Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

.........Rhino 2.... 447 xv .............0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index...................................................................................................................................

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

and Find. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description.rhino3d. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. see the Rhino Command List. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. Help Access Rhino's Help file. the name stuck. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. and by the time the product was in beta testing. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. 17 .com/support/faq. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. Index. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. under the topic Help.com Web site www.rhino3d. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. To explore the related topics.rhino3d. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.

drag with the right mouse button. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift. Ortho pane on the status bar. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Lens length displays on status bar. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Front. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys.Rhino 2. In parallel views like the default Top. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. F8. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. and Right view. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar.

Rotate mouse wheel. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. PageUp. Snap pane on the status bar. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. PageDown.

Lens length displays on status bar. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. See Options dialog box. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right.Rhino 2. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Some are designed in to be shortcuts.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 .

0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance.Rhino 2. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. 26 .

click Line. 27 .z and press Enter.y plane. type w0.10 in the world coordinates. enter the starting point for the line.10 and press Enter.z and press Enter. type w12. Note If you enter only x. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt.3 and press Enter. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin.0 and press Enter.0. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt.0 and press Enter. type 0. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note If you enter only x. the point will lie on the world x. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.10 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.y. then click Single Line.6. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates.and y-coordinates. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. click Line. type coordinates in the format: rx.y.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wx.0.Rhino 2.6. y and z coordinates to place points. then click Single Line. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.10 in the construction plane coordinates. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the construction plane.6.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. with r prefix relative coordinates.and y-coordinates. type coordinates in the format: x.6. click Line. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. type r2. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. type 12. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. then click Single Line. With w prefix you can type world coordinates.

hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. then click Single Line. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.axis) and press Enter. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. enter the starting point for the line. click another point in the perspective viewport. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. click Free-form. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. 28 . Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. Click the left mouse button to select the point. At the Next point of curve. click a point in the perspective viewport.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. click Line. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type 4<45 and press Enter. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type r4<45 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. A white tracking line will display. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. indicating the new location of the selection set.axis) and press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. then click Single Line. then click Interpolate Points. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. enter the starting point for the line.Rhino 2.

You can start elevator mode in another location. From the Curves menu. 29 . Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. then click Single Line.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. release Ctrl. Press Tab. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. click Line. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker.D. Positive numbers are above the construction plane.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. type NoElev. Continue with picking locations. press Ctrl. was when you pressed Tab. Release Ctrl. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. negative numbers are below. Release the left mouse button to place the objects.D points using 2. and click again. Specifying 3. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Place the first line point. Or press Tab twice. Drag the mouse out.Rhino 2. After starting elevator mode. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. then press Ctrl and click. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. but only if the point can be truly 3. Change viewports. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point.

If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. From the Curves menu. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type <60. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. Turn on end object snap. Or. type a distance and press Enter. Click to place the point. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. the marker snaps to the curve end.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. enter the starting point for the line. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. click Line. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. then click Single Line.Rhino 2.

1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. Click to place the point.Rhino 2. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. Click to place the point. Or. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. then click Single Line. click Line. enter the starting point for the line. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. From the Curves menu. you can turn them on.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. type 10. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.

Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. this will become more clear. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface.Rhino 2. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. the surfaces cannot be merged. 32 . so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. so those are the things that need to be merged. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area.

Text height The text height in Rhino units. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use.Rhino 2. extension line extension. extension line offset distance. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. 33 . Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. The text height. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units.

Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. 34 . Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view.Rhino 2. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. regardless of the direction of the dimension line.

Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. these settings are used. is from 1 to 100. more accurate meshes. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. This setting is scale independent. when not zero. This setting is scale independent. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. 35 . Notes tab Add notes to your model. but may take very long to shade and render. Document Properties dialog box. but should shade and render relatively fast. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. When the Refine check box is selected. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. and higher polygon count. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Custom Set the custom options. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. type information you want to save with the model. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. whenever you start a new model without a template. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only.Rhino 2.

This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. By default.Rhino 2. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. edge to Srf options. more accurate meshes. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. and higher polygon count. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Max dist. 36 . Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Jagged seams is not selected. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. When the Refine check box is selected. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. and Max dist. The default values is 16. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Max edge length. Min edge length. Max dist. Refine is selected. When the Refine check box is selected. less accurate meshes. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. By default. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Document Properties dialog box. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. In practice. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale dependent. By default. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. Simple planes is not selected. After initial meshing. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. and lower polygon count.

Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels.Rhino 2. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. use bigger shadow offset. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. With large objects. In Rhino. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. 37 . With small objects. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. Background Sets the color of the render background. but also slows down rendering. None No shadows. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. In general.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. This makes the image appear smoother. In practice. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. use smaller shadow offset. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. None Each pixel is sampled once. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. if the shadows are turned on. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area.

In those commands. For example. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input.2mm 1. the relative tolerance is used instead.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2km 1.2micron(s) Millimeters 1. Mils 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry.2(") 1-1/2" 1.Rhino 2. Fractional.2mic 1.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.2m 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.2cm 1. When you change from one units to another. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. or Feet & Inches. Select Decimal. Document Properties dialog box. trimming surfaces.2c 1. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box.

0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. or Extents of the selected objects. Close the viewport. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. In general. Extents. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. 39 . Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model.01 millimeters. step through the viewports. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Zoom Window. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. and use predefined viewport configurations. set multiple templates. You can specify which viewport is maximized. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders.Rhino 2. Use defined and named views. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title.001. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. You can create new viewports. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. and place a named viewport on top. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. Rhino 2. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it.01 to 0. rename viewports.

40 . Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. When the selection menu pops up. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects.Rhino 2. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. Edit Grid properties. To bring all your objects into view. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. When you make a Window selection. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. from the View menu. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. click Zoom Extents All. To select additional objects. Crossing. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. When you make a Crossing selection.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. To remove an object from a selection set. click Set View > Plan. Edit viewport properties. Select objects General Click an object to select it. from the View menu. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh.

x 3D models (.x file from Rhino 2.0 If you save as a 1.3dm). Sweep2). then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve.0. select Rhino 1. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 .0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list.x files into Rhino 2.0 If you load a 1.0.0 rendering information is saved in the 1. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. no 2. In the File name box. Click another object. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. but if you picked it as a boundary. you'd get one line.x file into Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. In the Save as type box. When object is highlighted.Rhino 2. type a filename. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Sweep1.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. press Enter or the spacebar.x file. and you picked an edge as a curve. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object.x files from Rhino 2. Copy. Saving 1. For instance if you have a plane. Import and export file types Rhino 1.

type a name for the 3DS file. When building morph targets. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. 42 . like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. click Save As. They are not converted to NURBS.0.2. 2. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in.Rhino 2. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. Or.2. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. 2. Click Open.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. from the File menu. in the Files of type. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. In the File name box. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. In the File name box. click Import/Merge. click Open. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. If no object name is defined. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files.0. In the Save as type box. If so.5. select 3D Studio. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. from the File menu. Or. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. MAX 2.0 use IGES to transfer files. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. or MAX 2. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. In the Open dialog box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Click Save. type a name for the 3DS file. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. For version 3. click Export Selected. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. select 3D Studio.

click Import. This happens because MAX2. From the MAX2. Select the 3DM file to import. are imported in several pieces.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2.Rhino 2.dli.rhino3d. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.dli. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. or 3D Studio R4.0 Command Reference File formats In general. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. The Rhino web site at http://www.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. RhinoMax2imp. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.5 File menu.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2.dli. In the MAX2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS.dli from the directories in your MAX2. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. RhinoMax2imp.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. from the Files of type box. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.5.5 File Import dialog box. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. 3DS MAX version 2. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces.dli. use 3DS file format. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces.dli into your "3dsmax2. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2.dli. and RhinoMax20imp.3dm. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. or RhinoMax25imp. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5.5\plugins\" directory. export to a DWG. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. RhinoMax25imp.5 plug-ins path. Attempt trimming? 43 .5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. Now mesh your curved surfaces. This happens because the MAX2.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. RhinoMax20imp. MAX does not export NURBS curves. Only Spline objects get exported. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. (3dmimp. select Rhino 3D Models.

Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. select Rhino 3D Models." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims.5 NURBS object. Curve. 3D Studio MAX 2. (3dmimp. From the MAX2 File menu. Open 3D Studio MAX2. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Given the information we have. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box.0. To closely examine and edit MAX2. If MAX crashes. Be patient.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. NURBS curves: 44 . Using developers tools. Select the 3DM file to import. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface.dli and RhinoMax2imp.0 Command Reference If you answer yes.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. The Rhino web site at http://www. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. click the Sub-Object button.5 module called "ACISMAX2. If you answer "no.rhino3d. CurveCV. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2.Rhino 2. Surface. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.dli or RhinoMax2imp. In general. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. from the Files of type box. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. 3DS MAX version 2. click Import. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5 or 3DS DOS. Click the MAX2.5 as a single surface.

The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down.Rhino 2.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Select the 3DM file to import.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models.rhino3d. obj+number is used as a name. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool).com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Clear the Weld control. select Rhino 3D Models. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object.at/duck3. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Click the Sub-Object button. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. 45 . click Import. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. from the Files of type box. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. From the Tools menu. CurveCV. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. Curve. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. Some surfaces.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. Surface. are imported in several pieces. If there is no Rhino object name. click Mesh. On December 10 1997. 3D Studio MAX 3. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. Open 3D Studio MAX. From the File menu.habware. In the File Import dialog box.1.

Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. from the File menu.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. select ACIS SAT. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. select the options for the export.0 is currently not suggested. select the curves and explode them. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.Rhino 2. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products.and v-direction vectors. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Using ACIS Version 5.0 ACIS Version: 3.5 ACIS Version: 1. Or.0 ACIS Version: 2. All of the version types export curves. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. In the Save as type box. type a name for the file. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. To change these into splines. but import in as bodies. At the Select object prompt. The options can be changed by editing the INI file.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. In the File name box. In Rhino. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. click Export Selected. It does not fix geometry problems. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. click Save As. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. Click Save.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.

Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. In the Files of type box.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. select a scale option. Click Open.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. Or. under Scale. In the File name box.0 ACIS Version: 4.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. click Open. 47 . select Adobe Illustrator. In the AI Import Options dialog box. click Import/Merge. from the File menu.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1.Rhino 2. type a name for the AI file. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.

This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. Or. under Scale. from the File menu. Click Open. Or. Click Save.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change.5. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. click Import/Merge. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. select AG. click Save As. In the Open dialog box. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . click a scale option. Rhino only reads curve geometry. select AG. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. In the AI Export Options dialog box. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. from the File menu. Or. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. In the File name box. click Export Selected. from the File menu. type a name for the AG file. not text. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. curves need to be refit before exporting. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. select Adobe Illustrator. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. In the Save as type box. type a name for the AI file. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. From the File menu. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0.ini. type a name for the AG file. click Export Selected.0 > 8.1 units from the original curve. In some situations. Under some circumstances. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport.0 files. From the File menu. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves.Rhino 2. Make the viewport you want to export from active. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. click Open. click Save As. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport.

select the options for DWG export. In the File name box. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. type a name for the DWG file. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. from the File menu. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. click Open. They are not converted to NURBS. Or. From the File menu. In the Files of type box. click Import/Merge. Click Open. Click Save. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Or. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. click Save As. In the File name box. regions. or anything in paperspace. select AutoCAD DXF. AutoCAD line types are ignored. click Import/Merge. Object properties. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. OLE objects. In the Save as type box. Click Open. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. from the File menu. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. select AutoCAD DWG. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Rhino will not import images. Or. type a name for the DXF file. rays. click Save As. click Export Selected. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . In the File name box. In the Files of type box. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. select AutoCAD DWG. From the File menu. click Open. Or. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. from the File menu. select the options for DXF export. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. from the File menu. type a name for the DWG file. In the File name box. select AutoCAD DXF.Rhino 2. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. type a name for the DXF file. XREF's are imported. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. viewport settings and mesh information is lost.

and line entities. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. Rhino will not import images. 2-D curves are simplified. or circle. but do not properly read polyface meshes. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. or circle. arc. This means if the curve is just one line. regions. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. arcs. 50 . Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. OLE objects. circle. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. AutoCAD line types are ignored. use RAW instead. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. 3-D curves are never simplified. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. export curves as splines. They are not converted to NURBS. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. rays. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. you can export either polyline or spline entities. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. arc. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities.Rhino 2. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. circles. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. or anything in paperspace. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. curves are approximated with polylines. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked.

For silhouette lines. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc.csv). The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. and line entities. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. From the File menu.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. arc. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. lines. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. it will be exported as such. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. type a name for the file. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. line. Click Save. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. arcs. or ellipse.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. arcs. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. select Object Properties (. In the File name box.Rhino 2.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. or later DWG/DXF. ellipses. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. In the Save as type box. it is exported as a simple entity. circle. If the simplify tolerance is too large. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. ellipse. and ellipses as NURBS curves. click Export Selected. but increase the number of polyline segments. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. This setting uses current model units. circle. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. Use simple entities Circles. The larger this number. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. If the simplify tolerance is too small. not the file header. line.

object render color and selected mass properties. Rhino must approximate each polyline. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. Rhino produces one component for each shape. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names.0. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Each component will have the same name as the shape. You can give each shape the name you would like here. All component origin shift is considered 0. layer color. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. If you have previously selected a centerline.C). At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. When exporting curves as polylines. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component.0. 52 . This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. The larger this number. object name.S) or only half (. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name.Rhino 2. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. This setting determines how the station lines are created.

LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Containment. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. click Export Selected. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or. click Save As. or Windage (sail). select Lightwave. click Save As. Or. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Save as type box. If the same name is used for multiple objects. In the File name box. Or. Object names will be used when exporting the . Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. from the File menu. 53 . from the Files of type box. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. from the File menu. Moray automatically numbers the objects. click Import/Merge. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. Click Open. select Lightwave. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the File name box.000 polygon limitation.lwo file instead of a generic name.535 points for the entire file. In the Save as type box. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. type a name for the UDO file. They are not converted to NURBS. type a name for the LWO file. which does not have the 65. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. from the File menu. click Export Selected. Click Save. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. In the File name box. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. click Open. Note Object names are supported. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. type a name for the LWO file.Rhino 2. The LWO file is limited to 65. Click Save. Each component will initially be a member of this part. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. select Moray UDO.

com/moray/.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. Or.stmuc. they display a blank window. only closed solids will be imported. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. In the File name box. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. select the target application for the export. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks.0 will not read in open surfaces. type a name for the file.Rhino 2. click Save As. If the file contains open surfaces. and curves Solid Edge 6. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same." Solution The model probably exported just fine.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. from the File menu. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. click Export Selected. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. Click Save. When you export to UDO. from Create menu. To import the object into Moray. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. Rhino creates a . Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. they will be ignored with no warning.UDO file and a . Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www.INC file. 54 . If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. Planes are important primitives. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. click User Defined. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. select Parasolid X_T. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. surfaces. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. and colors.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. surfaces. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. In the Save as type box.

ISBN: 0201508680.bmrt. 55 . Click Save.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. In the Save as type box. Or.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz.graphics. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. however. In the File name box. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. click Export Selected. select RenderMan. ISBN: 1558606181.rhino3d.Rhino 2. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. from the File menu. click Save As.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. type a name for the RIB file.rhino3d. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD.rendering. Addison-Wesley Pub Co.

org. In the Save as type box. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. Click Save. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click the big blue "R. Rhino writes the surface. transparency. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.1. The transparency color is the color of the object. type a name for the POV file. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. and opacity statement for each object. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export.org. Use Properties to set the object names. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. In the File name box. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. To cancel the rendering process. click Save As.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer." Two windows will open.rib reboot your computer. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. however." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. and highlight. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. from the File menu. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www.rendribrc. click Export Selected. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). Export to RIB file format supports render background color. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.povray. select POV-Ray Mesh. 56 . Or. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Set up your scene with materials and lights. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. To test render the scene. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www.Rhino 2. The intensity is always set to 1. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light.povray. color.

Set up your scene with materials and lights. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. In the File name box. and highlight. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Textures are not exported. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. or into one large POV file. Or. click Export Selected.inc and lights. type a name for the RAW file. from the Files of type box. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). select Raw Triangles. type a name for the RTF file. They are not converted to NURBS. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. click Import/Merge. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. In the Save as type box. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Raw Triangles. In the File name box. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. Click Save. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. from the File menu. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Click Open. Or.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. 57 . This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. but object colors are. click Save As. click Open. transparency. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2.

Export it in RAW format.0127mm.0762mm. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. 0. In the File name box. click Open. 0. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. from the Files of type box. 58 . click Export Selected. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. select SLC. In the Save as type box. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. In the Open dialog box. The greater the number of polygons.0254mm. Click Save. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. Or. (For example. click Export Selected. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. from the File menu. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. type a name for the STEP file. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. and use ExplodeMesh. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. from the File menu. Click Save. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. Import it back into Rhino. click Open. from the File menu. 0. Or. use DXF instead. The slices will be evenly spaced. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. Or. click Import/Merge.0381mm. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. Click Open. click Save As. from the File menu. select STEP. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. Consequently. click Import/Merge. click Save As. In the File name box.0508mm and 0. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only.Rhino 2. type a name for the SLC file. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. From the File menu. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. select STEP. Or. type a name for the STEP file.

type a name for the STL file.) Select the new mesh object. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. that is. In the Save as type box. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. Use JoinMesh. They are not converted to NURBS. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. to get JCAD to work. to control STL accuracy. then they have the same idea of up. click Polygon Mesh. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. If a mesh point is highlighted. click Polygon Mesh. Instead. then click Join. 59 . but doesn't glue the edges together. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. then Weld (angle=180). To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. select STL. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects.Rhino 2. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. Click Open. In the File name box. In the File name box. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. then click Unify Normals. then click Weld. click Polygon Mesh. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. Click Save. if two triangles share an edge. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. From the Tools menu. select STL. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt.ini file to look like this. type a name for the STL file. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. For example. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. from the Files of type box. click Export Selected. from the File menu. click Save As. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. From the Tools menu. From the Tools menu. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. Or.

from the File menu. click Save As. From the File menu. In the Save as type box. from the Files of type box. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z.axis toward the x. It does not support representation of drawing information. type a name for the VDA file. click Open. Click Save. Click Save. select VDA. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. Click Open. In the Open dialog box. click Export Selected. symbols. from the File menu. In the File name box. Or. In the File name box. click Import/Merge.y plane. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Render color. Texture assignments are currently not exported.D geometry and topology information. shine. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. type a name for the VDA file. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. from the File menu. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. etc. type a name for the WRL file. select VRML. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. It does not support assembly and feature information. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export Selected. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. Rhino now 60 . In the File name box. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. select VDA. Or. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. views. click Save As.

try 1.exe. but will make the WRL file much larger. 61 . Export options Version You can choose between version 1. Render Mesh tab. (The MTS file contains the actual data. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. In the Save as type box. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. from the File menu. from the File menu. Click Save. In general. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport.com/software/mtx2html. Click Save. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export.) Outside of Rhino. You can download it from http://developer. click Save As. and if so.Rhino 2. In the File name box. From the File menu. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select Windows Metafile. Or.pdf. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. click Export Selected. you should try 2. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. type a name for the file. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. In the File name box. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. If it does not work with your VRML viewer.viewpoint.0.0 first. click Export Selected. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. Or. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. In the Save as type box. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1.0. This can be tricky. click Save As.0 and 2.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. type a name for the WMF file. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed.viewpoint. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export.

Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. and click Save. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino.x is created. select an IGES type. enter a name for the file. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. from the IGES type box. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. Organization.Rhino 2. This means various settings have different values for each product. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. From the File menu. Sender's product ID. in the Save as type box. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. Detailed options Author. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Click Save. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex.3ds A file yourfile. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. click Export Selected. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. 62 . IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. 1 2 In the File name box. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. select IGES. In the File name box. type a name for the DXF file. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion.

0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. To create an IGES import log. the IGES file will be empty. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. To import trimming curves as curve objects.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. When Rhino 2. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.ini. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 .Rhino 2.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2.2 or 5.ini. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.

If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. . 3." For example. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. you need to do a bit of sleuthing.). If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. Spaces and tabs are ignored. an IGES level number is automatically selected. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. This file can contain multiple flavors. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. but this is not required." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . 1. A flavor is terminated by a blank line..Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary.) are ignored.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. 2. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. When Rhino reads an IGES file.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. To see if this is the case.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . Lines that begin with semi-colon (.. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N".ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping.

In the IGES Export Types dialog box. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. click New. or Logical/Positional().igs open gamma.Rhino 2. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box.igs. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. accepting only entities marked as geometry. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. click Close. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. If one of the Annotation(). type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. If you do something like: open alpha.igs normally.igs and gamma. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile.igs. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. Definition(). it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. Rhino reads alpha. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. set the options for the IGES type. you will get it. 65 . lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. Other(). regardless of type.

from the IGES type list box. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines.2 stores years using two digits and 5. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. from the IGES type list box. The number must be bigger than zero. click Close. In most cases. 66 . IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. arcs. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines.2 and 5. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and click Delete. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. or IGES circles. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). Unix. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. select an IGES type. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.3 using four digits. select an IGES type.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. set the options for the IGES type. this number should be one. set the options for the IGES type. If the max degree is set to three. and MacOS style line endings. click Close. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. IGES 184 entities. and click Edit.3. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Unix uses LF. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. The difference is 5. and MacOS uses CR. If the max degree is set to five. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. IGES arcs. and maximum degree five.Rhino 2. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. and click Copy Type.

1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. and maximum degree five. If you get better results with one export type. when possible. 67 . Fit rational surfaces With this setting.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Click Save.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Or. In the Save as type box. select Wavefront OBJ. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). when possible. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. from the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. type a name for the OBJ file. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. when possible. Curves are not exported. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. click Save As. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance.com/rhino so we can document this file format. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. If the max degree is set to three. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. click Export Selected. Try to load both files into your product. If the max degree is set to five. select the options for OBJ export. try the following test. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file.rhino3d. maximum degree three.

To export to MAX. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.obj file. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Export object names Exports object names. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters.obj file. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. 68 . Export layer names should be cleared. LF (Unix) Line feed only. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. The . Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. Options Skip Don't export meshes.mtl file with the same name as the . MS-DOS) Return + line feed.ini file. There are also references to these materials added to the .mtl file contains one material definition per object. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. If is far from 100% satisfactory. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. By default. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. CR (Mac OS) Return only. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. Export material definitions Creates an . This material name is exported for use by the renderer. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. mesh export is disabled. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet.Rhino 2. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. Export layer names Exports layer names.

