Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

........................ 447 xv ................................................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index..................Rhino 2...................................................................

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work.rhino3d. Index. under the topic Help.com/support/faq.com Web site www.Rhino 2. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. and by the time the product was in beta testing. 17 . This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.rhino3d. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. and Find. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. see the Rhino Command List. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. Help Access Rhino's Help file.rhino3d. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. To explore the related topics.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. the name stuck.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino.

and Right view. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . F8. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. In parallel views like the default Top. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. Lens length displays on status bar. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Front. Ortho pane on the status bar. Shift. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. drag with the right mouse button.

Snap pane on the status bar. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. PageUp. Rotate mouse wheel. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . PageDown. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9.Rhino 2. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button.

Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar.

Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. See Options dialog box. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names.Rhino 2. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

26 .0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.Rhino 2. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix.

with r prefix relative coordinates.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the world x.y. type r2. then click Single Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. This starts the line at the construction plane origin. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. type coordinates in the format: rx.6. type w12. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.0. click Line.6. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. Note If you enter only x.10 in the world coordinates. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. then click Single Line. type coordinates in the format: wx. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. type coordinates in the format: x. y and z coordinates to place points. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.3 and press Enter. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. the point will lie on the construction plane.Rhino 2. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the construction plane coordinates. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.z and press Enter.10 and press Enter.y. then click Single Line. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point.and y-coordinates. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. type 0. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. 27 . UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. type 12. enter the starting point for the line.6.0.z and press Enter.and y-coordinates.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note If you enter only x. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates.6.0 and press Enter.10 and press Enter. type w0. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.y plane.0 and press Enter. click Line. click Line.

indicating the new location of the selection set. click a point in the perspective viewport. Click the left mouse button to select the point. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. then click Interpolate Points.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. click Free-form.axis) and press Enter. then click Single Line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. enter the starting point for the line. 28 . at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. type r4<45 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. then click Single Line. click another point in the perspective viewport. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type 4<45 and press Enter. A white tracking line will display. At the Next point of curve. click Line. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set.axis) and press Enter. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x.Rhino 2. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. enter the starting point for the line.

Continue with picking locations. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. press Ctrl. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Or press Tab twice. You can start elevator mode in another location. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. then press Ctrl and click. click Line. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. but only if the point can be truly 3. negative numbers are below. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. 29 .D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. Place the first line point. Change viewports. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. then click Single Line. Press Tab.D points using 2. type NoElev. release Ctrl.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. was when you pressed Tab. From the Curves menu. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. After starting elevator mode. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. Positive numbers are above the construction plane.D. and click again. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino.Rhino 2. Release Ctrl. Specifying 3. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. Drag the mouse out.

Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. Turn on end object snap. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. From the Curves menu. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. click Line. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle.Rhino 2. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Click to place the point. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. type a distance and press Enter. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . enter the starting point for the line. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Or. the marker snaps to the curve end. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. type <60.

If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. type 10. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Click to place the point. Click to place the point. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. Or. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. click Line. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. you can turn them on. enter the starting point for the line. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away.Rhino 2. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. From the Curves menu. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. then click Single Line.

by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on.Rhino 2. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. so those are the things that need to be merged. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. 32 . you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. this will become more clear. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. the surfaces cannot be merged. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way.

and arrow length are multiplied by this number. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. 33 . Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units.Rhino 2. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. The text height. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. extension line offset distance. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. extension line extension. Text height The text height in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale.

Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. regardless of the direction of the dimension line.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. 34 . Rotates the text to align with the dimension line.Rhino 2. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines.

Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. more accurate meshes. whenever you start a new model without a template. Document Properties dialog box. these settings are used. When the Refine check box is selected. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. is from 1 to 100. Document Properties dialog box. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. when not zero. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged.Rhino 2. but should shade and render relatively fast. but may take very long to shade and render. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. This setting is scale independent. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Notes tab Add notes to your model. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. This setting is scale independent. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. type information you want to save with the model. and higher polygon count. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. Custom Set the custom options. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. 35 .0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid.

All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. By default. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. and higher polygon count. Jagged seams is not selected. 36 . edge to Srf options. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Document Properties dialog box. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. Min edge length.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Max edge length. more accurate meshes. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option.Rhino 2. After initial meshing.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. and Max dist. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. When the Refine check box is selected. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Simple planes is not selected. This option is scale dependent. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Refine is selected. less accurate meshes. By default. When the Refine check box is selected. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. In practice. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Max dist. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. and lower polygon count. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Setting Max dist. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. The default values is 16. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid.

Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. if the shadows are turned on. This makes the image appear smoother.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. but also slows down rendering. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. use smaller shadow offset. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. None No shadows.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. In general. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. In Rhino. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects.Rhino 2. In practice. With small objects. None Each pixel is sampled once. With large objects. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. Background Sets the color of the render background. 37 . all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. use bigger shadow offset. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces.

2centimeter(s) Meters 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change.2micron(s) Millimeters 1. trimming surfaces.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. For example.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Select Decimal. You can mix fractional and decimal input. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. or Feet & Inches. Mils 1.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box.2mic 1. the relative tolerance is used instead. Fractional. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. When you change from one units to another.2cm 1.Rhino 2. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2m 1. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model.2mm 1. Document Properties dialog box.2(") 1-1/2" 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2c 1. Example types and forms are: Microns 1.2km 1.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . In those commands.

The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. Zoom Window. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. You can create new viewports.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. You can specify which viewport is maximized. rename viewports. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. Extents.01 millimeters. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. step through the viewports. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. Close the viewport. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. or Extents of the selected objects. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match.Rhino 2. 39 . set multiple templates. and place a named viewport on top. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. and use predefined viewport configurations.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display.001. Use defined and named views. In general. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. Rhino 2. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.01 to 0.

Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. Edit viewport properties. 40 . Crossing. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. click Set View > Plan. When you make a Crossing selection. When the selection menu pops up. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Edit Grid properties. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command.Rhino 2. click Zoom Extents All. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Select objects General Click an object to select it. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. To bring all your objects into view. To remove an object from a selection set.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. To select additional objects. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. from the View menu. from the View menu. When you make a Window selection. the current object and its designation in the list highlight.

no 2. and you picked an edge as a curve. press Enter or the spacebar.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. For instance if you have a plane.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. Saving 1. select Rhino 1. Click another object. click Export or Save As. Import and export file types Rhino 1. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. When object is highlighted. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude.x file into Rhino 2.0 If you save as a 1.Rhino 2.0. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice.3dm).x 3D models (. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). Sweep1.x file from Rhino 2. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1.x files into Rhino 2. you'd get one line. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move.x file.0. but if you picked it as a boundary. In the File name box.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.0 If you load a 1. type a filename. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane.x files from Rhino 2. Copy. In the Save as type box. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . Sweep2).

select 3D Studio. click Save As. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. 42 . Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. select 3D Studio.2. Click Open. In the Open dialog box. click Open. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. If so. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface.5. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1.0 use IGES to transfer files. from the File menu. from the File menu. 2. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. click Export Selected. If no object name is defined.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010.Rhino 2.0. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.2. Click Save. click Import/Merge. They are not converted to NURBS. MAX 2. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. or MAX 2. When building morph targets. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals.0. Or. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. In the File name box. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. 2. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. type a name for the 3DS file. in the Files of type. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. For version 3. type a name for the 3DS file. Or. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided.

Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. Select the 3DM file to import.dli into your "3dsmax2.5. or RhinoMax25imp. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. export to a DWG. Now mesh your curved surfaces. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename.dli. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. The Rhino web site at http://www.dli. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.5\plugins\" directory.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. or 3D Studio R4. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. Attempt trimming? 43 . It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. RhinoMax2imp. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. 3DS MAX version 2.5 plug-ins path.5 File menu.dli from the directories in your MAX2. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp.dli. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. This happens because MAX2. RhinoMax20imp. RhinoMax2imp.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. are imported in several pieces.3dm. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. and RhinoMax20imp.0 Command Reference File formats In general.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. In the MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces.5. click Import.5 File Import dialog box.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. From the MAX2.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.dli. select Rhino 3D Models.rhino3d.dli. MAX does not export NURBS curves. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. from the Files of type box. Open 3D Studio MAX2. Only Spline objects get exported. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. use 3DS file format. RhinoMax25imp.Rhino 2. (3dmimp. This happens because the MAX2.

The Rhino web site at http://www. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. Click the MAX2.5 or 3DS DOS. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. In general. select Rhino 3D Models. 3D Studio MAX 2. from the Files of type box. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. Using developers tools. Curve." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. (3dmimp. Open 3D Studio MAX2. Be patient.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. Surface. CurveCV. From the MAX2 File menu.0. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool).dli or RhinoMax2imp.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. Given the information we have. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. If MAX crashes. Select the 3DM file to import. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. To closely examine and edit MAX2." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino.dli and RhinoMax2imp.Rhino 2. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2.5 as a single surface. If you answer "no. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. click Import. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. 3DS MAX version 2.5 NURBS object.rhino3d.5 module called "ACISMAX2. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. click the Sub-Object button.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. NURBS curves: 44 .5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question.

then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino.Rhino 2. Select the 3DM file to import. From the File menu. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. In the File Import dialog box. select Rhino 3D Models. click Mesh. From the Tools menu. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. are imported in several pieces.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Some surfaces.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. obj+number is used as a name.habware.at/duck3. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. 3D Studio MAX 3. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. Click the Sub-Object button. Clear the Weld control. from the Files of type box. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. click Import. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings.rhino3d.1. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. 45 .dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). On December 10 1997. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. Curve. Open 3D Studio MAX. If there is no Rhino object name. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. Surface.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. CurveCV.

0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 .5 ACIS Version: 1. click Save As. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. It does not fix geometry problems. from the File menu. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.Rhino 2. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. Click Save. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. At the Select object prompt. In Rhino. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.0 is currently not suggested. type a name for the file. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. In the File name box. To change these into splines. Using ACIS Version 5.and v-direction vectors.0 ACIS Version: 3. Or. but import in as bodies. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1.0 ACIS Version: 2.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. select ACIS SAT. select the options for the export. All of the version types export curves. select the curves and explode them. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects.

click Open. In the File name box. 47 .5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. select Adobe Illustrator. from the File menu.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. In the Files of type box.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. type a name for the AI file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. Or. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. click Import/Merge.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1. under Scale. Click Open. select a scale option.Rhino 2.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. In the AI Import Options dialog box. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator.0 ACIS Version: 4.

Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. type a name for the AI file.5. from the File menu. In some situations. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. type a name for the AG file. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. click Open. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. select AG. From the File menu. Or. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. Click Open. click a scale option. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Save As. click Import/Merge. Make the viewport you want to export from active. Or. Rhino only reads curve geometry. curves need to be refit before exporting. In the Save as type box. In the Open dialog box.ini. from the File menu. click Save As. from the File menu. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs.0 > 8. type a name for the AG file. click Export Selected. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. In the File name box.0 files. Under some circumstances. In the AI Export Options dialog box. not text.1 units from the original curve. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files.11 fall off the page in Illustrator.Rhino 2. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. Click Save. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. Or. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. click Export Selected. From the File menu. select Adobe Illustrator. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. under Scale. select AG. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program.

or anything in paperspace. click Export Selected. select the options for DXF export. OLE objects. select AutoCAD DXF. rays. Or. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . select the options for DWG export. click Open. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. type a name for the DXF file. In the Save as type box. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. In the File name box. type a name for the DWG file. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. click Export Selected. select AutoCAD DXF. Rhino will not import images. Or. click Save As. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. from the File menu. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. XREF's are imported. AutoCAD line types are ignored. From the File menu. click Save As. Click Save. regions. Object properties. Click Open. click Import/Merge. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. from the File menu. Or. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. from the File menu. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. Or. In the File name box. type a name for the DXF file. In the Save as type box. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Click Save. Click Open. select AutoCAD DWG. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. type a name for the DWG file. click Open.Rhino 2. In the File name box. In the Files of type box. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. In the Files of type box. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. select AutoCAD DWG. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. They are not converted to NURBS. In the File name box. From the File menu. click Import/Merge.

To break a polygon mesh into triangles. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. arc. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. curves are approximated with polylines. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. but do not properly read polyface meshes. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. or anything in paperspace. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. rays. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. OLE objects. and line entities. arcs. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. or circle. They are not converted to NURBS. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. circle. 2-D curves are simplified. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. or circle. 50 . each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. Rhino will not import images. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. arc. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. you can export either polyline or spline entities. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. regions. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. export curves as splines. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. use RAW instead. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers.Rhino 2. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. 3-D curves are never simplified. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. circles. This means if the curve is just one line.

arcs.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. If the simplify tolerance is too small. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. and line entities.csv). In the File name box. arc. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. Use simple entities Circles. select Object Properties (. The larger this number. In the Save as type box. ellipse. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. circle. type a name for the file. and ellipses as NURBS curves. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. From the File menu. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. circle.Rhino 2. lines. or ellipse. it is exported as a simple entity. line. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. but increase the number of polyline segments. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. not the file header. click Export Selected. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. For silhouette lines. Click Save. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. If the simplify tolerance is too large. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. arcs. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. line. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. ellipses. This setting uses current model units. it will be exported as such. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. or later DWG/DXF. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment.

When exporting curves as polylines. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names.0. object render color and selected mass properties. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. You can give each shape the name you would like here. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. object name. If you have previously selected a centerline. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. The larger this number. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline.S) or only half (. All component origin shift is considered 0.Rhino 2. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. layer color. This setting determines how the station lines are created.0. Rhino produces one component for each shape. Rhino must approximate each polyline. 52 . Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor.C). Each component will have the same name as the shape.

Or. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the Save as type box. click Save As. from the Files of type box. Moray automatically numbers the objects. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Or. In the File name box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Note Object names are supported. click Export Selected. select Moray UDO. Containment. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. In the File name box. Click Save. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. click Save As. from the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a name for the UDO file. 53 . Or. In the File name box. Object names will be used when exporting the . click Import/Merge. type a name for the LWO file. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. The LWO file is limited to 65. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO.000 polygon limitation. select Lightwave. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave.535 points for the entire file. Each component will initially be a member of this part. If the same name is used for multiple objects. They are not converted to NURBS. click Open.lwo file instead of a generic name. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Click Open. which does not have the 65. or Windage (sail).Rhino 2. select Lightwave. type a name for the LWO file. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. click Export Selected. from the File menu. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO.

Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. If the file contains open surfaces. In the Save as type box. type a name for the file.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. surfaces. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. click Save As.Rhino 2. Planes are important primitives. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file." Solution The model probably exported just fine. click User Defined. they display a blank window. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. click Export Selected. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. from the File menu.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. When you export to UDO. from Create menu. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. In the File name box. and colors. 54 . only closed solids will be imported. select the target application for the export.UDO file and a . If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering.stmuc. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. Or. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. select Parasolid X_T. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. Click Save. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids.INC file. they will be ignored with no warning. Rhino creates a . You can lie to Solid Edge 6.com/moray/. and curves Solid Edge 6.0 will not read in open surfaces. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. surfaces. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. To import the object into Moray. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank.

from the File menu. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. click Save As. click Export Selected.bmrt. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard.rhino3d. Click Save. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. however. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. Or.graphics. select RenderMan. 55 .rendering.Rhino 2.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.rhino3d. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. ISBN: 0201508680. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. ISBN: 1558606181.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. type a name for the RIB file. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. Addison-Wesley Pub Co.

Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Export to RIB file format supports render background color. click the big blue "R. and highlight. however." Two windows will open. To cancel the rendering process. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary.1. and opacity statement for each object. Use Properties to set the object names.povray. select POV-Ray Mesh. In the File name box. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. Rhino writes the surface.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C.rendribrc. The intensity is always set to 1. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. Click Save.org. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. Or." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color.rib reboot your computer. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. 56 . transparency. click Export Selected. click Save As. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To test render the scene.povray. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the Save as type box.org. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. color. Set up your scene with materials and lights. type a name for the POV file. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. The transparency color is the color of the object. from the File menu. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB.Rhino 2. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light.

The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the File name box. and highlight. Textures are not exported. click Import/Merge. They are not converted to NURBS. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. click Save As. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. type a name for the RTF file. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. but object colors are. 57 . Click Save." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. or into one large POV file. transparency. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. type a name for the RAW file. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry).inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. from the Files of type box. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported.inc and lights. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. click Export Selected. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Or. select Raw Triangles. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV.Rhino 2. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. Or. from the File menu. select Raw Triangles. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Click Open. In the Open dialog box. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. from the File menu. click Open.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer.

STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. type a name for the SLC file. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. In the Save as type box. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. 0. 0. The greater the number of polygons. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. (For example. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. use DXF instead. click Export Selected. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. click Export Selected. select STEP. from the File menu. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. click Save As. Import it back into Rhino. from the File menu.0508mm and 0. Click Save.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. from the Files of type box. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0254mm. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces.0381mm. 58 . type a name for the STEP file. click Save As. In the File name box. Or. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. click Open. In the File name box. Or. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. Click Save. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. Consequently. 0. select SLC.0127mm. Or. click Import/Merge. In the Save as type box. In the Open dialog box. type a name for the STEP file. from the File menu. Click Open. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. Export it in RAW format. from the File menu. From the File menu. The slices will be evenly spaced. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt.Rhino 2. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog.0762mm. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. Or. click Open.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. select STEP. and use ExplodeMesh. click Import/Merge.

Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. select STL. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. then they have the same idea of up. then click Weld. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. but doesn't glue the edges together. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. In the File name box. that is. type a name for the STL file. In the File name box. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. Or. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. Use JoinMesh. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. click Save As. click Export Selected. then click Unify Normals. click Polygon Mesh. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. From the Tools menu. type a name for the STL file.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. if two triangles share an edge. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. From the Tools menu. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180.ini file to look like this. then Weld (angle=180). then click Join. Click Save. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. Click Open. click Polygon Mesh. from the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. select STL. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. They are not converted to NURBS. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. If a mesh point is highlighted. to get JCAD to work. Instead. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. click Polygon Mesh. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. 59 . Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.) Select the new mesh object. to control STL accuracy. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. For example. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. from the Files of type box. From the Tools menu. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie.

and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file.axis toward the x. shine. In the File name box. select VRML. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the File name box. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. symbols. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.D geometry and topology information. click Import/Merge. from the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Render color. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select VDA. type a name for the WRL file. click Save As. It does not support assembly and feature information.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. click Save As. click Export Selected. Rhino now 60 . This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. click Export Selected. Click Open. Click Save. click Open. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. type a name for the VDA file. Or. From the File menu. from the Files of type box. In the Save as type box. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. from the File menu. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. It does not support representation of drawing information. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Click Save. from the File menu. etc. views.Rhino 2. Texture assignments are currently not exported. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. select VDA. type a name for the VDA file. In the Open dialog box.y plane. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. Or. Or.

DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format.viewpoint. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. (The MTS file contains the actual data. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport.0." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. Or.0. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Click Save. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. type a name for the WMF file. and if so. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. Click Save. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Render Mesh tab. select Windows Metafile. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. type a name for the file. You can download it from http://developer. click Save As. but will make the WRL file much larger. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. In the File name box. From the File menu. In the File name box. Or. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. from the File menu. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. you should try 2.0 and 2. In general.) Outside of Rhino.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html.pdf.viewpoint. This can be tricky. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. try 1.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. click Save As. click Export Selected. from the File menu. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export.0 first.exe. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. 61 . click Export Selected. In the Save as type box.com/software/mtx2html.

In the File name box. in the Save as type box. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. click Export Selected. Click Save. and click Save.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. select an IGES type. select IGES. 62 . IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. This means various settings have different values for each product. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color.Rhino 2. enter a name for the file. Detailed options Author. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. Organization. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. 1 2 In the File name box. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. Sender's product ID. From the File menu. from the IGES type box. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds.x is created. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section.3ds A file yourfile. type a name for the DXF file.

0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file.ini.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . To import trimming curves as curve objects.ini. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.Rhino 2. To create an IGES import log. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.2 or 5. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed. the IGES file will be empty. When Rhino 2. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system.

A flavor is terminated by a blank line. When Rhino reads an IGES file.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. This file can contain multiple flavors. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . if your file is called "iges_level_mapping.). A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. Spaces and tabs are ignored. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . Lines that begin with semi-colon (. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. an IGES level number is automatically selected. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. .) are ignored. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand.. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. 2.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. but this is not required. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. 1. 3.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import.. you need to do a bit of sleuthing.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. To see if this is the case. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N".Rhino 2. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type." For example. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks.

In the IGES Export Types dialog box. click Close. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If one of the Annotation(). lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero.igs and gamma. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.igs. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. Other().igs open gamma.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. accepting only entities marked as geometry. Definition(). regardless of type. click New. set the options for the IGES type. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. 65 . you will get it. or Logical/Positional(). then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. If you do something like: open alpha. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read.igs.Rhino 2. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. Rhino reads alpha.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta.igs normally.

In the IGES Export Types dialog box. arcs. IGES 184 entities. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. from the IGES type list box. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. click Close.2 and 5. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. The difference is 5. Unix uses LF.3 using four digits.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and click Copy Type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. set the options for the IGES type. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. IGES arcs. In most cases. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. 66 . If the max degree is set to five. or IGES circles. select an IGES type. and click Delete.2 stores years using two digits and 5. Unix. If the max degree is set to three. set the options for the IGES type. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. this number should be one. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. click Close. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to.Rhino 2. from the IGES type list box. and click Edit. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance.3. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. select an IGES type. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. and maximum degree five. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. and MacOS uses CR. The number must be bigger than zero. and MacOS style line endings.

Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. If the max degree is set to three. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. Try to load both files into your product. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. In the Save as type box. when possible. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. click Save As. Curves are not exported. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box.Rhino 2. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. Or. Max degree Choose between no degree limit.com/rhino so we can document this file format. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. and maximum degree five. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). maximum degree three. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. select Wavefront OBJ. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. when possible. try the following test. select the options for OBJ export. 67 . Click Save. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. from the File menu.rhino3d. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. In the File name box. If you get better results with one export type. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. If the max degree is set to five. type a name for the OBJ file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Export Selected. when possible.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere).

mtl file with the same name as the .mtl file contains one material definition per object. Export layer names Exports layer names.obj file. There are also references to these materials added to the . The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. LF (Unix) Line feed only. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet.Rhino 2. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. Options Skip Don't export meshes. mesh export is disabled. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. To export to MAX. If is far from 100% satisfactory.obj file. 68 . 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. Export material definitions Creates an . Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. Export object names Exports object names. Export layer names should be cleared. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. End of line character CRLF (Windows. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. CR (Mac OS) Return only. By default. The .0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces.ini file. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. and flip the trim. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. type a filename. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. In the File name box. type a filename. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. select the surface. try using OBJ format instead. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . and then restart MAX. To distinguish between separate entities. All data that is not grouped. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. Note When merging an IGES file.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. and Customize > Preferences. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. select the trim curve. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. In the Save as type box. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. click Export Selected. click Export or Save As. Or. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. and set the display to wireframe. For the fastest import. click Export or Save As. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. select IGES. After a large IGES import. From the IGES Type box. it is recommended that you save your work. In the File name box.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Alias V8. select 3D Studio MAX 3. make it independent. In this case. it is recommended that you save your work first.x. select IGES.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 .2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. select AUTOFORM. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Ashlar Vellum. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.

click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. 71 . select Breault Research's ASAP. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select CADCEUS. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. select IGES.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. select IGES. type a filename. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. select AutoShip.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. type a filename.

0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. select CATIA. select CamSoft. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. even those that are trivially trimmed. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. In the File name box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. select Cosmos/M. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y.

click Export or Save As. type a filename. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select IGES. In the File name box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. 74 . click Export or Save As. In the File name box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. select FastShip. In the Save as type box. select Cosmos/M.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . In the Save as type box. select Integrity Ware. select IronCAD.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. select FastSURF. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.

type a filename. select IGES. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 .0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. select LUSAS.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. select Mastercam.

From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the File name box. type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. 77 . type a filename. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. select ME30. from the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. click Export Selected. select Maya.Rhino 2.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.

You may set these options as you see fit. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.opt. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. select Microstation. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Start and Global.IGESOUT dialog box. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Structure. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. To save these settings. Version 5. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. type a filename. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. click Export or Save As. click DE Mappings. set IGES Version to either 5.2 or 5. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. click Geometry. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. in the Description box. From the IGES Type box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. and click OK.Rhino 2.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. click Export or Save As. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. To get the best results. (The MDT defaults work fine. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. In the File name box. Version 5. 78 . click Edit options. Surfaces and Solids. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the File name box. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the Save as type box. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. select Mechanical Desktop. In the Save as type box. type a filename. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces.

If you add the following section to your Rhino. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. From the IGES Type box. select Multisurf.1. click Export or Save As. type a filename.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select NASA GridTool.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. select IGES. In the Save as type box.ini file. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.000000 79 .0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. In the Save as type box. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. the current version of Multisurf is 3. click Export or Save As. type a filename.1 using an IGES file. In the File name box. Multisurf 3. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. select OptiCAD. type a filename. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. type a filename.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select NuGraf.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . select IGES.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.

In the File name box. Note With Pro/E version 20.001 to 0. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E.pro file or save them as rhino.Rhino 2. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . From the IGES Type box. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. use these settings in the Pro/E config.01 units. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. use the "All Parts" option. somewhere around 0. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry. If you set your tolerances right. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. select IGES.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. when exporting to IGES. click Export or Save As.0001 will produce good results. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.pro file then read it in before exporting. In the Save as type box.

This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. Surfaces and Solids. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E.Rhino 2. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. there are now two types. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. The more trims you have. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. When modeling in Rhino. If the curves are planar. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. then. 82 . Things like fillets and drafts . to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. even those that are trivially trimmed. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. Surface replace is another good tool to use. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature.

type a filename. a surface. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 .asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. and a solid. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. you will not get back what you sent. There is no geometry information in it. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. select SDRC's I-DEAS. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. In the File name box. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . From the IGES Type box. select IGES. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino.

