. 273. Curve Tools. 409. 334. save. 411. 125. 379. clear the bitmap image. 405. 322. Edge Tools. 220. 303. 373. 173. 420 Title command. 415 tilt view. 209. 429. 321. along path. 139. 123. 323. 371. 185. save button image to file. 379. relative. 340. 145. 410. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 163. 281. 366. 414. 194. 83. grid on and off. 101. 249. 387. 306. 400. 409. 123 Toolbars. 245. 142. 73 template. 265. 135. 125 Toolbar command. 426. 400. 331. 120. 385. 409. BMRT Materials. 409. 156. 386. 215. 221. 368. 419. 167. 120. 343. 317. 402. 135. 22 toolbar buttons. 153. close. 382. 222. 39. 168. 362. 266. edit 2-dimensional. 162. 141. 338. 413. 381. 120. 205. save layout as different name. status bar on or off. 384. 51. 236. 205. 174. new toolbar. 296. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 94. 339. 318. 345. 223. 123. 122. 222. 157. 50. 166. 375. 363. planar curves. BMRT Lights toolbar. import button image. 409 TiltRight command. 409 TiltLeft command. 161. 215. viewports.

145. 347. 413. 273. 374. 381. 218. 96. 337. 151. 219. 2. 92. 308. 368. 414. 49. 325. view change. 173. 253. 409 top view. 203. 259. 135. 406. 349. 161. Flow command. ArrayPolar command. 345. 306. layers. 356. 288. Solid Tools. 173. 384. 321 track. along a line tangent to a curve. Twist command. 244. 90. 140. 309. 241. 205. 342. 296. 244. 15 truncated cone. 402. Rotate3D command. Rotate command. 407. 99. Mesh. 352. 276. 2. 425. 162. 417. 335. 326. 317. command. 214. 364. 260. 296. 415 Ungroup command. reverse. 254. Mirror command. 409. 172. 179. 249. 154. 349. 357. 134. 382. 48. 153. 375. 148. 100. 243. Tools. 82 tracking line. all layers. 245. 262. IGES export file types. Solid. 83. 236. 203. 339. set. Lines. Plane. 313. Set View. 358. layer. command line. 341. 370. 153. Move command. 173. control points on selected objects. Rectangle. 268. Polygon. Shear command. 423. Select Points. 104. 338. IGES export type details. OpenGL. 82. 304. 270. 16. 396. 339. 383. 261. 173. 339. 392. 366. autosave. 223. 161 unit systems. 390. 78. 423. 296. 229. 88. 364. 338. 400. grid axes. 416. 101. 362. 330. 92. 262. 353. 399. shortcuts. 245. 19. 220. 430. 51. 154. 190. 429 Undo command. Geometry Fix. 410 TraceBitmap command. 358. 171. 123 464 . 307. 404. 83. 275. world axes. 363. 94. Scale command. 92 Trim command. 338. 412 transparency in rendering. 384. 103. 249. 362. 206. 383. ArraySrf command. 356 u-direction:. 348. 182. 249. 339. 339. status bar. status bar. 161. 88. 203. 203 trimmed surfaces. 167. 131 transform: Array command. 142. 283. Surface Tools. 321. Object Snap. 249. 386. 204. 324. rendering. 263. 359. 162. 414 UnhidePoints command. Set CPlane. 339. 184. 339. shortcut. 136. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 399. 210. 2. 173. 372. 426 Turntable command. 271. OrientPerpToCrv command. 323. 342. 324. 334. 412 Transform toolbar. 408. 152. 412. 307. 410. 413 u-direction: move control points. 50. title bar. Surface. Copy command. 236. 351. 311. 233. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 415 units systems. 262. 390. 140. 337. 142. 386 troubleshooting. 216. 166. Bend command. 372. 413. 