In the File name box. it is recommended that you save your work.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. select the trim curve. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. and set the display to wireframe.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. try using OBJ format instead. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. All data that is not grouped. After a large IGES import. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.x.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . Note When merging an IGES file. In this case. type a filename. and Customize > Preferences. select 3D Studio MAX 3. from the File menu. For the fastest import. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. In the Save as type box. make it independent. select Alias V8.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select the surface. To distinguish between separate entities. click Export or Save As. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. click Export Selected. it is recommended that you save your work first.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. and then restart MAX. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. Or. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. and flip the trim.

click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Ashlar Vellum.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. select IGES. select AUTOFORM. type a filename. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . type a filename. In the File name box. select IGES.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. In the File name box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select AutoShip. click Export or Save As. select IGES. select IGES. In the Save as type box. type a filename. select Breault Research's ASAP. 71 . click Export or Save As. type a filename. select IGES.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select CADCEUS. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box.

0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select CATIA. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. type a filename. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select CamSoft. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2.

Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. Surfaces and Solids. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. select Cosmos/M. even those that are trivially trimmed. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the File name box. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 .Rhino 2. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the Save as type box.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. click Export or Save As. select IGES.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. 74 . In the Save as type box. select Cosmos/M. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. select FastShip. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . click Export or Save As. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. select FastSURF.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. select IronCAD. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Integrity Ware. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. type a filename. type a filename.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the File name box. select Mastercam.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . select LUSAS. From the IGES Type box.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Surfaces and Solids. 77 . select IGES. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. type a filename. from the File menu. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. select Maya. click Export Selected.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. select ME30. type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. Or. In the File name box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

select Microstation. Surfaces and Solids. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above.3. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Export or Save As.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. click Export or Save As. To save these settings. To get the best results. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.opt.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. Version 5. You may set these options as you see fit. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. In the Save as type box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. set IGES Version to either 5. in the Description box. type a filename. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Geometry.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. click Edit options. select Mechanical Desktop. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. type a filename. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 .IGESOUT dialog box. In the File name box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.Rhino 2. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. From the IGES Type box. click Start and Global.2 or 5. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. click Structure. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. and click OK. select IGES. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. 78 .0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Version 5. click DE Mappings. In the File name box. (The MDT defaults work fine. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK.

type a filename. select IGES. Multisurf 3.1. From the IGES Type box. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves.ini file. select IGES. select NASA GridTool.1 using an IGES file. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. If you add the following section to your Rhino. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. click Export or Save As. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting.000000 79 . click Export or Save As. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. the current version of Multisurf is 3.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. select Multisurf. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . In the File name box. select OptiCAD.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select IGES.Rhino 2. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select NuGraf. click Export or Save As.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.Rhino 2.0001 will produce good results. use these settings in the Pro/E config. From the IGES Type box.001 to 0. select IGES. If you set your tolerances right. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX.01 units. type a filename. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5.pro file then read it in before exporting. In the File name box. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . use the "All Parts" option. somewhere around 0. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much.pro file or save them as rhino. Note With Pro/E version 20. when exporting to IGES. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. In the Save as type box.

and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. even those that are trivially trimmed. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. If the curves are planar. Surfaces and Solids. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. Things like fillets and drafts . Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. Surface replace is another good tool to use. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model.Rhino 2. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. The more trims you have. When modeling in Rhino. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. there are now two types. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. then. 82 . Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 .asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. you will not get back what you sent. and a solid. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. From the IGES Type box. There is no geometry information in it. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. select IGES. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select SDRC's I-DEAS. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. a surface. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. In the File name box. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies.

com.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.7sp1 and 3. click Save As.phoenixtools.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.phoenixtools. for SI versions 3.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. In the IGES Export dialog box.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. 2 84 . select Softimage. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www.phoenixtools.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. from the IGES Type box. DXF.txt contains command line option information. select Softimage.Rhino 2.com Plugin download link page: www. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. All three have their own problems and benefits. Type a filename and click Save. Run iges2soft. then click IGES.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. Softimage can also import 3DS. Open Softimage. select IGES.igs MyDSCFile. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.8: ftp://ftp. SGI and x86 (Intel).okino. In the Save As dialog box. Check out their web site for more information: www.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. from the Save as type box. From the File menu. 3.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files. 1.

The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Surfaces and Solids. In the File name box. type a filename. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. select IGES. select Solid Edge.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select IGES. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. To export models to Rhino.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.001 or 0.0001 before building the geometry. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. select IGES. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces.0 Points=116 86 . select SolidWorks. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5.

In the File name box. type a filename. to test feasibility. select SURFCAM. Also. From the IGES Type box.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Shelling. for SolidWorks. From the IGES Type box. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. by nature.0001. is tangent. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. try to model with smooth. click Export or Save As. which works on both edges and faces. In the File name box.. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. SUM 4. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. etc. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. 87 .0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. and investigate alternative approaches. shelling. leaving features such as fillets. click Export or Save As. then shelling is likely to fail. ribs. select IGES. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. In the Save as type box. which within human perception. Nothing replaces experience. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select SUM4. type a filename. Generally.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.

2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. In the File name box.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.

From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select TekSoft.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 .0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.Rhino 2. select Unigraphics. type a filename. In the Save as type box.

In the Save as type box. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. select IGES. 90 . Surfaces and Solids.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select Yamaha ESPRi. type a filename.

actions related to objects appear in the menu. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. Context-sensitive menu indicator. from the Named Colors list. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. type values in the Hue. In addition. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. The same limitation does not apply to render color. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. and Value boxes. For maximum speed. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. or drag to manipulate the view. and Blue boxes. The first item is always to repeat the last command.ini file to add or change menu items.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. If context-sensitive menu is on. select a color. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. If no object is selected. Green. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color.Rhino 2. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. Saturation. Edit the Rhino.txt in the Rhino install directory. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. type RGB values in the Red. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. 91 .ini file. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value.

Center. Near. As you pass your cursor over an object. Point. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. on the status bar. To clear all persistent object snaps. Only Near. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. Quad. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. For example. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. 92 . the appropriate object snap displays. click Osnap. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. Perp. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. Intersection. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. If object snaps are locked. if End. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. End. Tan. When activated. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. right-click the Lock checkbox. When an object snap is active. End. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox.Rhino 2. After the pick. To display the Osnap dialog box. Midpoint. and Point will not work for that pick.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. or can be activated for one pick only. Near. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. and Knot object snaps can persist. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. All object snaps behave similarly.

0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .Rhino 2.

then click End. Near. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. with no spaces. Intersection. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. End. Perp. Quad. 94 . and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. or just suspends them for one pick. and Knot. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. The marker jumps to the endpoint.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. Point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. Click to enter the endpoint. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. it turns off all persistent object snaps. OrientOnSrf. Only these object snaps will be set. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. all others will be cleared. Center. Valid options are NoSnap. click Object Snap. Tan. InsertKnot. Midpoint. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. for example in ExtractIsoparm. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. from the Tools menu. This command is useful for command files.Rhino 2. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. If a command is active. separated by commas.

click Object Snap. Click to enter the midpoint. click the Osnap pane.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. then click Mid. The marker moves along the curve. the seam point on closed curves. then click Point. Move the cursor near a curve. click the Osnap pane. Near object snap Snap near a curve. The marker jumps to it. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. 95 . click Object Snap. and the "corners" of surfaces. In the Osnap dialog box. The marker jumps to its midpoint. click Point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. click End. click Near. Move the cursor near a point. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter a point on the curve. then click Near. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. click Mid. click Object Snap. On the status bar. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. Click to enter the point. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. 96 . Click to enter the center point. Click to enter one of these points. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Move the cursor along a curve. from the Tools menu. click Perp. tangent to the curve. click Int. Click to enter one of these points. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. click Cen. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Tangent To. perpendicular to the curve. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to it. Move the cursor along a curve. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. On the status bar. from the Tools menu. then click Perpendicular To. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. In the Osnap dialog box. Move the cursor near an intersection. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. On the status bar. then click Intersection. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. then click Center.Rhino 2. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. Move the cursor near a curve. Click to enter the point of intersection. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to its center point.

You can use another object snap to pick this point. angle constraint. without picking it. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. and finally choose the point for the original command. and relative coordinate entry. Click to enter one of these points. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click Tan. From object snap Snap from a point. Click to enter the knot point. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. Similarly. from the Tools menu. then click Quadrant. then click From. pick a point. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. then click Knot. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. Move the cursor near a curve. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse.Rhino 2. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. Move the cursor along a circle. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. Set your constraints relative to the base point. At the Choose a base point prompt. without entering that point for the original command. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. 3 Example 97 . with From. type Knot. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. or similar surface edges. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. distance constraint. from the Tools menu. click Quad. arc or ellipse. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. click the Osnap pane.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. On the status bar. You can set this point. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box.

At the Click near the curve prompt. from the Tools menu.Rhino 2. for greater precision. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. then click Perpendicular From. Int. Cen. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. and Quad. click Object Snap. type 2 and press Enter. from the Tools menu. Near. The cursor moves only along the curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. then click From. Note When selecting points during this sequence. from the Tools menu. Mid. select the curve. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. End. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. you can use simple snaps. At the Choose a base point prompt.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. At the Choose a point prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. then click Tangent From. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. 98 . Point. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. select the curve. snap to the end of the line.

Point. then click Along Line. Or. select a second point. click Object Snap. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. At the Start of base line prompt. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Near. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Near. Note When selecting points during this sequence. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Point. you can use simple snaps (End. Click to enter a point on the line. At the Start of tracking line prompt. and Quad) for greater precision. At the End of base line prompt. and Quad) for greater precision. Cen. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Near. Point.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. The marker moves only along the line. Along object snap Track along a line. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. select a first point to specify the tracking line. Int. and Quad) for greater precision. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. 99 . Mid. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. The marker moves only along the line. right-click the Along toolbar button. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. select a second point. Mid. you can use simple snaps (End. type AlongParallel. At the Choose a point prompt. Int. Cen. Mid. Cen.Rhino 2. you can use simple snaps (End. The marker tracks along the tangent line. At the End of tracking line prompt. Click to enter a point on the line. from the Tools menu. Int. in the Object Snap toolbar.

Rhino 2. for greater precision. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. End. When Osnap projection is on. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. Mid. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. Click to enter a point on the surface. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. select the surface. 100 . Intersection. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. At the Click near the surface prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Near. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. and Knot. then click On Surface. you can use simple snaps. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. The marker moves only along the surface. Center. from the Tools menu. By default. Note When selecting a point on the surface. click Object Snap. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. select Project to CPlane.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. Point. it is off. and the cursor is over an object snap point. but works on curves.

The valid values are -1. Object Properties. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. 1. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. One isoparm on knot-free spans. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. 0. or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. and the other positive integers. Isoparms at surface knot locations. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. 2. 101 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. POV-Ray. and RenderMan RIB. Information Technical information about the command displays. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. General tab. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. and OBJ file export. go to the Options dialog box.

Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. using a plug-in library. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. this tab displays the properties for that light type. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object.Rhino 2. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. texture. you can set the color.0 Command Reference Object Properties. Material tab Edit object material properties. transparency. finish. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. 102 . use the Edit Layers dialog box. Color Sets the color of the light. Light tab Edit light object properties. To change the material assignment of the layer. Turns light on or off. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. From top left to bottom right.

Unlike more advanced renderers. From top left to bottom right. Text tab Edit text properties. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command.Rhino 2. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Object Properties. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. To change the color of the wireframe display. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. 103 . polysurface. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Clear this option to remove the bump map. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. or a polygon mesh. Clear this option to remove the texture map.

You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Command string Command alias definitions. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Options dialog box. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. 104 . Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. The two sizes update each other. When you place annotation text. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0.25 inches. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.Rhino 2. Example If your units are inches. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

110

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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If the objects you are rendering are very complex. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Also. spotlighting. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Choose between the quick render preview. Rhino takes that time to calculate. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. and the color-andshadows Render. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. and a backdrop image. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. click Options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. shadows. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. this shading mode may be much faster. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. you will see improved performance. The next time you shade the same model. highlights. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. from the smooth geometry. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. click Use OpenGL. Render Mesh tab. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller.Rhino 2. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. For highest quality results. On the Shade tab. 114 . The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box.

You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. which might appear in waves. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering.0 or 1. Rhino Render tab. The next time you render the same model.Rhino 2. from the smooth geometry. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model.5. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. Render Mesh tab. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. of the view in the active viewport. Self. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Jagged spotlight edges and self. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. In some situations. Rhino takes that time to calculate. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. 115 . Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. When you draw the plane. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. Also. Render tab. the patterns may probably disappear.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. you will see improved performance. so it won't be deformed. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them.

Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large.Rhino 2. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. If you’re getting self. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated.shadowing effects. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. If the problems still persist. If you increase it too much. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Self-shadowing artifacts. Change the size of the light. Sometimes the conversion 116 . Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. Correct shadow. That will usually solve the problem. The scale of the objects is very large. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not.

and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95.microsoft. This helps you organize your model. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Windows 95. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. To set the column width. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. contact Rhino Technical Support. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed.dll and Glu32. Otherwise. For example. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Off Status of layer. change the color of the wire frame. If this does not fix the problem. you can turn them all off at once. and since the polygons are flat.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. To update Windows NT drivers. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. 117 . drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. Name Layer name.Rhino 2. On Status of layer. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. and download the latest drivers. Even if you got the card last week. select them all with one selection. they look jagged.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros).com/windows/downloads/winntw. if you were working on a human figure. please read section the next section. available from Microsoft at www. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. To update your OpenGL drivers. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. you may not have the current drivers. Start Rhino. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. Or you can organize your parts a different way.asp. When objects are on a layer. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack.

polysurface. 118 . Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. or a polygon mesh. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. You can snap to objects on this layer. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Unlike more advanced renderers.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. transparency. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. To change the color of the wireframe display. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. texture. you can set the color. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. finish.

Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.Rhino 2. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. Clear this option to remove the bump map. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. and Invert the selection. click New. 119 . but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. type a new name and press Enter. You cannot create new layers with these names. You can select all layers. select the name on the list. select a set of layers.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. If you don't remember the layer names. In the Layer dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.

Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. To delete empty layers. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 .0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. from the list select the layers you want to delete. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. When a model has a large number of layers.Rhino 2. select all the displayed layers and delete. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. click the color column of the layer you want to change. click a filter option. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. select a color for the layer. In the Select Color dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. use the Empty Layers filter. In the Show box. Click Delete. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.

and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. set the desired filter options. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. and whether or not there are objects on the layer).Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. or locked. off. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire." are on or locked. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. click Filtered Layers. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. type a string of characters to match the layer name to.

If you are after a flag-like surface. The rail curve directs the surface along it. If you are after a tent-like. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. then use the one closest to the top of the list. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. generally. Lofts. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. Sweep1. Sweeps. then use a ruled surface. then try Loft. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. try adding a few more cross sections. then the surface created by loft will. Think of each curve you select in Loft. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. or accordion bellows-like surface. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes.Rhino 2. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. 122 . If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. Rules. The surface is smooth. stair-like. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. If this doesn't help. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes.

while keeping the other end fixed. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. use a Sweep2. If you have a several of closed curves. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges.Rhino 2. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. the surface will twist. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. 123 .

All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. 124 . which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. For each of these four ways. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. several. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. there are four ways to fillet. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. For a given radius. or no curves. and thus the fillet. the intersection of the offsets can have one.Rhino 2. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. then intersecting the resulting surfaces.

0 Command Reference As mentioned.Rhino 2. 125 . FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. for this choice of sides. there may be several fillet pieces. These pieces can be grouped into connected components.

0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. 126 . If split. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. If no. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. When that is the case.Rhino 2. If yes. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. Because of this. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. When Extend = yes. No. then the surfaces are left intact. and split. yes.

Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. and a fillet will exist.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. their offsets may intersect. then no fillets will be created.Rhino 2. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. If two surfaces are tangent. 127 .

Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. 128 . Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. except cross-sections are lines.Rhino 2. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. no fillet will be created. Otherwise. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. rather than arcs. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established.

Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Do each surface individually. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. In this case. B and C. However. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. If one is a polysurface. When joining A." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Once we have a curve on the surface. If both are single surfaces. a spherical patch will be made. If you do. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. The result will have a hole at the corner. it doesn't. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. on an open surface or polysurface. but it may not fit. In this case. do not pick A and B first. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. joining A to C. Objects have overlapping surface areas.0 Command Reference In general. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. no corner patch will be attempted. it is projected. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. Often. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface.Rhino 2. 129 . Additionally. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. then the result to B will work. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. The picking order can make the difference. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam.

Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. the operation can fail. For success using the Booleans.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. 130 . Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. or visa versa. not mesh objects. You can also move control points to the same location. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command.Rhino 2. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. This point is also called a singularity.

click From Objects. The objects will Union.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. At the Select object to intersect prompt. In this example. but Difference. In this example. and then click Intersection. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. In this example. 131 . To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. At the Select object for intersection prompt. select the second object.Rhino 2. select one object. we chose the cone first. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. and Intersection do not work. Depending on the order the objects are selected. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. the Intersect command may give different results. In this example. there are three possible intersection curves. the two boxes are just touching along one side. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces.

this may not happen. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. you would expect to get all three curves. In our simple example. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order.Rhino 2. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. however. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. To get all the possible curves. If your objects are very complex. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. if your objects are polysurfaces. Therefore. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. so we will Explode it. but for the same reason the Boolean failed.

use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter.Rhino 2. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. From the Solid menu. Explode the cone.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. select the cone. At the Select object to split prompt. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. click Split. Delete the small wedge of the cone. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. 133 . click Extract Surface. select the two faces of the box as shown below. At the Select cutting objects prompt.

At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. In this case.Rhino 2. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. The intersection involves isolated points. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. intersection. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. From the Edit menu. and is achieved by flipping the normals. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. There is no intersection. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. difference. 134 . Use the Join command to join all the parts together. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. go through the same code. select the two curves. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. union. A – B = A intersect ~B. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. click Trim. So. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove.

clear the checkbox for the toolbar. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Double-click Rhino.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Exit Rhino. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. To understand the results. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance.ini and restart Rhino. find the folder where Rhino is installed. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface.ini. select the check box for the toolbar. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Surfaces overlap. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.ini to open it for editing. cylinders. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. In Windows Explorer. 135 . Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. planes. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. Edit the Rhino. the outside is the side to which the normals point.Rhino 2. Find the setting you want to change. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. etc. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity.ini file. To edit the Rhino. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection.

In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Or. The toolbar appears or hides.ini file. The toolbar moves to a new position. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. The title bar appears on the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. loses its title bar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area.Rhino 2. 136 . Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. which can be on or off the Rhino window. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. it has no title bar. type the new name. until the preview frame of it changes shape. and is docked. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. and click Properties. select the toolbar. The title bar appears. The toolbar reshapes. click Properties. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. right-click the toolbar name in the list. This is a setting in the Rhino.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears.

Hold down a mouse button for a moment. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Click Open. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. click Properties. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. Or. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Or. click New. The linked toolbar appears. and click Delete Toolbar. Click Import. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. and click Import Toolbar.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. select the toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. click Import. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. Press and hold Ctrl. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. select the toolbar. select the toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. which has the white triangle in the corner. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. Or. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and drop in the desired position. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. 3 137 . and from the Toolbar menu. Or. The linked toolbar appears. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved.Rhino 2. and from the Toolbar menu. and from the Toolbar menu. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Or. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. and from the Toolbar menu. and click Properties. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbars to import. click Delete. and click New Toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. Release the mouse button. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. right-click the toolbar name in the list. it will distort the bitmap icon.

Press and hold Shift. The toolbar appears. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. Or. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. The buttons rearrange. Release the mouse button. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. Press and hold Ctrl. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. Move the cursor over a link button. The linked toolbar vanishes. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Press and hold Shift. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor.Rhino 2. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. Press and hold Shift. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. In this case. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. and click the right mouse button. or to a different position in the same toolbar.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. select Float to Top to make the link button float. clear Float to Top. The toolbar is floating. it will distort the bitmap icon. 138 .

Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Use this area to edit your bitmap. type text in the ToolTip box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. select the toolbar. 139 . Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. Press and hold Shift. the left and right mouse buttons commands. type text in the ToolTip box. Or. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Click Close. and click the right mouse button. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. A blank button is added to the toolbar. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click Add Button. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. for example: Zoom In | Out.Rhino 2. You can clear the image. Release the left mouse button. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. draw with the paint tools. In the Delete Button dialog box. capture a portion of the screen. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. and click the right mouse button. click OK. Press F2 to view the command history. Press and hold Shift. and the bitmap icon. Press and hold Shift. and click Add Button. You can change the ToolTip. If you don't know what to enter. and from the Toolbar menu.

click Edit Bitmap. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Grab. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. and click the right mouse button. Or. Press and hold Shift. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. right. click Edit Bitmap. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click Clear. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. from the Edit menu.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. Click the pencil tool. and click the right mouse button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and click the right mouse button. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. up. Or. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. A square replaces the cursor. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. the button is blank. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. then OK. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. 140 . Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Note You can shift the image left. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. from the Edit menu. from the Edit menu. To undo a mistake. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. Press and hold Shift. click Edit Bitmap. and click the right mouse button. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Undo.Rhino 2. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons.

select a bitmap file. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.Rhino 2. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. from a text file.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. which stops the creation of point objects. shortcut keys.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. Click Open. This script moves objects. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. and click the right mouse button. 141 . In the Export Bitmap dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. Press and hold Shift.4 -4.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Enter Simulates pressing Enter.1 4. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. type a bitmap file name. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script.-3 1. command aliases.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. from the File menu. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. from the File menu. click Import Bitmap. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line.0 5. Click Save. click Export Bitmap. click Edit Bitmap. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.4 13.-4 8. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5.

VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. click Commands. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. 1=Fit. portable.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection.5. 142 . a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. Automation servers. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Press F2 to view the command history. Options are 0=Interpolate. is a fast. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts.Rhino 2. variable names. Microsoft JScript 5. The default is 1. The default is 20. If you don't know what to enter. Divs is the samples per knotspan. Mode is always 1. the Web's only standard scripting language. then click Paste from Clipboard. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. queries. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. From the Tools menu. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. Fit is the fitting method. layername2. browsing for files. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. These scripting languages allow loops. and Java applets.

MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. then it will list some specific problems.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. If you zoom in enough. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. 143 . If your model doesn't pass Check. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. If a model passes Check. see: http://msdn. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. To fix broken edges. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms.for instance. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. and Check doesn't check for those things. and join everything back together again. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming.rvb. though. Rhino will let you do it. If your model doesn't pass Check. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. you may find some of those microscopic edges.Rhino 2. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . If Rhino matches the large edges. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. then edit the trim curves. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. re-trim the surface. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. Another problem is having a tiny. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer.microsoft. The first one to try is the Check command. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. These damaged areas can cause problems. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. you have to explode the model. For more information on scripting. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. Some bad model parts.

Thus. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. Untrim or DetachTrim. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge.4 10. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. Split the curve at the kink. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot.5 5. Additionally. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. the Join command can get confused when that happens. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. 144 . If there are lots of tiny edges. This test does not check the geometry. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). and Join.Rhino 2. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. To draw a non-G1 curve. you can Undo changing the degree. simple edge-to-edge matching. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. You will get this error message. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot.0 5.10 5. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. Solution: Rebuild the curve.0 5. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. FitCrv. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Trim again. open up the kink by control point editing.