Softimage can also import 3DS. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. from the Save as type box. from the IGES Type box. 3. All three have their own problems and benefits. then click IGES.Rhino 2. DXF.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3. From the File menu. In the IGES Export dialog box.7sp1 and 3. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. select IGES.com. select Softimage.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. Run iges2soft. 1.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.txt contains command line option information. Open Softimage. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.8: ftp://ftp. In the Save As dialog box. select Softimage. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Save As. SGI and x86 (Intel).7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.okino. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.phoenixtools. Check out their web site for more information: www. for SI versions 3. Type a filename and click Save.phoenixtools.phoenixtools.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www.com Plugin download link page: www. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. 2 84 .igs MyDSCFile.

In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. In the File name box. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. select Solid Edge.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . In the File name box.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

To make more watertight geometry in Rhino.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. select IGES. To export models to Rhino. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 86 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.001 or 0. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select SolidWorks. In the Save as type box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids.0001 before building the geometry. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.

Generally. and investigate alternative approaches.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. In the Save as type box.. SUM 4. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. type a filename. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Nothing replaces experience. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. by nature. to test feasibility. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. type a filename. then shelling is likely to fail. click Export or Save As. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. From the IGES Type box. ribs. select SURFCAM. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. is tangent. for SolidWorks. Also. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas.Rhino 2. select IGES. Shelling. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. In the File name box. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. try to model with smooth. 87 . etc. click Export or Save As. which works on both edges and faces. leaving features such as fillets.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. shelling. which within human perception. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0001. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. select SUM4. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments.

From the IGES Type box. type a filename.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select IGES. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

select IGES. In the File name box. select IGES.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. type a filename. select TekSoft.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Unigraphics. In the Save as type box.

click Export or Save As. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. type a filename. select IGES. In the File name box.Rhino 2.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. Surfaces and Solids. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. 90 . Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. select Yamaha ESPRi. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. From the IGES Type box.

you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. In addition. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value.Rhino 2. from the Named Colors list. If context-sensitive menu is on. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. type RGB values in the Red. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. 91 . From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color.ini file to add or change menu items. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. type values in the Hue.txt in the Rhino install directory. or drag to manipulate the view. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. Green. For maximum speed. and Blue boxes. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. Edit the Rhino. select a color. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. Saturation. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. If no object is selected. actions related to objects appear in the menu. Context-sensitive menu indicator. The same limitation does not apply to render color. and Value boxes.ini file. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. The first item is always to repeat the last command.

and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. Point. on the status bar. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. Near. To clear all persistent object snaps. Quad. Center. To display the Osnap dialog box. Midpoint. After the pick. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. click Osnap. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. All object snaps behave similarly. Tan. If object snaps are locked. Only Near. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. When an object snap is active. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. 92 . or can be activated for one pick only. if End. As you pass your cursor over an object.Rhino 2. Intersection. Near. End. right-click the Lock checkbox. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. For example. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. the appropriate object snap displays. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. and Point will not work for that pick. When activated. End. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. and Knot object snaps can persist. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Perp. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap.

Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.Rhino 2.

separated by commas. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. or just suspends them for one pick. Center. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to the endpoint. Tan. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. 94 . Valid options are NoSnap. OrientOnSrf. click Object Snap. This command is useful for command files. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. Point. Quad. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. Click to enter the endpoint. then click End. from the Tools menu. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. Midpoint. all others will be cleared. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. it turns off all persistent object snaps. End. Only these object snaps will be set. Intersection. Near. for example in ExtractIsoparm. InsertKnot. If a command is active. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap.Rhino 2. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. and Knot. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. with no spaces. Perp. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line.

click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. click the Osnap pane. Near object snap Snap near a curve. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Click to enter the point. then click Point. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to it.Rhino 2. On the status bar. and the "corners" of surfaces. On the status bar. 95 . In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click End. click Mid. Move the cursor near a curve. click Point. then click Mid. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter a point on the curve. Click to enter the midpoint. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. click Near. The marker jumps to its midpoint. click Object Snap. then click Near. the seam point on closed curves. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. The marker moves along the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor near a point. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. On the status bar.

then click Tangent To. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Move the cursor along a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter the center point. from the Tools menu. On the status bar. Move the cursor near an intersection. then click Intersection. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to it. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Move the cursor along a curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. then click Perpendicular To. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to its center point. perpendicular to the curve. Move the cursor near a curve. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve.Rhino 2. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. Click to enter one of these points. click Int. Click to enter the point of intersection. 96 . The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. then click Center. click Perp. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. tangent to the curve. click Cen. Click to enter one of these points. from the Tools menu.

The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. type Knot. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. Click to enter the knot point.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. You can set this point. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. In the Osnap dialog box. without picking it. and relative coordinate entry. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. arc or ellipse. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. Click to enter one of these points. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. from the Tools menu. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. angle constraint. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. click the Osnap pane. then click From. Similarly. then click Quadrant. click Quad. click Tan. click Object Snap. without entering that point for the original command. with From. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. You can use another object snap to pick this point. At the Choose a base point prompt. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. Move the cursor along a circle. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. or similar surface edges. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. 3 Example 97 . and finally choose the point for the original command. Set your constraints relative to the base point. click Object Snap. distance constraint. On the status bar. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. click Object Snap. then click Knot. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. From object snap Snap from a point. pick a point. Move the cursor near a curve.

then click Tangent From. Int. click Object Snap. select the curve. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. The cursor moves only along the curve. from the Tools menu. then click Perpendicular From. snap to the end of the line. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. 98 . type 2 and press Enter. Mid. Note When selecting points during this sequence. from the Tools menu. At the Choose a point prompt. and Quad. At the Choose a base point prompt. Cen. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. Near. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. At the Click near the curve prompt.Rhino 2. then click From. you can use simple snaps.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. End. for greater precision. At the Click near the curve prompt. select the curve. Point. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu.

Note When selecting points during this sequence.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. you can use simple snaps (End. select a second point. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Mid. At the Choose a point prompt. click Object Snap. then click Along Line. Cen. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. The marker tracks along the tangent line. you can use simple snaps (End. At the End of base line prompt. Point. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter a point on the line. Point. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. and Quad) for greater precision. Int. Mid.Rhino 2. Near. Near. At the End of tracking line prompt. select a first point to specify the tracking line. Cen. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. At the Start of base line prompt. right-click the Along toolbar button. from the Tools menu. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Int. and Quad) for greater precision. At the Start of tracking line prompt. Along object snap Track along a line. Or. in the Object Snap toolbar. The marker moves only along the line. Int. 99 . 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. Click to enter a point on the line. The marker moves only along the line. select a second point. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Cen. Mid. Point. you can use simple snaps (End. Near. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. and Quad) for greater precision. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. type AlongParallel.

100 . Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. Near. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Mid. but works on curves. End. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. and Knot. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. Center. select the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. Click to enter a point on the surface. Note When selecting a point on the surface. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. for greater precision. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. it is off. Intersection.Rhino 2. By default. click Object Snap. then click On Surface. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. you can use simple snaps.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. Point. and the cursor is over an object snap point. select Project to CPlane. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. The marker moves only along the surface. When Osnap projection is on. At the Click near the surface prompt.

The valid values are -1. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. General tab. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Information Technical information about the command displays. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. and OBJ file export. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. Object Properties.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. POV-Ray. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. and the other positive integers. 0. 101 . and RenderMan RIB. go to the Options dialog box. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. Isoparms at surface knot locations.Rhino 2. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. or just the knot isoparms. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. 1. 2. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox.

To change the material assignment of the layer.Rhino 2. you can set the color. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. transparency. Light tab Edit light object properties. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. Color Sets the color of the light. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. texture. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. using a plug-in library. finish. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. From top left to bottom right. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. Turns light on or off. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. 102 . Material tab Edit object material properties. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers.0 Command Reference Object Properties. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. this tab displays the properties for that light type.

Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. From top left to bottom right. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. 103 . To change the color of the wireframe display.Rhino 2.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Text tab Edit text properties.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. or a polygon mesh. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. polysurface. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Object Properties. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Clear this option to remove the bump map. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Unlike more advanced renderers. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image.

Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Example If your units are inches. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Options dialog box. The two sizes update each other. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0.Rhino 2. When you place annotation text. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands.25 inches. 104 . Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Command string Command alias definitions.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

110

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. On the Shade tab. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. For highest quality results. Render Mesh tab. Rhino takes that time to calculate. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. shadows. Also. this shading mode may be much faster. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. and a backdrop image. click Use OpenGL. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. highlights. spotlighting. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. you will see improved performance. click Options. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Choose between the quick render preview. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. 114 . from the smooth geometry. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. The next time you shade the same model. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. and the color-andshadows Render. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view.Rhino 2. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces.

They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Also. the patterns may probably disappear. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Jagged spotlight edges and self. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. The next time you render the same model. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. which might appear in waves.Rhino 2. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. Render tab. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. In some situations. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1.0 or 1.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. When you draw the plane.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. Rhino Render tab.5. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. of the view in the active viewport. so it won't be deformed. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. from the smooth geometry. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Self. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Render Mesh tab. you will see improved performance. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. 115 . first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering.

If you increase it too much.shadowing effects. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. Self-shadowing artifacts. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Change the size of the light. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. If the problems still persist. The scale of the objects is very large.Rhino 2. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. Sometimes the conversion 116 . If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. Correct shadow. That will usually solve the problem. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. If you’re getting self.

dll and Glu32.asp. If this does not fix the problem. Name Layer name. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. To update your OpenGL drivers. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. and download the latest drivers. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack.microsoft. they look jagged. Otherwise. 117 .com/windows/downloads/winntw. On Status of layer. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. contact Rhino Technical Support. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. For example. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. Windows 95. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. please read section the next section. change the color of the wire frame. and since the polygons are flat. select them all with one selection. available from Microsoft at www. you may not have the current drivers.Rhino 2. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. if you were working on a human figure. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. When objects are on a layer. Off Status of layer.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. Or you can organize your parts a different way. This helps you organize your model. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. you can turn them all off at once. To update Windows NT drivers. Even if you got the card last week. To set the column width. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Start Rhino.

This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default.Rhino 2. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. transparency. texture. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. To change the color of the wireframe display. Unlike more advanced renderers. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. you can set the color. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. polysurface. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. You can snap to objects on this layer. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. finish. or a polygon mesh. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. 118 .

Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. In the Edit Layers dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.Rhino 2. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. In the Layer dialog box. If you don't remember the layer names. type a new name and press Enter.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. You cannot create new layers with these names. select a set of layers. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. click New. and Invert the selection. You can select all layers. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. select the name on the list. Clear this option to remove the bump map. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. 119 .

On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. In the Show box.Rhino 2. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. select a color for the layer. To delete empty layers. When a model has a large number of layers. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . from the list select the layers you want to delete. select all the displayed layers and delete. In the Select Color dialog box. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. use the Empty Layers filter. Click Delete. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. click a filter option. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. click the color column of the layer you want to change. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects.

A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. type a string of characters to match the layer name to.Rhino 2. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box." are on or locked. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. click Filtered Layers. set the desired filter options. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). off. or locked.

then use the one closest to the top of the list.Rhino 2. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. If you are after a flag-like surface. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. Rules. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. If this doesn't help. If you are after a tent-like. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Sweeps. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. Sweep1. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. generally. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. then the surface created by loft will. then use a ruled surface. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. 122 . As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. The surface is smooth. stair-like. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. try adding a few more cross sections. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. Lofts. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. or accordion bellows-like surface. The rail curve directs the surface along it. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. then try Loft. Think of each curve you select in Loft.

Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. use a Sweep2. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. If you have a several of closed curves. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. the surface will twist. 123 . Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. while keeping the other end fixed.Rhino 2. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise.

0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. several. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. 124 . For a given radius. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. the intersection of the offsets can have one. or no curves. For each of these four ways. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. and thus the fillet. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. there are four ways to fillet.Rhino 2. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails.

These pieces can be grouped into connected components. for this choice of sides.0 Command Reference As mentioned. 125 . there may be several fillet pieces. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component.Rhino 2.

and split.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. No. If split. If no. If yes. Because of this. 126 . When that is the case. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. yes. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. When Extend = yes. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. then the surfaces are left intact.Rhino 2. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded.

127 . their offsets may intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. then no fillets will be created.Rhino 2. If two surfaces are tangent.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. and a fillet will exist.

rather than arcs. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. except cross-sections are lines. no fillet will be created. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces.Rhino 2. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. Otherwise. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. 128 .0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command.

Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. but it may not fit. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity.0 Command Reference In general. If one is a polysurface. When joining A. 129 . control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. If you do. a spherical patch will be made. it doesn't. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. The result will have a hole at the corner. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. If both are single surfaces. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first.Rhino 2. B and C. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. on an open surface or polysurface. However. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. In this case. The picking order can make the difference. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. Do each surface individually. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. Often. joining A to C. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. Additionally. Objects have overlapping surface areas. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. it is projected. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. no corner patch will be attempted. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. then the result to B will work. In this case. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. Once we have a curve on the surface. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. do not pick A and B first. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A.

Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane.Rhino 2. the operation can fail. For success using the Booleans. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. or visa versa. 130 . This point is also called a singularity. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. You can also move control points to the same location. not mesh objects.

Depending on the order the objects are selected. In this example. select one object. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. The objects will Union. select the second object.Rhino 2. At the Select object to intersect prompt. 131 . This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. In this example. click From Objects. In this example. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. At the Select object for intersection prompt. the two boxes are just touching along one side. and Intersection do not work. but Difference. there are three possible intersection curves. we chose the cone first. In this example. the Intersect command may give different results. and then click Intersection.

Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. this may not happen. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. however. Therefore. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. if your objects are polysurfaces. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. If your objects are very complex. so we will Explode it. In our simple example.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command.Rhino 2. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. you would expect to get all three curves. To get all the possible curves. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway.

Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. select the cone.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. select the two faces of the box as shown below. At the Select cutting objects prompt. click Extract Surface. From the Solid menu. Explode the cone. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Delete the small wedge of the cone. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. 133 . 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. click Split. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter.Rhino 2. At the Select object to split prompt.

There is no intersection. From the Edit menu. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. and is achieved by flipping the normals.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. So. difference. go through the same code. union. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. intersection. The intersection involves isolated points. In this case. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. 134 . 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. click Trim. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid.Rhino 2. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. A – B = A intersect ~B. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). select the two curves. where ~ is the set theoretical complement.

find the folder where Rhino is installed. planes. 135 .ini file. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap.ini to open it for editing. select the check box for the toolbar.ini. Surfaces overlap. In Windows Explorer.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino.ini and restart Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. cylinders. the outside is the side to which the normals point. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. etc. Find the setting you want to change. Edit the Rhino. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. To understand the results. To edit the Rhino. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. Double-click Rhino. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. Exit Rhino.Rhino 2. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar.

click Properties. select the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. The toolbar appears or hides. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. loses its title bar. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. This is a setting in the Rhino.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. type the new name. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. it has no title bar. The title bar appears on the toolbar. 136 . In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. and click Properties. and is docked. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. The toolbar reshapes.ini file. The title bar appears. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. The toolbar moves to a new position. and from the Toolbar menu. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. until the preview frame of it changes shape. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges.Rhino 2. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. which can be on or off the Rhino window. Or. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar.

In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. and drop in the desired position. select the toolbars to import. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Or. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and click Delete Toolbar. click New. Or. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. and click Import Toolbar. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Or. The linked toolbar appears. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. The linked toolbar appears. 3 137 . which has the white triangle in the corner. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. select the toolbar. and click New Toolbar. click Delete. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Click Import. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. and click Properties. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. Or. it will distort the bitmap icon. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. Release the mouse button. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. select the toolbar. Or. select the toolbar. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list.Rhino 2. and from the Toolbar menu. Click Open. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. click Import. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. select the toolbar. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. click Properties. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Press and hold Ctrl.

In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. In this case. The linked toolbar vanishes.Rhino 2. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. select Float to Top to make the link button float. and click the right mouse button. Press and hold Shift. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. The toolbar appears. it will distort the bitmap icon. The toolbar is floating. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Move the cursor over a link button. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. Or. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. Press and hold Ctrl. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. clear Float to Top. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. 138 . Press and hold Shift. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. Press and hold Shift. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. The buttons rearrange. Release the mouse button. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button.

Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. and from the Toolbar menu. click OK. the left and right mouse buttons commands. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons.Rhino 2. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Press and hold Shift. click Add Button. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. If you don't know what to enter. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. A blank button is added to the toolbar. In the Delete Button dialog box. You can change the ToolTip. Click Close. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Or. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. Release the left mouse button. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. Use this area to edit your bitmap. and the bitmap icon. capture a portion of the screen. type text in the ToolTip box. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. You can clear the image. 139 .0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. for example: Zoom In | Out. type text in the ToolTip box. Press F2 to view the command history. and click the right mouse button. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. select the toolbar. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. and click the right mouse button. and click Add Button. draw with the paint tools. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.

and click the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Press and hold Shift. A square replaces the cursor. Press and hold Shift. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Or. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. Note You can shift the image left. click Edit Bitmap. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. the button is blank. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. up. click Clear. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. from the Edit menu. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. then OK. Press and hold Shift. click Edit Bitmap. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. Or. click Undo. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. right. from the Edit menu. Click the pencil tool. 140 . from the Edit menu. click Grab. Press and hold Shift. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. To undo a mistake. and click the right mouse button. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color.

A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. type a bitmap file name. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. from the File menu.1 4.4 -4. select a bitmap file. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. Click Open. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. and click the right mouse button. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. shortcut keys. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. click Edit Bitmap. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. This script moves objects.Rhino 2. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Enter Simulates pressing Enter.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. command aliases. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script.0 5.4 13. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. Click Save. click Export Bitmap. click Import Bitmap. from a text file. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. Press and hold Shift. 141 . An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.-3 1.-4 8. from the File menu. which stops the creation of point objects.

Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). From the Tools menu. and Java applets. The default is 1. Mode is always 1. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. is a fast. 142 . PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. Fit is the fitting method. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection.5. Divs is the samples per knotspan. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. variable names.Rhino 2. queries. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. 1=Fit. Options are 0=Interpolate. Microsoft JScript 5. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. These scripting languages allow loops. If you don't know what to enter. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. browsing for files. Automation servers. portable. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. Press F2 to view the command history. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. the Web's only standard scripting language. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. The default is 20. then click Paste from Clipboard. layername2. click Commands.

then edit the trim curves. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino.for instance. though. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. To fix broken edges. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. If Rhino matches the large edges. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. If your model doesn't pass Check. These damaged areas can cause problems. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. and join everything back together again. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. you may find some of those microscopic edges. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. If you zoom in enough. Another problem is having a tiny. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. then it will list some specific problems. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. If your model doesn't pass Check. and Check doesn't check for those things. If a model passes Check. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated.microsoft.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. The first one to try is the Check command. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. re-trim the surface. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. Rhino will let you do it. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. 143 . But it can check the general overall structure of the object. see: http://msdn. you have to explode the model.Rhino 2. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object.rvb. Some bad model parts. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. For more information on scripting.

FitCrv. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. Split the curve at the kink. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Trim again. and Join. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message.Rhino 2. you can Undo changing the degree. the Join command can get confused when that happens. Thus. 144 . Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. To draw a non-G1 curve. simple edge-to-edge matching.0 5. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). Solution: Rebuild the curve.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Untrim or DetachTrim. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. If there are lots of tiny edges. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement.0 5. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it.10 5. This test does not check the geometry. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. open up the kink by control point editing. Additionally. You will get this error message.4 10.5 5. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure.

Solution: Open up the stacked points. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. The warning lets you know when this has happened. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. fix curve and retrim. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Usually. You will get this error message. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. You will get this error message. You can put control points very close to each other. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. Solution: DetachTrim. Edge direction. Solution: Rebuild the edge. Join and Booleans in particular. but not right on top of each other. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. but not right on top of each other. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. Some operations.Rhino 2. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. You can put control points very close to each other. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Rhino 2. Internal control points are coincident. 145 . Extrude it. and then control point edit the extrusion. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Use this to install as a standalone node. In short. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. Draw a Circle. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation.

it does not modify the shape of the surface.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2.com/plug-ins. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. visit www. This is an installation option. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services.htm. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. No special hardware is needed. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. When a node shuts down. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. contact your network administrator.Rhino 2. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. Thus. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. Very little administration is required. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications.0 as a workgroup node. the license is added back to the available license pool. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. When a Rhino workgroup node starts.com/plugins/developer.0" as a workgroup node. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals.rhino3d. For details on setting up a workgroup. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. 146 . Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems.rhino3d. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. unlike standalone Rhino.

90 degrees The range is from . 0.90 degrees to 90 degrees. 3.Rhino 2. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. Cursor. 8/3. the cursor turns into a crosshair. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge.D edge. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. 3. 147 . Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. 1. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. The 3. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. For example.D curve (the one you see). When using elevator mode. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. 2.D curves. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. called the pedge. Rhino meshes all trim edges. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol.D curve. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. 1/3. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. the draft angle is 0. Each 2. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. 2. trim curves are ignored.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. 1. Marker. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. and tolerance values for each of the curves. the marker will snap to the snap point.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface.D edge is to the surface. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. which also approximates the intersection. After the initial grid is made. When the initial mesh grid is made.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. If an object snap is on.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. called the edge. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. 0. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. two 2. then e_tol tells how close the 3.

By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. or a polysurface. Imagine a rope. when you have a single surface. blue on one side. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. 148 .) with a polynomial definition. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction.Rhino 2. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). Some renderers support double-sided shaders. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. or reflective metal on one side. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. Solid objects do not have naked edges. The other side is the inside. When you have a finished solid. etc. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. However. the stiffness of the rope. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. If you hold it at the ends. red on the other. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. flat constant on the other). the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing.

Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. this is called a "quilt. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Snap pane. Planar pane and Osnap pane.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. surfaces. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. 149 . you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. In some other 3-D programs. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. and solids." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Ortho pane.Rhino 2. it is also a solid. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object.

The u. v.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. U. no objects are selected. If objects are selected and no command is active. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. v.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command.Rhino 2.direction is indicated by the green arrow. A rectangular surface with the u. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. and normal. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. and the v.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. 150 . If a mesh is generated from a solid.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. Esc clears the command prompt. and tolerances. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. You can save your own templates to base future models on. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. u. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. You can display the u. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. When no command is active. Esc turns off the points. Esc deselects all objects. grid size. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. The u. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots.direction is indicated by the red arrow. there will be no holes in the mesh. units. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. Surfaces have three directions.

Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. 4View Four-viewport layout. 151 . At the Fourth corner of polygon. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Press Enter for triangle prompt. using Point object snap and JoinMesh.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Or. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. and Third corner of polygon prompts. 3View Three-viewport layout. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Second corner of polygon. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views.

The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddNextV command.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. 152 .Rhino 2. Start the AddNextU command.

Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected 153 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. Start the AddPrevU command. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection.

2 At the Select groups. select an object to add to a group. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Use the Group command to group objects together. prompt select the group or enter a group name. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. 1 At the Select objects prompt. Select a point on the surface. 154 . Start the AddPrevV command. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group.

pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. The curves must be planar. 1 2 Select the objects. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt.Rhino 2. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. or World Right. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. 155 . At the Select curve to change prompt. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. AlignProfiles Align two curves.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. World Front. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt.

At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. select a point that defines the start of an angle line. Start of second line prompt. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line.Rhino 2. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. End of first line prompt. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. 156 .

the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. and fitted onto the selected surface. 157 . select the surface on which to apply the curves.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. If the surface is trimmed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. select the surface to apply the mesh. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text.0000 degrees.

enter the center of the arc's radius. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. Generally. Or. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. Arc Draw an arc. At the End point or angle prompt. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. enter the end point of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. you can make such morphs. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. enter the center of the arc's radius. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. Then. mesh the most complex surface first. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. If you use the Mirror transformation. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is.Rhino 2. one of which has been squished around in some way. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. enter the angle for the arc. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. For example. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. At the Start of arc prompt. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. Start. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. enter the start point of the arc. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. although if you understand the process and work at it. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. so if you Mirror something. If making morph targets. ApplyMesh guarantees that. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. 158 . You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. But that swaps u and v on the surface.

enter the start of the arc. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. You can enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. enter a point on the arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the End of arc prompt. At the Point on arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. Arc from three points 159 .

At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. you will be prompted for the minimum radius.Rhino 2. enter the end point. end point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. Arc from start point. enter the start point. select the second curve. If the radius value is too small. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. end point. select the first curve. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. and radius. 160 . enter the end point. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. enter the start point. enter the radius of the arc. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. enter a radius value. Tangent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. End. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. At the Radius prompt. At the Direction prompt. End.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. At the Choose arc prompt. At the End of arc prompt. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. At the End of arc prompt. At the Radius prompt.

1.0 (+/. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.7e-006.1e-006.4601236. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.34 (+/.8545412. If you cannot see the entire report. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.0). area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt. second moments.1.1. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2). Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. product moments. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.0.014). First moments. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. 161 . The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.Rhino 2.

1e-009.36650165 (+/. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.0.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. As an example.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.5.0) zx: 0 (+/.1e-009.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 1. Area = 60 (+/.73205081 (+/.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.0 is shown below.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.0 and 6.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 6. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report.46410162 (+/. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.10.1e-007) z: 0 (+/. For example. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.88675135 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.Rhino 2. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.1e-007) y: 300 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need. and sometimes contradictory.73300329 (+/.77350269 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 .1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. with a surface or open polysurface.1e-009) Rz: 3.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/. if you select a box polysurface.1e-009) Ry: 3. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.0 (+/.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.

In particular. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. the area. In terms of integrals. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. In terms of integrals. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. area first moments. area second moments. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. and area product moments. The relationship between the area first moments. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area.Rhino 2. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 .0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area.

to indicate the x. The array directions are the x. press Enter. At the Number in Y direction prompt.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. Or. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. type the y-interval and press Enter. Transform.and y-intervals. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. 164 . The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. those distances are applied to the array directions. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. At the Number in Z direction prompt. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects.Rhino 2. At the Number in X direction prompt. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. type the x-interval.

At the Select path curve prompt. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface.Rhino 2. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. choose two points that define the z-interval.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. or the spacing distance along the curve. type the z-interval and press Enter. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. 165 . In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Or. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. set the number of elements to array. specify twist behavior. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command.

type the number of copies and press Enter. At the Center of polar array prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. At the Angle to fill prompt. and object to array.Rhino 2. curve on surface. Objects arrayed along line. At the Basepoint prompt. At the Select the surface prompt. You can continue to place objects. 166 . ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. select objects to copy along the curve. Enter a value of 1 or more. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. Surface. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. select a curve on a surface. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. choose a center point for the array. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. type an angle and press Enter.