352. Scale. 365. 367. ScaleNU command. 410 trim:. menu bar. 397. 258. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 288. 94. 154. 429. 409. 155. 180. 150. 386. 379. 150. 409. 414 Ungroup objects. 203. 328. 268. 357. Organic. 360. 392. 429. 295. 160. 265. 412 transform:. 245. Scale2D command. 330. 81. 348. 339. 309. 263. 400. IGES. Scale1D command. 305. 229. 322. 92. 165. 416 UnGhost command. 409. 152. 202. 358. 334. 343. 346. 88. 261. 323. 288. 94. 367. 386. Sphere. 203. 263. 342. 234. 236. 349. 429 UndoMultiple command. POV Lights. 405. shrink to trim boundary. 307. 253. 386 Unicode fonts. 374. 190. 201. world axes. 410. 300. 41. 269. 364. Standard. 137. 383. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 263. 108. 338. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 417. 151. 307. 140. 48. 420. 395. 298. 339. Orient command. 308. 244. 224. 425. 213. options. 288. 399. 309. Main. 349. 73 union. 415 Toolbox command. 355. 247. 240. 19. 358. 15 Units command. 422. 180. 338. 208. 401. 307. 281. 168. Extrude. 412 U command. 192. OrientOnSrf command. 262. in text. 258. 79. 16. 344. Surface Analysis. 41. 373. 108. 369. 333. 379. Smooth command. 296. 157. 373. 261. 236. 292. 366. 133. 414 unfold a surface. 302. 421. 182. 309. 194. 365. 298. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 172. 264. 311. 135. 424. 363. 148. 391. 220. 365. 113. 339. 249. 412. 420. 333. 296. 294. 358. 181. 302. 90. 140. 351. 149. 82. 229. Surface 2. 172. 348. 349. 103. 263. 355. control points. 355. 212. 101. 148. 405. 409. 396. trimmed surfaces. 171. Point Editing. 267. 400. 243. 381. 2. 92. 332. 290. 330. 154. 273. Select. 244. 395. 261. 239. 240. 386. STL Tools. 303. 322. 164. 377. 2 Torus command. Layer. 208. 357. 236. 90. 154. grid. 245. 331. 135. 288. 148. 180. 299. 414 UndoSelected command. 413. 203. 425. Visibility. 101.0 Command Reference 233. 83. 417. 266. 251. 185 u-direction definition. 198. 228. 363. along a line. 425 turn on. Boolean. 379. 173. 180. 104. 297 u-direction curves. 428. Viewport Layout. 400. command line. 368. 180. 393. POV Materials. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 238. 386. 331. 411 turn off. Orient3Pt command. Transform. 405. 409. 148. 379. 296. 412 Twist command. definition. 361. 149. 290. ProjectToCPlane command. 338. Booleans. 348. 373. 174. 96. 50. 218. 153. 321. 309. 284. Mass Properties. menu bar. 244. 375. 246. 317. pop up at cursor. Render. 183. 153. 311. 262. 172. 357. 330. 413. 356. 343. 409. 90. 221. 382. 357. 180. grid axes. 2. RemapCPlane command. 240. 102. Taper command. 245. 251. ArrayCrv command. 425. 390. 90. 348. 361. 80. 318. 229. 410. 318. layer. 377. 405. 304. 406 Tube command. 96. 398. 19. 141. 298. 398. 134. 345. 385. 398. SetPt command. 348. 293. 414. 84. 105. 365. 277. 1. 228. 255. 415. 365. 366. 338. 162. 409. redo. 336. 263. title bar. 256. 238. control points. 386. 409 Top command. 245. 403. Point. 307. 200. 413 undo:. 242. 383.Rhino 2. 161. 326. grid. 366. 365. 82. 361. 229. 390. 173. 409. 384. 357. 311. 288. Microscribe. 409 Tools toolbar. 259. 308. 371. 138. 251. 308. 425. Fillets and chamfers. autosave. 229. 316. File. 364. 427.