You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. You will get this error message. Internal control points are coincident. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. This option takes precedence over the /key option. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Edge direction. Join and Booleans in particular. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. In short. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). but not right on top of each other.Rhino 2. Some operations. Extrude it. The warning lets you know when this has happened. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. You can put control points very close to each other. Solution: Open up the stacked points. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. Usually. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. fix curve and retrim. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. but not right on top of each other. Use this to install as a standalone node. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Solution: Rebuild the edge. and then control point edit the extrusion. You can put control points very close to each other.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. Rhino 2. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Draw a Circle. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. 145 . You will get this error message. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. Solution: DetachTrim. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model.

0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. This is an installation option. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. contact your network administrator. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2.com/plugins/developer.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2.0 as a workgroup node. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. the license is added back to the available license pool. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. Thus. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. unlike standalone Rhino. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network.rhino3d. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www.Rhino 2. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo.htm. visit www. Very little administration is required.0" as a workgroup node. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. Commercial versions of Rhino 2.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. it does not modify the shape of the surface.com/plug-ins. 146 . If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. When a node shuts down.rhino3d. For details on setting up a workgroup. No special hardware is needed. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back.

then e_tol tells how close the 3. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . 1/3.D edge is to the surface. 1.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. 2. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. If an object snap is on. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. trim curves are ignored. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. 147 . 0. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0.D curve (the one you see). A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. Cursor. The 3. 3. the cursor turns into a crosshair. two 2.90 degrees The range is from . 1. Marker. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3.D edge. For example. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. the marker will snap to the snap point. Each 2. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. and tolerance values for each of the curves. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. 8/3.90 degrees to 90 degrees.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. Rhino meshes all trim edges. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. When the initial mesh grid is made. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. When using elevator mode.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 3. which also approximates the intersection. 0. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. After the initial grid is made.Rhino 2. the draft angle is 0. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). 2. called the edge. called the pedge.D curves.D curve.

0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations.) with a polynomial definition. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. If you hold it at the ends. When you have a finished solid. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. or reflective metal on one side. or a polysurface. flat constant on the other). red on the other. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. etc.Rhino 2. the stiffness of the rope. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. However. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. 148 . Some renderers support double-sided shaders. Imagine a rope. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. The other side is the inside. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. when you have a single surface. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. blue on one side. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. Solid objects do not have naked edges.

Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. surfaces. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command.Rhino 2. it is also a solid. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Snap pane. this is called a "quilt. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. In some other 3-D programs. 149 . Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. and solids. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Ortho pane.

and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. Surfaces have three directions. If a mesh is generated from a solid. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. Esc deselects all objects. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. v. You can display the u. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. u. You can save your own templates to base future models on. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots.Rhino 2. The u. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. Esc turns off the points.direction is indicated by the red arrow. A rectangular surface with the u. no objects are selected. 150 . v. units. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. grid size. and the v. When no command is active. there will be no holes in the mesh. U.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files.direction is indicated by the green arrow.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. and normal. Esc clears the command prompt. If objects are selected and no command is active. The u. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. and tolerances.

Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. and Third corner of polygon prompts. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Press Enter for triangle prompt.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. 3View Three-viewport layout. Or. Second corner of polygon. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. 4View Four-viewport layout. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. You can shade and render the wireframe view.Rhino 2. At the Fourth corner of polygon. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. 151 .

0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Start the AddNextV command. Start the AddNextU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. 152 .Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface.

Start the AddPrevU command. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected 153 .0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2.

Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. 1 At the Select objects prompt. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. 2 At the Select groups. 154 . Start the AddPrevV command.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. select an object to add to a group. prompt select the group or enter a group name. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. Use the Group command to group objects together. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group.

select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt.Rhino 2. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. 155 . At the Select curve to change prompt. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. AlignProfiles Align two curves. 1 2 Select the objects. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. World Front. or World Right. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. The curves must be planar. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up.

At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. Start of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. End of first line prompt. 156 . pick a point for all construction planes to pass through.Rhino 2. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. select a point that defines the start of an angle line.

Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. 157 .0000 degrees. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. If the surface is trimmed. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. and fitted onto the selected surface.Rhino 2. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. select the surface on which to apply the curves. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. select the surface to apply the mesh.

If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. enter the start point of the arc. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino.Rhino 2. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. enter the center of the arc's radius. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. one of which has been squished around in some way. Generally. although if you understand the process and work at it. enter the end point of the arc. At the End point or angle prompt. For example. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. enter the center of the arc's radius. But that swaps u and v on the surface. 158 . The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. mesh the most complex surface first. Or. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. ApplyMesh guarantees that. enter the angle for the arc. you can make such morphs. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. At the Start of arc prompt. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. Arc Draw an arc. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. Start. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. so if you Mirror something. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. If making morph targets. If you use the Mirror transformation. Then. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface.

0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. At the Point on arc prompt. Arc from three points 159 . enter a point on the arc. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc.Rhino 2. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the End of arc prompt. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. enter the start of the arc. enter the end point of the arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points.

enter the end point. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. At the Direction prompt. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. select the first curve. end point. At the End of arc prompt. 160 . At the Radius prompt. you will be prompted for the minimum radius.Rhino 2. At the End of arc prompt. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. enter the start point. select the second curve. At the Radius prompt. enter the radius of the arc. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. enter the end point. End. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. End. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. If the radius value is too small. At the Choose arc prompt. Arc from start point. end point. enter a radius value. enter the start point. and radius. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. Tangent. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2.8545412. product moments. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).1.0). A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.4601236.7e-006.34 (+/. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.0 (+/. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.1e-006. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.0. First moments.014). If you cannot see the entire report. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. 161 . Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. second moments. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.1.

0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 3.0) zx: 0 (+/. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command. and sometimes contradictory.1e-009) Ry: 1.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2. Area First Moments: 162 .1e-009) Rz: 6.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report.1e-009) Rz: 3. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.1e-007) z: 0 (+/. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments. with a surface or open polysurface.0 is shown below.0 and 6.88675135 (+/. As an example.10.Rhino 2. if you select a box polysurface.0 (+/. Area = 60 (+/.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.77350269 (+/. For example.36650165 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.1e-009.1e-009.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.46410162 (+/.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.5.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.1e-007) y: 300 (+/. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.0. In order to get the particular moment you need. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.73205081 (+/.73300329 (+/.

Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. In particular. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. In terms of integrals. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. area second moments. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. area first moments. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. In terms of integrals. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area.Rhino 2. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. The relationship between the area first moments. the area. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. and area product moments. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area.

type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. At the Number in Z direction prompt. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. Or. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. At the Number in X direction prompt. The array directions are the x. type the y-interval and press Enter. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. At the Number in Y direction prompt. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. Transform. those distances are applied to the array directions.and y-intervals. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. to indicate the x.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. 164 .Rhino 2. type the x-interval. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. press Enter. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects.

Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts.Rhino 2. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. Or. 165 . In the Array Along Curve dialog box. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. type the z-interval and press Enter. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. or the spacing distance along the curve. At the Select path curve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. choose two points that define the z-interval. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. set the number of elements to array. specify twist behavior. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items.

Surface. At the Basepoint prompt. type the number of copies and press Enter. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. At the Select the surface prompt. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. choose a center point for the array. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. curve on surface. 166 . ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole.Rhino 2. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. and object to array. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. type an angle and press Enter. Enter a value of 1 or more. Objects arrayed along line.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. At the Angle to fill prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. select objects to copy along the curve. At the Center of polar array prompt. select a curve on a surface. You can continue to place objects.

some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. If the surface is a trimmed surface.Rhino 2. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. At the Select surface to array along prompt. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. Array along a surface 167 .0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. type a number of objects. type a number of objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. choose the surface to array along.

Rhino 2. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. the model's folder will be used as the default. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. See the PluginManager command. At the End of line prompt. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. otherwise you must select a folder. it prints a detailed description of the error. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). 168 . pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. enter the start of the arrow. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. enter the end of the arrow. If the Audit command detects a database error. the path. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly.rhp Options set the resolution. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead.

Note By default. By default. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.ini. automatic Autosave is turned off. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. At the Radius prompt. choose a radius. General tab. Files tab. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. 169 . Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. Files tab. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose a center point.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. you must edit your Rhino. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. Back Set to world back view.Rhino 2.

choose the amount of bend. choose an endpoint. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the Start of spine prompt. choose the second endpoint of the line. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. choose a center point. At the End of spine prompt. choose an endpoint. choose an endpoint. At the End of second axis prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. Bend Bend objects.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. At the End of third axis prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. place the point outside the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. To bend the entire object. Bend 170 . place the point outside the object. To bend the entire object.

only control points. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important.Rhino 2. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. or enter a length and press Enter. enter the start of the bisector line. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. 171 . The remainder of the object is kept straight. enter the start of the angle to bisect. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Bend moves the control points of objects. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. curves. and meshes. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. enter the end of the angle to bisect. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. you will only bend that part of the object. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. You can't bend a polysurface .

This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. 172 . Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity.

The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). If you are joining curves. tangent direction. To do this. The Blend command creates G2 blends. If you need a G1 blend. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve.Rhino 2. Note The location. and curvature. tangent direction. The location. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. tangent direction. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. or press Enter. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. A blend curve that matches location. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. tangent directions. it applies only to the second end. 173 . select adjacent edges. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. tangent direction. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. If a blend appears to tight or loose. At the Select first set of edges. In either case. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. If it is invoked after picking the first end. select a surface edge. and one of the curves is a blend curve. and curvature. then you should probably use InsertKnot. delete the arc. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. tangent direction. tangent direction.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. and curvature is called a G2 blend. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. it applies to both ends. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

it will no longer be periodic. the greater the number of control points.Rhino 2. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. If you raise the degree of a surface. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. but adds control points between each knot span. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. This gives you more control over the shape. 183 . The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. the higher the degree. click the new layer. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box.

CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. When users get back in the office. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. enter the radius point. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. enter the center point. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. 184 .0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. Note Delete or rebuild the object. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt.Rhino 2. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Diagnostics. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. Select objects. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. To check a license back in. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. When the user gets back in the office. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. Circle Draw a circle. use the CheckInLicense command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. select one object.

You can enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. At the Third point on circle prompt. enter a second point on the circumference. You can enter the number of control points. enter a third point on the circumference. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. enter a point on the circumference. select the first curve. At the Second point on circle prompt. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. enter the end of the diameter. 186 . enter a radius. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter.Rhino 2. There may be multiple circles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. delete the extras. At the End of diameter prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Tangent. At the Radius prompt. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. select the second curve. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt.

Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. select the third curve. 187 . At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. delete the extras. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves.Rhino 2. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. select the first curve. select the second curve. or are tangent to a second curve. At the Third tangent curve. Note To reduce the size of the model file. There may be multiple circles. Point Select a point for input. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces.

ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. 188 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. right click in the Rhino Command History window. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. Note To show the list of recently-used commands.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. Note Point objects display as small squares. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. Point objects are not a part of any other object. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object.Rhino 2. CommandHistory View command history. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. At the Base point for closest point prompt. Press F2 again to close the window. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. To start one of those commands. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. or in the Command area. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. enter a point. pick it from the list. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window.

it is pasted as a command script. Commands List all Rhino commands. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . choose a center point for the base. Without the command area. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. look at the Command List in this help file. Cone Draw a cone.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. choose a radius. At the End of cone prompt. If there is text in the Clipboard. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line.Rhino 2. Or. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. At the Radius prompt. it is pasted.

Or. enter the end point for the conic.Rhino 2. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. Conic Draw a conic section curve. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. At the End of conic prompt. At the Reference vertex prompt. Conic 190 . Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. enter the start point for the conic. enter the middle point for the conic.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane.

C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. Point on first curve prompt.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt.5 and less than 1.5. B. select a curve. Second reference curve prompt. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number.0 and less than 0. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle.5. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. type T to select tangent curves. If you work out the details. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. Parabolic Rho value of 0.C). First reference curve prompt. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. let T be the point where line(B. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 .S) intersects chord(A. Curvature point or rho prompt. Point on second curve prompt.Rhino 2. select a second curve. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0.

enter the reference vertex for the conic. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. 192 . End control points are at the same location. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. This point partially defines the plane for the conic.Rhino 2. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt.5. so the w<1 case is elliptical. Or. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. enter the end point for the conic.5 and 1.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically.5. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Parabolic Rho value of 0. At the End of conic prompt. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature.0 and 0.

polysurfaces. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Blend. BlendSrf. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. choose a base point. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). At the Contour plane base point prompt. Position. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. and meshes for contour line creation.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same.Rhino 2. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. 193 . and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. One of the contour planes will go through this point. Match. curvature.

At the Distance between contours prompt. generated in both directions from the base point. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. The higher this number is. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. 194 . At the Control polygon display density prompt. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. the less dense the control polygon will display.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines.

At the Angle tolerance prompt. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. 195 . Larger angles result in coarser polylines. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. select curves and press Enter. The original curves are removed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. use the ExtractWireframe command first.Rhino 2. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. Edges can't be converted with this command.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. select an object to create polylines from. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. while smaller angles result in finer polylines.

to move the copy vertically. At the Point to copy to prompts. 196 . Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.Rhino 2. to copy the object in the same place. Or. it is created when the object is pasted. When you Paste objects into Rhino. choose locations for copies. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. type I and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. type v and press Enter. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. Object properties and location are stored with the object. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. If the layer does not exist. Or. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. snap spacing.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. choose a point to move the copy from. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the y-axis. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. At the CPlane elevation prompt. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane.axis. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. At the X axis direction prompt.Rhino 2. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane orientation prompt. choose a point on the x-axis. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. At the CPlane origin prompt. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. 197 . enter the new elevation for the CPlane.

Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. in the dynamic preview.and yaxes to a new location. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep.D. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want.Rhino 2. choose the new origin. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. drag the construction plane's new x. 198 . Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. for example. At the CPlane origin prompt. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. Once your construction plane is positioned. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane.D location where it needs to be.

CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. 199 .Rhino 2. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. select a curve or surface.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt.

200 . CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis.axis.Rhino 2. At the X axis direction prompt. choose the new origin. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the x. At the Z axis direction prompt.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the z. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the X axis direction prompt. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis.

The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. select the first planar curve.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. Top view of profile curves 201 . Use UnrollSrf. cut openings in the unrolled surface. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. the original surface must be developable. select a surface. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface.Rhino 2. select the second planar curve. At the Select planar curve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt.

The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. Example For an example.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Look in the index under "Curve. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide." 202 .Rhino 2. From 2 Views.

three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. and move it along the curve. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. pick on a seam point marker. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. press Enter. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. When you are done adjusting the connections. joining the ends of the overlap interval. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. pick a new location for the seam point. For each overlap interval. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. 203 . CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. They are connected with a line. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. press Enter to turn off the deviation display.Rhino 2. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. At the Location of seam point prompt.

Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. 204 .0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. reversing the direction of the curve. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve.

A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. At the Select point on the surface prompts. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. that passes through the profile curves. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. end the line for the cross section plane. with the control polygons. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. V or Both directions. pick near a control point. Press Enter to stop creating curves. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . At the Select profile curves in order prompt. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. The control point for the surface appear. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. press Enter to end the command. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. select a surface. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. At the End of cross-section line prompt. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt.Rhino 2.

For best results.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. space the cross section curves relatively evenly. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point.

select a curve. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. 2 207 . Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. click to create the circle object. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. Or. This does not automate finding the inflection points. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. press Esc to end the command without change.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible.Rhino 2. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. the curve is locally flat.

The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. For example. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. Options Gaussian In the images below. set the style and range. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. and other important properties.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. 208 . green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. In the Curvature dialog box. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. curvature. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures.

In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. 209 . Blue areas should be safe. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. (Planes. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion. cylinders. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature).5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. Set the value for blue rather high (10. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue.>100. In the case of an offset.>1000) and the red close to infinity." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question.Rhino 2. In the case of the mill. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like.

then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. If we care about this. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces.Rhino 2. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. As a starting point. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. and the direction. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. This is known as signed curvature. or to the right of the curve. These meshes can be large. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. At any point on a curve in the plane. these values may not be appropriate. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. this may result in a rather uninformative image. the normal to the surface at that point. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. then we establish a convention. both free and attached to objects. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. A soap bubble. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. unlike a simple soap film. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve.

CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. such as wire loops. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. frequency. Adjust the length. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. even when other commands are started. 211 . Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. close the dialog box. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. u. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Curvature graph on surface. This contrasts with a soap bubble. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or.Rhino 2.

However.Rhino 2. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. They are not curvature continuous. the rate of curvature does suddenly change.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. Degree 5 curve 212 . the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. In other words. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. or tangent only.

Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. Gaussian curvature. that is. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. If the graph changes smoothly.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. 3. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. Curve Draw a curve by control points. To see the circle. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. minimum principal curvature. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. If isoparm display is turned off. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. As you move your cursor. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . the curve is "smooth" or "fair. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). Press F2 to show the Command History window. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. maximum principal curvature." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. negative when the circles point opposite ways. 3. At any point on a curve (except lines). The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point.Rhino 2.D point. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. To better grasp this. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. pick a point on the surface.D normal.

You must draw one more control point than the degree. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. To end the curve. press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. When drawing a high degree curve. The curve closes. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. and pick. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered.Rhino 2. At the Next point. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . enter the start of the curve. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. At the Next point. enter an additional control point. Press Alt to suspend autoclose.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. enter additional control points. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard.

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.1. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.0 (+/.0). At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. select the box.4601236.1.1. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. it is created when the object is pasted. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. 4 215 . When you Paste objects into Rhino. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard.8545412. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Object properties and location are stored with the object. product moments. First moments. select the box. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. select the box. second moments.7e-006. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.Rhino 2. If the layer does not exist. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.014). At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box.0.34 (+/.

Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. 216 . The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623.Rhino 2. At the Start of cut plane prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt.3921 (+/. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter.0. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects.0001). select the first point of a line to define a plane.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. select the end point of a line that defines a plane. select the box. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. press Enter to stop making cut planes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. At the End of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.

choose a center point for the base. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder.Rhino 2. select the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0 (+/.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.7e-006.1. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. At the End of cylinder prompt.8545412. At the Radius prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Solid cylinder 217 . volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.1e-006. choose a point for the center of the top surface. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.4601236. product moments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1.0).1. select the box. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. second moments. First moments. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. choose a radius. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box.

use the Erase command. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Press Delete. To start a new model. use New command instead. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. saved views. and saved construction planes are not deleted.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Layers. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. All objects in the model are deleted. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Delete Delete selected objects. 218 . Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete.Rhino 2.

Similar to Untrim .axis in the real world. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. and the trim curve is created. select the proper serial port and baud rate. choose an origin in Rhino.Rhino 2. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axis.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. use the arm to choose a y. select your digitizing arm. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. In the Baud Rate dialog box.axis is perpendicular to the x. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. select a boundary to detach. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. You do not need to ensure that the y.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Rhino will do it for you. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. 219 .axis in the real world. use the arm to choose an x. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe.

Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. arcs. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. recording reference points as you go. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. 220 . choose a y. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. Digitize the third set of reference points. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. choose an x. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. If it is more convenient. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. Calibrate the digitizer with the table.Rhino 2. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. and is assigned to the F12 key. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. Whatever the reason. and curves with the digitizer. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. circles. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal.axis in Rhino. or the object moves slightly. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. you can use the digitizer. You can draw lines. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. Thus. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt.

It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. and O. click Digitize. use the arm to choose an x. X. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.axis on the table. and then click Calibrate. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. From the Tools menu. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. or you need to close and restart Rhino. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. From the Tools menu. x. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino.axis on the table. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. If the digitizer or object moves.Rhino 2. and Y for the origin. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. Y. click Digitize.. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. This is the reference polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.axes. Label each point O. and y. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. use the arm to choose a y. Microscribe. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.

When you finish digitizing points on the object. enter 0. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. a point is sampled. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. The planes are defined with a base point. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. 222 . enter a point on the base plane. At the Start of axis prompt.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. Press Enter when you are finished. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. and spacing. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. enter a second point on the base plane. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. enter the start of the section plane axis. enter 2. At the Second point on plane prompt. direction. To digitize in millimeters. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. To digitize in centimeters. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. hold the pedal. enter a third point on the base plane. You can space the planes at intervals. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize.4. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. As long as the pedal is depressed. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. At the Third point on plane prompt. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. To digitize in meters. Type C to create a closed curve. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. enter 25. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. type the scale factor for all digitized input.54.Rhino 2. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object.0254. specify how you want to space the planes.

DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a line. pick a second line. enter the distance between sampled points. As long as the pedal is depressed. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. At the Select second line prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. Rhino samples points. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt.Rhino 2. 223 . a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point on the model to dimension to.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. When you release the pedal. a point is sampled.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt.Rhino 2. At the Dimension line location prompt.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a curve. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. At the Second dimension point prompt.

turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. Or the first point of a reference angle.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the First dimension point prompt. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. enter an angle for the dimension line. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. enter the second point of a reference angle. 225 . pick a curve. At the Place the dimension prompt. At the Second reference point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line.

pick a point on the model to dimension to. surface or polysurface.directions at the point. select a curve. Or. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Press Enter to terminate the display. At the Press Enter when done prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. to change the direction. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. red and green arrows show the u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. On surfaces. pick a point for the dimension line location. Curve direction 226 . Dir Show direction display.Rhino 2.and v. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. type F.

order and direction. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. pick a location for the directional light. The location of the directional light does not matter. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. If the textures don't apply in the right direction.and v. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. 227 . unless you apply textures. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u.Rhino 2. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. The directional light icon does not render or shade. the UReverse. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. VReverse.

DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. When Object snaps are disabled.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. right-click the Disable checkbox. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. clear the Disable checkbox. light the scene less. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Distance Measure the distance between two points. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. 228 . To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. pick a point. Darker colors. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. like gray.Rhino 2.

The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. select curves and press Enter. 229 . with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. select the curves to divide and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. At the Number of segments prompt. At the Length of segments prompt. type an integer number and press Enter. Point objects are not a part of any other object. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. use the Split command. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. reversing the direction of the curve. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.Rhino 2. Note Point objects display as small squares.0000 units. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. 230 . use the Split command.Rhino 2. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. When a polysurface is picked. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. select a curve. Point objects are not a part of any other object. If you want points to start at the other end. or polysurface to evaluate.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. surface. use the Dir command to flip the curve. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface.

enter the location of the dot. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. You can check this with the Dir command. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. type the text to show in the dot. At the Location of dot prompt. 231 . Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold.Rhino 2. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane.

Rhino 2. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. DragMode Toggle drag mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects.