The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. Array along a surface 167 . pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. At the Select surface to array along prompt. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. choose the surface to array along. If the surface is a trimmed surface.Rhino 2. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. type a number of objects. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. type a number of objects. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface.

pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. If the Audit command detects a database error. See the PluginManager command. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically.Rhino 2. it prints a detailed description of the error. otherwise you must select a folder. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. enter the start of the arrow. the model's folder will be used as the default. enter the end of the arrow. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. 168 .rhp Options set the resolution.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. the path. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. At the End of line prompt. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.

choose a radius. Files tab. Back Set to world back view. By default. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. At the Radius prompt.ini. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed.Rhino 2. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a center point. automatic Autosave is turned off. 169 . Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. General tab. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Note By default. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. Files tab. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. This sphere is two joined surfaces.

Bend 170 . At the End of spine prompt. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose an endpoint. place the point outside the object. At the End of third axis prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. At the End of second axis prompt. choose the amount of bend.Rhino 2. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. To bend the entire object. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. At the Start of spine prompt. To bend the entire object. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint. Bend Bend objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the second endpoint of the line.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. choose an endpoint. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. place the point outside the object. choose a center point.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. enter the end of the angle to bisect. or enter a length and press Enter. curves. enter the start of the angle to bisect. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. The remainder of the object is kept straight. and meshes. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. 171 .0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. Bend moves the control points of objects. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt.only control points. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. surfaces. enter the start of the bisector line. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. You can't bend a polysurface . you will only bend that part of the object. At the End of angle to bisect prompt.

0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves.Rhino 2. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. 172 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable.

and curvature. select adjacent edges. and curvature. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. If it is invoked after picking the first end. Note The location. tangent direction. delete the arc. tangent direction. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. A blend curve that matches location.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. At the Select first set of edges. If a blend appears to tight or loose. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. it applies only to the second end. or press Enter. and one of the curves is a blend curve. and then use Blend to fill in the gap.Rhino 2. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. tangent direction. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. select a surface edge. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. and curvature is called a G2 blend. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. tangent direction. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. tangent direction. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. tangent directions. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. If you are joining curves. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. The location. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. tangent direction. The Blend command creates G2 blends. it applies to both ends. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. then you should probably use InsertKnot. If you need a G1 blend. 173 . To do this. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). In either case.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. the greater the number of control points.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. This gives you more control over the shape. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. If you raise the degree of a surface. it will no longer be periodic. click the new layer. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. 183 . Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. but adds control points between each knot span. the higher the degree. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree).

You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. When the user gets back in the office.Rhino 2. use the CheckInLicense command. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. To check a license back in. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. Note Delete or rebuild the object. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. Circle Draw a circle. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. Diagnostics. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. enter the radius point. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Select objects. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. select one object. When users get back in the office. 184 . and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. enter the center point. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager.

0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius.Rhino 2. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.

0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt.Rhino 2. Tangent. enter a third point on the circumference. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Third point on circle prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter a point on the circumference. enter a radius. At the Second point on circle prompt. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. select the first curve. delete the extras. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the end of the diameter. You can enter the number of control points. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. There may be multiple circles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. enter a second point on the circumference. select the second curve. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. 186 . Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter.

Rhino 2. 187 . select the first curve. or are tangent to a second curve. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. select the second curve. Note To reduce the size of the model file. At the Third tangent curve. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. delete the extras. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. select the third curve. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. Point Select a point for input. There may be multiple circles. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.

Note Point objects display as small squares. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. At the Base point for closest point prompt. CommandHistory View command history. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. enter a point. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. Point objects are not a part of any other object. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. Press F2 again to close the window. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. pick it from the list. right click in the Rhino Command History window.Rhino 2. or in the Command area. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. 188 . To start one of those commands. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears.

Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. At the Radius prompt. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. Without the command area. If there is text in the Clipboard. choose a center point for the base. look at the Command List in this help file.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. At the End of cone prompt. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. Commands List all Rhino commands. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . Or.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. it is pasted. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Cone Draw a cone.Rhino 2. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. it is pasted as a command script. choose a radius. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended.

This point partially defines the plane for the conic.Rhino 2. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. enter the middle point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Conic Draw a conic section curve. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. At the End of conic prompt. At the Reference vertex prompt.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. enter the start point for the conic. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Conic 190 . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. enter the end point for the conic. Or.

C). Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. Second reference curve prompt.5.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. B. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 .Rhino 2. First reference curve prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Point on first curve prompt. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. type T to select tangent curves. select a curve. If you work out the details. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. Curvature point or rho prompt.5. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0.0 and less than 0. Parabolic Rho value of 0.5 and less than 1. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.S) intersects chord(A. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. Point on second curve prompt. let T be the point where line(B. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. select a second curve.

enter the reference vertex for the conic. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. so the w<1 case is elliptical. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Parabolic Rho value of 0.5. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. Or.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically.5 and 1. At the End of conic prompt. 192 . Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.5. End control points are at the same location.0 and 0. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. enter the end point for the conic.Rhino 2. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. This point partially defines the plane for the conic.

Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Position. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. Blend. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). and meshes for contour line creation. At the Contour plane base point prompt. curvature. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. One of the contour planes will go through this point. polysurfaces. 193 . BlendSrf. Match. choose a base point.Rhino 2. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up.

The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. generated in both directions from the base point. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces.Rhino 2. 194 . enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. The higher this number is. the less dense the control polygon will display. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. At the Distance between contours prompt. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. At the Control polygon display density prompt.

while smaller angles result in finer polylines. At the Angle tolerance prompt. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. 195 . Larger angles result in coarser polylines. Edges can't be converted with this command. use the ExtractWireframe command first. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. select curves and press Enter. select an object to create polylines from. The original curves are removed. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt.Rhino 2.

At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Or. choose a point to move the copy from.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. At the Point to copy to prompts. Or. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. When you Paste objects into Rhino. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. to copy the object in the same place. type v and press Enter. to move the copy vertically. choose locations for copies. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. A single copy is made in the same place as the original.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. it is created when the object is pasted. If the layer does not exist. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. snap spacing. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. 196 . type I and press Enter.

enter the new elevation for the CPlane.Rhino 2. 197 . Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. choose a point on the y-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. At the CPlane elevation prompt. choose the new origin. choose a point on the x-axis. At the CPlane orientation prompt. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane.

2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. for example. in the dynamic preview.D. 198 .D location where it needs to be.and yaxes to a new location. drag the construction plane's new x. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. choose the new origin. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. Once your construction plane is positioned. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin.Rhino 2. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.

select a curve or surface.Rhino 2. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. 199 . Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.

choose a point on the x. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin.Rhino 2. At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the X axis direction prompt. choose a point on the x. choose a point on the z. At the Z axis direction prompt.axis. 200 . At the CPlane origin prompt. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. choose the new origin.axis.axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view.

A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. cut openings in the unrolled surface.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. Top view of profile curves 201 . select the second planar curve. Use UnrollSrf. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. the original surface must be developable. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface.Rhino 2. select the first planar curve. At the Select planar curve prompt. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. select a surface. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Example For an example. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. From 2 Views. Look in the index under "Curve." 202 . see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve.

select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves.Rhino 2. joining the ends of the overlap interval. pick a new location for the seam point. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. pick on a seam point marker. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. They are connected with a line. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. When you are done adjusting the connections. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. and move it along the curve. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. For each overlap interval. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. At the Location of seam point prompt. press Enter. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. 203 . press Enter to turn off the deviation display.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions.

Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. 204 .0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them.Rhino 2. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve.

that passes through the profile curves. At the Select point on the surface prompts.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . as the desired control polygons are emphasized.Rhino 2. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. end the line for the cross section plane. At the End of cross-section line prompt. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. The control point for the surface appear. V or Both directions. select a surface. press Enter to end the command. Press Enter to stop creating curves. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. pick near a control point. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. with the control polygons. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U.

0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves.Rhino 2. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. For best results. space the cross section curves relatively evenly.

select a curve. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. the curve is locally flat. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated.Rhino 2. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. click to create the circle object. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. Or. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. This does not automate finding the inflection points. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. 2 207 . press Esc to end the command without change.

A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. curvature. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. and other important properties. In the Curvature dialog box. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. set the style and range. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. For example. Options Gaussian In the images below. 208 . Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like.

In the case of an offset.>100." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself.>1000) and the red close to infinity. cylinders. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. 209 . Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Blue areas should be safe. Set the value for blue rather high (10. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). In the case of the mill. (Planes. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature.Rhino 2. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction.

both free and attached to objects. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. or to the right of the curve. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 .) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. and the direction. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. As a starting point. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. the normal to the surface at that point. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. If we care about this. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces.Rhino 2. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. unlike a simple soap film. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. these values may not be appropriate. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. A soap bubble. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. this may result in a rather uninformative image. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. These meshes can be large. At any point on a curve in the plane. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. This is known as signed curvature. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. then we establish a convention.

Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. Curvature graph on surface. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. This contrasts with a soap bubble. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. frequency. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. 211 . CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. even when other commands are started. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. u. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves.Rhino 2. close the dialog box.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. such as wire loops. Adjust the length.

The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. They are not curvature continuous. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. However. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous.Rhino 2. or tangent only. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. In other words. Degree 5 curve 212 .

two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. If the graph changes smoothly. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. 3. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. Curve Draw a curve by control points. As you move your cursor. To better grasp this. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. To see the circle. Press F2 to show the Command History window. Gaussian curvature. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 .D normal. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. minimum principal curvature. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. 3. If isoparm display is turned off. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line.Rhino 2. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt.D point. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. pick a point on the surface. maximum principal curvature. that is. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. At any point on a curve (except lines). negative when the circles point opposite ways. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous.

it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. The curve closes. press Enter. and pick. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. enter the start of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Sharp When you make a closed curve. enter an additional control point. At the Next point.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. When drawing a high degree curve. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. At the Next point. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts.Rhino 2. To end the curve. enter additional control points. You must draw one more control point than the degree. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered.

Object properties and location are stored with the object.0. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt.Rhino 2. select the box. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. it is created when the object is pasted. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.8545412. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. product moments.1.34 (+/. First moments.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard.4601236. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. select the box. When you Paste objects into Rhino. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.7e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. 4 215 .1e-006. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 (+/. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. If the layer does not exist. second moments.1. select the box.0).014).1.

Rhino 2. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. press Enter to stop making cut planes. At the End of cut plane prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0001).0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. At the Start of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. 216 . select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the first point of a line to define a plane. select the box. select the end point of a line that defines a plane.0.3921 (+/.

Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. choose a point for the center of the top surface. product moments. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select the box. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces.4601236. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box.1e-006.7e-006. At the End of cylinder prompt.0). 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.8545412. First moments. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.Rhino 2. select the box. At the Radius prompt. choose a center point for the base. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.1. Solid cylinder 217 . choose a radius.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. second moments. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1.0 (+/.

Layers. All objects in the model are deleted. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. To start a new model. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Press Delete.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. Delete Delete selected objects.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. use the Erase command. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. 218 . DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. and saved construction planes are not deleted. use New command instead. saved views. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter.

At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe. use the arm to choose a y. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. select your digitizing arm. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. You do not need to ensure that the y. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. and the trim curve is created.axis in the real world. select the proper serial port and baud rate. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. select a boundary to detach. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. In the Baud Rate dialog box. choose an origin in Rhino. use the arm to choose an x.Rhino 2. 219 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. Surface before outside trimming curve detached.axis is perpendicular to the x. Rhino will do it for you. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt.axis in the real world.axis. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. Similar to Untrim .

Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Whatever the reason. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. recording reference points as you go. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. or the object moves slightly.Rhino 2. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Digitize the first two sets of reference points.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. circles. Digitize the third set of reference points. Thus. choose a y. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. choose an x. you can use the digitizer. and curves with the digitizer. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. and is assigned to the F12 key. arcs. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. If it is more convenient.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. You can draw lines. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer.axis in Rhino. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. 220 . Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick.

you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. and O. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. x. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. If the digitizer or object moves.axis on the table. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. From the Tools menu. use the arm to choose an x. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. and Y for the origin. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. Y. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. click Digitize. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. click Digitize. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. Label each point O. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 .. and then click Calibrate. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. This is the reference polyline.axis on the table. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axes. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. From the Tools menu. or you need to close and restart Rhino. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. X. and y. use the arm to choose a y. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table.Rhino 2. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X.

In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. 222 . enter 2. enter a second point on the base plane. You can space the planes at intervals. enter the start of the section plane axis. enter 0. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. enter 25. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. As long as the pedal is depressed. The planes are defined with a base point. At the Second point on plane prompt. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. enter a point on the base plane. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing.Rhino 2. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object.54. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. and spacing. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. hold the pedal. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. specify how you want to space the planes. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. To digitize in meters. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. type the scale factor for all digitized input. When you finish digitizing points on the object. At the Start of axis prompt. To digitize in millimeters. At the Third point on plane prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. Press Enter when you are finished. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. enter a third point on the base plane. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. a point is sampled. Type C to create a closed curve.4. direction.0254. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. To digitize in centimeters.

a point is sampled. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. enter the distance between sampled points. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. At the Select second line prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to.Rhino 2. Rhino samples points. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Dimension line location prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. 223 . Whenever the arm is moved through this distance.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a line. As long as the pedal is depressed. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. When you release the pedal. pick a second line. At the Second dimension point prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . At the Second dimension point prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt.Rhino 2. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Place the dimension prompt. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.

At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. At the First dimension point prompt. pick a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. enter an angle for the dimension line. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. At the Second reference point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. enter the second point of a reference angle.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text.Rhino 2. 225 . Or the first point of a reference angle. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.

Rhino 2. type F. Curve direction 226 . pick a point for the dimension line location. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. red and green arrows show the u. Or. At the Second dimension point prompt.and v. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Press Enter to terminate the display. to change the direction. On surfaces.directions at the point. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Dir Show direction display. At the Press Enter when done prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a point on the model to dimension to.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. select a curve. surface or polysurface.

unless you apply textures. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. VReverse. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction.order and direction. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction.Rhino 2.and v. pick a location for the directional light. The location of the directional light does not matter. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. The directional light icon does not render or shade. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. the UReverse. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. 227 . Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions.

Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. clear the Disable checkbox. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state.Rhino 2. Darker colors. light the scene less. right-click the Disable checkbox.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Distance Measure the distance between two points. like gray. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. When Object snaps are disabled. pick a point. 228 . DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box.

reversing the direction of the curve. select the curves to divide and press Enter. 229 . Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. type an integer number and press Enter. At the Number of segments prompt.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. use the Split command.Rhino 2. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. Point objects are not a part of any other object. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Note Point objects display as small squares. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. At the Length of segments prompt.0000 units. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. select curves and press Enter. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects.

If you want points to start at the other end.Rhino 2. surface. Point objects are not a part of any other object. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. 230 . Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. select a curve. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. use the Dir command to flip the curve.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. use the Split command. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. When a polysurface is picked. or polysurface to evaluate.

type the text to show in the dot. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. You can check this with the Dir command. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane.Rhino 2. enter the location of the dot. At the Location of dot prompt. 231 . 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold.

Rhino 2. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . A surface is created that drapes over the objects. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.

Rhino 2. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. surfaces. The object will be duplicated in place. dimensions. Duplicate border curve 233 . and polysurfaces. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. but it only makes points. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. Dup Duplicate an object. For example. or bnd (boundary). then select the edge to duplicate. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. meshes. type f (face). and solids. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. select an object to duplicate. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. edge. To limit your selection to surfaces. and press Enter. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. Because of this. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. or lights. surfaces. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. textblocks. the surface will always sag more than the original. The Dup command only duplicates curves.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. It does not duplicate points. type c (curve).

234 . select the fourth curve. select the second curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. For many surface creation commands. select the first curve. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. select the edges of a surface. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.Rhino 2. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. select the third curve. Or. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.

You can use surface edges. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. EditDim Edit dimension text. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. In the Edit Dimension dialog box.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt.Rhino 2. select a dimension. For a surface from closed planar curves. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. type new text. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 .

Type the new text. set the options. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter.Rhino 2. In the Edit Text dialog box. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. They are not the same as knots. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. select a text block. 236 . Font Sets the font for the annotation text.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points.

and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. When you place annotation text. You can enter the number of control points. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. The two sizes update each other. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.Rhino 2. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . Example If your units are inches. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the endpoint for the first axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print.25 inches. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. enter the endpoint for the second axis. At the End of first axis prompt. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. At the End of second axis prompt. enter the center point. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor.

Rhino 2. Partial Draws a partial ellipse.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. enter the second focus point. enter a point on the ellipse curve. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. At the End of first axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. enter the end of the second axis. enter a focus point. 238 . At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Draw an ellipse from focus points. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. enter the end of the axis. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. At the End of second axis prompt.

0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. enter a focus point. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. choose an endpoint. End of first axis prompt. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. End of second axis prompt. End of third axis prompt. 239 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface.Rhino 2. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. choose a center point. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint for the major axis. enter the second focus point. or type a height and press Enter. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid.

Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. and other important properties. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. These meshes can be large. curvature.Rhino 2. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. 240 .0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. When you use the EMap command. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping.

The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. under Zebra and EMap. but will always work. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. select More reliable.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. 241 . on the Shade tab. in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. When Faster is selected.Rhino 2.

Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. as with the Blend command.Rhino 2. In each case. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. drag point indicators. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. you are moving control points of the curve. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. select a surface edge. At the Start of region to edit.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. maintains the tangent direction. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. One-point-per-end mode. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. At the End of region to edit. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. No means there is one drag point. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. 242 . At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. drag control points to edit the edge bulge.

During EndBulgeSrf editing. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. 243 . After editing. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. For example.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.Rhino 2.1 2.1 2.0 Command Reference Surface before editing.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. the script Circle 0.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. aliases. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.

EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. select a point. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. Exit Exit Rhino. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface.z format. 244 . At the Select objects to erase prompt. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. select the surface to evaluate. the untrimmed surface is used. Or use the C option to suppress creating points.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. and the U. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. Press Enter when done prompt. select the objects you want to erase. Note Erase is the same as Delete. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects.Rhino 2. click points on the surface. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.y. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. A point object is created on the surface. Note When a polysurface is picked. If the surface is trimmed.

Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. 245 . In the File name box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. layer color. object render color. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a filename. In the File name box. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. Rhino supports several file types.Rhino 2. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. This command is obsolete. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. object name. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Click Save. In the Files of type box. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. and selected mass properties. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. Click Save. Use the Explode command. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Export Export selected objects to a file. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. File. select Rhino 2 3D Models. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. In the Files of type box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select the file type you want to use.0 files.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. select objects to explode. type a filename.

246 . but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. Or. select objects to extend. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. select objects to extend and press Enter when done.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. The extension is joined to the original curve. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. At the next Select boundary objects. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. Extend Extend a curve. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. enter a name for the text file. press Enter to extend without boundary edges.Rhino 2. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. In the Files of type box. In the File name box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. type a filename. select a boundary object to extend to. Or. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Click Save. Press Enter when done prompts. At the next Select object to extend prompts. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller.

At the End point or angle prompt. At the Radius of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. and solids as boundary edges. Note You can use any combination of curves. Or. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. surfaces. Type=Line Makes a line extension. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. 247 . Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. Or. type a number for the radius and press Enter. enter the end of the extension. enter a point to define the radius of the arc.Rhino 2. select a curve to extend. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. type an angle for the arc. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go.

use Extend a curve. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. the extension will be joined to the original curve. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. use Extend a curve. enter the endpoint of the extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. select a curve to extend. At the End of arc prompt. Select near the end of the curve to extend. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step.

unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. the extension will be joined to the original curve. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. if possible.Rhino 2. 249 . select a curve to extend. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. type a distance to extend and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. select the curve to extend. enter the endpoint for the line extension. Options Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. At the End of line or length prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. near the end you want to extend. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. Or.

there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. depending on the shape of the object. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. or pick two points to specify the distance.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. Then the surface is extended on the end. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon.Rhino 2. Note With the linear extension. The extension length is based on parameterization. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. This fixes the original. 250 . enter an amount to extend.

ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. The marker is constrained to the surface. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. If you need to place an object on a surface. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . If you need curved cross sections.Rhino 2. and Loft a surface through them. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. Extract several isoparms. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface.and v-directions of the surface. surfaces. If you need angled cross sections along surface. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. and isoparms display at the marker. choose a point. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. and polygon mesh objects. use Project or Intersect. v or both directions. In contrast to InsertKnot.

Rhino 2. Note ExtractPt works on curves. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. Toolbar: Menu: Main. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. Solid Tools. the surface is copied. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. The original surface is left intact. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. 252 . At the Extrusion distance prompt. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. select curves and press Enter. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. and polygon mesh objects. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. select surfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. or type a distance and press Enter. If you choose the Copy option. drag the desired distance and pick. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. surfaces. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from.

Round. Otherwise. then the extrusion is in that direction. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. This option does not appear for open curves. The choices are Sharp. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 .Rhino 2. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. and Chamfer. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. Smooth. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction.

Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. At the Select path curve prompt. select surfaces and press Enter. draw two lines at right angles. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. The default is vertical to the construction plane. select the curve to extrude. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. or enter a distance and press Enter.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve.Rhino 2. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. 254 . then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. pick a point. select the curve. At the Point to extrude to prompt. At the Extrusion distance prompt. select the path curve. choose the point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. To draw a deformable plane. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion.

enter a number. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. At the Tolerance prompt. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. type R and press Enter. type the fillet radius and press Enter. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. Join To change the Join option. type J and press Enter. 255 . Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance.Rhino 2. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. select curves and press Enter.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Fillet Fillet two curves. Or. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. or accept the default and press Enter. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.

the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface.Rhino 2. choose the first surface to fillet. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. choose the second surface to fillet. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner.

but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. The original curves are unchanged. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. If you have a dense string of points. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. For scripting. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. select curves and press Enter. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. The curves are refitted. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. 257 . At the Fitting tolerance <0. enter a tolerance. In general. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve.Rhino 2. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve.

Rhino 2. object highlighting. click Options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. this shading mode may be much faster. 258 . Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Each face has a constant monochrome color. click Use OpenGL. The grid. axes. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Each face has a constant monochrome color.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. On the Shade tab. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. If OpenGL shading is turned on. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports.

surfaces or meshes and press Enter. such as Union instead of Difference. If OpenGL shading is turned on. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. click Options. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. the OpenGL shade options will be available. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. select curves. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. On the Shade tab. but their directions are reversed. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. 259 . The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. enter a number and press Enter. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. that define the outline of the flattened surface. this shading mode may be much faster. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane.Rhino 2. If Booleans give unexpected results. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. click Use OpenGL. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. The objects looks exactly the same. At the Increment size prompt.

select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. select the new backbone curve to flow to. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. This curve will be used as a new backbone. At the New backbone curve . Flow does not work on polysurfaces. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. At the Original backbone curve . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. Flow works on the control points of an object . straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. especially those with trimmed edges. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. Front Set to world front view. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 .Rhino 2. Instead of drawing a line before the command.

Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. At the Second curve .Rhino 2. select the second curve near the coinciding end. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . Grid Toggle the display of the grid.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.select near end prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed.select near end prompt. 261 . If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.

262 . select the curve or surface to edit. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. A handlebar displays on the curve. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position.Rhino 2. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. You can then apply commands to the entire group. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. Group Place selected objects in a group.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines.

At the Second corner or length prompt. 263 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. or enter a length. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. A handlebar will display on the surface. adjust options. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. pick a point. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. At the First corner prompt.Rhino 2. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. pick a point. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. select the surface to edit. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. In the Heightfield dialog box. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. Height The scale of the height of the surface. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. select a bitmap file.

If you select Reverse twist. the helix will twist counterclockwise. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. enter the radius for the helix. This is the line the helix will wind around. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. If you select Turns. enter the number of turns for the helix. At the End of axis prompt.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. select Turns or Pitch. At the Radius prompt. enter the start of the helix axis. 264 . enter the end of the helix axis. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix.Rhino 2. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. If you select Pitch.

Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. Organic. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. If you exit the model and reopen it. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Status bar: Osnap Or. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. close the Osnap dialog box. Visibility. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. select the objects you want to hide. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. 265 . and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide.

Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). (This is a limitation of the command. The information displays in a separate window.Rhino 2. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. the command does nothing. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. The visible objects hide. Longitude=X. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. The smaller the number. 266 . the more concentrated the hotspot.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. only half of the model needs to be given.axis. Waterline Length Length at water line. enter a number between 0. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. ) prompt. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. and press Enter. Use 1. The longitudinal direction. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement.axis or the y. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.0 and 1. that is.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. not a statement of a physical principle.

select curves. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. If the imported file type does not support layers. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. 267 . The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects.Rhino 2. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. and STL Tools File menu. type a filename. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. Click Open. The objects are reparameterized. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. In the File name box. Import Import or merge objects from another file. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. the command will fail. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. the objects are placed on the current layer. select Rhino 3D Models. File. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Note Rhino supports many file types.

AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes. In the File name box. The scale operation works just like the Scale command.3dm tricky 1a 2. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. Scale Scales the objects. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. choose a start angle.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. type a filename. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1.0.3dm tricky 1a 1. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. or a point to rotate from.3dm tricky 1a 1. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. At the Rotation Angle <0. etc. and rotate.3dm hi 1.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. 268 . scale.3dm tricky 1a. Click Open. select Rhino 3D Models.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.Rhino 2. it does. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. At the Scale factor <1. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. y. Press Enter to place the model at 0. If you say no.3dm bg 32986.3dm bg 32985.3dm hi 2.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. If you say yes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box. and z-directions.

click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. 269 . After inserting kinks. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. press Enter to end the command.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. select the curve to insert edit points to. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. choose points where you want to insert a kink. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. select the curve to which you want to add a kink.

select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. pick points of the surface for new knots.Rhino 2. pick points on the curve for new knots. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. V. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. 270 . select a surface. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. or Both.