90. 23. 429 viewport layout:. redraw speed. 323. restore named. 297 v-direction curves. bottom view. 212. zoom extents. 135. set maximized by name. 318. 409. set right view. split horizontal. 423 wetted surface area. 397. camera. 298. create new. 415 visibility:. 430 view:. 325 Vrbf command. set viewport. 23. 198. 288. 416 untrim a surface. 425. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. isoparm. 244. 343. 190. 303. zoom extents in one viewport. perspective view. 244. 45 workgroup: check in license. 288. rotate. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 422 weight:. set top view. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 271. 384. place camera and target. 24. next active. right view. 323. 325. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. split vertical. 336. 415 Visibility toolbar. 318. zoom. 404. construction plane back. 429. 409. 376. show control points. 338 wireframe display. 419. next ortho active. 343. 153. rotate down. 135. 415 UnLockSelected command. 313. 383. 302. 1 window: select. 384. 336. 347 view: back view. 430. print. 415 unlock:. line. 249. set to shaded display. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 376. 126 VCPlane command. 347 VRML file export. 303. 343. 384. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. display. 409. 397. 405. 419. object snaps. 322. 181. 423. 416 UnrollSrf command. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 321. plane. create from surface. 343. 190. pan left. 43 v-direction: move control points. 420 views. 363. 421 VolumeMoments command. tilt left. 419. 236. 314. 126 Vline command. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 421 VRectangle command. shade. 386. edit named. 357. set back view. 250. 386. next perspective active. new. rotate right. set left view. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 420. 322. object. 419. continuously rotate. 417 Untrim command. save named. 430. 298. 360. 400. 404 visibility: control points. 96. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. zoom out. 132. 23. target. 153. 313. tilt right. 264. rectangle. 135. 273. move next to top. 304. place target. unlock objects. 422 Weight command. 288. 302. 428. zoom window. with mouse. wireframe viewport. 379 Weld command. 412. 302. copy to all. 429. 425 ViewportProperties command. 338. 429. 313. 383. 356 v-direction:. 44 W command. 288. front view. 163. 409. synchronize. hide back. 168 465 . 172. 302. 422 water level. 162. reverse. selected objects. 264. pan right. 96. pan. pan up. 172. 131. menu. properties. 271. rotate up. 376. zoom window and set a target point. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. 304. pan down. 181. maximize viewport. 318. 425 WMF file export. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. make previous active. 419. 430. 244. 400. 190. read named from file. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 429. construction plane right. 415. 357. close. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 134. 430. 409. zoom all to the same scale. rotate left. set all to match. 224. 322. 313. set front view. 355. 2. plan view. 165 UpDegSrf command. 360. 360. set active by name. 250 What command. 250 water plane area. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 264. 24. 416 UpDeg command. 383. 377. 420 viewport title menu. 54 vertex. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. maximize. 3 window:. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 420. set bottom view. 162. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 264. 273. 425 WireShade1 command. 163. 428 Windows Clipboard. 404. 428. layout. 397. 325. 430. 288. 400. construction plane front. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 314. zoom in and out by a percentage. read from file. 24. 400 viewport properties. 90 window selection. zoom extents in all viewports. 415 unroll a surface. 249. 420. 376 Wallpaper command. 420 ViewportTitle command. 357. set to wireframe display. 415 UnPackTextures command. 162. 357. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. construction plane bottom. 323. 323. set perspective view. 421 VRBSrf command. three viewports. 429. 336. 322. 360. 131 vertical. 386. 153. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 360. 318. lock objects. 420. 11 user input in script. 304. 379. zoom window. 249. 360. 45 viewport: bring to top. 397. 430 viewport:. 419. check out license. control point. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 343. 25. 430. 421 VPlane command. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 153. zoom extents selected. control points. left view. 185. top view. 162. 304. 425. 355. 273. construction plane left. swap. swap viewports. 363. 135. 302. 185 v-direction definition. 423 weld:. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 377. 420. zoom in. 135. 132.Rhino 2. 168. 415 Visual Basic script. 415 UnLock command. 249. 409. 347. 271 Volume command. 313. 425 wireframe:. 429. set density. 135 WireframeViewport command. 244. 51 weight: edit control point. 318. 412. 134 VBscript. 184 VDA file exchange. 417 unwrap a surface. 429.

130 zoom: dynamic. 430 466 . extents of selected objects in all viewports. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 428. 168. 428 ZoomNext command. 429 ZEA command. window. previous view. 11 WorldAxes command. 308. 428. 429 ZoomIn command. 429 ZoomPrev command. 168. save as different name. check out license. 363.Rhino 2. 233 Xtra command. out. 430 ZSA command. 429 ZoomSelected command. in. 217 ZBufferPt command. 430 ZoomX command. toggle display. 429 ZoomOut command. 308. 430 ZoomTarget command. in and out by a percentage. 74 Z command. 425. 4. open. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 96. 381 workspace. 429. 429. 4. 168 working directory. 430. 430. 217 ZBufferPts command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 216 ZE command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 3. 425 world coordinates. 96. set colors. 233 XtndF command. 428. 425 WRL file export. 426 ZM command. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 97. 168 workgroup:. 429 ZoomMouse command. 44 X_T file export. 428 ZoomExtents command. 130. 3. 2. extents in one viewport. 429. save. window and set a new target point. 430. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 363. 363 world axes. 2. 430. 425. 429 Zebra command. 430 ZP command. 428 Zoo. 3 zoom:. 430 ZoomWindow command. 429. 2. 430 zoom window. 429. extents in all viewports. 38 XtndB command. 5. 428. check in license. 429 ZoomP command.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 430 ZBuffer command. 2. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 430 Zoom command. options. 429 ZS command.

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