The Dup command only duplicates curves. The object will be duplicated in place. dimensions. surfaces. or lights. and polysurfaces. To limit your selection to surfaces. or bnd (boundary). Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. but it only makes points. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. and press Enter. Dup Duplicate an object. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. textblocks. meshes. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. Because of this. and solids. then select the edge to duplicate. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. type c (curve). at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. It does not duplicate points. select an object to duplicate. edge.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. For example. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. the surface will always sag more than the original. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. Duplicate border curve 233 .Rhino 2. type f (face). surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. select the first curve. press Enter to create a triangular surface. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. Or. 234 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. For many surface creation commands. select the edges of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.Rhino 2. select the fourth curve. The edges are duplicated as separate curves.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. select the third curve. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. select the second curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.

In the Edit Dimension dialog box. For a surface from closed planar curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. select a dimension. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets.Rhino 2. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 .0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. type new text. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. EditDim Edit dimension text. You can use surface edges. use Create a planar surface through planar curves.

In the Edit Text dialog box.Rhino 2. set the options. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. They are not the same as knots. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. select a text block. Type the new text. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. 236 . Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages.

enter the center point. The two sizes update each other. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Example If your units are inches.Rhino 2. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. When you place annotation text. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . At the End of second axis prompt. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0.25 inches. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. At the End of first axis prompt. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). enter the endpoint for the second axis. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. enter the endpoint for the first axis. You can enter the number of control points.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print.

Rhino 2. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. enter a point on the ellipse curve. At the End of second axis prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter the second focus point. enter the end of the second axis. 238 . EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. At the End of first axis prompt. Draw an ellipse from focus points. enter the end of the axis. enter a focus point.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. End of first axis prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. or type a height and press Enter. enter a focus point. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. End of second axis prompt. enter the second focus point. End of third axis prompt. 239 . At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. choose a center point. choose an endpoint for the major axis. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. choose an endpoint.

This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. 240 . if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. These meshes can be large. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. When you use the EMap command. and other important properties. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object.Rhino 2. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. curvature. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.

Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. under Zebra and EMap. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. on the Shade tab. in the Options dialog box. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. but will always work. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. When More reliable is selected. When Faster is selected. select More reliable. 241 .Rhino 2. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right.

No means there is one drag point. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. select a surface edge. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. At the End of region to edit. as with the Blend command. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. One-point-per-end mode. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. you are moving control points of the curve. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. In each case. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed.Rhino 2. At the Start of region to edit. 242 . Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. drag point indicators. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. maintains the tangent direction.

The Enter command can be used in shortcuts.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.1 2. After editing. During EndBulgeSrf editing.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered.Rhino 2.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. aliases.1 2. the script Circle 0. 243 . For example.2 does the same thing as Circle 0.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.0 Command Reference Surface before editing.

Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. click points on the surface. select a point. and the U. 244 . At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. Note When a polysurface is picked. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. If the surface is trimmed. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino.y. select the surface to evaluate. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. Note Erase is the same as Delete. select the objects you want to erase. Exit Exit Rhino. the untrimmed surface is used.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. Press Enter when done prompt. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save.z format.Rhino 2. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). A point object is created on the surface. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point.

The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. Click Save. File. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. In the Files of type box. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Rhino supports several file types. In the Files of type box. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. In the File name box. object render color. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. select the file type you want to use. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. and selected mass properties. Click Save. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file.Rhino 2. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. Export Export selected objects to a file. In the File name box. This command is obsolete. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. Use the Explode command. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. type a filename. object name. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object.0 files.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. select objects to explode. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select Rhino 2 3D Models. layer color. type a filename. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. 245 .

The extension is joined to the original curve. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Extend Extend a curve. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. At the next Select boundary objects. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. select a boundary object to extend to. Click Save. select Rhino 2 3D Models. In the File name box. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Or. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. select objects to extend. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. At the next Select object to extend prompts.Rhino 2. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Or. In the Files of type box.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. enter a name for the text file. Press Enter when done prompts. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. type a filename. 246 .

Type=Line Makes a line extension. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. and solids as boundary edges. type an angle for the arc. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. Or. enter the end of the extension.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. type a number for the radius and press Enter. Or. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. At the Radius of arc prompt. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. select a curve to extend. surfaces. At the End point or angle prompt. 247 .0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. Note You can use any combination of curves.

Select near the end of the curve to extend. select a curve to extend.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. use Extend a curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. enter the endpoint of the extension.Rhino 2. At the End of arc prompt. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. use Extend a curve. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. the extension will be joined to the original curve.

ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. Options Join If Join=Yes.Rhino 2. At the End of line or length prompt. the extension will be joined to the original curve. enter the endpoint for the line extension.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. select a curve to extend. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. if possible. Or. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. type a distance to extend and press Enter. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. 249 . Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. select the curve to extend. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. near the end you want to extend.

and MetaNURBS in LightWave. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. or pick two points to specify the distance. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. depending on the shape of the object. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. Note With the linear extension. Then the surface is extended on the end. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface.Rhino 2. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. enter an amount to extend. This fixes the original.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. The extension length is based on parameterization. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. 250 . Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . use Project or Intersect. choose a point. and isoparms display at the marker. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. If you need to place an object on a surface. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. If you need curved cross sections. and Loft a surface through them. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. surfaces. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to the surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. Extract several isoparms. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. v or both directions. and polygon mesh objects. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm.and v-directions of the surface. If you need angled cross sections along surface. In contrast to InsertKnot.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object.

The original surface is left intact. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. At the Extrusion distance prompt. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. select surfaces and press Enter. the surface is copied. Solid Tools. If you choose the Copy option. drag the desired distance and pick. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. Toolbar: Menu: Main. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. 252 . or type a distance and press Enter. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. and polygon mesh objects. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. surfaces. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. Note ExtractPt works on curves.

Rhino 2. and Chamfer. The choices are Sharp. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. Otherwise. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. then the extrusion is in that direction. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . Smooth. This option does not appear for open curves. Round.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal.

ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. pick a point. choose the point. select the path curve. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. select surfaces and press Enter. or enter a distance and press Enter. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. The default is vertical to the construction plane. select the curve. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. select the curve to extrude. use Create a 1-Rail sweep.Rhino 2. To draw a deformable plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. draw two lines at right angles. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. At the Extrusion distance prompt.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. At the Select path curve prompt. 254 . so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. At the Point to extrude to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve.

select the first curve near the end for the fillet. 255 . At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. select curves and press Enter. type the fillet radius and press Enter. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. At the Tolerance prompt. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm.Rhino 2. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. Join To change the Join option. Or. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. or accept the default and press Enter. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. type J and press Enter. type R and press Enter. enter a number. Fillet Fillet two curves. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems.

choose the first surface to fillet. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.Rhino 2. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. choose the second surface to fillet. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt.

Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. The original curves are unchanged. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. If you have a dense string of points. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet.Rhino 2. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. At the Fitting tolerance <0. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Each face has a constant monochrome color. For scripting. enter a tolerance. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. 257 . If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. In general. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. select curves and press Enter. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. The curves are refitted. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance.

Rhino 2. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. axes. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Each face has a constant monochrome color. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. this shading mode may be much faster. The grid. click Use OpenGL. 258 . click Options. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If OpenGL shading is turned on. object highlighting. the OpenGL shade options will be available. On the Shade tab. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. that define the outline of the flattened surface. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. If Booleans give unexpected results. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. such as Union instead of Difference. The objects looks exactly the same. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. On the Shade tab. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2.Rhino 2. but their directions are reversed. click Options. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. click Use OpenGL. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. this shading mode may be much faster. the OpenGL shade options will be available. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. At the Increment size prompt. enter a number and press Enter. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. 259 . If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. If OpenGL shading is turned on. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. select curves. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines.

straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve.Rhino 2. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. especially those with trimmed edges. Flow works on the control points of an object . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . At the New backbone curve . You might want a line to be one of the backbones. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Instead of drawing a line before the command. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. select the new backbone curve to flow to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. This curve will be used as a new backbone.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. At the Original backbone curve . Flow does not work on polysurfaces. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. Front Set to world front view.

At the Second curve . 261 . select the second curve near the coinciding end. you must edit your Rhino.Rhino 2. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line.select near end prompt. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.select near end prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Grid Toggle the display of the grid.

Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. Group Place selected objects in a group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. You can then apply commands to the entire group. 262 . select the curve or surface to edit.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group.Rhino 2. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. A handlebar displays on the curve.

select the surface to edit. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. At the Second corner or length prompt. or enter a length. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. 263 . click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. pick a point. Height The scale of the height of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. In the Heightfield dialog box.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. At the First corner prompt. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position.Rhino 2. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. A handlebar will display on the surface. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. pick a point. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. select a bitmap file. adjust options. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap.

In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the end of the helix axis.Rhino 2. This is the line the helix will wind around. enter the number of turns for the helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. At the End of axis prompt. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. select Turns or Pitch. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. If you select Turns. enter the radius for the helix.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. enter the start of the helix axis. At the Radius prompt. 264 . If you select Reverse twist. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. the helix will twist counterclockwise. If you select Pitch.

265 . and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Organic. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. close the Osnap dialog box. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide.Rhino 2. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. select the objects you want to hide. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Visibility. If you exit the model and reopen it. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Status bar: Osnap Or. hidden background bitmaps are displayed.

Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. the more concentrated the hotspot. The visible objects hide. that is. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight.axis.0 and 1. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. Waterline Length Length at water line. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. not a statement of a physical principle. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. The information displays in a separate window. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal).) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. enter a number between 0. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. (This is a limitation of the command. 266 . 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. Use 1.Rhino 2. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement.axis or the y. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. only half of the model needs to be given. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. The smaller the number.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. the command does nothing.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Longitude=X. ) prompt. and press Enter. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. The longitudinal direction.

and STL Tools File menu. select Rhino 3D Models. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. the objects are placed on the current layer. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. 267 . If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Click Open. The objects are reparameterized. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. Import Import or merge objects from another file.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. select curves. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. In the File name box. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. If the imported file type does not support layers. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. type a filename. the command will fail. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. File. Note Rhino supports many file types.

XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. choose a start angle.3dm tricky 1a 1. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm tricky 1a 2. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. and rotate.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. 268 . or a point to rotate from. scale. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. and z-directions.3dm tricky 1a.3dm hi 2. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. Scale Scales the objects.Rhino 2. At the Rotation Angle <0. select Rhino 3D Models.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. it does. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi.3dm bg 32985. If you say yes. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. etc.3dm bg 32986. type a filename. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you say no.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. In the File name box. Press Enter to place the model at 0.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. y. At the Scale factor <1.3dm hi 1.0. choose an insertion point for the imported objects.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. Click Open.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.

press Enter to end the command. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. select the curve to insert edit points to. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. choose points where you want to insert a kink.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to track along the curve.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. 269 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. After inserting kinks. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point.

pick points on the curve for new knots. V. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. or Both. pick points of the surface for new knots. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. 270 . At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt.Rhino 2. select a surface.

At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. At the End of line prompt. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. and pick. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. At the Start of line prompt. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. Main. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. The curve closes automatically.Rhino 2. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). press Enter. At the Next point of curve. and the parts are joined. 271 . Press Alt to suspend autoclose. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. enter additional points. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. enter an additional point. To end the curve. A straight line replaces part of the curve. enter the start of the curve.

Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. 272 . Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. choose an additional point. 5. select a surface. and 11. 9. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. 7. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. choose the first point of the curve. The marker is constrained to the surface. Sharp When you make a closed curve. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. Valid degrees are 1. At the Start of curve prompt.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. 3.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. When you draw an interpolated curve. At the Next point on curve. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves).

it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Near. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. and Intersection work. Object snaps End. Close Creates a closed curve. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. 273 . Cen.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Midpoint.Rhino 2. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Knot.

Non-polyline curves are rejected. use the BooleanIntersection command. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects.Rhino 2. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. To create surface and solid intersections. Invert Invert the selection. Intersect Intersect two objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. select the objects.

press Enter. 275 . When you are finished selecting objects to join. select objects. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Invert also selects the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. Contrast this with the Invert command. InvertPts inverts point selection only.Rhino 2. Points selected. Join Join objects. which also selects other objects.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects.

For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. Booleans. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. NetworkSrf. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. then the second one gets moved. but are not coincident.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. or Patch. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. NetworkSrf.015 units apart. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. Using the Millimeter template. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. doing a Join. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. BlendSrf. and resetting the tolerance. use MergeSrf. If not. use MergeSrf. you can have some problems later on. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. 276 . Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy.Rhino 2. For the group joiner. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. Booleans. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). If the edges are too far out of line. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other).D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. BlendSrf. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. When two edges are joined. depending on what you may do with the model.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. a 3. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. or Patch. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. For simplicity. Do you want to join these edges?".D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. no join occurs. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. If you use JoinEdge.

or Patch.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. y. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. The action performed is reported on the command line. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint.Rhino 2. merged or deleted. BlendSrf. select curves. 277 . The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. NetworkSrf. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. No mesh points are moved. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. Booleans. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. If there are naked edges. use MergeSrf.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. The picking order can make the difference. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. This command does not work in all cases. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. 278 . Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary.Rhino 2. Select Points. Click the Lock option. press Enter to close the lasso. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. but you cannot select them. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Lasso Select points with a lasso. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Start the Lasso command. See the PluginManager command. select the layers you want to lock. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Rhino displays objects on locked layers.

Two. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Click the Off option. from the list. type the name of the layer to turn on. separate the layer names with commas: One. separate the layer names with commas: One. type the name of the layer to turn off.Layer Two.Layer Three".Two. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. Click the On option. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. unlike the Lock (object) command.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Layer Three". To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. LayerOn Turn a layer on.Rhino 2. from the list select layers you want to turn on. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. LayerOff Turn a layer off.Layer Two.Layer Two. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Three" 279 .Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). In the Edit Layers dialog box. Note For layer names with spaces. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. type the name of the layer to lock. Note For layer names with spaces. separate the layer names with commas: One. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Note For layer names with spaces. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces.Two. select the layers you want to turn off.

The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. They will not show in the perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. pick the next point on the leader line. At the Next point of leader.Rhino 2. Press Enter to stop the command. This is the arrow end. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. pick the start of the leader. Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. pick additional points. At the Next point of leader.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . Left Set to world left view. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. you must edit your Rhino.

Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. arcs. Line Draw a line. ellipses. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects.Rhino 2. At the End of line prompt. and can be used to create other curves. polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. you can select any of these curve objects. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. pick the start point for the line. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. circles. and meshes. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. pick the end point for the line. select a curve or edge. BothSides option selected 281 . including lines and polylines. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. The line extends on both sides of the start point. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. polylines. surfaces. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. Line.

Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. enter the second point. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. enter the start of the line. enter the start of the base line. At the End of base line prompt.Rhino 2. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. At the End of line prompt. enter the end of the line. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. 282 . The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. At the Start of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. enter the start of the base line. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line.

The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. type an angle and press Enter. 283 . At the Pivot angle prompt. At the End of line prompt.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. and parallel to the current construction plane. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the end of the base line. pick the end of the line.Rhino 2. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. At the Select object prompts. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter.

Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. When you are finished drawing lines. At the End of line prompts.Rhino 2. press Enter. enter the start of the first line segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. enter pick endpoints for segments. 284 .

select a point on a curve for the start of the line. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. 285 . Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. At the End of line prompt. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. enter the end of the line.

select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. 286 . Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line.Rhino 2. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve.

Rhino 2. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. BothSides option selected 287 . Line vertical to construction plane. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. LineV Draw a vertical line. or enter a length and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. enter the second endpoint.

on the Options dialog box. You can download plug-ins. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. 288 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. Close Closes the dialog box. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Load Loads a selected script file. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. If the script file just contains script expressions.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. from www. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions.com/plug-ins. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. See the PluginManager command.rhino3d.Rhino 2. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. the code interpreted and run immediately. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. or press Enter to accept the default.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. select one object. enter an integer. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files.

Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. pick on a seam point marker.exe is located (e. When you are done adjusting the connections. select the objects you want to lock. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers.0 Beta\System). Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. In the Loft Options dialog box. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. You can snap to locked objects. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. In the scripts folder (e..g. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. Note You cannot select locked objects. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. Preview. 289 .. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.g. In the folder where Rhino. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction.g. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock.. In the install folder (e.Rhino 2.0 Beta). Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. The unlocked objects lock. and move it along the closed curve. adjust options. Lock Lock objects. press Enter. At the Location of seam point prompt. Select open curves near the same ends.0 Beta\Scripts).

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. 291 . use this option only at the start or end of the curve series.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Units tab before lofting. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. This is also known as a ruled surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Available when you have selected three shape curves. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. 292 .

Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. If the curves have kinks. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. too. or wrinkle. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. and some steel ship hulls. you may get unexpected results. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. the surface is not developable. These are called ruling lines. Preview Click to preview the loft. cones. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. If the surface is not linear in one direction. 293 . but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. tear. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. You may get no surface or a partial surface. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. You must use at least three curves to activate this option.

I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by.D surface. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. You just have to be careful.Rhino 2. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. thereby smoothing the surface. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. 294 . Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface.

0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines.D models. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. aluminum). you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up.y-plane. select the layout and object visibility options. expand the plates.Rhino 2. though." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. 295 . One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original.

There is no way to avoid this. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name.Rhino 2. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. Note This command does not create 2.D drawings from mesh objects. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. 296 . If two surfaces pass through each other.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown.D view. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. they may not appear on the correct layer. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view.

make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. Then use control point editing on both curves.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. 297 . The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Match Match two curves. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. This command tries to fix those surfaces. At the Choose an object prompt. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. To get a feel for what the command does. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. it is closed. If the curve was open. Sometimes. select a curve to make periodic. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks.pick near end prompt. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. If a joined curve is made periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Close the dialog box. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Other closed curves. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. At the Select curve to match . select the first curve at the end that will move. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change .

298 .Rhino 2. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity.

Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. 299 . MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another.Rhino 2. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. If you edit this curve with control points. The curves are merged together after the match. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted.

Rhino 2. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. select the edge of the target surface. 300 . If the target surface is also untrimmed. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. choose the type of match. select the edge of the surface to match. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. reversing the direction of the curve. In the Match Surface dialog box. At the Select target surface . Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape.select near edge prompt. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity).select near edge prompt.

301 . Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. Generally. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. If necessary.Rhino 2.

Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. percent.Rhino 2. 302 .0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. in degrees. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. in units.

Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly.2. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. it can twist the surface near the edge. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. If it is roundish. especially if tight tolerances are specified. but if the conditions are wrong. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. but it will still be a valid trim.Rhino 2. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. but you will get something. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. 303 . If refinement is specified. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target.knot spacing to curvature vector. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. Something like position = 0.) In usable terms. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. it will stay roundish. it may be useful to preview without refinement. If you need to match to part of an edge. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. That may be several seconds. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. If it isn't. In these cases. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. If refinement is interrupted. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. This is sometimes useful. If the surface being changed is trimmed. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. This is the hardest condition to meet. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then.

Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar.1 ) prompt. must belong to the same surface. 304 . then click Maximize. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. then click Restore. double click the viewport title bar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. select the second surface. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. Maximize Maximize Rhino. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. select the first surface to merge. Or. if possible. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. Right click the viewport title bar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport.Rhino 2. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. Note The edges must be naked. must share an endpoint. Or. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. double click the viewport title bar. and the prompt repeats.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. select an adjacent edge. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends.

Smooth The surface will be smooth.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .Rhino 2. End view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.

you have to approach things differently. editable surface. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports.Rhino 2. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. Generally. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. with finer or coarser mesh. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Once you have trimmed surfaces. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. The default is 1 (full smoothing).0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . A mesh can be preview and then created. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. For closed surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth).notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. In some ways. 306 . mirroring it. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. The resulting surface can be edited. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. This is useful for modeling half of an object.

Limits the size of the polygon edges. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. The default is zero. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Scale-dependent. and adjustment for trim boundaries. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Default is 0. In practice. Scale independent. Max dist. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. When this Refine is checked. less accurate meshes. Scale independent. When the Refine is checked. Simple planes is not selected. By default. Zero means no limit. which is the default. which is the default. Jagged seams is not selected. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. and higher polygon count. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. and lower polygon count.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. When the Refine is checked. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Scale independent. 307 . lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. edge to Srf options. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. more accurate meshes. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Zero means no minimum. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. more accurate meshes. No refinement results in faster meshing. after initial meshing. Setting Max dist. and higher polygon count. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. By default. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option.Rhino 2. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing.

to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from.Rhino 2. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. choose a corner of the box. choose a radius. choose a height. choose a diagonal corner. choose the cone's point. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. or type in a height and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. 308 . If a length was entered. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. choose a center point for the base. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. not editable. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. At the Other corner or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. At the Height prompt. At the End of cone prompt. at the Width prompt. Or type in a length and press Enter.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. or type in a width and press Enter. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. choose a width by picking.

choose a height. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. joined from a base circular mesh. At the Height prompt. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. choose a center point for the base. and a open cone-shaped mesh. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a radius. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . joined from a base and top circular meshes. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder.Rhino 2. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives.

choose a the diagonal corner. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. choose a width by picking. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. or type in a width and press Enter. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. choose a corner of the plane. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. 310 . At the Other corner or length prompt. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. If a length was entered. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Or type in a length and press Enter.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. at the Width prompt. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created.

Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. 311 . choose a radius. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. choose a center point.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.

Select the objects. Press delete to delete the original. As you move the cursor. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Mirror Mirror objects. Move Move objects. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. The original is left selected. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. choose a point to move the objects from.Rhino 2. 312 . choose a point on the mirror plane. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Note Mirror makes a copy. Minimize Minimize Rhino. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy.

MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. corner3. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. v-. to move the objects vertically. MoveUVN Use u-. 313 . At the Choose offset point prompt. Modeling Aids tab. Along control polygon The u. pick a base point. corner2. To move objects small amounts.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. choose a location for objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. you can type corner1. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. or z-direction. At the Point to move to prompt. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement.Rhino 2. and n. During the command.0 Command Reference Or. Slider scale affects this mode. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. pick a new location for the base point. type V and press Enter.sliders to move the selected control points. y-. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. UV Move mode Along tangent The u.

314 . NamedView Edit named views. rename or delete unwanted named views. All points to edit have to be selected. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. All points to edit have to be selected.Rhino 2. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly.

Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. 315 . Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. If a curve and surface edge overlap. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. you can turn the automatic sorter off. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. The default is the system tolerance. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. the best guess is made at the surface. The surface will be created. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. Edge Matching After the command is done. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry.Rhino 2. The default is the system tolerance x 10. If you want to select the curves individually. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. the surface will have four edges. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. be sure to select the surface edge. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves.

Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Select from Loose. Tangent.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Position. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes.Rhino 2. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 .

Rhino 2. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

Use New to open the template you want to change. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates.Rhino 2. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. grid settings. viewport layout. New Create a new model. select a template to base your model file on. and tolerances. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. For example. layers. drag a window for a new viewport. 318 . NewViewport Create a new viewport. units.