At the End of line prompt. A straight line replaces part of the curve. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. enter the start of the curve. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. Main. enter additional points. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. enter an additional point. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. pick a point for the end of the straight segment.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. At the Next point of curve. and the parts are joined. press Enter. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. To end the curve. and pick. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve.Rhino 2. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. The curve closes automatically. At the Start of line prompt. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. 271 .

This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). At the Start of curve prompt. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. Valid degrees are 1. 5.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. 9.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. At the Next point on curve. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. 7. select a surface.Rhino 2. and 11. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. 272 . This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. choose the first point of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. 3. choose an additional point. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. The marker is constrained to the surface. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. When you draw an interpolated curve.

Midpoint. Close Creates a closed curve. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Object snaps End. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. 273 .Rhino 2. Near.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Cen. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Knot.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. and Intersection work.

Invert Invert the selection. select the objects.Rhino 2. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 .0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Non-polyline curves are rejected. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. use the BooleanIntersection command. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. To create surface and solid intersections. Intersect Intersect two objects. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt.

Points selected. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Contrast this with the Invert command. Join Join objects. When you are finished selecting objects to join.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. 275 .0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. press Enter. Invert also selects the polysurface. which also selects other objects. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. select objects.

lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. NetworkSrf. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. use MergeSrf. but are not coincident. 276 . doing a Join. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. For the group joiner. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. BlendSrf. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining.Rhino 2. or Patch. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. If you use JoinEdge. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. If the edges are too far out of line. Booleans. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. use MergeSrf. When two edges are joined. depending on what you may do with the model. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. no join occurs. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. For simplicity. and resetting the tolerance. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. BlendSrf.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. Booleans. a 3. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. If not. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. or Patch.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. NetworkSrf. you can have some problems later on. then the second one gets moved. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. Do you want to join these edges?". If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval).015 units apart. Using the Millimeter template.

Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. The picking order can make the difference. use MergeSrf. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. 277 . LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. BlendSrf. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. This command does not work in all cases.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. Meshes are joined so they select as one object.Rhino 2. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. No mesh points are moved. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. If there are naked edges. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. NetworkSrf. merged or deleted. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. y. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. or Patch. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. select curves. Booleans. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. The action performed is reported on the command line. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes.

In the Edit Layers dialog box. Select Points. select the layers you want to lock. press Enter to close the lasso. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. 278 . Rhino displays objects on locked layers. Lasso Select points with a lasso. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary.Rhino 2. Start the Lasso command. but you cannot select them. Click the Lock option. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. See the PluginManager command. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select.

surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Layer Two. from the list. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer.Two. Click the On option.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). separate the layer names with commas: One. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. separate the layer names with commas: One. from the list select layers you want to turn on. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. type the name of the layer to turn on. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Layer Two. Note For layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces.Two. LayerOff Turn a layer off. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. select the layers you want to turn off.Layer Three". To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. separate the layer names with commas: One. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer.Rhino 2. type the name of the layer to turn off. Click the Off option.Layer Two. unlike the Lock (object) command.Layer Three" 279 . surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Layer Three".Two. Note For layer names with spaces. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). In the Edit Layers dialog box. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. type the name of the layer to lock. LayerOn Turn a layer on.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).

pick the next point on the leader line. pick additional points. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. pick the start of the leader. Left Set to world left view. Press Enter to stop the command. At the Next point of leader. you must edit your Rhino.Rhino 2. This is the arrow end. They will not show in the perspective view. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. Press Enter when done prompt.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. At the Next point of leader.

polylines. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. you can select any of these curve objects. Line. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. pick the end point for the line. arcs. ellipses.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. The line extends on both sides of the start point. circles. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments.Rhino 2. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. and meshes. select a curve or edge. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. surfaces. BothSides option selected 281 . Line Draw a line. At the End of line prompt. and can be used to create other curves. including lines and polylines. pick the start point for the line.

At the End of base line prompt.Rhino 2. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. enter the start of the base line. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. enter the start of the line. enter the second point.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. enter the end of the line. enter the start of the base line. At the Start of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. 282 . The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. At the End of line prompt.

At the Select object prompts. At the End of line prompt. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. pick the end of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. type an angle and press Enter. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. enter the end of the base line. 283 . Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. enter the end of the line. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. At the Pivot angle prompt. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. At the End of line prompt. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. and parallel to the current construction plane.

Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. enter pick endpoints for segments. press Enter. At the End of line prompts. 284 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt.Rhino 2. enter the start of the first line segment. When you are finished drawing lines. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. select the first curve near the start of the desired line.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve.

The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. enter the end of the line. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. At the End of line prompt.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. 285 . Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. 286 .Rhino 2. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.

enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. or enter a length and press Enter. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. BothSides option selected 287 .0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. LineV Draw a vertical line. enter the second endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. Line vertical to construction plane.Rhino 2. At the End of line prompt.

Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. 288 . on the Options dialog box.com/plug-ins. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. Load Loads a selected script file. the code interpreted and run immediately. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. from www. See the PluginManager command. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model.Rhino 2. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Close Closes the dialog box. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. If the script file just contains script expressions. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. or press Enter to accept the default.rhino3d. You can download plug-ins.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. enter an integer. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. select one object. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications.

C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. 289 . If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. You can snap to locked objects. The unlocked objects lock. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. select the objects you want to lock. In the install folder (e. press Enter.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. Select open curves near the same ends. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. In the scripts folder (e. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. In the folder where Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.g.0 Beta\Scripts). Lock Lock objects.g... At the Location of seam point prompt. pick on a seam point marker.g. adjust options. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. and move it along the closed curve. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked.0 Beta). Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. When you are done adjusting the connections. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock..0 Beta\System). C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened.Rhino 2. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction.exe is located (e. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. Note You cannot select locked objects. Preview. In the Loft Options dialog box. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .

Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. reversing the direction of the curve. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. 291 .Rhino 2. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction.

Available when you have selected three shape curves.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Units tab before lofting. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. 292 . Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge.Rhino 2. This is also known as a ruled surface. You must use at least three curves to activate this option.

the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. too. Preview Click to preview the loft. cones. or wrinkle.Rhino 2. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. 293 . tear. the surface is not developable. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. and some steel ship hulls. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. If the surface is not linear in one direction. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. If the curves have kinks. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Surfaces can be created in other ways. These are called ruling lines. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. you may get unexpected results. You may get no surface or a partial surface.

I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best.D surface. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable.Rhino 2. thereby smoothing the surface. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. You just have to be careful. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. 294 . Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable.

Rhino 2. though. 295 . and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. aluminum). 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. select the layout and object visibility options. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout.y-plane. expand the plates.D models. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing.

0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. There is no way to avoid this.D drawings from mesh objects.D view. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. 296 . Note This command does not create 2. they may not appear on the correct layer. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. If two surfaces pass through each other. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports).Rhino 2. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name.

Rhino creates periodic surfaces. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt.pick near end prompt. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change .0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. This command tries to fix those surfaces. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. At the Choose an object prompt. Close the dialog box. If the curve was open. it is closed. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. If a joined curve is made periodic. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Other closed curves. At the Select curve to match . 297 . MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Match Match two curves. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited.Rhino 2. select the first curve at the end that will move. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. select a curve to make periodic. Sometimes. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. To get a feel for what the command does. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. Then use control point editing on both curves.

0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity.Rhino 2. 298 . Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch.

299 .0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. Merge Only available with the Curvature option.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. If you edit this curve with control points. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. The curves are merged together after the match. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. select the edge of the target surface. In the Match Surface dialog box.select near edge prompt. choose the type of match. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. If the target surface is also untrimmed. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. reversing the direction of the curve.Rhino 2. At the Select target surface .0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). select the edge of the surface to match. 300 .select near edge prompt. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. If necessary. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. 301 .Rhino 2. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. Generally. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance.

Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. 302 . Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. in units. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports.Rhino 2. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. percent. in degrees.

but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. If you need to match to part of an edge. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. 303 . it may be useful to preview without refinement.) In usable terms. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. If refinement is interrupted. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). but it will still be a valid trim.2. In these cases. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. If refinement is specified. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. If the surface being changed is trimmed. That may be several seconds. This is sometimes useful. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. but you will get something. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result.Rhino 2. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. This is the hardest condition to meet. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. Something like position = 0. especially if tight tolerances are specified. If it is roundish. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. it will stay roundish. it can twist the surface near the edge. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface.knot spacing to curvature vector. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. If it isn't. but if the conditions are wrong. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already.

MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. 304 . and the prompt repeats. must belong to the same surface. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. if possible. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Right click the viewport title bar. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. select the second surface. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface.1 ) prompt. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. must share an endpoint. then click Restore. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Maximize Maximize Rhino. Note The edges must be naked. then click Maximize. select the first surface to merge. double click the viewport title bar. double click the viewport title bar. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. select an adjacent edge. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. Or. Or.Rhino 2.

End view of original surfaces .Rhino 2.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 . This makes the surface behave better for control point editing. but may alter the shape of both surfaces. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero. Smooth The surface will be smooth.notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge.

and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. you have to approach things differently. A mesh can be preview and then created.Rhino 2. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. 306 . The resulting surface can be edited. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. with finer or coarser mesh. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. For closed surfaces.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. Once you have trimmed surfaces. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. The default is 1 (full smoothing). You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. Generally. In some ways. This is useful for modeling half of an object. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. mirroring it. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. editable surface. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints.

Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. which is the default. By default. Scale independent. edge to Srf options. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. which is the default. Default is 0. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Simple planes is not selected. Max dist. By default.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. In practice. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Scale independent. less accurate meshes. Limits the size of the polygon edges. more accurate meshes. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria).Rhino 2. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. No refinement results in faster meshing. Zero means no limit. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Scale-dependent. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. and higher polygon count. When the Refine is checked. Jagged seams is not selected. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. 307 . Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. after initial meshing. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Max dist. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Zero means no minimum. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. more accurate meshes. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. and adjustment for trim boundaries. Scale independent. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. and lower polygon count. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. The default is zero. and higher polygon count. When this Refine is checked. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. When the Refine is checked.

If a length was entered. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. At the End of cone prompt. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. At the Other corner or length prompt. choose a center point for the base. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. or type in a width and press Enter. choose a diagonal corner. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. Or type in a length and press Enter. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. 308 . A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. choose a corner of the box. or type in a height and press Enter. choose the cone's point.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. choose a width by picking. choose a height.Rhino 2. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. At the Height prompt. not editable. at the Width prompt.

choose a height. choose a center point for the base.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. joined from a base circular mesh. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. joined from a base and top circular meshes. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt.Rhino 2. and a open cone-shaped mesh. choose a radius. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. At the Height prompt.

A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction.Rhino 2. 310 . Or type in a length and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. choose a width by picking. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. choose a corner of the plane. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. at the Width prompt. choose a the diagonal corner. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. If a length was entered. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. or type in a width and press Enter. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. At the Other corner or length prompt. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction.

MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt. choose a center point. 311 . At the Radius prompt. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines.

choose a second point to define the mirror plane. As you move the cursor. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. Minimize Minimize Rhino. Select the objects. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Press delete to delete the original. choose a point on the mirror plane. 312 . Move Move objects. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. choose a point to move the objects from. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects.Rhino 2. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Note Mirror makes a copy. The original is left selected. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. Mirror Mirror objects.

choose a location for objects. To move objects small amounts. At the Point to move to prompt. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. At the Choose offset point prompt. corner2. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. Slider scale affects this mode. type V and press Enter.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. y-. Along control polygon The u. 313 . and n. pick a base point. corner3. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. MoveUVN Use u-. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. you can type corner1. or z-direction. Modeling Aids tab. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. v-. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Or. to move the objects vertically.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface.sliders to move the selected control points. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. pick a new location for the base point. During the command.

All points to edit have to be selected.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. rename or delete unwanted named views. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. NamedView Edit named views. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid.Rhino 2. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. All points to edit have to be selected. 314 .

The default is the system tolerance x 10.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. If you want to select the curves individually. you can turn the automatic sorter off. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. 315 . be sure to select the surface edge. If a curve and surface edge overlap. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. the best guess is made at the surface. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. The surface will be created. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals.Rhino 2. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Edge Matching After the command is done. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. The default is the system tolerance. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. the surface will have four edges. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge.

or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Position. Select from Loose. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Tangent.

0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.Rhino 2. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .

New Create a new model. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. units. and tolerances. Use New to open the template you want to change. select a template to base your model file on. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. grid settings. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. 318 . Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. For example. NewViewport Create a new viewport.Rhino 2. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. viewport layout.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. drag a window for a new viewport. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. layers.

The next control point in the u-direction is selected. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Start the NextV command. Start the NextU command. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 . Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface.

The marker is constrained to the surface. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. or enter a length and press Enter.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active.Rhino 2. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. At the Point on surface prompt. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. select a surface. pick a point for the end of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. choose a point on the surface. At the Length of line prompt. 320 .

This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. copy. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Line normal to a surface. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 .0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. Offset Offset a curve. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. it will be open next time the model is opened. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. type information you want to save with the model. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box.Rhino 2. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model.

If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. the resulting surface is exact. click on one side the curve. A surface and its offset 322 . Type 0 to use the default tolerance. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Negative values offset the other way. or cone is offset. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. select a curve or edge. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. When a plane. Otherwise. sphere. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. Note For best results. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. cylinder.Rhino 2. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. torus.

The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. An arrow indicates the offset direction. 323 . Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Click Open. Open Open an existing model. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. In the File name box. When you turn the layers back on. Note Rhino supports several file types. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. select Rhino 3D Models. not the trim edges. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. so the fact that they are locked is lost. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. they are also unlocked. select the layer to turn on.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. they are not converted to NURBS objects. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. File. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. All other layers will be turned off. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. type a filename.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. but objects remain the same size. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. click Open. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. whether it is floating or docked. pick a target point for the first reference point. The prompt will change to Scale=No. The objects are moved. and the number of columns when floating. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. type c and press Enter. Or. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. or some of them may be hidden. the screen position of each toolbar. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. In the Open Workspace dialog box. Scale If Scale=No. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. type s and press Enter. select a workspace file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. 324 . At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. to orient copies of the objects. from the File menu.Rhino 2. Options Opens the Options dialog box. pick a target point for the second reference point. the buttons in them. and whether it is hidden or showing. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen.

OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. to orient copies of the objects. with the other two reference points.Rhino 2. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. select objects and press Enter. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. Or. The two triplet of points define two planes. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. The three points are not interchangeable. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. pick a point that. select the surface. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. type c and press Enter. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. 325 .0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. If the curve does not start on the edge. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point.

This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface.and v-directions. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. There are four possible orientations on the surface. 326 . This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. The Mirror option toggles between them. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. As you move the cursor over the surface. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface.

Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. select a base point on the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. At the Base point prompt. If you pick this point in different views. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 327 .0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. are all toggles. you will get different end results. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. Ortho Toggle ortho mode.Rhino 2. and the F8 key. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. select the curve you want to align the object to. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. The cursor tracks along the curve. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. click a point on the curve to move the object. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. Shift Note The Ortho command. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt.

Rhino 2. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Off. When polysurfaces are meshed.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. Packed textures. When Ortho is on. The default angle is 90 degrees. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. Modeling Aids tab. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. type the new angle and press Enter. Note When Ortho is on. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. the packed texture coordinates are created. 328 . At the Ortho Angle prompt. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. and Toggle. If more than one object is selected. Polysurface made of four surfaces. The default angle is 90 degrees.

To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanRight Pan the view right. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the Pan command.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. 329 . Plan parallel views like the default Top. use the Pan command. use the Pan command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view.Rhino 2. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. PanLeft Pan the view left. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanDown Pan the view down. Front. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Pan Pan the view.

Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. Focus.Rhino 2. click Parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. From the Curve menu. Focus From the Curve menu. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. enter a point for an end of the parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. and then click Focus. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Vertex. Direction. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. click Parabola. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. This is the "open" direction. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. 330 . At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. show a direction for the parabola. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. This is the "open" direction. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus.

enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. 331 .0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Focus and direction. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid.Rhino 2. Uncapped paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. End. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Vertex and focus.

If the layer does not exist. they are pasted into your model. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. 332 . they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.Rhino 2. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.0 Command Reference End. Uncapped paraboloid. it is created when the object is pasted. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.

and edges to base the patch on. In the Patch Options dialog box. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. 333 . Minimum of 8 points per curve. curves. These don't have to be connected. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Even for a relatively flat patch. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. you may need a starting surface. but with proper configuration. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. select curves that form a closed shape.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). select the point objects. but it also can produce some unexpected results.Rhino 2. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. it will be very close to reasonable input. To make a highly curved surface. use a starting surface with a similar shape. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Note This command can be very useful. adjust options. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. For a trimmed patch. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans.

It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. 334 . The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. aliases. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle.Rhino 2. 2 The wallpaper image. and type PerspectiveMatch. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport).0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. Perspective Set to perspective view. Pause is a built in command option. you must edit your Rhino. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there.

Rhino 2. The first point on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. All points picked on the image. 4 All points picked on the model. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. The first point on the model. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. 335 .

Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. In particular. changed the viewport settings. Pick carefully. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. etc. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions.Rhino 2. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. you have modified your model. Note The image must be a true perspective image. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. Make the image view large. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. select a bitmap file to use. Pipe Draw a pipe. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. This aids in accurate image point picking. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . If possible. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. At the Length of picture frame prompt.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point.

enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. At the First corner prompt. if the curve is closed. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. Or.Rhino 2. and the closed pipe is created. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. select a curve. at the End radius prompt. enter the radius for the pipe. select a bitmap file. At the Second end radius prompt. select a curve. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. At the Second corner or length prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the Starting radius prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. 337 . At the Second start radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. type T and press Enter. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. If the pipe objects are capped. Click Open. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Thick The pipe has two walls.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. At the First end radius prompt. For an open curve. At the Starting radius prompt. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle.

and temporarily hide it. enter the camera point. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. 338 . Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. see Place a bitmap backdrop. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. remove it.Rhino 2. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. TGA. BMP. Background bitmaps are a construction aid.Y. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. enter the target point.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. At the New target location <X. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. You can move the background bitmap. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). Placing a second deletes the first. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. In PARALLEL viewports. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. PCX.Y. By default the Top. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps.Z> prompt. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. To place a backdrop behind your model.Z> prompt. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. align it (move and scale in one operation). 3-D Digitizing. and JPG. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. scale it. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. Front.

it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera.Y. 339 . Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport.Rhino 2. In PERSPECTIVE views. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. 3-D Digitizing. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). enter the target point.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. regardless of where the previous point was picked. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. click Free-form. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Without Planar on. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps.Z> prompt. PlaceTarget Place the target location. Planar Toggle planar mode. In PARALLEL viewports. Toolbar: Menu Set View. In PERSPECTIVE views. then click Control Points. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. then those objects are not visible on the screen. From the Curve menu.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. press Enter. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. To end the polyline. 349 . press Enter. To end the polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. start the polyline. making a closed polyline.Rhino 2. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. At the Next point of polyline prompts. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. enter additional vertices for the polyline. select a mesh object. enter the start point of the polyline. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. enter additional vertices for the polyline.

Rhino 2. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. making a closed polyline. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. 350 . Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands.

The previous control point in the u-direction is selected.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. 351 . Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. Start the PrevV command. Start the PrevU command. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.

That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print.Rhino 2. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. 352 . and number of copies. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. The part that does not fit is not printed. print scale. Always. the objects outside the viewport are printed. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. No viewport edge is printed. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. print to a file.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. the contents are printed on top of each other. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. the central part of the view is printed. If viewports overlap. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. and each viewport is printed in its area. If you fit the image to the page. color.

the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. PrintSetup Set up your printer. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. If the objects don't fit. If you want to print at some other scale. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. Curve projected to a surface 353 .Rhino 2. if they don't fit on the page. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. not printing from perspective viewports. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. It will crop objects that are visible. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. too. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Then. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. hide them. Light objects do not print. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. as the paper you're printing on. Print. and same orientation. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. (Actually.

Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. surfaces. Properties Edit object properties.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. This command works on points.Rhino 2. lines. curves. choose to keep or delete the input objects. circles. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. Basic shapes like ellipses. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. and free-form curves work well. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. and polysurfaces. Project will never work correctly for this. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. however. set the projection type for the viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 .

and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. Point Editing. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. Organic.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . Toolbar: Menu: Main. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. Organic. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. Point Editing. To control point edit a polysurface. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Main.Rhino 2. STL Tools. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. surfaces. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. STL Tools. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter.

Both commands ask for the viewport name. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. Then. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.Rhino 2. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. use the fewest control point possible. select the surface to pull the curves back to. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. Use curve commands to draw the curve. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface.0000. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. select a curve to measure. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. When drawing the curves.

rail curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. select a profile curve. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. select a rail curve. In this case. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. Profile curve. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . This is the way RailRevolve is normally used.Rhino 2. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. in addition to being revolved. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. the result looks exactly the same both ways.

and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. The file contents are copied into the command line. select the file to read.8.1 Enter Interpcrv 26.5.7. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.1. If the rail curve is closed.4. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.txt Click the button to read the file. 358 . a file dialog box appears.0 23.5.9 Enter etc…. If you read in a particular file often.0 27. readcommandfile myfile.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.4.2. If you leave off the filename. use the Enter command.1.5.1. ! Interpcrv 23.1.4. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.1 26. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.0 23. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box.Rhino 2. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.0.9.2.9. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.8. Note When building command files. You can then select a file from the list. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.

Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. When you are satisfied with the results. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9.Rhino 2. select the 3DM file to read viewports from.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. leaving only the rebuilt curves. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. use the FitCrv command. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. but a more accurate fit. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. If more than one curve is selected. 359 . In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. click OK. the highest number of control points is shown. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file.

Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. Joined and exploded polysurface. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. in the Degree box. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box.Rhino 2. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. To see what it does. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. in the Point Count boxes. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. draw two planes several units apart. select an object. Edges are pulled away from the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt.

Rectangle Draw a rectangle. At the Other corner or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. enter the length of the rectangle. Degree Sets the degree of the surface.an v-directions. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. You will be prompted for the width. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation.Rhino 2. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. choose a corner for the rectangle.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. 361 . Or. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature.

362 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. select the center point of the rectangle. At the Corner or length prompt. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs.Rhino 2. enter the end of the same edge. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. You will be prompted for the width.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. At the End of edge prompt. enter the width of the rectangle. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. enter the length of the rectangle. At the Width prompt. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. select a corner point.

drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. 363 .0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners.Rhino 2. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. At the End of edge prompt. At the Height of rectangle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle.

This makes this command scriptable. General tab. click Preview. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. To see the results of the reduction. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. 364 . Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density.Rhino 2. set the polygon count. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo.

to remap copies of the objects. To reduce the size of the model file. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. 365 . this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. Or. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. For one thing. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). type c and press Enter. avoid clearing meshes.Rhino 2. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. which may be undesirable in some cases. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. After RefreshShade.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .

There may be a kink at that point that is desired. At the Click knot to remove prompt. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. pick the knots to remove and press Enter.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. select a curve. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. At the Select knotline to remove. Use the Group command to group objects together. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt.Rhino 2. select objects. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. which is equal to the degree. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. select a surface. 367 . Sweep2. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. and Blend commands. In particular. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1.

Rhino 2. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. Render tab. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. and render again. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. increase the size of the viewport. When on. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. 368 . and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Render tab. It has a single menu: File. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. the current working folder. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. expanded to fill the page. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder.

zoom. Toolbar: Render 369 .Rhino 2. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. or bump mapping. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. When on. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Basically. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. Does not show shadows. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option.

(In this example. First you must set the u. However. the x. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. Example You have two surfaces side by side. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command.and vdomains for the surface.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22.length for both is about 22 units. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. and similar prompts. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. it is distorted. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. The x.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. including the domain unless you apply textures.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. The y. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. At the New U begin domain prompt. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture.length of righty is about 11. In this example. the texture is not distorted. 370 . ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. set the new limits of the u.and v. let's call them lefty and righty.Rhino 2.

Or. select the named view to restore. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. choose a point on the revolution axis. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. then click Set View.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. Revolve Revolve a curve. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. Right click the title of a viewport. RestoreView Restore a named view. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. then click the name of the view to restore. 371 . select the construction plane to restore. select one or more curves. or to restore only the view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. Use the SaveView command to save a named view.

enter the number of control points. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. defining the revolution axis. click Exact or Deformable. If you choose Deformable. The marker tracks on the curve. Enter the Start angle and End angle.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface.Rhino 2. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. 372 . At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. In the Revolve Options dialog box. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. select a curve. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. choose a second point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. choose a point to rotate the objects around. you must edit your Rhino. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. choose a start angle. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. or a point to rotate to. 373 . Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. to rotate copies of the objects.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Right Set to world right view. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. or a point to rotate from. choose an end angle.Rhino 2. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. Type 0 to use the default tolerance.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Or. type C and press Enter.

If you entered a point to rotate from. etc. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis.Rhino 2. Or. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. choose a point on the rotation axis. or choose a point to rotate from. the following prompt appears. type c and press Enter. to rotate copies of the objects. At the End of rotate axis prompt. type in an angle. choose a second point on the rotation axis. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. 374 . Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object.

etc. etc. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane.Rhino 2. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. enter the start of the rotation axis. place the construction plane. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Or. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. etc. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. At the End of rotation axis prompt. enter the end of the rotation axis. pick a point. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Second reference point prompt. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. 375 . At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt.

use the RotateView command. RotateUp Rotate the view up. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command. RotateRight Rotate the view right. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Run Run another application from Rhino. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. type the name and path of the file to run. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateView Rotate the view. Press the arrow keys. At the Name of program to run prompt. 376 .0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button.

A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. In the File name box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Click Save. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Note Rhino supports several file types. Language Specifies the language of the code. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Save. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Save Save your model. Push Pin When the button is depressed. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Otherwise. See the PluginManager command. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. select Rhino 2 3D Models. you can use RunScript command.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file.Rhino 2. File. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. type a filename. or SaveAs dialog boxes. 377 .rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Cancel Closes the dialog box.

or SaveAs dialog boxes.Rhino 2. Click Save. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. You can set up grid settings. type a filename. 378 . type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Save. units. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. In the File name box. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. viewport layout. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. layers. and tolerances and save them in a template. Click Save. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. You can also save default geometry with the template. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Note Rhino supports several file types. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Files tab. type a filename. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

SelNone Deselect all objects. all objects with no name are selected." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc.) to select multiple objects. enter an object name. SelPolyline Select all polylines. 388 . If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. This command is "transparent. ?. Note You can use wild cards (*." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. etc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear.

Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent.Rhino 2. 389 . SelSrf Select all single surfaces.direction based on previously selected control points. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelPt Select all point objects.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Start the SelU command." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u.

direction. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. At the Select row of points prompt.Rhino 2.and v. The control points on the surface display. Press Enter to finish selecting rows. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. select the surface. A surface with control points selected 390 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.

and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction.direction based on previously selected control points. or both directions. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. v-direction. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. Start the SelV command. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select.

which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. FlatShade.rhino3d. ShadeAll. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. You can download plug-ins. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. 392 . see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects.com/plug-ins. from www. Shade tab. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. This is not the same as restoring a named view. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt.Rhino 2. Note Type w to start a window selection. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. and FlatShadeAll. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid.

check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name.0 to 255) Transparency (0. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. 393 . You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. select the layer to set current. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. Lets you name or rename a group.Rhino 2. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. SetLayer Set the current layer. In the Edit Layers dialog box.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. select an object on the layer you want to be current. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script.0 to 1. The Undo command will work.

To set names for a group of objects. Object names are exported to IGES. POV. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. Or.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. POV-Ray.0 to 255) Transparency (0. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize.0 to 1. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added.Rhino 2. Note The object material can be used by RIB. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. If the object name has already been used. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. double-click the viewport title bar. Rhino uses a generic name. 394 . This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. If no object name is defined. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. and RenderMan RIB. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. Or. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. Moray UDO. 3DS.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. and OBJ material/shader export.

This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. check the coordinates you want to set. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. At the Ortho is Off.Rhino 2. enter one of the options. SetPt Set control point location. Select the objects. At the Planar is On. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. Starting number Sets the starting number. use the SetObjectName command. Object names are not used in Rhino. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. 395 . In the Set Points dialog box. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. POV-Ray. and RenderMan RIB. For example. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. if you selected ten unnamed objects. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. enter one of the options. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. To set names for individual objects.

At the Grid snap is Off. 396 . enter the viewport height in pixels. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. At the Viewport height prompt. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. enter the viewport width in pixels. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. etc.Rhino 2. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. You still see interactive drawing of curves. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels.

Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . the OpenGL shade options will be available. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. monochrome. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. If OpenGL is turned on. Shade Shade a viewport. Subsequent renderings may be faster.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. click Options. and a special background color appears. with no shadows. and no antialiasing. On the Shade tab set the options.Rhino 2. Pan. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. Note Be patient on the first shade. this shading mode may be faster. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. The grid and axes are not shown. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. It may not be very quick the first time. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. select the working directory. zoom. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory.

opengl.sgi. The grid. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. For more information. the OpenGL shade options will be available. If you use OpenGL Shade.com/software/optimizer/. and no antialiasing.Rhino 2. see www. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Use OpenGL. axes. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Be patient on the first Shade. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. click Use OpenGL. click Options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. and a special background color appears. click Options. If OpenGL is turned on. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. 398 . It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). zoom. The grid and axes are not shown. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Subsequent renderings will be faster. monochrome. this shading mode may be much faster. The objects in current viewport are shaded. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. then Rhino will use it. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. On the Shade tab.org/ and www. with no shadows. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. It may not be very quick the first time. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. object highlighting. Pan. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. On the Shade tab. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. The click cannot be near curves. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. or annotation or the object will be selected. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. 399 . You do not have to select an isoparm. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. you can click on a shaded object to select it. Shear Shear objects. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. isoparms. select the objects to shear. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. points.

select objects and press Enter. The edge is highlighted. Show Show hidden objects. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. 400 . pick the second point that defines the shear angle. At the Reference point prompt. If you exit the model and reopen it. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. The base point does not move with the shear.Rhino 2. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Broken edges show in the selected objects color.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Visibility. pick the base point for the shear. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. If your object has broken edges. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt.

The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. The edges highlight. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze.Rhino 2. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. terminate the command. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. press Enter to terminate the command. Sometimes. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. Camera icon. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. If you cannot see the naked edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. At the Press Enter when done prompt. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. Status bar: Osnap 401 . Edge Tools.

Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. When textures are applied to surfaces. select the objects you want to show. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Organic. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. At the Select objects to show prompt.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. You will see no visible change in the surface. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. Original trimmed surface. To fix this. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility.

the silhouette is two circles. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. the silhouette looks like an oval. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. 403 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. If you look at a doughnut from the side.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. only backwards. For example. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view.

a polyline appears along your path. drag the mouse.Rhino 2. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Release the mouse button.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Sketch Sketch a curve. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Or. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. 404 .

press Enter. Or. drag a curve.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. select the surface to sketch on. The marker is constrained to the surface. drag a curve. type C. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. At the Click and drag to sketch.Rhino 2. Sketch on surface 405 .

Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed.Rhino 2. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. adjust the Smooth factor. smoothing the curve or surface. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. In the Smooth dialog box. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. The default is 0. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. click Smooth. The larger the number. From the Transform menu. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing.2. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. 406 . The selected control points will move slightly. The selected entities will appear to melt. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. too. Smooth Smooth objects. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces.01 and 1. From the Edit menu.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface.00. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. select the curves. click Point Editing. meshes. Smooth works on mesh objects. then click Control Points On.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.Rhino 2.

and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Modeling Aids tab. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. At the Radius prompt. it is grayed out. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. Note When Snap is on. Note This is different from the grid size. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. A sphere is single closed surface. Grid tab. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. SnapSize Set snap size. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. or enter a distance and press Enter. When Snap is off. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Sphere Draw a sphere. choose a point for the radius.Rhino 2. 408 . choose a center point.

At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. At the Second point on sphere prompt.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. A sphere is a single closed surface. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose an endpoint for the diameter. choose the first circumference point. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.Rhino 2. choose the third circumference point. 409 . choose the second circumference point. At the End of diameter prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. A sphere is a single closed surface.

If you select Turns. enter the number of turns for the spiral. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. select Turns or Pitch. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. If you select Reverse twist. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. enter the end of the spiral axis. This is the line the spiral will wind around. enter the start of the spiral axis.Rhino 2. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. If you select Pitch. At the Radius prompt. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. 410 . Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. At the End of axis prompt. enter the radius for the spiral. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.

select the curve to split. 411 . surfaces. select the objects to split. select the cutting objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. the polysurfaces are ignored.Rhino 2. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. The marker moves along the curve. and points. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. type p and press Enter. press Enter.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. At the Select cutting objects prompt.

When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. At the Point to split edge prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints.Rhino 2. the marker is constrained to the edge. surfaces and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. and Right view. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . select points at which to split the surface. At the Split point prompts.press Enter when done prompt. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. The edge is split into two edges. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. select a point. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. to access option directly. Select a surface. 412 . Type u. Front. or b. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. v. Options control the direction of the split. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm.

Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. 413 .Rhino 2. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. and then deleting the extra isoparms. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically.and v-directions of the surface. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. then Split.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf.

The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . The shape of the cone affects the lighting. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light.Rhino 2. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. length. Darker colors. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. At the End of cone prompt. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. pick a target point for the spotlight. not the range of the light. The spot light icon does not render or shade. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight.it stays the same. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. hotspot angle. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. At the Degree in V prompt. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. beam angle. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. and position. Or. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. light the scene less. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. like gray. set the radius of the spotlight. pick a location for the spotlight.

enter points until all the control points have been entered. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. At the Second corner of surface prompt. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. Or. choose the fourth corner. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. At the Third corner of surface prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. 415 .0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. enter points until all the points have been entered. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the first corner. At the Point prompts. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested.Rhino 2. press Enter to create a triangular surface. choose the second corner. At the Number of points in a column prompt. choose the third corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points.

0 -4.0 4.5.5.5.5 -4.10 4. 416 . and run the CommandPaste command. When off. The marker is constrained to the curve. SwapUV Swap a the u.5 -4.33.33.10 -4. copy it.5.0 4.and v-directions of a surface. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.-5.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.2.-2.33.33.33.-2.-2.0 0.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.33.5 4.5.10 0.-5. click in the other viewport to swap.5.0 -4.5.5.-2. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.5 0. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.2.5. pick a point for the new end point. select a surface that is not a polysurface. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.5.2. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.2.33.0 0.5 4. the surface is created but not point objects.-2.2. At the End of curve prompt.5. pick a point for the new start point. KeepPoints When on. At the Start of curve prompt.5.5 0.Rhino 2.10 4.5.10 -4.5.33.33.-5.33. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order. select the following text.-2. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. select a curve.33.2.5. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.33. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.

the new surface should also be tangent.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. reversing the direction of the curve. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. adjust options. 417 . At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep.Rhino 2. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. select the single rail curve for sweeping. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. the shape will twist with the surface edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Note To create a single surface. If you use the Smooth option.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. (The original curves are not modified. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. adjust options. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. If you don't use Smooth. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. 418 . Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. reversing the direction of the curve. the cross section curves need to be compatible. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Preview Click to preview the surface. The swept surface is created. With closed rail curves. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines.

Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. 419 . Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. use the Maintain height option. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default.Rhino 2.

If you don't use Rebuild. Preview Click to preview the surface. and continues to the ends of the rails. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . If you get the wrong surface.Rhino 2. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. If you use the Rebuild option. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve.) With closed rail curves. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. (The original curves are not modified. but want to control where the sweep ends. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. one of two possible surfaces appears. To create a single surface. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve.

421 . pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. At the End of taper axis prompt. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around.Rhino 2. At the Start of taper axis prompt. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Taper Taper objects. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.

choose a radius for the top surface of the cone.Rhino 2.only control points.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. and meshes. choose a center point for the base. 422 . End of cone prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. curves. second Radius prompt. TCone Draw a truncated cone. Radius prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Taper moves the control points of objects. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. You can't taper a polysurface . you will only taper that part of the object. surfaces. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. choose a radius for the base of the cone.

423 . set the options. In the Edit Text dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. enter the start position for the text. It will not show in a perspective view. in the form of curves.Rhino 2. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. 2000. surfaces. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Type the text.25 inches. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. or solids based on TrueType fonts. surfaces. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. When you place annotation text. and XP. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Example If your units are inches. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. The two sizes update each other. or solids.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text.

type text characters to make into surfaces. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. specify the height of the text characters. type text characters to make into solids. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. The text appears in the Sample window. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. select a font.Rhino 2. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . select a font. In the Text height box. Under Create.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Text box. select a style. The text appears in the Sample window. in the Font box. select Solid. In the Font Style box. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. select Surfaces. Under Create. in the Font box. In the Text box. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. specify the height of the text characters. In the Text height box. In the Font Style box. select a style.

ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. TiltRight Tilt the view right. 425 . and whether it is hidden or showing. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Top Set to world top view.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. adjust the size of buttons.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. import toolbars from a different workspace file. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. add new buttons to toolbars. the screen position of each toolbar. create new toolbars. The workspace holds the toolbars. the buttons in them.

press Enter. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. select objects you want to trim other objects with. When you are finished selecting objects. click the parts of objects to trim away. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. you must edit your Rhino. choose a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Second radius prompt. At the Radius prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. 426 . press Enter.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. When you are finished trimming.

the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. choose a radius for the tube wall size. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. Tube Draw a tube. At the second Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. or use Split. 427 . Front. imaginary extensions of the line are used.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. use trim several times. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.Rhino 2. surfaces and polysurfaces. At the first Radius prompt. To trim a surface with more than one curve. choose a center point for the tube's base. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. and Right view. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. choose a radius for the second tube wall size.

Shade. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. and Render Preview. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Twist Twist objects. 428 . Press Esc to stop the turntable. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Turntable Continuously rotate your view.Rhino 2. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Note The view rotates about the target point.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt.

You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. edit. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. curves. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. The opposite to undo is Redo. you will only twist that part of the object. to twist copies of the objects. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. surfaces. choose a point on the twist axis. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Or. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. the following prompt appears. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. If you entered a point to rotate from. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. 429 . By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. General tab.Rhino 2. viewports. or transform commands.only control points. or choose a point to rotate from. and meshes.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. or construction planes. Undo Undo the last command. You can't twist a polysurface . Twist moves the control points of objects. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. type in an angle. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. At the End of twist axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. choose a second point on the axis. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. choose the second point to define the rotation angle.

You can then apply commands to the individual objects. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. their normals are flipped. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio.Rhino 2. 430 . Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. For example. Render your mesh. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. This makes this command scriptable." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. If some of the faces that should render disappear.

If more than one object is selected. The 431 . A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. Export in desired format. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. When polysurfaces are meshed. Use UnifyMeshNormals. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. For example. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. 3DFace object. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Once the normals are correct. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. select the objects you want to unlock. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. UnLock Unlock locked objects. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. normals point the wrong way. explode it. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded.Rhino 2. the packed texture coordinates are created. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. re-join the meshes. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. If you see inside the mesh. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. In general. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. All polygons have a face normal direction. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set.

Packed textures. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point.Rhino 2. If the surface is developable.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. 432 . UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. Unpacked textures. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. Polysurface made of four surfaces. select a surface or curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt.

In some situations where the surface cannot be developed.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. removing any attached geometry. Surface Tools. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. 433 . In Rhino. an information message is printed at the command line. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. a developable surface has to be single span linear. This command may take some time.Rhino 2. but not meet that requirement. it may be geometrically developable. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. Surfaces such as spheres. you can remove the trim curves. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). Curves on a surface can also be developed. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. tori. an information message is printed at the command line. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. This is not like folding out a box. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting.

Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. 434 . Untrim joined polysurfaces. Trimmed surface. Untrim removes the trimming curve.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.

Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm.3921 (+/. 436 . Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. Appearance tab. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection.Rhino 2.0.0001). Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. you can change the lens length of the camera. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates.

volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.7e-007). First moments.-4e016. choose a point on the edge. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. If an edge point was picked. enter or drag a radius. 437 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.3. enter a radius for this point. select a surface or part of a polysurface. second moments. At the Start radius prompt.6. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2.4649522 (+/.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt.2e-007. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.9553974. At the Point on edge prompts. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.7e-007. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. At the End radius <x> prompt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt.6.1. select a surface or part of a polysurface. product moments.

It does not change when you zoom. pan. Weight Edit control point weight. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. 438 . one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. like adjacent surfaces in a cube.Rhino 2. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. In other cases. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. or rotate your view. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider.

No points in the blue mesh are welded. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. In our case. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. 439 . B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded.Rhino 2. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. To perform a similar operation with control points. we can use weld with an angle of 40. they are replaced by a single mesh point. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. To get this to happen. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. and file export for stereolithography. see the SetPt command. If we want a smooth roof. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. At the Angle tolerance prompt. When shaded. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. texture mapping on mesh objects.

the bottom right is (1. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. Thus.Rhino 2. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. Weld does not report the results on the command line. See Importing and exporting STL files. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. they must be joined before welding is effective.1) and top right (1. It does not physically fuse the vertices. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object.0). There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. 440 . The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. 3D Studio MAX). The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. Welding in MAX is different. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. then Weld (angle=180). So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. top left is (0. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. they always get welded. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Use JoinMesh. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam.1).

object highlighting. axes. World axes icon on 441 . Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. At the Select object prompt. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. the grid. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.Rhino 2. or polysurface. surface. select a curve. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. The wireframe of the objects. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode.0 Command Reference What Display object information. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command.

Rhino 2. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. set the stripe direction. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. 442 . It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. WorldYAxisIcon=.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. In the Zebra Options dialog box. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes.ini file set the color for the icon. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. where white is the closest to your eye. and black is the farthest away. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. on the Shade tab. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. size. When objects are rendered in Rhino. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. and color.

To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. 443 . but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. These meshes can be large. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. curvature. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection.Rhino 2. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. this means the position. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Tangent matches. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. Position. tangency. curvature.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. and curvature between the surfaces match. and other important properties. the surfaces touch. MatchSrf.

Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. When Faster is selected. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. select More reliable.Rhino 2. but will always work. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. in the Options dialog box. 444 . The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. under Zebra and EMap. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. If you have a wheel mouse. on the Shade tab.

ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomNext Redo the last view change.

Rhino 2. Note In a perspective view. pick a point for the center of the view. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. At the Zoom factor prompt. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. This is particularly useful in perspective views. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. drag a window to zoom. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. type a zoom factor and press Enter. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. ZoomWindow Zoom window. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. 446 . ZoomX Change the zoom factor.

53. MAX 2. 205. 135 3Arc command. 144 Area command. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 144 ArcSER command. 5. from three points. import. disconnect. 206. 82 AlongTan object snap. 180. 266 animate view. 150 ArraySrf command. 393 34View command. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command.Rhino 2. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 5. 2. 230. DXF file exchange. 14. 53. circular. from the last point. 206. 88. 28. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 230. 135 ACIS file export. 407. dot. 221. 192. 33. end and direction. 142. 215 annotation. 5. 151. 5. 305. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 152. 29. 62 447 . 3. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 231. 333. 136 AddNextV command. 265. add notes to the model. 207. 150. 146 arguments at the command line. 123. 149 Array command. 5. 138 adjust end bulge. scale factor. 323 3-D digitizing:. 232. 368. export. 5. 28. 170 2-D drawings from model. 281 AttachEnd command. 163 3Circle command. 5. 279 2Sphere command. 53 aliases. 148 Array toolbar. 143 Arc3Pts command. 144. 5. 5. 34. 205. 140 Along object snap. 195. 251. 5. 29 3DFace command. 135 3DM file exchange. 255. set spacing between points. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 140. MAX 2. 82 Alt key. options. 28. 385 analyze:. 206. measure between two lines. 5. 5. 151 ArraySurface command. set ortho. 133. 152 ASAP file exchange. 139 Align3D command. 76. 333. 35. DWG file exchange. 204. DOS. 251. 5. 141 arc: extend by. 152. 5. from start.0 OBJ. 305. 207. 10. arrow. 31 AG file exchange. 150. 125 array: along a curve. 169 3CPlane command. 151 ArrayCrv command. 361. 140 Align command. 139 AlignTrace command. to copy while dragging. 29. 205. 144 arc:. 198. 135 4View command. 27. 5. 221. 150. 5. 231. 205. 141 ApplyMesh command. 140 angle:. 180. 312 Angle command. 5. with a MicroScribe. 5. 136 AddPrevU command. set up function key for click. command aliases. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 149. 281 Audit command. toolbar button function. 204. 330. 426 Analyze toolbar. 29. 245. with FaroArm. 123 Arrowhead command. 30 add object to selection. 151. 322. 123 2Circle command. 5. 162. 2. 152 Attach command. 220. 3DS file format. 141 ApplyCurves command. 205. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 229. set scale. 152 Arrow command. 27. 152. export options. 149 ArrayCurve command. suspend autoclose. 145 AreaCentroid command. 27. create planar sections. 150. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. around a pole. 143 3Box command. pause input. 203. 232 Arc3Pt command. 149. 207. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 138 AddToGroup command. 5. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 251. calibrate. 145 AreaMoments command. MAX 3. 10. 168. tangent to two curves. 24 AddNextU command. rectangular. 149 ArrayPolar command. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 203. 143. 32 AGLib file exchange. to suspend object snaps. 393 3View command. 152 AnnotateDot command. 5. 33.0 IGES. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 308 align:. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 149. 210. 255.0 Command Reference Index !. end and radius. 5. 307. initialize. 215. arrowhead on curve. 152 AutoCAD. 151 arrow annotation object. 144 ArcTTR command. MAX 3. 55 Ascii STL tag. 127. 140. 148. 426 angle: constraint. 207. 309 AlignProfiles command. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 251. 33. 251. 203. 151 array:.2. profile curves. polar. 148. 140. 340. 215. 139 All command. 197. 312 AngleLine command. 137 AddPrevV command. 5. 88 align: background bitmap. 187. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 141 ApplyCrv command. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 5. 144. dimension. 298. 139. 14. built into Rhino. 204. Release 12 export. 5. 143. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. extend to a point. 26. 127. 143. 362 3Plane command. 346 3Sphere command. 143 ArcDir command. 324 3Rectangle command. 152. 206. on a surface. 34. 142 Arc toolbar. 206. 28. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 152 arrowhead on curve. 5. 5. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. MAX 1. 205. 255. shortcuts. 144 Arc command. 150. 412 Annotate toolbar. sketch curve with.0. 144.5. 212. 239. VIZ. 5.

39 BMRT support. 231 CArcPt command. 124. 133. surface degree. 123. 365. 366. 152. 79 center:. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 162 bottom view. 154. snap size. copy to. place. 250 Center object snap. lock. 90 ChangeDegree command. 163 B-spline. to current layer. 292 Box3Pt command. 322. 159. 39 Boolean. toggle world icon. tangent to three curves. 133 BU command. 153 background bitmap: align. 139. 171 Circle3Pt command. 170 Circle command. 133. toolbar layout. as bitmap. 316 448 . 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 245. 245. 168. 139. 199. convert NURBS curve to. 24 circle: by diameter. 133. 152 autosave:. toolbar button image. 249. 384. 421 BlendSrf command. 322. 164. paste from. 113. 229. two surfaces. 168 Circle toolbar. 170. hide. 122. 369 C2View command. 124 capture viewport. 124. 5. clear undo. 365. 139. 384. 169 Circle3Pts command. 133. 161 Bottom command. clear button image. time control. 171 clear. settings. set construction plane x. 5. 164 cap open planar ends. scale background. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. toolbar button tooltip. 5. 123. 158. 351.0 file exchange. 168 CheckInLicense command. 2. 243. 338 buoyancy. 90. 384 background bitmap:. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. edit button icons. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 168 check objects for errors. copy toolbar button. 123. 363. 84 Bezier curve. 124 C command. 322 blend: curve. with toolbar button. render meshes when saving file. floatation. 39 BMP file format. 168. 161. 145 chamfer: two curves. 167. 124. 162 Box toolbar. 198. difference. 122. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 351. 130. 250 button. 90 Autosave command. 320. edit button image. 316. command. 162 box: from length. surface. polygon mesh. 125. 184. 172. 351. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 384. 367.Rhino 2. 161 BooleanDifference command. from center. 351. ellipsoid. 184. 297. 90. 365. 249. 170 CircleTTR command. 157. set construction plane z. 172 built-in aliases. 249. 323. 425 Back command. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 168 choose one object. troubleshooting. 124. 171. 155 bitmap. 5. 154 baseball-style seams. 124. 322. display grid. show hidden background. 163 Box3Pts command. scale. 365. render meshes. 169 CircleD command. 114. from three points. width. undo buffer. edit toolbar. remove. 115. move background. 85. radius. 153 back view. 170 CircleTTT command. 368 Baseball command. 5. 232 Clipboard. ortho angle. height. background. 102. 168 Check command. variable radius between surfaces. 362 ClearMesh command. 165 change. 157. 101. 366 CArc command. 204 camera. 172. area. 243. 124. toolbar. 123. 161. 321. 55 axis. show. 425. 157. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 167. place. capture button image. 160. 392. 12. layer. 153 BD command. 172. 402 Bisector command. 162. 392. 153. 179. 124. 312. 166. select. 171 circle:. save button image to file. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 154 Between object snap. 5. 351. 5. undo levels. selection. from three points. 249. 163. 161 buffer. 168. 139. sphere. 232 CATIA file exchange. import button image. 368. use. cut. 145. 250. as 256-color bitmap. 166. 160 BooleanUnion command. 56 center: buoyancy. 250 centroid. 365. 321. 171. 171.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 180. 160. to the Clipboard. 169. 156. 122. 90. 54 autosave: file location. 163. 179 BI command. 366. 5. 338. 101. 322. 170. 198. 297. center of. 162. 312. 170. 164. tangent to two curves. intersection. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 5. 164 chamfer:. 321. backdrop for rendering. 184. 123 Cap command. 169. union. 162 BoundingBox command. 163 box:. 5. 320. align backgound. 170. 409. 297. 321. 123. place background. 123. 160 BooleanIntersection command. delete toolbar button. 292 Box command. 156. 118. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 367. 172 CLine command. 162. 250. 363. 297. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 139. 5. 168. 5 bumpmap for rendering. the layer of an object. 297. 160. 249. 384 bad objects. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 322. move toolbar button. 154. 165 Chamfer command. 171. 160 bi-rail sweep. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 116. 349 ClearUndo command. 165 ChamferSrf command. 125. 156 blend:. 168. 180. 122. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 160 Bend command. 166 ChangeLayer command. 321. move. remove background. 123. 123. use for tracing. object properties. hide background. with Esc key. 56 cancel command. 13. 421 Blend command.

move to coordinate location. 339. 90. 57 CPDash command. AutoCAD. view front of. 75. weld. 182 CPlaneO. 183. set normal to curve. 359. set weight. shortcut. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. old. world coordinates. 197. 178. 89. 172 Closest point to an object. 176 ConicPerp command. turn off. 386. 35 command: alias. 164. 173 cone:. 183. 323. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 235. save. 228. view bottom of. 173 commands: list of all. 181 CPlaneNext command. add next in u-direction to selection. 179. 88. 180. 202. 131 command history. 11. 249. hide. 181 CPlaneFront command. paste from clipboard. 176 Conic command. 176. 173 CommandPrompt command. show hidden. 373. curve. list all. 184. dialog box. 174. display axes. 123. 184. 104. 246. 182. set extents of. add previous in u-direction to selection. 181. 251 command area. place point objects on. named construction plane. 177. set to x-axis. set to 3 points. select row on surface. 178 CPHighlight command. 114. 11 coordinates. select next in u-direction. 218 Contour command. 202. 104. 75 comma-delimited file export. macro. 5. move all through a point. 5. settings of one construction plane to all. 217 COff command. 15 construction plane. 75. 245. 173. 180. 136. 419 context menu. toggle world coordinate entry. next. arguments. 166. 14. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. display for a point. 172 CommandPaste command. 5. 422. toggle display of. 123. holes in surfaces. relative coordinates. 327. 172. script. create curve from. and ndirections. set display density. select row in vdirection. 11. 380. 75 continuity. polygon mesh. perpendicular to curve. 172 ClosestPt command. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 126. set right. Esc to cancel. 419. 235. 336. 172 ClosePoint command. 419. copy settings of one to the all. 335. 114. display recently used.Rhino 2. turn grid on or off. 154. 195 color. 174. 88. 181. undo. 179. 10. add to surface. 12. for spotlight editing. render window. add previous in v-direction to selection. 246. 245. 419. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. toggle construction plane entry. 413 command aliases. 155. 15. 164. project objects to. 75. objects. 12. G1. v-. 182. 180. 413 CommandHistory command. 335. 122. set to next. 406 Cone command. 292. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 178. 181. 5. 184. toggle display. taper. 183. 181. 166. 183. 176 constraint. G0. 173 command names. render window to Clipboard. 5. 173. 177 contour curves. options. set to previous. 419 CPlane3Pt command. toolbar. 183. layer. 173. 405. 339. 138. 21. polar coordinates. 298. 10. 342. 172 cloud of points. view to all viewports. 182. 126 conic: curve. 184. 335. 133. 419. make all have same orientation. 303. 173 COn command. 338. 125. 177. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 343. 178 control vertex. options. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. move through a point. 140. set top. rendering to Clipboard. 323. 172. 292. 172. 90. 406. 175. wheel. 5 command:. 343. 115. set to vertical. distance. 406. 5. 88. view left of. 173. import from 3DM file. 2. plan view. 5. 126. 4. bend. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 249. set distance between grid lines. history. 180. 11. relative polar coordinates. 11 copy: command shortcut. 234. 362. View top of. 228. viewport. 304. highlight. 2. coordinates. 219 coordinate entry. 181 Copy command. 133. 115. 75. 155. 176. 379 control polygon. move in u-. set to view. 11. 297. 138. 298. 245. 75. 131. project object snap to. 125. toolbar button. curve and surface. 136. list. 181 CPlaneElevation command. select previous in u-direction. add next in v-direction to selection. 195 cone: cone. 183. 137. set to z-axis. 11. 375. 125. 89. set to object. 126. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 182 449 . 74. 297. move along Z. false. set origin. view back of. previous. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. 338. rotate. set front. 11. delete from a curve. 419. 180. 5. along line. 13. 359. 303. construction plane coordinates. 119. 11. 386. 173. 5 CPlaneObject command.0 Command Reference close. 173. 245. 131 control points. coincident. 246. 174 conic:. 181. 173 commands:. 374. 246. 2. 422. 5. 131 ControlPolygon command. 398. 181 CopyClip command. 140. 122. 182. 181. G2. 373. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 178 control point definition. 179 Coons patch. 180. truncated. objects to Clipboard. 342. 419. display. 173. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 379. 85. 174. 84. 172. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 88. display in clipboard or history. render. 10. turn on. 234. 14. set the number of thin gridlines. 339. 182. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 180 copy:. 245. 375. 183. select next in v-direction. 181. 406 ConfigScript command. 398. 338. view right of. 177 continuous shading. angle. 173 Commands command. 125. 131. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 344. 172 CloseViewport command. 5. assign to mouse buttons. entering coordinates. 379. extract. draw curve using. set origin of all construction planes. 84. 245. 362. 250. 137. 12. 2 command line. 89. 327 Cob command. 136. read from file. select previous in v-direction. 18. 119. 303. 182. 88. 345. 184. 197.