Start the NextV command. Start the NextU command. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the v-direction is selected.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. 319 . The next control point in the u-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction.

Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. At the Point on surface prompt. select a surface. 320 . At the Length of line prompt. pick a point for the end of the line. The marker is constrained to the surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. or enter a length and press Enter.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. choose a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . type information you want to save with the model. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files.Rhino 2. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. it will be open next time the model is opened.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. Offset Offset a curve. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. copy. Line normal to a surface. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box.

At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. When a plane.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. sphere. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. torus. click on one side the curve. A surface and its offset 322 . select a curve or edge. the resulting surface is exact. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Otherwise.Rhino 2. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Note For best results. or cone is offset. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. cylinder. Negative values offset the other way. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Type 0 to use the default tolerance.

they are not converted to NURBS objects. select Rhino 3D Models. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. In the File name box.Rhino 2. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. Click Open. select the layer to turn on. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Note Rhino supports several file types. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. so the fact that they are locked is lost. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. not the trim edges. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. 323 . type a filename. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. File. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. they are also unlocked. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. When you turn the layers back on. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Open Open an existing model. All other layers will be turned off.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. An arrow indicates the offset direction. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO.

to orient copies of the objects.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. In the Open Workspace dialog box.Rhino 2. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. or some of them may be hidden. type c and press Enter. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. pick a target point for the first reference point. The prompt will change to Scale=No. and the number of columns when floating. Options Opens the Options dialog box. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. and whether it is hidden or showing. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. pick a target point for the second reference point. type s and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. the buttons in them. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. but objects remain the same size. the screen position of each toolbar. The objects are moved. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. click Open. whether it is floating or docked. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Or. 324 . select a workspace file. Scale If Scale=No. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. from the File menu. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point.

that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. type c and press Enter. The two triplet of points define two planes. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. select the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. to orient copies of the objects.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. pick a point on the surface to define the target point.Rhino 2. 325 . At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. If the curve does not start on the edge. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. pick a point that. Or. with the other two reference points. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. select objects and press Enter. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. The three points are not interchangeable.

Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies.Rhino 2. As you move the cursor over the surface. The Mirror option toggles between them. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. 326 . Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface.and v-directions. pick a point on the surface to define another target point.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). There are four possible orientations on the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used.

Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. click a point on the curve to move the object. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. are all toggles. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. and the F8 key. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. The cursor tracks along the curve. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. select the curve you want to align the object to. clicking Ortho in the status bar.Rhino 2. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. you will get different end results. select a base point on the object. If you pick this point in different views. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. 327 . Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. At the Base point prompt. Shift Note The Ortho command. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis.

328 . The default angle is 90 degrees. When Ortho is on. the packed texture coordinates are created. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. and Toggle. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Polysurface made of four surfaces. type the new angle and press Enter. The default angle is 90 degrees. Packed textures. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. When polysurfaces are meshed. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. Off. Modeling Aids tab. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. Note When Ortho is on.Rhino 2. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. If more than one object is selected. At the Ortho Angle prompt. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects.

use the Pan command. Front. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. PanDown Pan the view down. use the Pan command.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. use the Pan command. 329 . Note This command is most useful in command scripts. PanRight Pan the view right. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. Pan Pan the view. Plan parallel views like the default Top. PanLeft Pan the view left. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Note This command is most useful in command scripts.Rhino 2. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Focus. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. use the Pan command. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. Focus. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. enter a point for an end of the parabola. From the Curve menu. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. show a direction for the parabola. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. 330 .0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. click Parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. Direction. and then click Vertex. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. click Parabola. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. Focus From the Curve menu. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus.Rhino 2. This is the "open" direction.

4 Vertex and focus. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge. 4 Focus and direction. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 331 . To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.Rhino 2. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. Uncapped paraboloid.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. enter a point on the parabola's edge. End.

Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.Rhino 2. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Uncapped paraboloid. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid.0 Command Reference End. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. they are pasted into your model. it is created when the object is pasted. When you Paste objects into Rhino. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. If the layer does not exist. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. 332 . Object properties and location are restored with the object.

Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. To make a highly curved surface. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects.Rhino 2. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. it will be very close to reasonable input. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. adjust options. but with proper configuration. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. Minimum of 8 points per curve. use a starting surface with a similar shape. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. select the point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. Even for a relatively flat patch. These don't have to be connected. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). and edges to base the patch on. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. but it also can produce some unexpected results. curves. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. In the Patch Options dialog box. 333 . you may need a starting surface. Note This command can be very useful. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. For a trimmed patch. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. select curves that form a closed shape.

Pause is a built in command option. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. aliases. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. 334 . The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. and type PerspectiveMatch. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). 2 The wallpaper image. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. you must edit your Rhino.Rhino 2. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. Perspective Set to perspective view. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image.

then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. 335 . Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points.Rhino 2. All points picked on the image. The first point on the model. 4 All points picked on the model. The first point on the image. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.

Sloppy picking gives you garbage. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. Pipe Draw a pipe.Rhino 2. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. Make the image view large. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. If possible. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. select a bitmap file to use. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. In particular.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. Note The image must be a true perspective image. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. you have modified your model. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . This aids in accurate image point picking. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. changed the viewport settings. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. etc. At the Length of picture frame prompt. Pick carefully. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work.

enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. at the End radius prompt. For an open curve. At the Starting radius prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. and the closed pipe is created. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. select a curve. type T and press Enter. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. If the pipe objects are capped.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls. Or.Rhino 2. enter the radius for the pipe. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. At the Second corner or length prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. select a bitmap file. select a curve. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. Click Open. At the Second start radius prompt. if the curve is closed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. At the Second end radius prompt. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. At the First end radius prompt. At the First corner prompt. 337 .

Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. Placing a second deletes the first. By default the Top. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. enter the camera point. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. enter the target point. and JPG. remove it. 338 . To place a backdrop behind your model. At the New target location <X. TGA. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. In PARALLEL viewports. Front. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. You can move the background bitmap. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport.Y.Y. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. PCX. BMP. align it (move and scale in one operation). see Place a bitmap backdrop. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. 3-D Digitizing. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. and temporarily hide it. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there.Z> prompt.Z> prompt. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. scale it.Rhino 2. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center.

then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. PlaceTarget Place the target location. 3-D Digitizing. Without Planar on. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed.Y. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu Set View. In PARALLEL viewports. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. regardless of where the previous point was picked. then those objects are not visible on the screen. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. 339 . Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. enter the target point. then click Control Points. In PERSPECTIVE views. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. From the Curve menu. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. In PERSPECTIVE views. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Planar Toggle planar mode. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). click Free-form. then those objects are not visible on the screen.Z> prompt. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

To end the polyline. press Enter. start the polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. making a closed polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. enter the start point of the polyline. select a mesh object. To end the polyline. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. press Enter. 349 . At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. enter additional vertices for the polyline. At the Next point of polyline prompts. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects.Rhino 2. enter additional vertices for the polyline.

350 . Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. making a closed polyline. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through.Rhino 2. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands.

0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Start the PrevV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. 351 . Start the PrevU command. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface.

color. and number of copies. the contents are printed on top of each other. print scale. and each viewport is printed in its area. The part that does not fit is not printed. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. If you fit the image to the page. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. the objects outside the viewport are printed. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Always.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. the central part of the view is printed.Rhino 2. No viewport edge is printed. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. If viewports overlap. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. 352 . That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. print to a file.

provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. It will crop objects that are visible. if they don't fit on the page. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. If the objects don't fit. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. and same orientation. Then. If you want to print at some other scale. Curve projected to a surface 353 . The curves are projected onto the surfaces. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. Print. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. PrintSetup Set up your printer. as the paper you're printing on. hide them. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports.Rhino 2. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Light objects do not print. too. not printing from perspective viewports. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. (Actually. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size.

set the projection type for the viewport. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. and free-form curves work well. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. circles. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. surfaces.Rhino 2. lines. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. and polysurfaces. Project will never work correctly for this. Properties Edit object properties. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. curves. choose to keep or delete the input objects. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. however. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. This command works on points. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. Basic shapes like ellipses. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting.

Point Editing. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . Toolbar: Menu: Main.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Point Editing. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Organic. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. surfaces. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. STL Tools. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. To control point edit a polysurface. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off.Rhino 2. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. Organic. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves.

Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. Use curve commands to draw the curve. Then. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface.Rhino 2. select a curve to measure. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. use the fewest control point possible. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. When drawing the curves. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. select the surface to pull the curves back to. Both commands ask for the viewport name.0000. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder.

the result looks exactly the same both ways. select a rail curve. rail curve. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . At the Revolve axis direction prompt. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. select a profile curve. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. Profile curve. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. In this case.Rhino 2. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. in addition to being revolved.

0 23.5. select the file to read.9. readcommandfile myfile.2. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar.5. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box.0 27.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.1.8. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.5. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.4.4. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename.4. ! Interpcrv 23.0 23. The file contents are copied into the command line. Note When building command files. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.1.7. If the rail curve is closed. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.8. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. use the Enter command.1 26. 358 . You can then select a file from the list. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.Rhino 2. If you read in a particular file often.9. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.1.2. If you leave off the filename.1. a file dialog box appears.9 Enter etc….0.txt Click the button to read the file.

select the 3DM file to read viewports from. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. If more than one curve is selected. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. When you are satisfied with the results. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer.Rhino 2. use the FitCrv command. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. 359 . click OK. leaving only the rebuilt curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. the highest number of control points is shown. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. but a more accurate fit. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File.

RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. The degree can be set to 1 through 9.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. in the Degree box. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. Edges are pulled away from the surface. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. draw two planes several units apart. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. in the Point Count boxes. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Joined and exploded polysurface. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. To see what it does. select an object. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions.

enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. choose a corner for the rectangle. You will be prompted for the width.an v-directions. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. At the Other corner or length prompt. enter the length of the rectangle. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. Or. Degree Sets the degree of the surface.Rhino 2. 361 . Delete Input Deletes the original surface.

At the Corner or length prompt. At the End of edge prompt. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. select the center point of the rectangle. You will be prompted for the width. select a corner point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. At the Width prompt. enter the length of the rectangle. 362 .Rhino 2. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. Or. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. enter the end of the same edge. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. enter the width of the rectangle. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle.

Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. At the Height of rectangle prompt. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. 363 . RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. At the End of edge prompt.Rhino 2. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle.

Rhino 2. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. General tab. To see the results of the reduction. set the polygon count. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. This makes this command scriptable. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. 364 .0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. click Preview.

to remap copies of the objects. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. which may be undesirable in some cases. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. 365 . At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. Or. To reduce the size of the model file. For one thing. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. type c and press Enter.Rhino 2. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. After RefreshShade.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. avoid clearing meshes. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects.

366 .0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2.

Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. select a surface. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. In particular. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. select a curve. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. select objects. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Use the Group command to group objects together. 367 . Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. Sweep2.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. and Blend commands. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. At the Select knotline to remove. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. At the Click knot to remove prompt. which is equal to the degree. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.Rhino 2.

There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. expanded to fill the page. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport.Rhino 2. 368 . Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. It has a single menu: File. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. increase the size of the viewport. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Render tab. When on. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. Render tab. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. and render again. the current working folder. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable.

The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. or bump mapping. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. Does not show shadows. Basically. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. OpenGL drivers are often outdated.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Render 369 . zoom. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. When on. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges.

and similar prompts. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. First you must set the u. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. the x. The y. it is distorted. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22.length for both is about 22 units. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.and vdomains for the surface. let's call them lefty and righty. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. Example You have two surfaces side by side. the texture is not distorted. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. In this example. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf.and v. At the New U begin domain prompt. set the new limits of the u.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. However.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units.length of righty is about 11. including the domain unless you apply textures. (In this example. 370 .Rhino 2. The x.

then click the name of the view to restore. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. then click Set View. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. RestoreView Restore a named view. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Right click the title of a viewport. select the construction plane to restore. choose a point on the revolution axis. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Revolve Revolve a curve.Rhino 2. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Or. select the named view to restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. select one or more curves. 371 . or to restore only the view.

You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. enter the number of control points. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. In the Revolve Options dialog box. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. The marker tracks on the curve. click Exact or Deformable. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. defining the revolution axis.Rhino 2. select a curve. 372 . Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. select a surface that is not a polysurface. If you choose Deformable. Enter the Start angle and End angle. choose a second point. select a surface that is not a polysurface. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle.

Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. choose an end angle. Right Set to world right view. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. or a point to rotate from.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. type C and press Enter.Rhino 2. or a point to rotate to. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Or. choose a start angle. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. choose a point to rotate the objects around. 373 . Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. to rotate copies of the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect.

choose the second point to define the rotation angle. the following prompt appears. type in an angle. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. choose a second point on the rotation axis. If you entered a point to rotate from.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. choose a point on the rotation axis. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. type c and press Enter. or choose a point to rotate from. etc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. At the End of rotate axis prompt. 374 . This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Or. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. to rotate copies of the objects. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis.

At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt.Rhino 2. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. etc. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. enter the end of the rotation axis. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. 375 . RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. etc. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. etc. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. Or. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Second reference point prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the End of rotation axis prompt. etc. pick a point. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. place the construction plane.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down.

Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. Press the arrow keys. use the RotateView command. RotateView Rotate the view. 376 . To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateRight Rotate the view right. RotateUp Rotate the view up. use the RotateView command. At the Name of program to run prompt. type the name and path of the file to run. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Run Run another application from Rhino. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command.

select Rhino 2 3D Models. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. type a filename. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. Save. File. Push Pin When the button is depressed.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Note Rhino supports several file types. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. 377 . Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. you can use RunScript command. Cancel Closes the dialog box. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Save Save your model. Click Save. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. In the File name box. See the PluginManager command.Rhino 2. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Language Specifies the language of the code. Otherwise. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file.

Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. or SaveAs dialog boxes. type a filename. You can also save default geometry with the template. type a filename. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. 378 .0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Note Rhino supports several file types. In the File name box. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. Click Save. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Save. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. viewport layout. You can set up grid settings. layers. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model.Rhino 2. units. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. Files tab. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. Click Save. and tolerances and save them in a template.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces.) to select multiple objects. SelNone Deselect all objects. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. Note You can use wild cards (*." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. all objects with no name are selected. enter an object name. 388 . etc.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelPolyline Select all polylines. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. ?.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u.direction based on previously selected control points." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. 389 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. Start the SelU command." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. SelPt Select all point objects.

move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. The control points on the surface display.Rhino 2. A surface with control points selected 390 . select the surface.direction. At the Select row of points prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.and v. Press Enter to finish selecting rows.

or both directions. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. Start the SelV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 .direction based on previously selected control points.Rhino 2. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. v-direction.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.

type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. This is not the same as restoring a named view. and FlatShadeAll. Note Type w to start a window selection. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. Shade tab. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. from www. 392 . SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. FlatShade. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications.rhino3d. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.Rhino 2. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. You can download plug-ins.com/plug-ins. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. ShadeAll. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name.

You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. SetLayer Set the current layer. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. The Undo command will work. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name.Rhino 2. Lets you name or rename a group. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. select an object on the layer you want to be current. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. 393 . In the Edit Layers dialog box. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. select the layer to set current. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer.0 to 1. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces.

Rhino 2. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. POV-Ray.0 to 1. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. Moray UDO. and RenderMan RIB. This is not the same as restoring a named view. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. Or. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Note The object material can be used by RIB. double-click the viewport title bar. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. If no object name is defined. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. Object names are exported to IGES.0 to 255) Transparency (0. If the object name has already been used. To set names for a group of objects. 394 . Or. and OBJ material/shader export. 3DS.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. POV. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. Rhino uses a generic name. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter.

Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. For example. POV-Ray. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. Select the objects. SetPt Set control point location. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. and RenderMan RIB. if you selected ten unnamed objects. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. check the coordinates you want to set. At the Ortho is Off. 395 . enter one of the options. In the Set Points dialog box. Starting number Sets the starting number. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. use the SetObjectName command. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. enter one of the options. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number.Rhino 2. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12".0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. At the Planar is On. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. Object names are not used in Rhino. To set names for individual objects. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off.

Rhino 2. You still see interactive drawing of curves. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. enter the viewport width in pixels. At the Grid snap is Off. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. enter the viewport height in pixels. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. etc. type the first letters of one of the options to set it.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. At the Viewport height prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. 396 . The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options.

On the Shade tab set the options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. with no shadows. and a special background color appears. click Options. select the working directory. Subsequent renderings may be faster. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. zoom. this shading mode may be faster. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Shade Shade a viewport. monochrome.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. Note Be patient on the first shade. The grid and axes are not shown. and no antialiasing. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If OpenGL is turned on. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . Pan. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory.Rhino 2. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. It may not be very quick the first time.

click Options. If OpenGL is turned on. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. axes. and a special background color appears. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.sgi. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. Subsequent renderings will be faster. If you use OpenGL Shade. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). It may not be very quick the first time. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. the OpenGL shade options will be available. click Options. this shading mode may be much faster. see www. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Pan. zoom. click Use OpenGL.opengl. On the Shade tab. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. monochrome. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.Rhino 2. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. with no shadows. Be patient on the first Shade. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. 398 . object highlighting. The objects in current viewport are shaded.org/ and www. The grid and axes are not shown. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. For more information. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. then Rhino will use it. The grid. and no antialiasing. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. On the Shade tab.com/software/optimizer/. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. click Use OpenGL. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. The click cannot be near curves. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2. Shear Shear objects.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. points. select the objects to shear. or annotation or the object will be selected. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. isoparms. You do not have to select an isoparm. 399 . Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. you can click on a shaded object to select it.

400 . hidden background bitmaps are displayed. At the Reference point prompt. The edge is highlighted. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. Visibility. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. pick the base point for the shear. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. Show Show hidden objects. If your object has broken edges. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. The base point does not move with the shear. If you exit the model and reopen it. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. Broken edges show in the selected objects color.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. select objects and press Enter. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. At the Press Enter when done prompt. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. The edges highlight. Status bar: Osnap 401 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. Camera icon. Sometimes. press Enter to terminate the command. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. If you cannot see the naked edges.Rhino 2. At the Press Enter when done prompt. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Edge Tools.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. terminate the command.

Organic. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Original trimmed surface. You will see no visible change in the surface.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible.Rhino 2. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. When textures are applied to surfaces. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. At the Select objects to show prompt. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. select the objects you want to show. To fix this. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt.

SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. 403 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. the silhouette looks like an oval. only backwards. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. For example.Rhino 2. If you look at a doughnut from the side. the silhouette is two circles. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief).

You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. drag the mouse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. Release the mouse button. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Or. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. a polyline appears along your path. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. 404 . Sketch Sketch a curve.

press Enter. select the surface to sketch on. Type C to close the curve mid-drag.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. Sketch on surface 405 . This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. drag a curve. The marker is constrained to the surface.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. type C. drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. At the Click and drag to sketch. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. Or.

then click Control Points On. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. Smooth Smooth objects. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. The default is 0. too. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. From the Transform menu. The selected entities will appear to melt. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. In the Smooth dialog box.Rhino 2. meshes. select the curves. The larger the number. adjust the Smooth factor. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. The selected control points will move slightly. click Smooth.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. From the Edit menu. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. 406 . smoothing the curve or surface.00. Smooth works on mesh objects.2. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces.01 and 1. click Point Editing. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.Rhino 2.

so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. When Snap is off. choose a center point. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. Modeling Aids tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. or enter a distance and press Enter. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. it is grayed out. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. Grid tab. 408 . Note When Snap is on. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. A sphere is single closed surface.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Note This is different from the grid size. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. At the Radius prompt.Rhino 2. Sphere Draw a sphere. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a point for the radius. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. SnapSize Set snap size.

choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the first circumference point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. choose the third circumference point. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the second circumference point. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose an endpoint for the diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Third point on sphere prompt. At the Second point on sphere prompt. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. A sphere is a single closed surface. 409 .

enter the end of the spiral axis. If you select Reverse twist. At the Radius prompt. At the End of axis prompt. If you select Turns. This is the line the spiral will wind around. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. If you select Pitch.Rhino 2. 410 . enter the number of turns for the spiral.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. enter the radius for the spiral. enter the start of the spiral axis. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. select Turns or Pitch. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral.

select the objects to split. and points. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. press Enter. type p and press Enter. At the Select cutting objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. The marker moves along the curve. the polysurfaces are ignored. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. select the cutting objects. 411 . You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter.Rhino 2. select the curve to split. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. surfaces.

to access option directly. Select a surface. select points at which to split the surface. surfaces and polysurfaces. The edge is split into two edges. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm.Rhino 2. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. select a point. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. the marker is constrained to the edge. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. 412 . Type u. and Right view. or b. Front. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. v. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. At the Split point prompts. At the Point to split edge prompt.press Enter when done prompt. Options control the direction of the split.

Rhino 2. and then deleting the extra isoparms. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.and v-directions of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. 413 . then Split. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface.

set the radius of the spotlight.it stays the same. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. pick a target point for the spotlight. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. not the range of the light. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. beam angle. Darker colors. At the Degree in V prompt. length. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. hotspot angle.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. At the End of cone prompt. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. pick a location for the spotlight. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. like gray. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt.Rhino 2. Or. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. light the scene less. and position. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. The spot light icon does not render or shade. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region.

enter points until all the points have been entered. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the Third corner of surface prompt. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. 415 . At the Second corner of surface prompt. choose the fourth corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt.Rhino 2. At the Number of points in a column prompt. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the third corner. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. enter points until all the control points have been entered. Or. At the Point prompts.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. choose the first corner. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. choose the second corner.

33.5 -4.33.5.Rhino 2.and v-directions of a surface.10 0. The marker is constrained to the curve. When off. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.5.5 0.5.33.0 0. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.5.2.33.0 0. select a curve. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.-5.5. and run the CommandPaste command. pick a point for the new end point.-2. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.2. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt. select the following text.5.33. pick a point for the new start point.-5.5 0.33.5.5.5 4.10 4.33.-2.-5.0 4.10 4. copy it.2. At the Start of curve prompt.0 4.2.33. the surface is created but not point objects.5.33.33. click in the other viewport to swap. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.5.10 -4.5.10 -4. At the End of curve prompt. 416 . select a surface that is not a polysurface.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.-2.2.5.0 -4.5 -4.-2. KeepPoints When on.5.33.5.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.5. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.-2.33. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.2.0 -4.5 4. SwapUV Swap a the u. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.-2.

Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. the shape will twist with the surface edge. the new surface should also be tangent. select the single rail curve for sweeping. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. reversing the direction of the curve. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. 417 . Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.Rhino 2. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. adjust options. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. If the shapes are tangent to the surface.

select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. 418 . the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. If you don't use Smooth. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box.Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. The swept surface is created.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. adjust options.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. If you use the Smooth option. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Note To create a single surface. Preview Click to preview the surface. (The original curves are not modified. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. the cross section curves need to be compatible. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. With closed rail curves.

Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. 419 . Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.Rhino 2. use the Maintain height option. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep.

the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves.Rhino 2. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . If you don't use Rebuild.) With closed rail curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. the cross-section curves need to be compatible.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. one of two possible surfaces appears. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. (The original curves are not modified. If you use the Rebuild option. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. Preview Click to preview the surface. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. but want to control where the sweep ends. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. and continues to the ends of the rails. To create a single surface. If you get the wrong surface. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. 421 . the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. At the Start of taper axis prompt. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. Taper Taper objects. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around.Rhino 2. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. At the End of taper axis prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point.

The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. End of cone prompt. You can't taper a polysurface . You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. curves. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. 422 . Radius prompt. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. and meshes. second Radius prompt. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. surfaces.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Taper moves the control points of objects. TCone Draw a truncated cone. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. choose a center point for the base. choose a radius for the base of the cone.only control points.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. you will only taper that part of the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt.

or solids based on TrueType fonts. It will not show in a perspective view. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. In the Edit Text dialog box. The two sizes update each other. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. surfaces. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. enter the start position for the text.25 inches. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. in the form of curves.Rhino 2. Type the text. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. 423 . 2000. Example If your units are inches. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. and XP. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). set the options. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. or solids. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. When you place annotation text. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. surfaces.

The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. specify the height of the text characters.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. specify the height of the text characters. type text characters to make into surfaces. type text characters to make into solids. The text appears in the Sample window. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. The text appears in the Sample window. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 .Rhino 2. select a style. In the Text height box. in the Font box. select a font. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. select Surfaces. In the Font Style box. In the Text box. select a style. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Under Create. In the Font Style box. select Solid. select a font. In the Text box. In the Text height box. Under Create. in the Font box. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.

Rhino 2. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. Top Set to world top view. import toolbars from a different workspace file. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. adjust the size of buttons. 425 . add new buttons to toolbars. the buttons in them. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. The workspace holds the toolbars. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. the screen position of each toolbar. and whether it is hidden or showing. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. create new toolbars. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars.

Rhino 2. press Enter. choose a center point. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. At the Radius prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. When you are finished selecting objects. you must edit your Rhino. select objects you want to trim other objects with. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. When you are finished trimming. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. 426 . The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. press Enter.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. At the Second radius prompt. click the parts of objects to trim away.

choose a center point for the tube's base. To trim a surface with more than one curve. surfaces and polysurfaces. At the second Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. At the first Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. Front. or use Split. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. Tube Draw a tube. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. imaginary extensions of the line are used. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. use trim several times. and Right view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts.Rhino 2. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. choose a radius for the tube wall size. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. 427 . When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view.

Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. Press Esc to stop the turntable. and Render Preview.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Twist Twist objects. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Shade. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. 428 . Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Note The view rotates about the target point. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces.Rhino 2. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation.

0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. or choose a point to rotate from. At the End of twist axis prompt. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. or transform commands.Rhino 2. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. choose a second point on the axis. choose a point on the twist axis. Undo Undo the last command. General tab. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. and meshes. Twist moves the control points of objects. You can't twist a polysurface . At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. curves. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. you will only twist that part of the object. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. type c and press Enter. Or. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. surfaces. or construction planes. to twist copies of the objects. 429 . type in an angle. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. If you entered a point to rotate from. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. viewports. The opposite to undo is Redo. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. the following prompt appears.only control points. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. edit.

To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. If some of the faces that should render disappear. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. For example. their normals are flipped." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Render your mesh. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. 430 . UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction.Rhino 2. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. This makes this command scriptable.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object.

When polysurfaces are meshed. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Once the normals are correct. If more than one object is selected. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. For example. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. UnLock Unlock locked objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. the packed texture coordinates are created. normals point the wrong way. re-join the meshes. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. select the objects you want to unlock. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. In general. All polygons have a face normal direction. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. Use UnifyMeshNormals. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. 3DFace object. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Export in desired format.Rhino 2. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. If you see inside the mesh. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. The 431 . Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. explode it. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all.

0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. Packed textures. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. If the surface is developable. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. select a surface or curves. Unpacked textures.Rhino 2. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. 432 . Polysurface made of four surfaces.

tori. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. 433 . If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. removing any attached geometry. This is not like folding out a box. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. it may be geometrically developable. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. Surface Tools. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. you can remove the trim curves. an information message is printed at the command line. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. Curves on a surface can also be developed. Toolbar: Menu: Main. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane.Rhino 2. but not meet that requirement. In Rhino. a developable surface has to be single span linear. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. an information message is printed at the command line. Surfaces such as spheres. This command may take some time.

Rhino 2. Trimmed surface. Untrim joined polysurfaces. 434 . Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim removes the trimming curve.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.

3921 (+/. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. you can change the lens length of the camera. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm.0. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap.Rhino 2.0001). Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. Appearance tab. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. 436 . Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box.

7e-007.4649522 (+/.3. 437 . and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. choose a point on the edge. enter a radius for this point. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start.9553974. At the End radius <x> prompt. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. First moments. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.-4e016. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. select a surface or part of a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt. enter or drag a radius.Rhino 2. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. product moments. select a surface or part of a polysurface.1. second moments. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. At the Start radius prompt.7e-007). VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt.2e-007. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii.6. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. At the Point on edge prompts. If an edge point was picked. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.6. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2.

use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. or rotate your view.Rhino 2. Weight Edit control point weight. 438 . The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. pan. like adjacent surfaces in a cube.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. It does not change when you zoom. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. In other cases. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends.

enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. To perform a similar operation with control points. When shaded. they are replaced by a single mesh point.Rhino 2. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. No points in the blue mesh are welded. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. To get this to happen. If we want a smooth roof. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. see the SetPt command. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. 439 . In our case. At the Angle tolerance prompt. we can use weld with an angle of 40. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. and file export for stereolithography. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. texture mapping on mesh objects. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother.

The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. It does not physically fuse the vertices. Thus. 440 . STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. then Weld (angle=180). There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. Use JoinMesh. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. top left is (0. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin.Rhino 2. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. they always get welded. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. they must be joined before welding is effective.1). Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. 3D Studio MAX).0). Weld does not report the results on the command line. See Importing and exporting STL files. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. the bottom right is (1. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. Welding in MAX is different. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image.1) and top right (1. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved.

the grid. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line.0 Command Reference What Display object information. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. or polysurface. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. The wireframe of the objects. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. object highlighting. axes. World axes icon on 441 . Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. select a curve. At the Select object prompt. surface.Rhino 2.

All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. 442 . WorldYAxisIcon=.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer.Rhino 2. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. In the Zebra Options dialog box. set the stripe direction. and color. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. and black is the farthest away. on the Shade tab. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. size. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. When objects are rendered in Rhino. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. where white is the closest to your eye.ini file set the color for the icon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis.

If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. the surfaces touch. this means the position. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces.Rhino 2. curvature. 443 . tangency. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. curvature. and other important properties. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Position. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. MatchSrf. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. and curvature between the surfaces match. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Tangent matches.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. These meshes can be large. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.

Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. select More reliable. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. 444 . Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. in the Options dialog box. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. When Faster is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. If you have a wheel mouse. under Zebra and EMap. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. on the Shade tab. but will always work. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right.

ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport.Rhino 2. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab.

ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. At the Zoom factor prompt. type a zoom factor and press Enter. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. Note In a perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. drag a window to zoom. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. This is particularly useful in perspective views. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. 446 . ZoomWindow Zoom window. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick.Rhino 2. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. pick a point for the center of the view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports.

5. 251. circular. 143. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 206. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 205. 149 ArrayPolar command. 33. 149. 255. 393 34View command. 141 arc: extend by. 150 ArraySrf command. 312 Angle command. DXF file exchange. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 281 Audit command. 88 align: background bitmap. 251. suspend autoclose. 141 ApplyCrv command. 27. 53. 150. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 136 AddNextV command. 5. command aliases. 308 align:. 192. 5. 163 3Circle command. 324 3Rectangle command. 139 Align3D command. end and radius. MAX 2. 152. 55 Ascii STL tag. 27. 141 ApplyMesh command. extend to a point. 5. 123 2Circle command. 151 ArrayCrv command. 152 AnnotateDot command. 230. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 146 arguments at the command line. 138 AddToGroup command. add notes to the model. 255. 307. 322. 279 2Sphere command. 407. toolbar button function. 136 AddPrevU command. polar. 28. 149 Array command. 5.0. 152 ASAP file exchange. 298. 205. 5. 361. 5. 127. 340. 148 Array toolbar. 207. 180. 230. 169 3CPlane command. 135 4View command. 206. 83 AlongPerp object snap. profile curves. 150.0 IGES. 143 Arc3Pts command. 137 AddPrevV command. 5. 346 3Sphere command. 5. 5.5. 5. 139 All command. 62 447 . 206. 151 array:. 150. 5. 10. 28. 212. 135 3Arc command. 150. sketch curve with. 245. 28. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 53 aliases. 205. 207. 33. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. rectangular. 144 ArcSER command. 232 Arc3Pt command. 29. 180. 5. 330. 151. 149. 127. 140 angle:. MAX 2. 220. 281 AttachEnd command. 255. 195. 139 AlignTrace command. from the last point. 231. MAX 1. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 14. 368. 144. MAX 3.0 Command Reference Index !. 32 AGLib file exchange. 143 ArcDir command. 144 ArcTTR command. 333. 3DS file format. with FaroArm. 251. 145 AreaMoments command. 27. 251. 138 adjust end bulge. 203. arrowhead on curve. 265. to copy while dragging. 5. dimension. 5. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. 24 AddNextU command. 145 AreaCentroid command. 142. 29 3DFace command. 203. with a MicroScribe. 28. 5. 123 Arrowhead command. set scale. set up function key for click. 187. 152. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 426 angle: constraint. 207. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 152 AutoCAD. 170 2-D drawings from model. 204. measure between two lines. 204. on a surface. MAX 3. 5. scale factor. 31 AG file exchange. export. VIZ. 125 array: along a curve. 148. 152 arrowhead on curve. to suspend object snaps. 5. 205. around a pole. 198. 82 AlongTan object snap. 82 Alt key. 14. 5. 5. 144 Area command. 305. 309 AlignProfiles command. export options. 152. 5. 5. 144. 205. 30 add object to selection. 139. 76. 229. 144 arc:. 266 animate view. 140. 305. 3. 2. 53. tangent to two curves. DWG file exchange. from start. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 150. 412 Annotate toolbar. 10. 5.0 OBJ. 215. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command.2. 33. 140. disconnect. 143. 362 3Plane command. 34. 231. 206. 168. options. 385 analyze:. 312 AngleLine command. 144. 140. 135 ACIS file export. 215. 5. 135 3DM file exchange. calibrate. 232. 333. 205. 2. 34. 144 Arc command. 143 3Box command. 26. 149 ArrayCurve command. 5. 133. 29. 148. DOS. from three points. 5. built into Rhino. create planar sections. 251. 239. 151 ArraySurface command. 123. arrow. 152.Rhino 2. 88. 210. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 149. 151 arrow annotation object. 206. 140 Align command. pause input. Release 12 export. 215 annotation. 143. 204. 139 AlignOnSrf command. initialize. set ortho. 151. 5. 5. 323 3-D digitizing:. 221. set spacing between points. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. end and direction. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 152 Attach command. shortcuts. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 203. 426 Analyze toolbar. 393 3View command. 162. 141 ApplyCurves command. 29. dot. 140 Along object snap. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 207. 197. 221. import. 35. 142 Arc toolbar. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 152 Arrow command.

159. floatation. 172 CLine command. polygon mesh. 351. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 323. 363. object properties. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 123 Cap command. area. 184. 90. 124. 161. 123. 123. 113. 338 buoyancy. 179 BI command. as 256-color bitmap. 162. sphere. 172. 157. 162 BoundingBox command. clear undo. 172. 392. 180. 90. 160. 123. 161. 164. 170 Circle command. 351. scale. tangent to three curves. use. 249. 425 Back command. 363. toolbar. 169. 384 background bitmap:. 243. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 153 BD command. 124 C command. 160. move toolbar button. 12. cut. 162 Box toolbar. surface degree. 231 CArcPt command. 166. width. 232 CATIA file exchange. 365. 161 BooleanDifference command. 123. copy toolbar button. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 170. 125. 168. 102. to current layer. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 79 center:. 320. 154 Between object snap. 184. scale background. 171 clear. 155 bitmap. from three points. 56 cancel command. 123. 180. 166 ChangeLayer command. 90 Autosave command. snap size. 164 cap open planar ends. 168. 5. background. with toolbar button. 250 Center object snap. 421 Blend command. 171 Circle3Pt command. surface. 365. place. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 171 circle:. 123. 5. 167. 250. 322. 39 BMP file format. 250 button. 160 Bend command. 5.0 file exchange. move background. ortho angle. 366. as bitmap. 153 background bitmap: align. edit button icons. 124. 168. 5. 122. lock. 145 chamfer: two curves. 157. 39 Boolean. tangent to two curves. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 5. 152 autosave:. time control. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 133 BU command.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. display grid. 168 Circle toolbar. 114. 122. 367. 321. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 153. show. save button image to file. 168 choose one object. 56 center: buoyancy. command. delete toolbar button. render meshes. 164 capture image for toolbar button. the layer of an object. clear button image. 169. 2. from center. 169 CircleD command. 184. 367. 124. 369 C2View command. 172.Rhino 2. set construction plane x. 164 chamfer:. 245. 322. 169 Circle3Pts command. 39 BMRT support. 139. toolbar button tooltip. 157. 365. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 321. 351. 171. 164. 163 B-spline. 163 box:. 154. use for tracing. 321. 161 Bottom command. 156. 366. 160 bi-rail sweep. 166. with Esc key. 133. 366 CArc command. 161 buffer. 118. 55 axis. 171. 425. 5. 13. 168 Check command. 351. 156 blend:. 316. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 165 change. 130. toggle world icon. 322. 101. place background. union. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 54 autosave: file location. 153 back view. edit button image. radius. 90 ChangeDegree command. 316 448 . edit toolbar. 250. 163. 243. 84 Bezier curve. 320. 5. 170. 139. 154. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 163. 162. 5. 297. import button image. 124 capture viewport. 124. 116. 229. 123. convert NURBS curve to. 362 ClearMesh command. 204 camera. 297. 170. 249. 124. 162 bottom view. 384. 133. 124. 321. 402 Bisector command. ellipsoid. 368 Baseball command. 249. toolbar layout. set construction plane z. 158. 133. 154 baseball-style seams. 162 box: from length. 171. 133. 168. 297. place. remove background. 349 ClearUndo command. 249. 125. to the Clipboard. move. 168. layer. two surfaces. selection. variable radius between surfaces. 170 CircleTTT command. 165 Chamfer command. 297. align backgound. height. 163 Box3Pts command. 160 BooleanUnion command. 5. 139. 5. show hidden background. 123. 365. 124. 312. undo buffer. 179. 322 blend: curve. 198. 368. 351. center of. from three points. 139. 322. 250 centroid. 297. render meshes when saving file. 409. copy to. 24 circle: by diameter. 322. 232 Clipboard. 85. 292 Box command. 115. 152. 170 CircleTTR command. 122. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 156. 90. 321. 165 ChamferSrf command. paste from. 292 Box3Pt command. 101. 168 check objects for errors. difference. undo levels. 170. settings. 162. backdrop for rendering. 160. 312. select. toolbar button image. 171. 421 BlendSrf command. 168 CheckInLicense command. 365. 5 bumpmap for rendering. troubleshooting. 167. 384. hide. 338. 199. 384 bad objects. 249. 5. 392. 145. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. intersection. 139. hide background. 245. 122. capture button image. 168 CheckOutLicense command. remove. 384. 172 built-in aliases. 198.

88. set weight. 178 control vertex. 164. 138. 380. relative polar coordinates. 249. 228. 246. 12. 235. move through a point. 373. 119. 339. 179 Coons patch. 173 cone:. undo. toggle construction plane entry. set display density. 197. old. 5. 413 CommandHistory command. dialog box. 419. 178. 11. 57 CPDash command. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. Esc to cancel. 114. delete from a curve. 174. 2. 138. 359. 131. 13. 182. plan view. set top. 182. 173 commands:. G2. 10. 15. 172 ClosePoint command. project objects to. 183. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. set normal to curve. 18. 218 Contour command. 406 Cone command. 11. 323. 136. and ndirections. next. 11. 75. 184. 181. coordinates. 303. 114. 126. 125. 343. 345. 379 control polygon. 125. 4. 75. 89. viewport. 178. 172 Closest point to an object. 172 cloud of points. assign to mouse buttons. 327. 104. select row on surface. 386. set distance between grid lines. select next in u-direction. curve and surface. 89. 297. 115. weld. 245. 180 copy:. curve. set to z-axis. move along Z. 335. 181. 180. 419. create curve from. 342. 84. options. 344. display for a point. set origin of all construction planes. toggle display. 184. 298. 122. 303. 75. add to surface. 5. 178 control point definition. 336. 172 CommandPaste command. 173. 155. 125. render. 177 continuous shading. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 172 CloseViewport command. 15 construction plane. 183. entering coordinates. 126. 202. toggle world coordinate entry. 11. 245. 173. set right. 131 control points. 173 command names. select next in v-direction. 246. 173 COn command. truncated. 182. 338. 235. 12. 219 coordinate entry. 182 CPlaneO. 181 Copy command. macro. 173 CommandPrompt command. 11. set origin. draw curve using. 104. view bottom of. 343. toggle display of. 245. 180. 176. 184. 181 CPlaneNext command. 362. 173 Commands command. 245. 234. turn off. 195 color. shortcut. highlight. 297. v-. 419 context menu. angle. 5. 184. render window to Clipboard. 413 command aliases. set extents of. 173 commands: list of all. 173. 338. 183. 292. set to x-axis. 137. 133. 181 CPlaneFront command. 5. holes in surfaces. 122. 174. 172. 88. distance. history. paste from clipboard. 119. settings of one construction plane to all. 172 ClosestPt command. 5. 131 command history. 234. 183. toolbar. 12. View top of. make all have same orientation. 126 conic: curve. 90. 175. 177 contour curves. 406. 173. 136. named construction plane. 75. 197. 136. view back of. display recently used. 335. 217 COff command. 75 comma-delimited file export. construction plane coordinates. 166. 386. along line. display in clipboard or history. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. turn grid on or off. 11 coordinates. 173. 342. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 379. rendering to Clipboard. 379. 406. 115. 172. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. select previous in v-direction. save. 180. 172. place point objects on. 2 command line. 303. view right of. 180. objects. false. 166. 84. 176 ConicPerp command. set to next. set to object. 375. 11. 181 CopyClip command. 89. 292. coincident. 419. previous. 180. 85. 182. display. 398. 14. 373. 251 command area. view front of.Rhino 2. 10. bend. 140. wheel. 195 cone: cone. 5. set to 3 points. 246. 183. 75. options. set the number of thin gridlines. copy settings of one to the all. 123. G0. 245. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. select previous in u-direction. 90. show hidden. 179. 5 command:. 137. 202. add next in u-direction to selection. 406 ConfigScript command. 250. 181. set front. read from file. 182. 249. relative coordinates. taper. 176 constraint. 11. 181. 422. 75 continuity. 2. 179 CPlane View toolbar. perpendicular to curve. 176 Conic command. 173. set to vertical. extract. 10. 246. 298. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. objects to Clipboard. script. 304. 182. 327 Cob command. 164. add next in v-direction to selection. turn on. 335. 181. 131 ControlPolygon command. view left of. 245. 182 449 . view to all viewports. 11 copy: command shortcut. arguments. 174. move all through a point. 339. AutoCAD. select row in vdirection. 5. 405. 173. 2. 178 CPHighlight command. G1. hide. 419. 172. 339. add previous in u-direction to selection. 133. 419. 125. 5. 126. 359. 183. 14. 183. 154. set to previous. render window. 5 CPlaneObject command. world coordinates. polygon mesh. 88. 88. 21. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 181. 35 command: alias. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 123. 5. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. list. 140. display axes. 338. 398. layer. project object snap to. toolbar button. 375. 74. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. polar coordinates. 362. 131. rotate.0 Command Reference close. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 180. 155. 181. 177. 422. set to view. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 174 conic:. 176. 419 CPlane3Pt command. list all. move in u-. add previous in v-direction to selection. 88. 184. 419. 323. for spotlight editing. 5. import from 3DM file. 374. 177. 179. 228. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. move to coordinate location. 183 CPlaneOrigin command.