183 CPlaneToView command. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 141. 155. 156 CurveBox command. 24. 144. 156. 195. 268. pull to surface. duplicate edge of surface. project onto surface. 187. 25. 231. 165. graph off. 197. crosshairs. 4. 3 Ctrl+C. 179. 195. 24. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. rebuild. line vertical to construction plane. from 2 views. 265. 233. 334. 258. duplicate border of surface. 175. 235. 395. 186. toggle. add knots. 343. 222. 190 CullCP command. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 2. 367. extrude straight. direction. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 387. 189. 184 CPlaneX command. 388. 198 CutPlane command. 213. 387 curve:. 239. 189. 174. curvature graph. 234 CreatePCurves command. 391. insert edit point. 268. line perpendicular to two curves. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 390. divide by number of segments. 156. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 387 Curve toolbar. 306. mean. 179. 330. 174. 188. arc from three points. arc from start. 302 Ctrl+O. intersect two objects. 177. 253. 4. ellipse. 169. 257. 189. 184 CPlaneV command. 144. 177. line normal to a surface. 367. 131. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 394 CurveBlend command. 165. from interpolated points. 3 crossing:. sketch on polygon mesh. 198 Ctrl+Y. 169. 314. 236. extrude to point. 183 CPlaneToObject command. interpolate through polyline. 355. 231. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 304 Ctrl+A. 165. 249. 268. 235. apply to surface. 162. 2 Ctrl+S. fillet. 248. 394. 187 CrvEnd command. 230. circle from three points. section. 388. 389. 326. 15. 15. 337. 388. 156. 389. silhouette. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. points. 178. 256. 15. 183 CPlaneTop command. 389 CurveStart command. 133. 257. 187 CrvStart command. 24. polyline. 337. 271. parabola. 281. 267. 197. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. flatten section of. line segments. 343. 238. convert to Beziers. 230. 304. 194. 213. 298. curvature graph off. 164. 217. 269. offset. 239. 187 CurveSketch command. 305. marker. 268. 351. 311. 180 Ctrl+N. 369. 307 Ctrl+P. 13. 226. 232. 413 CullControlPolygon command. adjust end bulge. 4. 216. 155. 197. refit. 4. circle tangent to two curves. 346 cross sections through profiles. 187. 168. 281. 185. raise degree. circle from center. 255. 139. 195. 389. 190 cursor. smooth. 256. 333. 164. 142. 281. 2. 327. place point at end. 258. 197. 162 CurveEnd command. 197. 191 curvature:. selection. contour. 185. 327. 333. 218. 90.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 241. display graph. 142.Rhino 2. bounding box. extract wireframe from surface. 355. end. from point cloud. 254. 141. 226. circle by diameter. 191. blend. 174. 197. 194. 2. 245 Curvature command. 187 CurveOverlap command. delete control points. 369 Crv2View command. 389. 221. 339. 279. constrain parallel to view plane. 3. 216. Gaussian. 2 Ctrl+Tab. measure between two curves. 239. 143. 390. 195. polyline through point objects. 258. 184 CPTog command. 2. 195. select all. from control points. 200 450 . extrude along path. 170. extend. 187 CrvSeam command. 255. 157. 189 CSec command. 305. 188. periodic. 343. 323. extend by line. 265. 185 CRectangle command. 314. 337. 196. interpolate on surface. tangent line. 189 crosshairs. 195. constrain to ortho. 304. 197 curve degree. extend by arc to a point. 281. 162. 187. 90. point. extend by arc. 139. 169. 162 CrvDeviation command. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 248. 255. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 236. spiral. 217. convert to polyline. 305. conic. 339. 179. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 257. chamfer. helix. 369 crossing selection. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 170. 271. match ends. 184 CPlaneView command. 185. 168. 185 CrvBox command. 340. 316 Ctrl+X. 298. 236. 241. tracking line. 305. 4. 183 CPlaneRight command. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 369. 218. constrain along line. 254. constrain to plane. place point at start. 311. 165. 4 Ctrl+V. 187. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 323. 248. 339. 164. 256. revolve. 156. fair. 14. 356. 217. 255. 221. 4. 230. 218. 387. 267. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 4. 177. sketch. 239. 144. arc tangent to two curves. 334. radius. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 270. single line. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 236. 195. cross sections through profiles. 194. surface from network. 192. 143. 202. 367. 2. make periodic. line. 269 Curve command. 326. 197 curve. 238. 2. 182 CPlanePrev command. graph on. align in two views. 202. 226. 351. 235. 270. extend to surface boundary. 184 CPlaneZ command. 232. 253. 387. 330. 195. 241. sketch on surface. line tangent to two curves. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 189 CSV export. 239. 232. 133. 131. analyze surface. 340. measure radius. bisector line. 187 CurveSeam command. 191. arc. 141. extract isoparms from surface. 170. 348 Ctrl+Z. adjust seam point. simplify. remove knots. 233. 238. 2.

points at naked edges. 58 delete: all objects. merge. 202. rotated. 206 DigSection command. 209 DimRotated command. 372 DeselectAll command. 210. toolbar button. 416 developable surface definition. 208. 384. 123 451 . 209. radius. 210 Dir command. viewport properties. 250. vertical. 411. reverse object direction. 104. with FaroArm. 207. 245. 2. 210. grid. 212. hydrostatic calculation. 338. 132. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 208. 220. 207. 220. naked. 127. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 207 DimAligned command. 17. create 2-D curves. 208. 212 distance display. 135. border of surface. 216. 288. 208. 208 DimRadius command. command button. set up function key for click. 167. 121. 88. 209 DimRecenterText command. Boolean. grid axes. 217. 410. options. 211. 218. 205 DigDisconnect command. 243 DirectionalLight command. 219. 217 DupEdge command. polylines. change degree of surface. object discription. 396 edge:. raise curve degree. 344. set scale. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. wallpaper. 197. 214 domain: match. 202. 215 Dot command. 206 DigSpacing command. 18. 45 dirty looking rendering. 205. 218. 372 DetachTrim command. planar section. 196. 218. 205 DigScale command. broken edges. 22. 15 divide: curve by length. 195. naked edges. units. 104. 370. 166. 395. 2. 207. 218 duplicate. edit text. aligned. persistent object snaps. 217 drape surface. 34 DXF file exchange. rebuild. 260. 202 Deselect All. tolerances. 206. 207 DimDiameter command. render mesh settings. control polygon. polygon mesh. 338 DisplayBitmap command. object. 10. 344. 19. 208 dimension. 3-D polygon mesh face. 288. 239. 217. 217 draw. 108 Dup command. 201. 265. 209. 213 divide:. 208 DimOptions command.Rhino 2. 298 DigPause command. 33 DynamicShading command. 120 document properties: notes. in Split command. diameter. 260. 15 Distance command. 396 EdgeSrf command. 207. 210. 213 DivideByLength command. 217 DupBorder command. 212 distance: constraint. display curve or surface. 205. toolbar. 202. 218. select all. 216 Drape command. 265. 212 DisableOsnap command. curve by number of segments. recenter text. 206. 370. display broken. 15. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 106. 197. 203 DigCalibrate command. 203 develop a surface. 203. 22. 395. 204. 425. 23. 208 difference. pause input. 17. 372 Deselect command. 123.ini. 17. 279. 384. 107. summary. 205 digitize. split. 212 display:. 160. 131 Ebroken command. 344. 122. 85. 209. change. 12. 132. 370 DWG file exchange. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. Rhino. 293 data structure for object. 160 Dig command. 178. show. 215 drafting. 22 degree. 91. 19 document properties:. 3-D digitizing. surfaces. intialize. 218 e_tol. 272 date. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 215 dot:. 217 DrapePt command. 19 DocumentProperties command. 279 Dragmode. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. edge of surface. 201. 206. lines. 385. 105. 119. 205 displacement. select all objects. 133. 251 dot: annotation. 121. Render Mesh tab. 196. 330. 260. annotation text. 209 DimVertical command. 124. 12. 251. 210 DimHorizontal command. shortcuts. with MicroScribe. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 212. 220. 384 diameter dimension. 251 Domain command. 127. 23 distance:. 384 edge: create curve from. disconnect. horizontal. 368. 210 DirArc command. edit points. 370. toggle. set spacing between points. 214 domain:. 422 Display command. 166. 207 DimAngle command. 213 dock a toolbar. 122 Delete command. 330. 206 DigSketch command. isoparm density. 209. dimension text. 272. 165. 277 diagnostics. join two out of tolerance edges. 19. 288. 10. 250 display: bitmap window. 168. 22. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 384. angle between lines. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 201 cylinder:. 385. 99 disable. 202 DeleteAll command. 209. 123. 243. 330. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. options. 385. Notes tab. 165 Delcam file exchange. 19. control points. 215 draft angle. 245. 385. layer. 213 Divide command. toolbar button bitmap icons. 135. 293 Cylinder command. button image. 207. 144 direction. curve. calibrate. from last point. 219. 202 delete:. in Trim command. 217. objects.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 127. 213. 205. 212 disconnect digitizer. sketch curve. 204 DigClick command. 168. 211 DirectX file export. 219.

0 Command Reference edit points. 53. 74 Export command. 236. 63. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 55.0 (IGES). 62. 234 Extend command. 234. raw triangles (RAW). surface. 232. 46. 30. mesh to IGES file. 10. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 48. 231. triangles. 60. 71. 236. 1 Faro command. Applied Geometry (AG). Multisurf (IGES). 33. 35. 92. Plug-in). 3D Studio MAX 3. 45. 133 EShow command. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 239 false color display. 40. Moldex DXF. NASA GridTool. 4 Fair command. 61. 202. 56. 45. 229. SolidWorks (IGES). by arc. 74. 32. 238. 4 F9. isoparms from surface. 232. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 46. 230. 260 elevator mode. 234. 47. FastShip (IGES). 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 229 export. 63. Delcam (IGES). 229 Explode command. 236. 59. 232 ExtendByLine command. Integrity Ware (IGES). 232. PostScript. 236. space and rightmouse click. 58. 229 export:. 4 F2. 239 fair curve. 67. 64. 223 ellipsoid:. 64. 65. 219 EditPtOn command. 239 FastShip file exchange. 35. SURFCAM (IGES). 55. 60. 12. Viewpoint Technologies. 230. Unigraphics (IGES). 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. Microstation (IGES). surface from polysurface. 70. AutoCAD (DXF). 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 30. 73. 238 Extrude command. 26. 35. 221. AutoCAD (DWG). 65. 253. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 56. 233 ExtendSrf command. 231. 40. 154 Ellipsoid command. IronCAD (IGES). 45. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 51. 233 ExtendByArc command. OptiCAD (IGES). Moray (UDO). 420 EditDim command. AutoShip (IGES). 224 erase objects. 229 explode:. 11. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 46. curve along path. 35. SAT file format. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). by line. 236 Extrude toolbar. 45. 227 environment map. 59. 127 Esc key. 119. 236. 61. VRML. Cosmos/M (IGES). 62. 42. 238. 72. 228 EvaluateUV command. 237. GHS. 31. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 58. 233 extend:. 78 EndBulge command. Solid Edge (IGES). 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 68. options. 233. 36.0 (OBJ). 238 F1. IGES. 42. 68. 64. Pro/E (IGES). Windows Metafiles (WMF). 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 63.0 (IGES). 73. 429 End object snap. 228 Excel. 223 elliptical conic curve. Softimage (IGES. Lightwave (LWO). 54. 55. 31. 3D Studio (3DS). 44. 60. 30. control polygon. 54. surface into a solid. Tebis IGES. 12 ELine command. curve on surface. 36. command aliases. 233. 230. NuGraf (IGES). 57. 221 EllipseD command. 3. 45. 253. POVRay (POV). 53. unable to run program renrib. 35. 92. 222 ellipse:. 54. 220. Commadelimited file. 124. curve to surface boundary. 12 Enter:. 231. 2. insert on curve. AUTOFORM (IGES). 235 ExtractPt command. 45. curve to point. 41. 219. 69. 55. 227. 228 EvaluatePt command. 41. CADCEUS (IGES). surface. Wavefront (OBJ). export to. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 58 452 . wireframe curves from surface. 224 EMerge command. 416 explode: NURBS objects. CSV file. 52. polygon mesh. 71. 13. 221. 29. CAD 3D SUM 4. 37. 222 EllipseEnds command. 222 Ellipse command. 40 errors in model. 57. 43. 62. 233. 56. 2. 396 EvaluatePoint command. 288 Enaked command. ACIS. 233 extract. 228 expand a surface. 228 exit Rhino. 344 EMap command. 73. 235 ExtractSrf command. Catia (IGES). 133 enter coordinates. 230. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 174 Elmo command. 61. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 36. 235. 46. 69. 385 EnakedPt command. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 330 End key. 42. 238. 231. 41. 13. 59. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. Yamaha ESPRi. arc to a point. 236 extrude: curve. 133. 37. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 131. 123. 220 EditText command. 69. 128. 31. LUSAS (IGES). Alias (IGES). 220 EJoin command. Maya (IGES). 53. turn on. 385 ESplit command. 131 FAQ. 26. 231. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 71. SLA. from focus points. 52. 73. 230 extend. Adobe Illustrator (AI). show. 3D Studio MAX 3. DirectX. object properties to file. 232. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 230 Extend toolbar. STL. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 226 endpoint object snap. 220. 4 F8. curve. 26.Rhino 2. Metastream. 29. 123 edit:. 53. turn off. TekSoft IGES. 229 Exit command. Mastercam (IGES). 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 236. 235. 58. 133 Escape key. 356. 44. 229. 93. 72. 63. 37. 70. 228 error messages. ME30 (IGES). 58. 2. 51. CamSoft (IGES). 33. FastSURF (IGES). 32. Solid Designer (IGES). 45. 236 ExtractWireframe command. curve by offset. 356 extrude:. Alias (OBJ). 343 ElmoSrf command. 67. 33.

378. 221 fonts. periodic curve. 239 fillet:. 249. 307. center of. 362 file:. polysurface. 385. 379 IGES file types. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 131. section of curve. 339 HideOsnap command. 245 GridOptions command. edit using. 81 Front command. set distance between lines. 417 FlattenSrf command. 74. 262. 416. 60. 338 history. spacing. 307. edge of polysurface. 48. 192. 63. 131. 244 front view. 360. 249. 61. 172 hold. 262. 251. 49 IGES export:. 244 Flowline command. 386. 249 HidePts command. 246 Gridsnap command. 261. 250. 1 From object snap. 59. 241 FlatShade1 command. 279. 130. 425. 339. 67. 53. 259. 235 FltE command. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 172. 55. 249 highlight in rendering. reduce size of model. 62. 133. 250 hide: background bitmap. 243 Flip command. objects. 273 freeze:. 171. 50. text. 247 Helix command. 134. 453 . 131. 387 HSV color.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 337. open. 239. status bar panes. 70. 386. Alias|Wavefront. 239. 249. 176 G1 continuity. 348. import. 130. 246. 273. swap hidden status. 250. 133. 379. two surfaces. bumpmap. 336. control points. show hidden control points. 240 Fillet command. 68. 131. 54. 246. 260. 229. 133. 330. unlock locked objects. 131. 49. 214 fillet. 243 floatation. 250. Osnap dialog box. 55. 413. 119 HideTrace command. 277. 229. 47. 1 Help command. show selected. unlock locked objects. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 281 FlatShade command. panes. troubleshooting import problems. 278. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 245 grid:. 249 hide:. 240 filter the layer display. 416. 46. 69. objects. 273. 245. initial mesh grid. 72. object names. 380 GridThick command. tracking line. 240 FilletSrf command. isoparm. 46. 119. 307. 120. 249 HideCV command. 133. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 134. run application from inside Rhino. 55. 132. false color. 302. technical support. 65. 75 hue. 251. 54. 56. 135. 407. 55. 12 Home key. 3D Studio MAX 3. Ashlar Vellum. 1. 378. 54. 194. 122 font. 429 Horizon command. 246 Heightfield command. 246. 273. save as. 236. objects. 50. 249 HideSwap command. 46. 119 HideToolbox command. 386. 410. Unicode. 377. set the extents of. wireframe. 249. 262. save. turn on or off. 120. 246 HBarSrf command. 119 Hide command. 131. 249. toolbar. 407. 251 floating license. 250. text. 246 HBar command. set the number of lines. 244 Flow command. 251. NURBS. 250 HideToolbar command. 249. edit toolbar button. 134. 174 icon. AUTOFORM. 1 help:. seamless mesh. 57. 415 GHS file export. 171. tolerance. 104 fit a plane through points. 380. 386 HideAll command. 361. 212 frequently asked questions. 229. 133. 302. 2 hidden layer name. 123. 246. 255. 220. axis lock. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 390. 64. 248 help: display Help file. 368. IGES export type details. 18. 407 freeze: a layer. definition. 246. 249 HidePoints command. 52. surface.turn on or off. types. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. normal. 305. 251. keep last used on top. 131. 249 HidePt command. shortcut. Enter key. 123. edit points. 377 Group command. units. cursor. marker. 122. developable surface. 133. 417 ghost: a layer. 2. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 135 grid: axes . 71. 203. 362 File toolbar. command area. 46. 53. control point. 415 Ghost command. 12. 246 GridSize command. 46. 240. toolbar. 132. 415 Freeze command. curve.0. 133. new. 255. 124. snap to. 103 hidden objects. 273. 246 handlebars. command line. polygon mesh export. flyout toolbar. template. name. Breault Research's ASAP. 2. 132. 380. texture mapping coordinates. 426. 380 GridAxes command. 53. 245. Esc key. 229. 122. 245 GridSections command. 262. 396. 75 Hydrostatics command. 133. 246 group. 168. 395. 384. 302. 176 G2 continuity. 240 FilletEdge command. 241 FitPlane command. 246 Group objects for selection. AutoShip. 360. 1. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 325 FitCrv command. 73. 273 ghost:. set snap size. 132. 277. 220. 131. 242 flatten. 123. CADCEUS. 228. world axes. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 133. 361. 245 Grid command. 58. 131. 386. 244 G0 continuity. 425 IGES: file exchange. 194 GCon command. simple controls. naked edge.Rhino 2. 5. 134. 361. 176 Gaussian curvature. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 362 FileProperties command. 46. 36 glossary terms. periodic surface. 130 Flow along a curve.

104. 59 isoparametric curve. angle from. 46. 64. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 61. snap to. Adobe Illustrator AI. 322 JScript. 261 JoinEdge command. 70. 63. display for object. Mechanical Desktop. 103. 260. 71. 135 jagged shadows. 26. 59. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 52 import. 259 IronCAD file exchange. IGES. 73. 46. IronCAD IGES. 3D Studio MAX 3. 260. 251 import:. Maya IGES. 168. 160. 77. 46. 135. FastSURF. 264 length: measure curve. curve. 31. 57. 103. 371. 59. 167. ME30 IGES. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 10. LUSAS IGES. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 121. 254 InsertKnots command. 64. 257 InterpPolyline command. 63. SDRC's I-DEAS. OptiCAD. 377. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. Applied Geometry AG. 102. Tebis. 71. insert in curve. 283. match. 56. 41. 253. 61. 167. 253. 10. 73. dialog box. purge empty. 59 InterpCrv command. Delcam IGES. Softimage. 69. 60. translate IGES/Rhino. CATIA. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 132. 63. 61. 425. curve on surface. named views from a 3DM file. 67. Mastercam. 101. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 104. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 56. 66. 59. 260 JoinFaces command. Solid Designer IGES. 104. 103. 53. AutoShip IGES. 67. 257. 73. definition. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 56. delete. 258 intersect:. 252 information. 53. 126 kink. AUTOFORM IGES. 152 Leader command. 251 IncrementalSave command. NASA GridTool.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 57. change to current. 59. 252 insert:. 254 Insert command. 33. 55. distance from. 132. insert on curve or surface. 62. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 254. 64. Pro/E IGES. 68. 61. 67. 255. 103. 15 lathe. 258 InvertPt command. 46. 58. 69. 255. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans.0 IGES. Lightwave LWO. 32. 65. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. object snap. set material properties. Tebis IGES. 366. Solid Edge IGES. Softimage IGES. change for an object. toolbar from another layout. 119 initial mesh grid. 132 isoparm. 101. 167. Yamaha ESPRi. Cosmos/M IGES. 58. 69. 371. 263. 103. 78. 3D Studio 3DS. 70. 255. NuGraf IGES. 62. SolidWorks. 65. 48. 262 last point. 56. 81. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 81. Integrity Ware IGES.Rhino 2. 74 Import command. turn on. 71. SURFCAM. 72. set current. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 46. 262 LayerOff command. 103.0. 104. 63. knot. Integrity Ware. 32. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 58. 104. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 42. 132. Pro/E. insert in surface. 258 intersection. 263 LayerOn command. 258 Intersect command. Solid Edge. 140. 307. one layer on. 64. 55. definition. 67. Solid Designer. 85. 257 intersect: Boolean. 377 LayerLock command. wireframe view. OptiCAD IGES. 168. 73. 68. 363. 33. 59. 253 knot. 256 interpolate. 160. set material. 396. 54. 261 JoinSrf command. 99 JCAD STL export. 312. 41. 69. surfaces. 62. 396. 160. 73. 263. 152. 283. Unigraphics. 63. 265 Length command. 261 Lasso command. 253. Multisurf. 68. FastSURF IGES. 58. 70. 264 Left command. 53. CADCEUS IGES. 102. 259. 14. 377 layer:. 255 Int object snap. Multisurf IGES. TekSoft. AutoCAD DWG. check out from workgroup license manager. 251. 254. 104. 312. 37. 140. display density. 71. 10. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 261 Join command. LUSAS. 63. NASA GridTool IGES. CamSoft IGES. match attributes. 251 Improve command. 263 Layer command. CATIA IGES. Mastercam IGES. 343. 55. 264 leader:. Maya. FastShip IGES. 72. 78. 256. 2. 132. 101. 104. construction planes from 3DM file. 65. 168 454 . 63. kink in curve. 140. 264 left view. Microstation IGES. 265 length:. 26. 251. 15. 69. 262. 55. SolidWorks IGES. IronCAD. 61. 60. 91. stereolithography STL. 283. 62. 263 leader: arrow. 160 Invert command. Cosmos/M. 307. surface or polysurface. 60. 33. 307. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 62.0 OBJ. select from list. 74. 133 Layer toolbar. 253 InsertKink command. 42. 76. triangles. filter display. 253 InsertKnot command. turn all layers on. 355 layer: change color. 58. AutoCAD DXF. turn off by selecting an object. rename. 37. 70. 71. 253. Delcam. 46 IGES:. Microstation. 59. 60. Alias IGES. 31. 41. 168 license manager. objects. 29. 343. 377. 42. 152. Raw triangles RAW. ME30. CAD 3D SUM 4. 64. 256. 101. 56. 263. arrowhead on curve. 259 join:.0 IGES. 160. SUM 4. turn off. aliases. 307. 131 insert: edit point. SURFCAM IGES. 130 license:. 259. remove from curve or surface. 72. 262 lasso selection. TekSoft IGES. 60. 121. 101 Layer pane. 261 JPG. 258 IntersectCrv command. 254. 254. 425 ini file. 253 InsertKinks command. new. split surface at. 3D Studio MAX 3. 73. 29. 168. select objects by. 54. 261 JoinMesh command. FastShip. Boolean. 69. 351. 338. 71. Unigraphics IGES. 54. 58. 90. 367 JPG file format. two objects. 57. management. 14.

270. 421 MeasurePoint command. 212. 420. 261. 290. 340. layer. 103 locked objects. 213 measure:. 74. clear render mesh for all objects. 269. 421. 194 MaxViewport command. 273. 62 menu: context. 292. 398. 194 measure: angle. 357. 396. run from toobar button. 292. 270 LineTT command. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 288 menu:. 141. 342. 256. 283 MatchSrf command. 348. 130 manage layers. 337. 328. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. curve curvature. 269. unlock locked objects. 267 LinePerp command. 273 Loft command. 281 match:. 225. 173. 304. 39. from NURBS object. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 365. surface. 288 mesh: 3D face. 131 mass properties. 371. 91. 140. 33. 102. 377 Maximize command. 130 map. from closed polyline. 273 Lock command. 334. volume moments. polyline. bisector. 288. 262. point. from four points. definition. 304. 173. cone. 135. 271 List command. distance. run from an alias. volume centroid. 272 LoadPlugin command. 293. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 267 LinePP command. 270 LineV command. 228 Logout command. swap status with unlocked objects. area centroid.Rhino 2. 334 Line4Pt command. 41. 349. 145. detailed options. 345. 155. 333. clear at save time. 268 Lines command. 272 list data structure of an object. 23. extend by. pop up at cursor. 135. 228. 289. 269. segments. set for layer. 371. 210. export to IGES file. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 211. join. 267. axis. radius. 61 MDT IGES options. 296 macro. 328. 262. 271. 273. 245. 245. 213. 191. select all. 273 Logoff command. 156. 395. 187. 288 MergeSrf command. 228 LooseLoft command. bump. 281. 421 Measure command. 288 MergeEdge command. normal to a surface. 261. 326. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 273 lock:. 37 line: at angle from line. 265 line:. tangent to a curve. 265. 60 LWO file exchange. polyline through point objects. snap to. 283. 24 menu bar. 279 Make2d4View command. 265. 62 ME30 file exchange. 415 locked layer name. 266 Line4pts command. objects. density for primitives. run from external file. geometric continuity. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 125. 88. apply to surface. 339. set properties for layer. 125. 270. decrease number of faces. 288. 338 mapping coordinates. 259. clear render mesh. 171. 273 loft surface. 294. 268 Lines toolbar. 296. 291. 288 Maya file exchange. run with middle mouse. texture. 266. 333. viewport. unlocked objects. 371. select all. 212. 75. 293. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 140. 273 lock: a layer. length. area. 377 maximum curvature. 146. 284 MatchLayer command. perpendicular to curve. persistent object snaps. 290. 273 LUSAS file exchange. options. 294. 417 Make2D command. 363. 161. 334. single line. 192. 38 match: curve ends. 271 Line command. 285. 220. 288. tangent to two curves. 287 Match command. deviation between two curves. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 180. 255. 268. 290. 288. 334 merge: surface. 229. 212. 273. 288 maximize:.0 Command Reference Light tab. 288 Menu command. 221. Rhino. 288. perpendicular to two curves. 420. 37 M command. 142. 342. create. 266 LineAngle command. 194. 333. select naked edges. cylinder. 212. 330. 155. 399. 296. 331. 224. plane. 292. 329. box. 134 marker definition. volume. 268. layer attributes. 162. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 23. 288 Merge command. 212 LockSwap command. 268. directional. 338. 272 LoadScript command. toggle display. 338. 338. 334 LineTan command. 255. environment. 415. 88. 265. 273 LockOsnap command. 61 mean curvature. 284 material: for rendering. 86 material:. 270. 187. 420. 141. 281 manage: license. 228. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 268. convert each face to NURBS surface. 40. 283. 265. 358. set for export. insert straight segment into curve. 191. 371. 3DFace. 232. 271. 123. 269 LineTP command. 284. reduce density. 290. 12. spotlight. 12. 92. 211. 179. 265. 84. breaking apart. 286. 340. 378. 255. paste script from Clipboard. 266. 134. 126. 101 manage:. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 455 . 225. 92. 240. 39. 410. explode. 148. 74. 84. 239. 267. 123. 377 Material properties. 281. 420. 270. 333. 304. two adjacent edges of a surface. 90 Main toolbar. 348. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 145. 105. 251 merge:. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 338. 266. 266. area moments. 329. 267. 232. vertical to construction plane. 229. 104. seamless. 155. 224. 212. 268. 145. 377. 378 maximize: current viewport. deviation of points and curves from a surface. run from shortcut key. BMRT. 86 lights. 290. 236. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 145. 145. 52. set viewport. 145.

group. 84. 293 MeshDensity command. 206. 243 456 . 297. 135. 132 O command. 297. 309. 385 name. reverse direction. 338. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. export to. export to RIB. 204. 81. 63 Near object snap. 261. 338. 183. 2. turn off. surface control points in u-. 355. point. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. draw line. 302 next. show. 355. between two points. 343. 4. 243. 385. 215. 309. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 425 offset: curve. 308. 294 MeshPolyline command. 306. 85. 304 normal:. 296. 83. 414 NoSnap command. 141. 296. 63 naked edge. 385. surface display. 234. options. 349. 82. snap to a curve. improve. 82. toggle persistent. 378. disable. near. 298. 292. 120. 84. 79 NetworkSrf command. 378. viewport to top. 115. 121. 79. 317 nudge. 90 move: background bitmap. 297 MoveUVN command. v-. 117. 37 object: description. 132. perpendicular from a curve. 35 object snap: along. 298. 362. 92. from. 261. 297. set for single object. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. on surface. 93. 379. ortho viewport active. options. 304 node. 81. 362 named view. knot. 297 MoveTrace command. intersection. 12 None command. show toolbar. an object. 379. 80. 421 Moray UDO file export. 80. 298 new: file. 145. 251. 425. 296. toolbar. 194 Mirror command. 79. 298. 305 notes in Rhino file. 362. 338 OBJ file exchange. 414. 251. definition. 83. 121. 52. 385. 302. 423. 311. 78. objects. 78 Notes command. display. 83. remove flipped. 302. 387. 84. scale and rotate on surface. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 80. weld. 80. 296 mirror objects. 294 MeshSphere command. 82. 120. 303 NextViewport command. 307 Offset command. 297. lock. parting line. 363. construction planes through a point. 203. 298 NamedView command. 82. 146. 349. read from file. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. and n-directions. 82. 295. 140. 41. export to IGES. 212. 296. 384. 141 mouse. 30. 414. 296 modeling aids. 84. 306. 387. 293. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 81. 30. 414. 147. quadrant. 103. 384. 305 N-sided patch. 3. 304 NextViewportToTop command. to move objects. 78. reparameterize. 122 Move command. 379 Named Colors list. object to align with curve. 423 MeshBox command. 215. construction point through point. 183. 243. 80. 293 MeshPlane command. set persistent. 92. 343. a view. viewport. 2. 80. 135. 132. 79. 296 move:. 212. 290. 132. 377. view. 293. 409 object:. 229. 378. 424 Mesh command. 292 MeshCylinder command. surface. 355 NamedCPlane command. 78 Object Snap toolbar. wheel function. 409. perspective viewport active. 37 morph target. 302 New command. toolbar button. 298. 362. 295. 79. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. tangent from curve. 216 Moldex command. 229 Microstation file exchange. 378 object properties. 35. 205. restore. 303 NextU command. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 4. 3. 423 mesh:. 305. 251. 229. multiple objects. 81. 134. 297. 366 normal: definition. 311. 338. 148. 296 minimum curvature. 355. 171. project to construction plane. 133. 249. parameterization. 229. 79. 81. unify normals. 415. 302. read from file. 249. 91. 348. 363 name:. 251. 62 middle mouse button function. 385. 123.Rhino 2. pull direction. set properties. off construction plane. 322. 79. 133. 243. 311 OBJ export properties. save. show hidden. 79. 304. 12. 302 new:. 113. 294. 298 NamedCPlanes command. toolbar button. set for multiple objects. 123. 305. 92. 343. 297. 140. set mesh the same. 309. 303. 84.0 Command Reference sphere. 377. 304. hide toolbar. 84. 296 Minimize command. 298. 295 MeshToNurb command. perpendicular to a curve. export to OBJ. 132. move control points. unlock. end. 92. 348. save named construction plane. 414. 303. 292 MeshCone command. definition. 304. 306 OffsetSrf command. 131 NoElev option. midpoint. 78. 298 NamedViews command. 297 Mscribe command. 290. 2. 132. 64 NURBS. 312 mold. 296 minimize:. scale and rotate. 33. 90 Midpoint object snap. 308. 343. 12. 212. 212 object snap:. 78. 363. 141. 122. 296 Metastream file export. 292. center. viewport. 323 Microsoft Excel. 338. 2. toolbar. 90. objects to new construction plane. edit. 372 non-uniform scale. 338. tangent to a curve. layer. restore. 304. 294. 46 moments. 113. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 114. 79 minimize: Rhino. 118 Normal command. 379. 75 named construction planes. viewport active. 305 offset:. 415 object names. 303 NextV command. 371. surface. 302 NewViewport command. 290 Mesh toolbar. 295. export to file. 103.

82 PerpLine command.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. options. set. 96. 90. 314 Pan command. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. control polygon appearance.Rhino 2. 311 Orient3Pt command. no-repeat commands. set angle.set. 93. 323. 322. 96. 5. 313 Pan:. View tab. 90. 339. 318 perspective view. autosave. fit through points. 97. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. file locations. from three points. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. 92. General tab. 38 parting line. shortcuts. by three points. 313 Panes. 333 PluginManager command. 324. 376. change interface appearance. on a surface. turn on or off. 96. 313 PanUp command. 317 pause digitizer input. 318 Perspective command. 290. trim options. 176 PCX file format. place at start of curve. 2 Patch command. 314 PanDown command. 308 Options dialog box. load. 379. 376. polygon mesh. 94. 188 point cloud. 316. curve. 119. 200. 68 PNG file format. Keyboard tab. 290. saved toolbar layout. 133. 338. 426 OpenGL:. 92. left. 92. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 79 point objects. 351. Softimage. create curve from. 131 periodic. 311 Ortho command. use for shade. surface. 29. 262. 325 Plane command. right. 324 Plane toolbar. 308 OpenWS command. 339. 253. 131. 323 planar section. 4. 213. 92. 253. 90. 327 Point command. 2 Pan: down. 133 P command. 375. digitize. 92. 258. 133. 92. 425 Orient. Aliases tab. make surface non-periodic. 133. press shift to toggle. 366. 379 Ortho pane. 2 PackTextures command. options. 374. 90. 351. 90. snap increment. 307. camera and target location. 311 ortho mode. 187. 373 Point toolbar. 329. toolbar. 313. 96. 68 PictureFrame command. 133. 339 POffSelected command. 325 Pline command. 311. 326 Point object snap. 88. 308 Orient command. background bitmap. Files tab. Modeling Aids tab. 312. 133. shade. 205 pause for user input in script. 88. 330. 96. 326.5. object snap radius. 218. 96. 321. objects from the clipboard. 314 parabola. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 246. Ortho. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 68. 373. 379. 290 Organic toolbar. 313 PanRight command. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 80 Perpendicular line. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 254. 386. 90. 94. 309. 316. 281. 133. 281. 206 PlanarSrf command. up. 311. 249. 98. middle mouse button function. 131 pedge. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 324. 363. 2. 330. 326. 28. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. on surface from UV coordinates. 88. lock to axis. 96. Planar. 88. 318. 94. view. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 98 Options command. 92. 325 PlaneV command. 90. 325. pan distance. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 323. 90. 387 paste. 3DS MAX 2. 307 OneLayerOn command. 422 Point filters. 313. 130. Appearance tab. 101. 98. 328. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 133. 92. 330. 27. 3DS MAX 2. 325. 312. 312 Osnap: pane. 88. 90. 326. 322 PlaceTarget command. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 318 PConic command. 314 Parabola command. Shade tab. 94. 272. place at end of curve. 90. 5. 84 open: file. 220. 3DS MAX 1. 2. 367 pe_tol. 133. about. 133. 92. select method. 27. 40 perspective angle . 309. 4. 2. toggle. 190. 92. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 133 Perp object snap. manager. 325 plane:. make curve periodic. 119 Open command. 307 open:. 172. 200. 313. place multiple. 312 PageDown key. 84 OneLayerOff command. 311. 323 Pa. 363. 92. 133 Osnap command. options. troublshooting. 327. 101. 321. shortcuts. 95. 64 options: aliases. 367 POff command. 325.2. 324 plane: cut through objects. toggle. 313. 308 orient objects. 379. 2. 96. grid of. 2. 96 options:. 96. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. Snap. 323 planar mode. set. target location. 281. 309. click ortho pane to toggle. shortcut keys. 318. Layer. place one. 307 OnSrf object snap. 174 parameterization. 324 Plane3Pts command. 78 Osnap:. 281. 2. 12. Osnap. 2. 130. 307. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 329. detailed polygon mesh. 29. select all. 90. 330 457 . 206. ortho angle. 373. 92.0. 366. 92. toggle. 325 plug-ins. 88. startup commands. undo number. 130. 320 place. 92. trackball motion. 272. to curve. nudge increment. 88. isoparm density. 133 OrthoAngle command. 339 point: control. 224. 314 parabolic curve. 133 PanLeft command. 325 Plane3Pt command. 323 Planar command. make surface periodic. 94. 323 Plan command. 94. 90. 133. redraw speed. 308. developers. 322. 322. 28. 320 Pipe command. 200.

330 PointsOff command. 337. 65 program toolbar functions. 137. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. show edit and control. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. box. 135. 171. 371. 353. 141. 420 Properties command. 332 polygon:. 19. join. 19. 338 Project command. 90 458 . 333. 344. 187. 290. show control. 335 PrevViewport command. 344 recent commands list display. 235. image of model. 35. 368. select object to turn off. 361. 220. 425. 294. 179. export to file. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. density for primitives. 339. 339 PtOffSelected command. 343 rebuild:. 137. 368. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 335. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 228 radius: dimension. 249. through point objects. 334 PopupToolbar command. 344. 337 project:. 249. select all. control points. from edge. 303. 413 Points command. select previous in v-direction. 46 POV Lights toolbar. material. render mesh. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 68. 293. 332 PolygonEdge command. 344 RebuildSrf command. 41 read. 261. 337 ProjCP command. 379 preview. 138. 197. 340 radius:. weld. invert selection. add next in v-direction to selection. 290. 86. 340 rail revolve. 339. 262. grid.Rhino 2. 339 PopupMenu command. 85. select connected. 257.0 Command Reference point:. 295. 424. 202. 333. apply to surface. 2 PrevU command. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 202. 228 quinitics. 371. 339 Pull command. named views from a 3DM file. 197. 136. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 412. 295. 223 PolarSphere command. explode. 343. 188 PointCloudSection command. 171. 382 QRenderAll command. 372. 293. 190. 259. 135. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 292. 361. 303. 294. hide back. 257. 35. 12. 338. 10. 229. 328 PointGrid command. 64. 336. inscribed. 141. 262. delete control on curve. add previous in u-direction to selection. 353 previous viewport. to file. viewport layout from file. 81 QueryDomain command. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 229. 349. add previous in v-direction to selection. select with lasso. 293. 64. 334. 330 PointsFromUV command. 366. render using OpenGL shade. 343. document. 87. join. 179. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 382 Quad object snap. hide edit and control. 414. 337 Print command. 3D face. 339 PtOn command. 420. 339. 87 properties:. select next in v-direction. select previous in u-direction. clear render mesh. 303. 261. 340 RailRev command. 123 Proj command. 349. 331 polygon mesh. 136. 19. 367. 329 PointLight command. edit points. 333 polyline:. notes. create from control points. explode. relative. 335. 335 PrevV command. objects to construction plane. 214 QueryUVPoint command. coordinate points. 340 RailRevolve command. 339 PointTest command. interpolate curve through. 334 polysurface. clear render mesh for all objects. 19. 21. cylinder. 366 PrintSetup command. 345 Rebuild command. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 423 Polygon toolbar. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. Polytrans Softimage translation. select naked edges. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 335. absolute. 336 print. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 339 pull curve to surface. 40. 386. 343. 338. select all. 254. 150 polar coordinates. surface. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 229. 338. 328 polar array. 333. 291. cone. 344 RebuildEdges command. 138. 331. 121. named construction planes from file. 337. 131. 386. toolbar. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 378. 372 Polytrans. 425 PtOff command. options. select next in u-direction. 259. plane. sphere. display information about an object. from closed polyline. 372. 86 Properties Text tab. 381 QRender1 command. 36. 296. 331. 86. convert each face to NURBS surface. measure. 254. 332. 343. 85 Properties Material tab. 423. 121. 296. 259. 340 Radius command. 343. to Clipboard. 338 project: curve to surface. 209. 414. 136. 10. 235. render. 338 Projection command. from NURBS object. 294. 339 PointsOn command. set normals the same. 259. 260. 331 Polygon command. 18. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 229. 338 properties. 190. 343 rebuild: curve. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 68 POn command. 12. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 340 QRender command. 334 Polyline command. 50 Quit command. knot. 12. object. draw on mesh. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 339 purge empty layers. 292. 327 PointDeviation command. 292. 220. 17. draw. 41 POV-Ray file export. 209. viewport. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 330 points:. twist. 334 PostScript file export. 290. 331.

349 relative coordinates. place lights. 382. through three points. 241 RefreshShade command. 346 RectangleV command. sequentially numbered versions of model. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 90 reshape a toolbar. create background image. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 363. 359 RotateCameraRight command. options. 355. 363. 361. 1 Rhino. 3. 181. 230. 352. 348 ReduceMesh command. 351. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 3. 171. 308. 359 RotateCPlane command. 120. right. named view. 352. 348 Redo command shortcut. 1 RhinoScript options. 309. 103. 355 Rev command. 346. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 2. 398 RenderAGEdges command. named construction plane. button image to file. 357 right mouse button. 324. 378. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 4. from three points. scale and move on surface. 351 RemoveKnots command. view continuously. Rhino 1. clear render mesh for all objects.0 file exchange. 338 Render command. 358. 39. down. 429 Redo command. 352 render plug-in application: options. 351. 120. save image in render window. trim curve from surface. 338. 353.0 Command Reference Rect command. 288. 338 Ribbon command. 181. file. 363. 3. named view. 360 RotateUp command. 425 render:. 360 Run command. 125. 354. 309. mesh settings. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. why the name. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 325 RectCen command. 352. 355 revolve:. 181. layer. 358. 203. 416 rotate: construction plane. 359. 20 render problems. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 39. 348. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 429 RedoMultiple command. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 360. 251. 5. 362. 360. 96. 25. 345. 353. 345 Rect3Pt command. 75 Rhino 1. 171. 19. 24. 119 Rhinoceros.0. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 356 Right command. 40. named construction plane. 338. 360 RunScript command. 346. 351. file to a different file name or file type. 355. 340. 352. image in the render window. 25 Rhino web page. 324. 353. 347 rectangular array. 363. curve knots. shine. vertical to construction plane. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 324. 357. 346 RectangleCen command. 2. 359 RotateDown command. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 288. length and width. an object. left. 340 Revolve command. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 398. 325. 4. 354 reparameterize. transparency. view change. 3. objects in 3D space. 172. 351 RemoveKnot command. 356 RevV command. 355 RevU command. 10. materials. 120 restore: current viewport size. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 171. 183 Restore command. bumpmaps. 24. 2. 348 refit a curve. 338. surface using rail curve. 3. toolbar. 347 rectangle:. 360. 348. 412 Rotate3D command. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 391 SAT file export. 354. 148 rectangular surface. 2. 355 revolved surface. 357 rotate view. 126. 360 RotateView command. 39. highlight. 355. 355. 121 render: BMRT. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 360 RotateRight command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 379 RenderOptions command. 360 RotateLeft command. 353. 338. 358 RotateCamera command. background bitmap. 309. 3. 30. 352 rename. 320. 363. 353 RenderPreview command. textures. 152. curves. 359. 4. 349 remove. Front construction plane. 338. preview using OpenGL shade. 362. 133 right view. 172. 352 RenderCrv command. command aliases. 99 Render toolbar. 1. 181. 308. a surface. 252. 459 . 4. 360 rotate:. 2. 94 RIB file export. 363. 320. 355 RestoreView command. ii roll out a surface. edges. 183. 19. 381. 273 ruled surface. 347 Rectangle command. move and scale. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 4. close render window. 203. vertical. up. copy to Clipboard. 338. 2. 353. 346. 4. objects. 347 redo: last undone command. 412 Rotate command. 30 save: as small file. corner. 346. 346 rectangle: center. wallpaper. 357 right-click menu. 398. 354 repeat command exclude list. 356 RGB color. 353 RenderCurves command. 349 RemapCPlane command. 96. 359 RotateCameraUp command.ini. 360 Rule command. 39. 357. Rhino from being minimized. 2. 103. 2 redo:. 346 RectV command. object from selection. 5. 353 RenderEdges command. edges of polygon meshes.Rhino 2. 351 RemoveTrace command. 355 restore:. 30. 360. autosave. Top construction plane. 361 S command. 338. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. clearing render meshes.

368 SelectConnected command. by object ID. construction plane origin. 372. 366. 129 scripting tools. 339. 369 SelDim command. 368 SelectID command. 368 SelCrossing command. 373 SelPts command. 138. 137. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. add previous control point in v-direction. 373 SelSolid command. 366 ScaleTrace command. 374. construction plane vertical. 182. 373. 374 SelV command. construction plane to x axis. 375 SelWindow command. 372 SelPolylines command. polysurfaces. 303. objects uniformly. 25. 258. objects to shade. 372. 370 selection menu. layers from list. 303. 365. 364. 339. 376. 50. 206. front construction plane. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 136. 374. 368 SelConnected command. 181. 126 scripting:. 288. extents of grid. 363 SaveWSAs command. invert. 371 SelMesh command. 370 SelID command. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. control polygon display density. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 137. construction plane to object. subparts of objects. 369. 367. move and rotate. 460 . toolbar layout as different name. 361 save template. 365 screen capture. 372 SelSolids command. 309 Scale command. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 369. 375. 363 SaveSmall command. 126. 369 SelCrv command. previous control point in udirection. 24 SelectLayer command. 25. objects for render preview. 372 SelSrf command. 367. 366 scale:. 366 Scale1D command. 365.0 Command Reference shortcut. 230. 376. 372 SelNone command. 138. by layer. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 373 SelSurface command. 371. 372 SelGroup command. 375. 125. 371. 363 Save command. 373. 258. bad objects. invert point selection. 246. 369 SelCurves command. construction plane origins to a point. 370 SelLayer command. 125. 368. 367 screen:. 365 ScaleNU command. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 90. 354. 262. 363 SaveWS command. 368. 367. row of control points in udirection. 370. 371. 364. 366. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 363 SaveView command. 373 SelSurfaces command. lasso. current layer. 182. 309. 371 SelLight command. 365. 375 Select toolbar. 370. 75 Select Points toolbar. 373 SelPolyline command. 259. 383. all objects. objects. VBScript. 373. objects to unlock. 136. 373 SelU command. 103. curves. 364 Scale2D command. construction plane with 3 points. add previous control point in u-direction. rows and columns of control points on surface. 368 SelColor command. toolbar layout. 370. 246. duplicate objects. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. objects in two dimensions. 367 section curves. 369. template. 138. digitizing scale. 184.Rhino 2. construction plane to view. 262. 308. 371 SelMeshes command. 369 SelCrvs command. 370 SelDups command. 368. 181. with a window. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 178. 364. in shaded viewport. 366. 136. 371. objects by name. 370. 377. 373 SelSrfs command. with crossing window. spotlights. 182. 303. 368. 354. construction plane to previously used. 362 SaveCPlane command. 370. 373. 372 SelPolysrf command. points objects. 363. coordinates of points. 374. 373 SelPt command. 335. 90 Select Color dialog box. to file in 256 colors. 366. 126. 183. 246. 383. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 2. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. construction plane to next used. 371 SelectName command. 364 Scale toolbar. 67 Sect command. 181. row of control points on surface in v-direction. rotate and move on surface. maximized viewport by name. 371 SelLights command. previous control point in vdirection. objects non-uniformly. 184. 50. 369. 376 set: active viewport by name. 262. 136. next control point in u-direction. to Clipboard. add next control point in v-direction. 184. 379. 335. 364. 172. 366. 369 SelCurve command. with mouse method. 258. 252. dimensions. 363 SaveAs command. 262. objects instead of control points. 372. 372. 383. 370 SelDup command. 372 SelPrev command. 377. 371. 371. 309. objects by layer number. 152. 365. 372. 303. 259. JScript. 308. 372 SelPoint command. 371 SelName command. 373 select:. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 335. 373 SelUV command. IGES. 25. 367 Section command. 372. surfaces. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. meshes. 24. construction plane to zaxis. 367 SelAll command. 373. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 363 scale: background bitmap. 51. 376. 363 SaveWorkspace command. deselect all objects. distance between grid lines. 137. 361. 415. 362. 24. 363. 370 SelLast command. 103. 335. 184. to file. next control point in v-direction. objects in one direction. 362. 367 SelBadObjects command. connected points. 362 save:. 367. polylines. 183.

in all viewports. 382 shaded display. edit points. 382 ShadeAll command. 42 SLC file exchange. spotlight hotspot. to the midpoint of a curve. 250 SetLayer command. 153. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 5 Shift+PageUp. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 379 SetPts command. midway between two points. 78 461 . top construction plane. 119 ShowTrace command. 182. 339. 2. 264. working directory. 218. 96. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. perspective angle. 178. 133. from a point. 355. 379.Rhino 2. 425 Shade1 command. 218. handlebars. 80. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 82.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. Osnap toolbar. 318 SetPlanar command. 183. x-axis. tangent to a curve. 384. 184. 92. 3. 220 ShowGrid command. 220. 183. 384 ShowCamera command. 84. flat with grid. 80. with wireframe. selected objects in all viewports. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 425 Shade command. 250. 206. 4 Shift+PageDown. 384 show:. to construction plane. toggle OpenGL mode. 2. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 385 ShowOsnap command. hidden objects. right construction plane. 322. continuous shaded mode. OpenGL. 385. 384. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 383 shadow. to a surface. 359. to the intersection of two curves. to the center of a circle. 242. 323. 3 Points. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. selected objects. keys. 355. built-in aliases. 84. 362 Set View toolbar. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 400 ShowTitle command. 385. continuous in perspective view. 181. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 376. 184. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 98. selected hidden objects. Top. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 79. 242. 183. curve with digitizer. 21 Shear command. 388. 376. 380 Settings command. 184. 94. 23. broken edges. 376. 78. 79. 386 ShowPt command. 119 ShowToolbox command. vertical. 94. 339 ShowEdges command. 94. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. to next used. display context menu. 120. 2. with no smoothing on mesh. 363. 250. 94. to a point object. 383. 76. 318. 81. 298. 2. 78. 95. 183. 98. 383 ShadeSelected command. 382. 241. 80. 381 SetActiveViewport command. to previously used. 83. 377. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 182. 273 SLA export. 381 shade: continuous. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 381 set construction plane. 84. 261. 392. 383 Shift key. 378 SetObjectName command. 78. scripting tools. 409 ShowToolbar command. 298. 242. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 343. 383 ShadedViewport command. 183. 92. 376 SetGLShade command. 140. 388 sketch:. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 246. naked edges. 119. 125 show: background bitmap. 386 ShowPts command. 382. 125. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 2. 381. control points. 23. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. options. flat in one viewport. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. to surface isoparm. curve on polygon mesh. 77. 338 shortcuts. 241. 386. turn off object snaps. bitmap in a separate window. 78. 246. 184. on surface. 386. 220. to a knot. 76. 379 SetPt command. 206. 377 SetLayerToObject command. printer. 386 ShowSelected command. 380 SetGroupName command. 426 ShowAll command. 377 SetHotspot command. 245 ShowMenu command. to the end of a curve. 376 SetGridSnap command. 383 shear objects. change size. to the view. 92. flat in all viewports. with grid. 387 silhouette curves. 212. 241. 384. 387 sketch: curve. 183. 339. 382. 84. toolbar. 207 SetSnap command. along a line tangent to a curve. 390 smooth curve or surface. 212. 389 skinning. 183. edges of surface or polysurface. pane. 119. 184. 391. 182. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 173 ShowCV command. grid. 218. 383 ShadeOptions command. hidden control points. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 162. shortcuts. object. 42 Smooth command. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 181. 385. 181. 386. 384. 380. 337. 383. 183. 182. 389 Sketch command. by key. by function. 383. 2. perpendicular to a curve. 381 shade:. toggle object snaps. 386 Silhouette command. onto a curve. z-buffer. 242. 246. 79. 184. 382. 74. 183. 206. near a curve. 409 set:. 357. 81. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 390 snap: along a line. 385 ShowGrev command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 318. 5. 5 shine in rendering. 409. 181. z-axis. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 244. Right. 381. to an object. options. 5. 261. 82. 388. viewports. 318. 426 Show command. 385. 385 ShowPoints command. project object snaps to construction plane. 81. 379 SetOrtho command. 79. 337. 389.