327. 234 CreatePCurves command. arc from start. 195. place point at start. 177. 236. 304 Ctrl+A. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 311. 196. 2. 314. 184 CPlaneView command. 248. 3 crossing:. 387 Curve toolbar. 270. constrain to ortho. 394 CurveBlend command. 258. 139. 165. 90. extend to surface boundary. 239. 187. 235. 394. 298. 343. line normal to a surface. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. intersect two objects. display graph. 239. ellipse. constrain parallel to view plane. 141. 133. 184 CPlaneX command. 311. 340. extend. 255. 157. 4. 187 CurveSketch command. 217. 218. 131. flatten section of. 217. 222. 281. delete control points. 24. circle tangent to two curves. 162. 189. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 183 CPlaneRight command. 187. 395. Gaussian. 3. 188. 388. 194. from control points. 15. single line. point. 13. 255. direction. 339. 180 Ctrl+N. 389. place point at end. 143. 164. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 226. 390. 177. 269. 235. make periodic. 169. 348 Ctrl+Z. arc. 333. 191 curvature:. 233. 270. 298. graph on. 168. 133. interpolate on surface. simplify. chamfer. 351. 192. 139. 184 CPlaneZ command. sketch. 15. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 389 CurveStart command. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 179. 369 Crv2View command. 238. line perpendicular to two curves. 304. 189. 217. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 330. 155. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 218. 198 CutPlane command. polyline through point objects. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 256. 387 curve:. 233. 170. 24. adjust end bulge. 155. 165. 221. 141. 339. 369. 235. 2. match ends. 3 Ctrl+C. align in two views. from 2 views. 185 CrvBox command. periodic. 323. 175. 257. 323. 305. 356. selection. extend by line. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 268. cross sections through profiles. 221. 236. 369. 337. 355. mean. 185. 162 CurveEnd command. 388. blend. sketch on polygon mesh. 185. 195. 191. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. crosshairs. 197. circle by diameter. 189. rebuild. 189 CSec command. 25. 248. 131. conic. 197. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 271. 254. 334.Rhino 2. 257. 4. bounding box. 4. 165. parabola. convert to Beziers. 194. curvature graph off. toggle. 197 curve. 187. constrain to plane. 326. 4 Ctrl+V. 254. 330. 281. 305. 351. line. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 226. bisector line. 4. 169. measure radius. 187 CurveSeam command. 187 CrvStart command. 170. 226. analyze surface. circle from center. 195. 195. 267. from interpolated points. 202. 337. remove knots. 367. 236. 241. extrude to point. 268. 143. constrain along line. 387. 268. 142. 231. 257. extrude along path. 213. 179. 185. divide by number of segments. 190 cursor. 195. 169. 238. fillet. add knots. 178. 187. 281. 144. line vertical to construction plane. 306. from point cloud. insert edit point. refit. 314. 355. line tangent to two curves. 258. end. helix. 230. 156 CurveBox command. 213. 236. 168. 195. 174. 197. 268. 182 CPlanePrev command. 343. 90. extrude straight. 186. 389. extend by arc to a point. 326. radius. interpolate through polyline. pull to surface. 184 CPlaneV command. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 390. 253. 197. 218. 200 450 . 2. 367. 184 CPTog command. 231. 265. 253. 183 CPlaneTop command. 269 Curve command. 141. arc tangent to two curves. 302 Ctrl+O. 195. 4. 187 CrvSeam command. 281. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. marker. 185 CRectangle command. revolve. 346 cross sections through profiles. 337. 187 CurveOverlap command. 164. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 391. 339. 367. 156. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 4. 4. 191. extract wireframe from surface. duplicate border of surface. tangent line. 304. 389. 255. 177. 279. 239. curvature graph. 271. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 241. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 255. circle from three points. 198 Ctrl+Y. 267. measure between two curves. 15. 170. 258. surface from network. section. 232. 369 crossing selection. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 230. 232. 387. 2. 238. 239. line segments. smooth. 183 CPlaneToView command. 389. 189 crosshairs. raise degree. 248. 239. 174. 245 Curvature command. 195. 144. 2. 388. 316 Ctrl+X.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 156. 164. 336 Ctrl + Tab. tracking line. 165. 387. 307 Ctrl+P. 197. 156. 194. 340. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. apply to surface. 144. 334. 216. project onto surface. 230. 249. 305. 333. fair. arc from three points. spiral. 24. extract isoparms from surface. 189 CSV export. 162 CrvDeviation command. 305. duplicate edge of surface. offset. 188. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 202. points. 256. silhouette. 343. 197 curve degree. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 232. 14. 187 CrvEnd command. 216. 197. 2 Ctrl+Tab. adjust seam point. 162. 142. select all. 174. extend by arc. contour. graph off. 179. 156. 2 Ctrl+S. 241. 2. polyline. convert to polyline. 2. 256. 327. sketch on surface. 190 CullCP command. 265.

rebuild. 217 drape surface. 104. 22. 127. 211 DirectX file export. Boolean. 22. 207 DimAngle command. 214 domain:. 218 duplicate. planar section. 121. 411. 85. toolbar button. 212 display:. 293 Cylinder command. toolbar. create 2-D curves. 330. isoparm density. 215 Dot command. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 201 cylinder:. 384 diameter dimension. 15 Distance command. 119. split. 208 DimRadius command. 19. 208. 293 data structure for object. 207. 220. render mesh settings. 135. 212 disconnect digitizer. 243. 17. select all. 33 DynamicShading command. recenter text. polygon mesh. 10. 265. from last point. 396 EdgeSrf command. 207 DimAligned command. 219. 22. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 384 edge: create curve from. Render Mesh tab. disconnect. 207. viewport properties. 127. change. summary. 34 DXF file exchange. 166. rotated. 208. 107. 204. command button. 372 Deselect command. display curve or surface. broken edges. 160 Dig command.ini. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 219. 385. 196. radius. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 127. 370. 206 DigSpacing command. 385. 17. 197. 202. 207 DimDiameter command. 216 Drape command. layer. 166. 91. 204 DigClick command. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 121. control points. 344. vertical. 215 drafting. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 210. 202. with MicroScribe. 217. 104. edit text. object. 23 distance:. 272. 206 DigSketch command. 203 develop a surface. diameter. 124. 209. 209 DimRecenterText command. 260. 201. 209. 122 Delete command. reverse object direction. 197. 422 Display command. 202. 15.0 Command Reference cutting objects. intialize. 416 developable surface definition. 122. 108 Dup command. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 19. 272 date. 12. set up function key for click. 384. lines. wallpaper. 203 DigCalibrate command. 123 451 . calibrate. 410. set scale. 277 diagnostics. 344. 205 displacement. 168. 205. 372 DetachTrim command. 212 distance display. 19 document properties:. 167. border of surface. 210. 212. 17. 338. 218. 19. persistent object snaps. 330. 205 digitize. 210. set spacing between points. 210 Dir command. button image. 209. 385. 260. change degree of surface. 213 Divide command. 178. 213 DivideByLength command. 202 Deselect All. Rhino. 3-D polygon mesh face. display broken. 22 degree. 245. edit points. 250. 211. 215 draft angle. 425. 203. 205. 217. toggle. 251 dot: annotation. 288. 298 DigPause command. 201. 288. select all objects. units. 210 DimHorizontal command. 15 divide: curve by length. horizontal. 218 e_tol. 279. object discription. 2. annotation text. with FaroArm. hydrostatic calculation. 209. angle between lines. options. 213 divide:. 370. 208. 123. 288. 251 Domain command. 208 difference. edge of surface. points at naked edges. 212 DisableOsnap command. 132. 245. 208 dimension. 212 distance: constraint. 202 DeleteAll command. 220. grid. 239. shortcuts. 213 dock a toolbar. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. tolerances. 207. 205. toolbar button bitmap icons. 370 DWG file exchange. 196. 218. 205 DigScale command. join two out of tolerance edges. 279 Dragmode. 396 edge:. aligned. naked edges. 88. 395. 216. 205 DigDisconnect command. 123. curve by number of segments. dimension text. 344. in Split command. surfaces. grid axes. curve. 135. 131 Ebroken command. 243 DirectionalLight command. 250 display: bitmap window. 209. 165 Delcam file exchange. 23. 106. 133. 132. Notes tab. sketch curve. 58 delete: all objects. 144 direction. 206. 105. 12. 207. 10. 330. show. 251. 208. 160. 384. merge. in Trim command. options. pause input. 218. control polygon. 212. 206. 206. 214 domain: match. raise curve degree. 45 dirty looking rendering. 206 DigSection command. 213. 168. 208 DimOptions command. 385. 2. 372 DeselectAll command. 209 DimVertical command. 18. 370. 210 DirArc command. 99 disable. 217 draw. 217 DrapePt command. 395. 215 dot:. 195. 19 DocumentProperties command. 265. 219. 217. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. objects. 120 document properties: notes. 202 delete:. 217 DupEdge command. 217 DupBorder command. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 165. naked. 384. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 220. 218. polylines. 260. 207. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 368.Rhino 2. 209 DimRotated command. 3-D digitizing.

63. 238 F1. 226 endpoint object snap. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 72. 45. 224 EMerge command. 231. 220. 3D Studio MAX 3. 59. PostScript. 31. SAT file format. 222 Ellipse command. insert on curve. 55. 69. 48. 236. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 26. 36. 4 F9. 128. Wavefront (OBJ). AutoCAD (DXF). 238 ExtrudeSrf command. curve to point. ME30 (IGES). GHS. 260 elevator mode. 233. 73. 174 Elmo command. 59. 40. 73. 46. 42. 69. Solid Designer (IGES). 62. 45. 53. unable to run program renrib. 219. surface. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 29. 64. 47. 73. 4 Fair command. 57. 35. 239 FastShip file exchange. raw triangles (RAW). Cosmos/M (IGES).0 (IGES). curve along path. 228 expand a surface. OptiCAD (IGES). 59. 3. VRML. 40. 63. 61. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). surface into a solid. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 222 ellipse:. control polygon. 45. turn on. 36. 230. 238. object properties to file. 54. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 222 EllipseEnds command. 31. 232. 1 Faro command. 30. 57. 29.0 (OBJ). curve by offset. 35. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 54. Maya (IGES). SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 2. from focus points. TekSoft IGES. 45. 13. 93. 58. Softimage (IGES. 3D Studio (3DS). 236. 12 ELine command. 219 EditPtOn command. curve on surface. 12 Enter:. 71. 238. 53. 330 End key. 237. 31. Windows Metafiles (WMF). curve to surface boundary. 51. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 45. 231. 253. 224 erase objects. 233 ExtendSrf command. 92. 35. LUSAS (IGES). 55. Solid Edge (IGES). triangles. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 239 false color display. 78 EndBulge command. surface. CAD 3D SUM 4. 233 ExtendByArc command. AutoShip (IGES). 92. 45. 69. 235 ExtractSrf command. Alias (OBJ). 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 131 FAQ. Tebis IGES. 58. SLA. 235. 12. 231. 236 Extrude toolbar. 230. 74 Export command. 343 ElmoSrf command. 64. 234. Multisurf (IGES). 55. SolidWorks (IGES). 60. 40 errors in model. 3 Enter: command for scripts. Plug-in). 65. turn off. 61. 236. command aliases. 42. 62. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. CSV file. Moldex DXF. 227. 236. 223 ellipsoid:. 221 EllipseD command. 385 ESplit command. 32. 37. 253. by line. 230. curve. 4 F2. by arc. IGES. 58. 220 EditText command. 54. FastShip (IGES). 67. 30. 44. 63. SURFCAM (IGES). Metastream. 67. 133. 356 extrude:. 42. 30. 56. 51. 288 Enaked command. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command.Rhino 2. 232. 232. Pro/E (IGES). 133 enter coordinates. 123 edit:. 232. 60. 35. 37. 60. Viewpoint Technologies. 64. 61. 228 exit Rhino. 220. 52. options. 229. isoparms from surface. CamSoft (IGES). 41. 56. 33. 26. 71. 4 F8. show. IronCAD (IGES). 429 End object snap. 133 Escape key. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. AutoCAD (DWG). 229 export:. 238 Extrude command. 33. space and rightmouse click. DirectX. 229. 56. 233 extract. 3D Studio MAX 3. 202. 230. 68. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 65. 46. STL. Commadelimited file. 35. 70. Mastercam (IGES). 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 124. Microstation (IGES). 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 236. 238. 231. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 71. 36. polygon mesh. 53. 41. Unigraphics (IGES).0 Command Reference edit points. 46. 45. 32. 68. 58 452 . surface from polysurface. 230 extend. Delcam (IGES). mesh to IGES file. 356. 10. FastSURF (IGES). 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 223 elliptical conic curve. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 236 extrude: curve. ACIS.0 (IGES). 385 EnakedPt command. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 70. 131. 230 Extend toolbar. 58. 228 EvaluateUV command. NuGraf (IGES). 229 export. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 52. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 127 Esc key. 232 ExtendByLine command. 62. Catia (IGES). 74. Yamaha ESPRi. wireframe curves from surface. 420 EditDim command. 13. 228 error messages. 236. 220 EJoin command. export to. 229 explode:. 235. 43. 233. 221. 72. 234 Extend command. 234. 235 ExtractPt command. 396 EvaluatePoint command. Alias (IGES). 33. 73. 239 fair curve. 221. 228 Excel. 119. CADCEUS (IGES). 233 extend:. 228 EvaluatePt command. 229 Explode command. 26. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 44. 231. 233. AUTOFORM (IGES). 55. 133 EShow command. 229 Exit command. 2. 37. Moray (UDO). 154 Ellipsoid command. 41. Applied Geometry (AG). 123. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. Integrity Ware (IGES). NASA GridTool. 2. 53. 46. 63. 344 EMap command. POVRay (POV). arc to a point. 227 environment map. 11. Lightwave (LWO).

339 HideOsnap command. 247 Helix command. Esc key. toolbar. 135. 337. edit using. 212 frequently asked questions. 250. 262. 245 grid:. 251. 248 help: display Help file. 53. 245. 133. 362 FileProperties command. 246 Gridsnap command. 133. 425. 229. 5. 386. set the extents of. 228. curve. 249 highlight in rendering. 251. 245 GridOptions command. 378. 273. 246. seamless mesh. 168. unlock locked objects. 133. 50. 240 FilletSrf command. 245 Grid command. 246 Heightfield command. 246 group. 415 GHS file export. 239. 135 grid: axes . set distance between lines. wireframe. set snap size. 171. 53. 130. normal. 243 Flip command. 385. 273 freeze:. marker. 249.Rhino 2. 361. objects. 229. 251 floating license. 379. 123. 1 From object snap. 241 FlatShade1 command. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 1. 250 HideToolbar command. world axes. 249. 246 HBarSrf command. 368.0. 134. 379 IGES file types. 380 GridAxes command. 132. 273. types. 36 glossary terms. objects. 244 front view. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 250 hide: background bitmap. 302. 192. 246 GridSize command. 54. polysurface. 69. 131. cursor. 361. 52. naked edge. 262. 194. 330. 1 Help command. new. 249 HidePt command. 2. control points. isoparm. 49 IGES export:. 242 flatten. 410. 174 icon. 246 HBar command. 348. 407. texture mapping coordinates. save as. 176 G1 continuity. polygon mesh export. toolbar. 56. 380. 2. 2 hidden layer name. Alias|Wavefront. definition. edit toolbar button. 244 Flowline command. template. 132. 415 FreezeOsnap command. two surfaces. 415 Ghost command. name. 251. 71. 246. Ashlar Vellum. 305. 133. Breault Research's ASAP. 338 history. shortcut. 246. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 261. 255. 251. 336. command line. 171. 386. false color. 246 handlebars. 131. 229. 54. 386. snap to. periodic surface. 277. 119 Hide command. 122 font. AutoShip. 255. 74. 220. 60. 119. 1 help:. 131. 279. initial mesh grid. 260. 46. 47. command area. 416. 380 GridThick command. 64. swap hidden status. 249 HideCV command. 239. text. 240 filter the layer display. 378. 133. 241 FitPlane command. 133. 58. keep last used on top. 123. 176 Gaussian curvature. 235 FltE command. 18. 131. 122. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 54. 361. 249 hide:. set the number of lines. 1. 384. 396. 65. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 360. 417 ghost: a layer. 172. unlock locked objects. 240. 46. 133. 134. 246. 55. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 380. 240 FilletEdge command. 134. 119 HideTrace command. 387 HSV color. Enter key. 249 HidePts command. 249 HideSwap command. 273 ghost:. 386 HideAll command. 53. 281 FlatShade command. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 12. 46. turn on or off. 46. edit points. 426. 176 G2 continuity. edge of polysurface. 67. 302. 131. bumpmap. 172 hold. 220. 360. status bar panes. 132. 246 Group objects for selection. 262. NURBS. surface.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. text. 119 HideToolbox command. 250. 390. 81 Front command. 245 GridSections command. 243 floatation. 194 GCon command. 134. 278. open. periodic curve. 362 file:. 415 Freeze command. 131. 55. tracking line. show hidden control points. 417 FlattenSrf command. 131. 133. simple controls. 362 File toolbar. 395. 244 G0 continuity. 407 freeze: a layer. 307. 214 fillet. 49. 63. reduce size of model. 75 hue. 122. 240 Fillet command. 245. 339. 61. 416. units. 386. center of. 131. 48. save. panes. 377 Group command. 249. 72. 249. 131. section of curve. 302. 407. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 57. spacing. 132. 124. IGES export type details. 273. import. 221 fonts. show selected. 425 IGES: file exchange. 62. axis lock. 246. 3D Studio MAX 3. 325 FitCrv command. 249. 249 HidePoints command. 75 Hydrostatics command. 103 hidden objects. 453 . 46. objects. 70. 239 fillet:. 250. 130 Flow along a curve. AUTOFORM. 73. 104 fit a plane through points. flyout toolbar. 259. 307. run application from inside Rhino. 50. troubleshooting import problems. 273. Unicode. 307. technical support. 12 Home key. 55. 59. 55. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 250. 229. 277. tolerance.turn on or off. Osnap dialog box. 46. 429 Horizon command. 244 Flow command. CADCEUS. 133. 249. 123. 377. 262. control point. 130. developable surface. 120. 68. object names. 413. 203. 236. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 120.

102. 63. 52 import. AutoCAD DWG. 101. 69. 251 Improve command. match. 37. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. turn off. wireframe view. 256 interpolate. SURFCAM. 312. translate IGES/Rhino. aliases.Rhino 2. Unigraphics. 254. 377. 253. 254. 260 JoinFaces command. 258 IntersectCrv command. 263. 33. Multisurf. change for an object. 46. 160. 253. 121. Multisurf IGES. 104. 61. 73. 90. 168 license manager. 264 left view. SURFCAM IGES. 265 length:. 70. 65. 371. 64. 103. 265 Length command. 257. 343. 26. angle from. named views from a 3DM file. purge empty. Solid Designer. 71. SolidWorks IGES. IronCAD. 46. Boolean. rename. NASA GridTool IGES. Mechanical Desktop. 10. 3D Studio 3DS. 307. 32. 160. 46 IGES:. 168. 377 layer:. 54. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. definition. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 32. Adobe Illustrator AI. 104. 160. 262. 262 last point. 58. 42. 261 JoinEdge command. Cosmos/M. insert on curve or surface. 60. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. snap to. curve. split surface at. AUTOFORM IGES. 104. 71. 2. 140. change to current. 73. 76. 85. 66. set material properties. 126 kink. 312. 253 InsertKnot command. 73. 54. 283. 103. check out from workgroup license manager. 71. 69. 263 leader: arrow. LUSAS IGES. 61. 67. 258 intersection. 72. 42. 69. 70. Solid Designer IGES. NuGraf IGES. FastSURF. triangles. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 26. 258 InvertPt command.0 OBJ. 78. 53. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 167. 258 Intersect command. 263 Layer command. turn all layers on. 31. 59. 57. 81. Mastercam. 264 Left command. 101. Raw triangles RAW. 257 intersect: Boolean. 355 layer: change color. match attributes. 104. Maya. kink in curve. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. definition. 257 InterpPolyline command. Softimage IGES. select from list. 3D Studio MAX 3. 41. 67. 70. 251 import:. 396. 103. 68. 263 LayerOn command. select objects by. CATIA IGES. 59. surfaces. 63. 14. 37. 102. 160. 61. 256. 60. Microstation. OptiCAD IGES. 260. turn off by selecting an object. CamSoft IGES.0 IGES. 60. 65. 363. 168. 101 Layer pane. 78. 58. 59. Mastercam IGES. 252 information. 42. 70. 41. 73. 104. 261 JoinSrf command. 152. 69. 31. SolidWorks. 62. 55. 55. 58. 33. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 259 IronCAD file exchange. arrowhead on curve. 103. 338. 63. 264 leader:. 71. 33. stereolithography STL. knot. 253. 10. 377 LayerLock command. 68. 57. 254 Insert command. Delcam. turn on. 261 JPG. 132 isoparm. 254. 69. 255 Int object snap. 255. Pro/E IGES. Unigraphics IGES. AutoShip IGES. 46. 261 Join command. 251. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 140. 256. Microstation IGES. 74 Import command. delete. Solid Edge. SUM 4. 72. 55. 60. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 59. 99 JCAD STL export. TekSoft. insert in curve. remove from curve or surface. 59 isoparametric curve. 103. 63. 135 jagged shadows. 59 InterpCrv command. 3D Studio MAX 3. OptiCAD. 140. CADCEUS IGES. FastShip. dialog box. NASA GridTool. 119 initial mesh grid. Yamaha ESPRi. 251 IncrementalSave command. 72. 371. 101. 69. 351. Tebis IGES. 63. 77. construction planes from 3DM file. 168. 396. 61. 322 JScript. 55. 73. 253. CATIA. Pro/E. Integrity Ware IGES. distance from. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 101. 260. 254. 64. 71. CAD 3D SUM 4. 152 Leader command. 15. 132. AutoCAD DXF. Softimage. display density. 132. 104. filter display. 307. 283. 253 InsertKink command. 254 InsertKnots command. two objects. 425 ini file. new. Cosmos/M IGES. 167. Applied Geometry AG. 64. 29. 61. 168 454 . 307. 152. 135. 62. set current. 46. 259 join:. 62. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 62. 46. 132. 63. 103. one layer on. 367 JPG file format. curve on surface. 56.0 IGES. 253 InsertKinks command. 264 length: measure curve. Integrity Ware. 71. 133 Layer toolbar. 259. toolbar from another layout. 263. 48. 74. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 56.0. 253 knot. 41. 60. 377. Tebis. surface or polysurface. 56. 366. 130 license:. 63. 53. 343. Lightwave LWO. 167. 64. 81. 263. 132. 68. 15 lathe. 58. 14. 67. 58. 255. SDRC's I-DEAS. insert in surface. Solid Edge IGES. 56. ME30. objects. IronCAD IGES. 131 insert: edit point. object snap. 283. 53. FastShip IGES. Maya IGES. 62. Alias IGES. 64. 59. 73. 59. 58. 65. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 10. 56. 261 JoinMesh command. 160 Invert command. 54. Delcam IGES. IGES. 252 insert:. LUSAS. 67. display for object. ME30 IGES. set material. 251. 307. FastSURF IGES. 261 Lasso command. 121. 104.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 255. management. 262 LayerOff command. 91. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 258 intersect:. 425. TekSoft IGES. 259. 29. 262 lasso selection. 57.