398 spotlight:. reverse direction. 399 SrfPoints command. 190. viewport horizontally. 68 Softimage plug-in. 273. 262. 224. 218. 391. 395. split. 380. 386. 356. 133 sphere. make periodic. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 35. 4. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. loft. 261. 396 SplitSrf command. 166. hide backfacing control points. 229 SrfAlign command. 287. 223. 10. one object with another. 250. 114. 162. 288. 153. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. blend. 76. 324. 344. 298.Rhino 2. 92. 163. 238. plane. from grid of points. 380. 228. select all. 96. 397 SplitEdge command. turn on or off. 154. 192. 201. 320. from curve network. 189 SrfMatch command. 160. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 35. 398. 398. 234. 396. minimum radius of curvature. 393 SphereD command. 153. 398. 216. 190. 426 surface analysis:. 324. extrude. 400 StatusBar command. 284. 201. IGES file exchange. 295. 391. 42 Stereograms. 398 spreadsheet. cone. by diameter. 233. 426 462 . 133. 385. 406. 79. tube. 430 startup commands. 238. 240. 325. 38 Solid toolbar. 392. 372. 396. 218. 354. 421. 298. 189. 281. turn on or off. shortcuts. 410. polygon mesh. sweep two rails. extrude curve to point. 366. 249. from 3 or 4 points. IGES file exchange. 406. 397. 400 STEP file exchange. baseball sphere. from 3 or 4 curves. unroll. create variable radius fillet between. sweep along path. 381. 386. 198. 402. 84. 247. 290. 339. 173. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 236. toggle. 2. 236. 158. pipe. 306. 203. cylinder. 250. 242. 161. 157. file exchange. 317. 401. 240. 316. skin. extrude curve along path. chamfer. 393 Spiral command. 133. 263. 36. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 417. 114. 277. ellipsoid. 393. 164. 396. 395. 392. 132. 334 spacebar. 320. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 393 sphere:. 413. 273. 115. 401. 223. torus. comma-delimited file export. 159. 392 Sphere toolbar. 399. 165. 237. viewport vertically. 200. 360. 393 Sphere2Pts. toolbar. 251. 402. 240. 251. 392. 397 SplitViewVertical command. trim. plane from three points. maximum radius of curvature. 325. 16. 307. 328. surface at isoparms. 306. 320. from three points. tolerance. 313. 192. 164. 166. 182. 241. 233. 344. develop. 338. 399. 42. box from three points. 15. 277. rule. 69. 229. 69. 284. 399. revolved. 281. 400. 385. 417 surface:. 83. 317. merge. 216. 278. Booleans. 401. 399. 90. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 277. 92. 2. 249. X_T file export. Boolean intersection. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 286. 22 support. 391. 101. 407. 417. 217. X_T file export. 94. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 133. 393 Sphere3Pts command. plane vertical to construction plane. 38 SortPoints command. select all. 70. 202. 416. 396. 38. 400 SubCurve command. 393. 352. 238. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. truncated cone. 161. 132. 340. 273. 103. 284 SrfMerge command. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 238 Standard toolbar. 416. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 324. 162. 104. 84 snap:. match. 160. 126 Stretch command. untrim. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. make nonperiodic. 395 split:. 15. 423 STL:. export object properties to. 399 SrfPt command. 1. 428. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 361. 324. 3. 398. 82. 409. 133. 355. 133. 80. 192. 392. 233. 397 Split command. 135. from heightfield bitmap. center. 238. 160 summary information. 118. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 84 Softimage file exchange. 309 SrfBlend command. 192. create fillet between. 90 status bar. drape. 392. mean curvature. draw curve through control points. 395. 42. 153. 5. 229.0 Command Reference Snap command. 380 snap to locked objects. 306. box. extract from polysurface. 317. 398. 394 spline. 247. 371 Spotlight command. 238. 373. 399 SrfPts command. 399 SrfSum command. display. 189. 70. 163. change degree. 201. patch. create. 307. 426. 409 SnapSize command. 284. 171. 165. 410. reparameterize. 406. cap planar ends. 364 SubCrv command. 289. 173. 38. 411. 302. 288. 236. hotspot. 160. 398 SrfCV command. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 238. 88. 398. 165. 81. 42 StopScript command. 243. 393 Sphere2Pt. 276. 384. 317. 105 surface normal. extend. 113. 243. 273. 163. 330. Boolean union. 355. 324. 372. cutting plane. 19. 192 Surface menu. extrude into solid. 416. 157. 78. 367. 236. 218. 161. 410. select all. 417. from grid of control points. 173. 281. 240 solid:. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 285. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 411 SolidWorks. 361. 382. 392 SnapToLocked command. 372. 373. rebuild. 236. offset. 229. 255 split: edge of a surface. 166. 243 Surface toolbar. for rendering. 295 Sphere command. 429. 348. developable. 157. 421. 2. 344. 414. 164. 216. 162. 10. from planar curves. 395. 371. 223. 426 STL: ascii tag. 200. 340. 377. 275. 160. 307. 281. 392. 354. 321. 247. panes. periodic. 69 Solid Edge. 298. 180. 288. 288. 273. 279. 391 snap mode.

184. 322. 279. dock. show toolbar. 120. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 349. 120 tolerance. 353. 239. 209. 122. 221. 39. Edge Tools. 178. 345. 123 Toolbars. toolbar on and off. 123. 82. 288. 179. 124. 119. 355. 407 Texture command. 303. rename toolbar. 309. 387. 324. 332. 182. delete toolbar. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 235. save. 256. 351. 407 TextObject command. right. new file. 5. 409 title bar. 273. 336. 344. 124. 119. 400 SwapUV command. 390. 283. 409 toggle. 71 Swap. 353. 382. 190. 338. 228. 15. 125 Toolbar command. 420. 72 technical support. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 404. 414. ortho mode. 425. import button image. 323. 405. 120. 256. 293. Circle. 265. 215. 124. 200. move toolbar. 322. 223. 135. 40. 366. surface u and v. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 420. BMRT Materials. 124. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 166. 409. 268. viewport title. 137. 248. 220. 121. 134 TGA file format. save. 144. 206. 81. 121. 297. 218. 385. scaled size. 384. 201. 119. 368. snap mode. 323. 215. 187. 119. 238. 396. save button image to file. 231. 402 Sxtrd command. 154. 269 Taper command. 168. 232. 288. 302. 353. file location. properties. clear the bitmap image. 363. 316. 244. 122. 220. 326. edit annotation. 281. 365. 247. 3-D Digitize. 420. left. 122. 163. 168. 338 texture for rendering. 409 TiltRight command. pop up with middle mouse. 343. 323 TCone command. 195. 253. 362. 258. 340. Analyze. model size. 155. 170. 245. 385. 412. 208. 338. change name. 393. 407. 395. Dimensions. 148. 401. 387. 416. 145. 39. 265. 342. display of title bar. programming. 122. 249. 271. 121. 263. 409. 255. 218. 230. 168. 255. 221. 143. 152. 156. 368. 120. 138. 351. Box. 272. 344. 148. Curve. 215. 208. 162. 408 Text command. 246. control polygon display. 123. 400 SwapView command. grid axes on or off. capture icon. 171. 241. save layout as different name. 335. 150. Curve Tools. 420. 425 Toggle34View command. 395. 210. crosshairs on and off. 207. 121. 243. edit bitmap icon. 409. 80 TanFrom object snap. 323. 19. 389. rendering of curves. 80. 156. title bar on or off. 419. 411. 212. 296. 401. 220. 404 TAB key. 142. 389. Curve From Object. 359. control polygon highlight. 363. 352. 123. 325. 308. 152. 192. 229. 379. Ellipse. 232. 391. 339. 230. 347. open. 379. 90. 307. 266. 249. 125. 409. 84. 361. 13. 124. 404 Sweep1 command. 364.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 124. 120. 120. 150. 173. 425. 224. 216. 367. 135. 430. 409. 358. 373. tear off flyout. 321. 407. 397. display of command prompt. 197. 306. 353. 151. 295. 390. 384. 50. 330. 400. 120. 260. 198. 121. 352. 267. Extend. change button size. 217. 261. 377. 23. 231. 198. hide toolbar. 94. 317. 379. 216. solids. 121. 139. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 205. 122. 401. 236. 323. 311. hide flyout. 409. 258. Diagnostics. 391. reshape toolbar. 79. 169. 392. dragging based on view plane. 334. 379. 96. 422. 260. 407. 121. 257. 88. 164. 120. 120. 375. 245. relative. 288. 245. 235. 409 TogglePerspective command. 388. 203. status bar on or off. open toolbar. import from another layout. Arc. 220. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 207. 168. 121. new toolbar. 363. 302. 15. 242. 78. 192. 210. 165. 288. 183. 169. 134. 125. 409. 230. 297. 122. 343. 153. 407. along path. 204. close. 311. 402. 348. 216. 122. 367. 149. 215. 177. Array. 90. edit button image. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 90. viewports. 369. 160. 90. 305. 400. 374. 409. 141. 189. 185. 337. 339. 124. 386. 120. 251. 174. 226. 212. 396. 356. 415 tilt view. 372. 400. 180. edit. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 387. 305. 248. 338. 409. angle. planar curves. toggle toolbar on and off. set viewport. clear button image. persistent object snaps. 352. 157. 284. 398. 383. 162. 179. 83. 171. 409. 370. 245. 311. 255. Annotate. 217. 420. 120. 288. 363. 204. 331. 304. 22. 234. 213. 14 Tan object snap. 122. 323. 400. display of menu bar. 144. 221. 135. 279. 400. 302. 173. 363. BMRT Lights toolbar. 125. 181. 123. 1. 320. 406. menu bar. 104. 22 toolbar buttons. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 269. 254. perspective view on and off. 262. 330. 210. 51. 403. copy button. 407. two rails. 122. 194. 205. IGES export. 124. 290. change. 121. 371. 407 text:. 409 TiltLeft command. 163. 420 Title command. 362 text: annotation dot. 222. 428. 417. 178. 328. 125. display program. create cascading toolbar. 136. 167. save. 321. 264. 400 sweep. 185. 223. 140. 362. 101. 226. 330. 415. display viewport. 174. 308. capture button image. 409 toolbar layout. 292. 388. delete button. edit 2-dimensional. ortho. display of status bar. 463 . 346. float toolbar. 82 tangent line. 189. 259. 142. float icon to top of cascade. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 203. planar mode. 294. 429. 419. 281. 197. new button. 394. 172. 22. 337. 165. 298. 140. 221. 51. 340. 3-D Digitizing. move button. 149. 73 template. 233. 92. display of viewport title. 245. definition. 421. copy. 90. 187. 357. 170.Rhino 2. 426. 195. 123. 360. unlink flyout. 185. 272. 39. 409. 313. 410. 257. 187. 367 Thaw command. scripting. 177. 139. 402. 162. Background Bitmap. 134. surfaces. CPlane View. 179. grid on and off. 209. 270. 385. 206. rendering of edges. 103. 318. 322. 423. 241. 222. 269 TanLine command. 399. 123. 405 target. cascade. 240. 368. 239. move. 151. 173. world axes on or off. 120. 413. 333. 236. 401 Sweep2 command. 366. 161. 384. 164. 143. 408. 308. 407. 141. 365. 330. 119. 381. 392.

SetPt command. File. 415 units systems. 228. 374. 92. 414. 358. 245. 339. 88. 299. 162. 96. Flow command. 92. 41. pop up at cursor. 373. 94. 386. 214. 153. 412 U command. Mesh. 428. 244. 384. 326.Rhino 2. 349. 145. 424. 386. grid axes. 94. 135. grid axes. 358. 292. 262. 208. 288. 94. 182. 2 Torus command. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. Surface Tools. 152. 390. 410 trim:. 236. 317. 228. 263. 141. autosave. 212. Layer. 382. 307. 330. 154. 316. 90. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 429 UndoMultiple command. 249. 134. 338. Booleans. 296. 399. Boolean. 185 u-direction definition. 201. 413. 362. 262. 244. Viewport Layout. 330. 16. ProjectToCPlane command. 409. 348. POV Materials. 379. 342. 2. 344. 406. Visibility. 407. 375. 348. 16. 361. 294. 296. 221. 414. 288. 104. 173. 90. 256. 364. 173. 245. 263. 337. 414 UnhidePoints command. 356. 330. 2. 300. 308. 413 undo:. 412. 180. 254. 349. 88. 2. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 423. status bar. 162.0 Command Reference 233. 131 transform: Array command. 101. 396. title bar. 275. 153. 303. 409. 203. 268. reverse. 259. all layers. command. 242. 425 turn on. 19. 381. 412 Twist command. 343. 135. Rectangle. Point. 236. 324. 361. 410. IGES. 182. 379. 402. 333. view change. in text. 338. 180. 99. 78. rendering. 357. 377. 247. 288. 153. 415 Toolbox command. 362. 352. STL Tools. 233. 149. 81. 236. 157. 308. 311. Twist command. 351. Lines. 264. 155. 161 unit systems. 430. 261. 140. title bar. 154. trimmed surfaces. 203. 184. 138. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 304. world axes. 79. 386. 356. 339. 345. 326. 425. 383. Select Points. definition. 355. 311. 413. 355. 167. 400. world axes. 244. 154. 330. Solid Tools. 309. 412 Transform toolbar. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 100. along a line. 421. 386. 101. menu bar. 365. 311. 353. 363. 368. 349. 153. Solid. 82. ScaleNU command. 48. 263. 385. autosave. 283. 336. 390. 348. 425. 140. 309. 213. 246. 295. 15 truncated cone. 417. 398. 323. 339. 383. 325. 73 union. 258. IGES export file types. 342. shortcuts. 179. 180. 165. 298. 190. control points on selected objects. 161. 429. 386. 379. 134. 338. 263. 409 Top command. Organic. 409. 229. 172. 148. 245. redo. command line. 364. 386. 357. 137. 15 Units command. 236. 50. 203. 148. 266. 83. status bar. 360. 365. 223. 357. 160. Surface. 150. 302. Set CPlane. 321. 307. 181. 420. 365. 367. 154. 361. 249. 205. Bend command. 180. Geometry Fix. 368. 140. 172. 240. 379. 355. 341. 351. 386 troubleshooting. 258. 395. 245. 19. 403. Copy command. 371. Extrude. 271. 194. 173. 261. 297 u-direction curves. 307. 270. 208. 220. 135. 245. 425. 92 Trim command. Scale. 281. 253. 101. 262. 377. along a line tangent to a curve. Plane. 161. 318. 133. 366. 409. Rotate3D command. 238. 102. 90. 152. 198. 218. 172. 322. 148. 263. 417. 203. 260. ArraySrf command. 309. 48. 183. Mirror command. 296. options. 171. 311. 412 transform:. 382. 306. 409 top view. 386 Unicode fonts. 395. 239. 293. 154. 352. 284. 224. 253. 317. 202. 410 TraceBitmap command. 168. 240. 412. 309. Orient3Pt command. 244. Scale2D command. 267. 255. 373. 409. ArrayCrv command. shrink to trim boundary. 216. 92. 416. 180. Taper command. 174. 429 Undo command. 307. 374. 103. 261. 273. 218. 339. 369. 400. OpenGL. 331. Orient command. 413 u-direction: move control points. 409. 398. 413. 307. 384. 296. 308. 90. 200. 229. Standard. 304. 409. 400. 50. 339. 332. 333. Scale command. 204. 399. 358. 364. 92. Move command. 162. ArrayPolar command. 83. 366. 365. 321. 349. 348. 396. 148. 400. 262. 337. 410. 173. 259. 277. OrientPerpToCrv command. 358. 383. 366. 290. 328. 416 UnGhost command. menu bar. 80. 313. 322. 348. 349. 334. 82 tracking line. 108. Scale1D command. 288. 338. 108. 414 unfold a surface. 366. 190. 335. 273. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. layer. Tools. 151. 2. Surface Analysis. shortcut. 338. command line. 290. 265. 113. OrientOnSrf command. 426 Turntable command. 373. 263. 409 Tools toolbar. 358. Fillets and chamfers. Render. 49. 149. 240. 296. 150. 339. 244. 409. 420. 410. 192. 288. 367. 261. Point Editing. 365. 408. 364. 405. 82. 334. 357. 339. 203. 413. 251. 206. Microscribe. 88. 308. 390. 96. 104. 347. 409. 398. 172. 238. Smooth command. 425. RemapCPlane command. Select. 375. 427. 406 Tube command. 142. 370. Shear command. 339. 90. 359. 397. 82. 234. layer. 357. 123 464 . 372. 276. 262. 405. 41. 203 trimmed surfaces. 338. 243. 338. Polygon. 372. 249. 268. 391. 346. 180. 161. 342. 384. grid. 229. 229. 148. 401. 305. 296. 339. 166. 96. IGES export type details. 1. 399. set. 323. 173. 249. 243. 19. 210. Transform. 425. 249. Object Snap. 136. 173. 422. 404. 83. 381. 414 UndoSelected command. 307. Sphere. 365. 343. 405. 321 track. 51. control points. grid. 339. 105. 356 u-direction:. 383. 392. 405. 229. 164. Main. Mass Properties. 412 transparency in rendering. 298. 318. 429. 229. control points. 331. POV Lights. 363. 103. 415 Ungroup command. 219. 415. 417. 140. 390. 171. 363. 309. Surface 2. 220. Rotate command. layers. 84. 288. 423. 251. 269. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 302. 241. 414 Ungroup objects. 251. 173. 298. 236. 203. 245. 348. 392. 142. Set View. 324. 2. 393. 411 turn off. 345. 357. 151.

153. 190. 376. 409. 384. 271. 425 wireframe:. 338 wireframe display. 314. 412. 264. 318. 386. 429.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 347. 430. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 425 WireShade1 command. 244. 302. pan up. set active by name. 302. 313. 409. 360. 250 What command. 298. 244. 135. 185. 347 view: back view. 429 viewport layout:. 96. 415 unlock:. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 386. 323. 415 unroll a surface. set maximized by name. layout. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 363. 264. 165 UpDegSrf command. 23. 409. 323. 172. 134 VBscript. 376 Wallpaper command. 304. 384. 420. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 343. 430. maximize. 271. 404 visibility: control points. 264. next perspective active. 360. rotate up. zoom in and out by a percentage. 172. control points. 420 views. 360. 421 VRectangle command. 429. 24. zoom extents in all viewports. perspective view. 288. 400. 244. 420 viewport title menu. 322. 250 water plane area. 90. 132. 325. 135. read named from file. 383. 404. 422 water level. 153. front view. pan right. move next to top. set viewport. menu. 297 v-direction curves. 96. 422 weight:. set left view. 425 WMF file export. 153. 132. 134. 54 vertex. zoom extents selected. 11 uv mapping coordinates. set front view. 249. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 397. zoom all to the same scale. plan view. 397. 322. 168 465 . 336. next ortho active. 430 viewport:. 356 v-direction:. 249. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. lock objects. 168. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. set bottom view. 419. redraw speed. zoom. 45 workgroup: check in license. 43 v-direction: move control points. 376. create new. 190. 303. 162. 422 Weight command. construction plane left. 181. 302. 298. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 357. isoparm. 264. copy to all. new. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. save named. tilt right. 250. 397. set density. 416 UnrollSrf command. 429. 313. 421 VolumeMoments command. 126 VCPlane command. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. with mouse. 416 UpDeg command. 430. line. 415 UnPackTextures command. 404. 400. 288. pan down. 420. bottom view. target. 236. 135. 377. set to shaded display. 405. 273. 1 window: select. 322. 23. 336. 244. shade. zoom extents in one viewport. 271 Volume command. pan. 131. place target. swap. make previous active. 420. 343. 409. 423 wetted surface area. 273. 421 VRBSrf command. 357. swap viewports. 347 VRML file export. 51 weight: edit control point. 420 ViewportTitle command. camera. set to wireframe display. 355. 428. 304. 417 Untrim command. 135. 90 window selection. construction plane back. properties. 325. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. split horizontal. 428. 302. top view. 135. 314. 198. 163. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. read from file. 421 VPlane command. 303. 429. rotate down. 430. 304. construction plane right. 429. 185 v-direction definition. 355. 181. 11 user input in script. check out license. synchronize. create from surface. control point. 273. tilt left. 338. 3 window:. 360. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 45 viewport: bring to top. 360. 429. restore named. 325 Vrbf command. 420. set all to match. set right view. plane. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. edit named. 24. 153. wireframe viewport. 162. 377. 425 ViewportProperties command. 383. 409. 357. 318. hide back. 131 vertical. 313. 430 view:. next active. object snaps. 24. split vertical. object. 323. 397. 162. 23. 318. 363. 420. rotate. 419. set perspective view. 318. 336. 419. 288. 190. zoom out. 384. unlock objects. 288. 288. 415. 400 viewport properties. 386. rectangle. 249. 417 unwrap a surface. zoom in. 419. 409. place camera and target. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. close. zoom window. left view. zoom window. show control points.Rhino 2. 321. 400. pan left. 162. 415 visibility:. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 318. 343. set top view. right view. three viewports. 323. 429. continuously rotate. set back view. zoom extents. 135 WireframeViewport command. 425. 313. 360. 2. 343. 420 VolumeCentroid command. construction plane front. zoom window and set a target point. print. 44 W command. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 415 Visibility toolbar. 423 weld:. 304. 163. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 302. 184 VDA file exchange. 126 Vline command. selected objects. 249. 430. 322. 25. 415 UnLock command. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 423. 416 untrim a surface. 376. 357. 419. 415 Visual Basic script. rotate left. display. reverse. 419. 379 Weld command. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 425. 415 UnLockSelected command. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 379. 412. 430. 343. construction plane bottom. 383. 428 Windows Clipboard. 313. 212. maximize viewport. rotate right. 224.

429 ZoomSelected command. previous view. 96. 428 Zoo. 429 ZoomIn command. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 97. 2. save as different name. 130. open. 4.Rhino 2. 168. 11 WorldAxes command. 430. 233 XtndF command. 3. 217 ZBufferPts command. toggle display. set colors. 430. 430 zoom window. 44 X_T file export. options. 74 Z command. 96. 429. 428. 425 WRL file export. 430. 429 ZoomMouse command. 428. check out license. 430 ZoomWindow command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 429. 430 ZoomX command. 430 ZBuffer command. 429 ZoomP command. 168. 216 ZE command. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 429 ZS command. 429. 428. 38 XtndB command. 2. 425. 429 ZEA command. 428 ZoomExtents command. 430 466 . 426 ZM command. 4. out. 430 ZP command. save. 429 Zebra command. 130 zoom: dynamic. 2. 363. 308. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 428. in and out by a percentage. 430 ZSA command. check in license. 363 world axes. window and set a new target point. extents in one viewport. 168 workgroup:. 429. 425. 5. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 233 Xtra command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 168 working directory. 429 ZoomPrev command. in. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 217 ZBufferPt command. 429 ZoomOut command. 428 ZoomNext command. 308. window. 430 Zoom command. 381 workspace. extents in all viewports. 363. 2.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 3. 3 zoom:. 425 world coordinates. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 429. 430 ZoomTarget command. 430.