232. area moments. seamless. 92. extend by. create. 267. 134. point. 329. 212. surface. 296. 288. deviation between two curves. 271 List command. 358. 288 maximize:. 221. 421 MeasurePoint command. 130 map. 173. 273. box. 337. 37 line: at angle from line. 171. 290. clear render mesh. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 74. volume moments. 192. 156. 420. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 287 Match command. 265. 338. 224. paste script from Clipboard. 101 manage:. set for export. set viewport. 103 locked objects. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 273 loft surface. 273 Logoff command. 338. select all. 148. layer attributes. distance. 377 Material properties. 363. 240. 340. 24 menu bar. unlock locked objects. 265. 225. 288 Menu command. 88. run from external file. decrease number of faces. 333. 266 Line4pts command. objects. 145. 224. 245. 262. 268. 268 Lines toolbar. 293. 273. 286. viewport. persistent object snaps. 377 Maximize command. curve curvature. 134 marker definition. 259. 269. clear at save time. 142. 126. vertical to construction plane. length. 338. 267. 211. 75. 212. spotlight. 328. 281 match:.0 Command Reference Light tab. 292. 135. 212 LockSwap command. 194 measure: angle. 173. 261. 281 manage: license. 269. 304. 378. 334 Line4Pt command. 348. 62 menu: context. layer. 270. 294. 239. 334. geometric continuity. 61 MDT IGES options. 338 mapping coordinates. 326. run from an alias. 328. 268. area centroid. 288 Maya file exchange. 365. 289. export to IGES file. breaking apart. 236. axis. 378 maximize: current viewport. 60 LWO file exchange. 272 list data structure of an object. 334 merge: surface. 342. 296. perpendicular to two curves. 333. 288 Merge command. 291. 272 LoadPlugin command. 345. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 155. run from shortcut key. 155. 271. 269 LineTP command. 261. 140. cylinder. 290. explode. unlocked objects. two adjacent edges of a surface. options. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 357. 262. 12. 212. 270 LineTT command. 270 LineV command. 191. 288 MergeEdge command. 283 MatchSrf command. 39. 415 locked layer name. 288. 191. 140. 333. 210. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 371. swap status with unlocked objects. 272 LoadScript command. tangent to a curve. 273 Lock command. 212. 281. 399. 455 . 187. Rhino. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 187. 90 Main toolbar. 288 MergeSrf command. 290. 225. 273 lock: a layer. perpendicular to curve. 125. 304. plane. 292. 395. 61 mean curvature. 288 menu:. 145. 141. 229. 229. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 23. 371. 213 measure:. 285. 145. single line. 256. join. polyline. 284 MatchLayer command. 377. 273 LockOsnap command. from four points. 288. 265. 86 lights. 146. 91. 290. 33. 251 merge:. 12. 267. detailed options. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. clear render mesh for all objects. 245. set properties for layer. 371. 105. density for primitives. segments. 288. 131 mass properties. 145. 271. 255. reduce density. 145. 228 Logout command. 3DFace. 255. 52. insert straight segment into curve. from NURBS object. 266. 348. 266. normal to a surface. 415. 339. deviation of points and curves from a surface. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 283. from closed polyline. 211. 292. 213. run with middle mouse. 396. 266. 74. 270. 145. select all. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 421. pop up at cursor. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. environment. 288. 88. 273. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 268. apply to surface. 338. 228 LooseLoft command. definition. 84. 40. 270. volume centroid. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 41. 334. 293. 267 LinePP command. 304. 294. 279 Make2d4View command. 38 match: curve ends. 155. 125. 179. run from toobar button. 104. cone. 268 Lines command. 281. 268. 267 LinePerp command. 420. 273 LUSAS file exchange. bump. polyline through point objects. 342. 266 LineAngle command. 130 manage layers. 271 Line command. 228. 398. 141. 296 macro. bisector. 333. 270. 284. 123. 329. 421 Measure command. 162. 194 MaxViewport command. 420. 232. BMRT. 283. area. 420. 265. 92.Rhino 2. toggle display. 288 mesh: 3D face. 371. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 265. 265 line:. 84. 268. 135. directional. 62 ME30 file exchange. 123. 255. 266. 349. 421 Mastercam file exchange. convert each face to NURBS surface. 220. 273 lock:. 340. 161. 377 maximum curvature. 417 Make2D command. 39. 330. 273 Loft command. 37 M command. 410. 180. radius. 290. 212. set for layer. 102. texture. volume. 228. snap to. tangent to two curves. 86 material:. 331. 23. 284 material: for rendering. 194. 269. select naked edges. 334 LineTan command.

multiple objects. 145. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 121. 415 object names. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 295 MeshToNurb command. end. 261. 308. viewport. 366 normal: definition. 293. 123. 41. 78. 297. 295. 92. 229. 103. 83. between two points. 309. 243. 234. 30. 379. 292 MeshCone command. 82. 311 OBJ export properties.Rhino 2. 295. 423 mesh:. toggle persistent. scale and rotate. 194 Mirror command. 363. 338. 2. 79. 297. 84. 82. 78 Notes command. a view. 309. 296 modeling aids. 115. set properties. save. 46 moments. 414. 355. 305 N-sided patch. 409. 296. wheel function. export to file. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 294. 251. unlock. 307 Offset command. 377. set mesh the same. 37 morph target. export to IGES. 212. 421 Moray UDO file export. 298 NamedView command. 298. export to OBJ. 362. 423 MeshBox command. 249. 293 MeshDensity command. 84. turn off. options. point. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 303. 343. read from file. 414 NoSnap command. show. an object. 371. 132. 290. 424 Mesh command. 296 minimize:. surface control points in u-.0 Command Reference sphere. 80. toolbar. 33. 82. 379. move control points. 425 offset: curve. 141 mouse. 251. on surface. 92. 90 Midpoint object snap. 303 NextViewport command. 387. 120. 4. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 296 mirror objects. 296 move:. definition. show toolbar. toolbar button. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 297 Mscribe command. 203. edit. 296. to move objects. 80. draw line. 296. 322. 297. 171. intersection. 306 OffsetSrf command. construction point through point. 384. 35. snap to a curve. perpendicular from a curve. 309. 348. 298 new: file. 305. export to RIB. 85. 140. 12. 305 offset:. 302 next. 425. 294 MeshSphere command. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 303 NextU command. 317 nudge. perpendicular to a curve. viewport to top. 212 object snap:. 298. 338. 378. 290. 84. reparameterize. 79. 229. 305 notes in Rhino file. ortho viewport active. toolbar. 414. 134. 2. 385. 338 OBJ file exchange. from. 78. 183. 304. 378. 387. restore. pull direction. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 62 middle mouse button function. 132. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 343. viewport. restore. 294 MeshPolyline command. 212. 297. 355. 298. 304 normal:. 298. 363 name:. 378 object properties. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 251. 294. midpoint. 30. 251. reverse direction. tangent from curve. unify normals. 384. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 84. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 78. 212. 4. objects to new construction plane. viewport active. 215. 79. 131 NoElev option. 121. 78. 290 Mesh toolbar. 292. improve. 311. 90 move: background bitmap. quadrant. 64 NURBS. 84. 296 minimum curvature. scale and rotate on surface. 63 naked edge. 147. 243 456 . 122. 363. 343. 379. 206. object to align with curve. 83. 298 NamedViews command. 12 None command. 91. 79. 304. 3. near. 302 NewViewport command. 243. 362. hide toolbar. 303 NextV command. parameterization. layer. 385. 82. 93. 349. 302 new:. 297 MoveTrace command. 81. 132 O command. 132. v-. 304. 379 Named Colors list. 306. 229. 297. 80. 296. 122 Move command. 305. disable. 343. surface. group. definition. 133. 296 Minimize command. 118 Normal command. 385. 79 NetworkSrf command. 82. view. 205. 338. 229 Microstation file exchange. options. 385 name. 79. project to construction plane. surface. 323 Microsoft Excel. 306. 414. 75 named construction planes. 293. 308. 302. 311. 92. 303. read from file. 204. 297. 355 NamedCPlane command. 79. 52. 302. 338. 296 Metastream file export. 141. show hidden. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 83. remove flipped. 3. 132. 133. save named construction plane. construction planes through a point. 377. 80. 92. 304 node. 298. 103. 80. set for multiple objects. 141. 80. 414. 81. set for single object. set persistent. 135. 362 named view. 113. 215. toolbar button. 12. 120. 84. 423. 123. 37 object: description. 2. 297 MoveUVN command. 378. 348. 302 New command. 292 MeshCylinder command. 355. surface display. 302. display. tangent to a curve. 2. objects. 90. 349. 409 object:. 114. 312 mold. 216 Moldex command. 117. 79 minimize: Rhino. and n-directions. off construction plane. 113. 146. parting line. 135. 362. perspective viewport active. 81. 372 non-uniform scale. weld. lock. 132. 35 object snap: along. 338. 295. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 140. export to. 243. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 304. 293 MeshPlane command. 415. center. 81. 148. 292. 79. knot. 261. 63 Near object snap. 385. 249. 81. 183.

polygon mesh. Modeling Aids tab. 308 OpenWS command. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 374. 40 perspective angle . Keyboard tab. 338. to curve. 90. 290. 94. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. background bitmap. 224. digitize. 101. redraw speed. 329. 133 PanLeft command. 323 Plan command. 95. 90. 94. 92. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. View tab. 323 Planar command. 92. 130. 133. place one. select all. 318 PConic command. 254. 326. trim options. 322. 328. 308. 314 Parabola command. 379. 339. 363. place at start of curve. 131 pedge. grid of. 172. 324. 322. 317 pause digitizer input. 272. 119. 174 parameterization. 290 Organic toolbar. 312. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 314 parabolic curve. 314 Pan command. Ortho. 324 plane: cut through objects. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 376. 307 open:. 312. 325 plug-ins. 92. use for shade. 133. create curve from. about. 318. 27. 326. toggle. 206 PlanarSrf command. developers. pan distance. 96. 101. 79 point objects. 133. 2. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 4. 131. 88. 96. options. 318. 325 plane:. 314 PanDown command. 94. 308 orient objects. 321. 28.2. 249. set. 96. Aliases tab. 373. 130. object snap radius. 119 Open command. 267 PerpFrom object snap. shortcut keys. 367 pe_tol. saved toolbar layout. 92. 2 PackTextures command. 90. 366. 94. 320 place. by three points. 90. 312 Osnap: pane. 96. 84 open: file. 190. 93. 330. nudge increment. 12. Softimage. 133 OrthoAngle command. 133. 339 point: control. 78 Osnap:. 176 PCX file format. 92. 2. 246. 313. 96. 133. 281. control polygon appearance. 96. 281. trackball motion. 314 parabola. 90.set. 88. 316. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 323 planar section. 2 Pan: down. 98. 366. set. 64 options: aliases. left. view. detailed polygon mesh. 322 PlaceTarget command. 311 Ortho command. 5. 133. Snap. 309. 131 periodic. 324. from three points. shade. 339 POffSelected command. 68 PictureFrame command. 88. curve. toggle. 3DS MAX 2. 206. 329. 96. 187. 90. 90. 426 OpenGL:. make curve periodic. 96 options:. 307 OneLayerOn command. 5. 308 Options dialog box. target location. 2. change interface appearance. snap increment. 425 Orient. Planar. 133. 379. 308 Orient command. 324 Plane toolbar. 90. 133 P command.5. 309. 92. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 96. click ortho pane to toggle. 325 Plane3Pt command. 325. Shade tab. place multiple. Osnap. 92. 4. 133 Osnap command. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. press shift to toggle. 330. 327. 253. General tab. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 90. manager. 90. 2. 324 Plane3Pts command. 330 457 . 290. 94. 200. 351. 321. toolbar. 311. 133. camera and target location. 333 PluginManager command. right. 313 PanRight command. 281. 220. 96. 330. 339. 379. 307. 90. 2. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 253. 327 Point command. 313. 307 OnSrf object snap. 258. 38 parting line. 281. 367 POff command. no-repeat commands. 2 Patch command. 325 PlaneV command. 272. 88. 313. 313. 311 ortho mode. shortcuts. 92. 27. 363. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 379 Ortho pane. troublshooting. 133 Perp object snap. 313 PanUp command. 325. 200. file locations. 28. 90. 133. up. Appearance tab. 322. 133. load. shortcuts. 311 Orient3Pt command. 2. 213. 68. 92. 325. 98 Options command. 218. 29. toggle. 422 Point filters. 309.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 80 Perpendicular line. Layer. 188 point cloud. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. options. 3DS MAX 1. 318 perspective view. startup commands. isoparm density. 130. 98. select method. 92. 92. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. ortho angle. 325 Plane command. 88. 351. 313 Pan:. 323 planar mode. 200. 29. 373 Point toolbar. 387 paste. 88. 311. 323. Files tab. surface. 376. 386. 316. 262. 311. 92. options. 88. 375. 68 PNG file format. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 373. 325 Pline command. 318 Perspective command. 94. make surface periodic. 326 Point object snap. 205 pause for user input in script.0. 84 OneLayerOff command. fit through points. 323 Pa. 3DS MAX 2. place at end of curve. 92. 92. autosave. turn on or off. on surface from UV coordinates. 323. undo number. 82 PerpLine command. objects from the clipboard. 326. 307.Rhino 2. lock to axis. 320 Pipe command. 2. on a surface. make surface non-periodic. 313 Panes. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 312 PageDown key. middle mouse button function. set angle. 97.

19. 293. render using OpenGL shade. 293. 335 PrevV command. clear render mesh. twist. render. 2 PrevU command. select previous in v-direction. 335. 344 RebuildEdges command. 338 Project command. 223 PolarSphere command. 303. draw on mesh. 209. 21. convert each face to NURBS surface. 292. 12. explode. 412. 10. 339. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 179. 85 Properties Material tab. absolute. 294. 378. 228 radius: dimension. 343. 303. 340 Radius command. add previous in v-direction to selection. 141. 343. 339 Pull command. options. material. 339. 249. 330 points:. select object to turn off. 295. 371. 331 Polygon command. 337 ProjCP command. 229. 328 PointGrid command. show control. 425 PtOff command. 291. set normals the same. plane. 261. 294. 292. 344. 372. 338 project: curve to surface. 259. 190. 197. 367. 296. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 337. 35. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 135. 338. 337. 41 POV-Ray file export. 338. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. select all. 335. 414. 135. select naked edges. 64. 338. 386. toolbar. 425. 361. image of model. 179. 338 ProjectOsnap command. select previous in u-direction. 50 Quit command. 259. 338 properties. 136. 19. measure. 303. 339 PointTest command. 331. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 136. 333. apply to surface. 332. 36. from edge. 339 PopupMenu command. 235. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 379 preview. 414. knot. 335 PrevViewport command. select next in v-direction. render mesh. 420. 262. 68 POn command. 343. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 340 QRender command. select connected. 86. viewport. show edit and control. 190. 328 polar array. 337 Print command. 334 PopupToolbar command. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. weld. 381 QRender1 command. 87. draw. 259. 259. 292. explode. 138. edit points. add next in v-direction to selection. hide back. viewport layout from file. 137. display information about an object. surface. 331. box. 335. 138. add previous in u-direction to selection. 423.Rhino 2. inscribed. document. interpolate curve through. to Clipboard. 366 PrintSetup command. 10. objects to construction plane. 19. 123 Proj command. 150 polar coordinates. Polytrans Softimage translation. 296. 330 PointsOff command. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 261. 334. 187. 290. 68. 336. 254. 12. 141. select all. 294. 337 project:. 343 rebuild: curve. relative. 220. 228 quinitics. join. 293. export to file. 17. from closed polyline. 371. 413 Points command. 372. 368. 339 purge empty layers. 329 PointLight command. 334 PostScript file export. 343. 334 polysurface. control points. 339 PointsOn command. density for primitives. 382 QRenderAll command. from NURBS object. 121. 18. 202. 386. 64. 295. notes. 340 RailRevolve command. cylinder. grid. 257. named views from a 3DM file. to file. 372 Polytrans. 40. 423 Polygon toolbar. 290. 339 PtOffSelected command. join. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 361. 235. 197. 331. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 343 rebuild:. 260. 340 radius:. cone. 368. 3D face. sphere. 249. 344. 137.0 Command Reference point:. 420 Properties command. 343. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 229. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 349. 340 RailRev command. 87 properties:. 257. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 188 PointCloudSection command. 424. 353. 336 print. 332 PolygonEdge command. 12. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 262. 121. 334 Polyline command. 220. 290. 136. 65 program toolbar functions. 327 PointDeviation command. named construction planes from file. 333. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 339 pull curve to surface. 349. 339. 382 Quad object snap. 340 rail revolve. 337 Pro/E file exchange. create from control points. 35. 209. 333 polyline:. 345 Rebuild command. 19. 344 recent commands list display. select next in u-direction. 131. 366. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 338 Projection command. 333. 86. 339 PtOn command. 353 previous viewport. 85. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. select with lasso. 41 read. 254. 229. 331 polygon mesh. object. 86 Properties Text tab. 171. delete control on curve. coordinate points. 330 PointsFromUV command. 81 QueryDomain command. 344 RebuildSrf command. 90 458 . hide edit and control. 202. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. invert selection. clear render mesh for all objects. 332 polygon:. 229. 171. through point objects.

338 Ribbon command. Front construction plane. 39. 353. Top construction plane. 2. 348. 353 RenderCurves command. a surface. 10. 19. 103. 355. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 99 Render toolbar. options. 2. 20 render problems. named view. 30. view continuously. 94 RIB file export. 103.Rhino 2. 30 save: as small file. 5. 309. 3. named construction plane. 359. 346 RectangleCen command. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 355. toolbar. 360 Rule command. edges. 355. 4. vertical. 346 RectangleV command. 360 RotateUp command. 355. 349 relative coordinates. clear render mesh for all objects. 359 RotateDown command. 183. 398. 361. sequentially numbered versions of model. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 3. 354. 171. shine. 2. 309. scale and move on surface. 378. 1 Rhino. 398. 320. 360 RunScript command. vertical to construction plane. objects. 345. 338. 351. copy to Clipboard. ii roll out a surface. 252. 360 rotate:. 362. 346. 351 RemoveKnots command. trim curve from surface. 119 Rhinoceros. 121 render: BMRT. 338. left. 183 Restore command. from three points. 429 RedoMultiple command. 2. through three points. named construction plane. 429 Redo command. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 241 RefreshShade command. mesh settings. 3.ini. 363. place lights. 25. 361 S command. 425 render:. 363. 2. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 352. create background image. 24. 324. 360 RotateLeft command. 353 RenderPreview command. 355 Rev command. 354 repeat command exclude list. 347 rectangle:. 4. 340. view change. 120. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 325. 355 revolved surface. 363. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 25 Rhino web page. 338. 348. object from selection. 324. 353 RenderEdges command. 251. 412 Rotate3D command. 325 RectCen command. 381. 459 . 3. curve knots. 349 RemapCPlane command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 357. 346 rectangle: center. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 382. 4. Rhino 1. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 355 RevU command. 181. 356 RGB color. 133 right view. 288. 360. 126. materials. 75 Rhino 1. transparency. 324. 358. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 353. 2. 309. 363. 39. 353. background bitmap. 3. 352 render plug-in application: options. command aliases. 4. 19. 363. Rhino from being minimized. curves. 352. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 352 rename. 352. 360 RotateView command. 24. 360 RotateRight command. 346. 358. 346. wallpaper.0 Command Reference Rect command. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 360 Run command. length and width. 152. 171. 181. named view. 345 Rect3Pt command. 172. 352. 338. 391 SAT file export. 338. 203. 320. 2 redo:. an object. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 362. 1. 355 revolve:. 351 RemoveTrace command. 308. 347 redo: last undone command. down. 4. 358 RotateCamera command. 120 restore: current viewport size. corner. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 338 Render command. 348 Redo command shortcut. 357 right mouse button. right. 125. 351 RemoveKnot command. 360. 351. 346. 3. 359. 354 reparameterize.0 file exchange. 356 Right command. 39. 1 RhinoScript options. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. autosave. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 346 RectV command. 30. edges of polygon meshes. highlight. surface using rail curve. objects in 3D space. move and scale. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. image in the render window. 288. 348 refit a curve. 5. 351. 353. 171. 347 rectangular array. 416 rotate: construction plane. why the name. 340 Revolve command. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.0. 39. 356 RevV command. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 181. 347 Rectangle command. clearing render meshes. up. bumpmaps. 96. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. layer. preview using OpenGL shade. 338. 230. textures. 172. file to a different file name or file type. 181. 273 ruled surface. 120. 355 RestoreView command. file. 360. 363. 352 RenderCrv command. 338. 412 Rotate command. 360. 90 reshape a toolbar. 357. 203. 357 right-click menu. 359 RotateCPlane command. 348 ReduceMesh command. close render window. 148 rectangular surface. 354. 2. 308. save image in render window. 349 remove. 357 rotate view. 353. 96. button image to file. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 355 restore:. 4. 379 RenderOptions command. 40.

373 SelPolyline command. VBScript. 370. lasso. 368. 367 SelBadObjects command. 309 Scale command. 339. move and rotate. 370 SelDup command. 184. 371 SelMesh command. 138. objects to shade. 368 SelColor command. 370 selection menu. objects non-uniformly. 363 SaveView command. 183. 90. 308. 372 SelGroup command. 25. 181. 25. 366. 182. 363 SaveSmall command. 172. 51. 335. 368. 373. 258. 364 Scale toolbar. 374. invert point selection. 369 SelCurves command.Rhino 2. construction plane with 3 points. with a window. 335. dimensions. 363 SaveWSAs command. 246. to file in 256 colors. objects to unlock. 369. 373 SelPt command. 362 save:. 374. 364. by layer. 369 SelCrvs command. 303. 374 SelV command. 372. 371 SelMeshes command. 370 SelLast command. 252. 136. 137. construction plane to view. connected points. 370 SelID command. 303. 368 SelectConnected command. subparts of objects. 361 save template. 364 Scale2D command. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 376. 181. 136. 125. digitizing scale. 376. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 365. 354. 184. 372. 129 scripting tools. to Clipboard. 371. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 309. 366 scale:. 376. construction plane to next used. objects instead of control points. 373 SelSurface command. previous control point in udirection. 262. 363 SaveAs command. 259. polysurfaces. construction plane origins to a point. construction plane to object. 335. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 184. 184. 372. 379. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 366. 181. 67 Sect command. 371. 372 SelSolids command. 137. spotlights. 262. 375. 364. 363 scale: background bitmap. 369. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 373. 415. 368 SelConnected command. 309. 362 SaveCPlane command. row of control points in udirection. 372. 373 SelSolid command. layers from list. 258. 363 SaveWorkspace command. with crossing window. 371 SelLayerNumber command. construction plane to x axis. 126. 368 SelectID command. 375 Select toolbar. rotate and move on surface. 50. 367. 308. 259. toolbar layout as different name. 372. 126. 371 SelectName command. 369. construction plane origin. 136. IGES. 303. front construction plane. extents of grid. 138. 376 set: active viewport by name. by object ID. 365. next control point in u-direction. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 367 screen:. 383. 372 SelSrf command. add previous control point in v-direction. 303. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 372 SelPolysrf command. 371. distance between grid lines. 460 . add previous control point in u-direction. in shaded viewport. 182. 371 SelName command. 366. 262. curves. 258. 371. 138. 24. 383. 369 SelDim command. 375 SelWindow command. 24. construction plane to zaxis. 371. 373 SelU command. construction plane to previously used. 126 scripting:. 363 SaveWS command. 368 SelCrossing command. 367. 339. 25. next control point in v-direction. objects in two dimensions. 103. 246. 103. to file. 372 SelPolylines command. maximized viewport by name. points objects. 366. bad objects. 373. 206. 182. 365 ScaleNU command. rows and columns of control points on surface. 371 SelLights command. 369 SelCrv command. 183. 373 SelPts command. 288. add next control point in v-direction. 50. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command.0 Command Reference shortcut. 367 section curves. 364. 262. 367. 367 Section command. JScript. 375. objects in one direction. 369. 371 SelLight command. 364. 370. coordinates of points. 383. 90 Select Color dialog box. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 366 ScaleTrace command. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 152. 373. control polygon display density. 361. 246. 372 SelNone command. with mouse method. objects by name. construction plane vertical. current layer. 354. 365 screen capture. 373. 362. 367 SelAll command. 370. 368. objects. 373 SelSurfaces command. 75 Select Points toolbar. 363. 372 SelPoint command. 363. 372. 373 select:. polylines. 366 Scale1D command. template. objects uniformly. all objects. 377. 363 Save command. 370. 366. 362. 373 SelUV command. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. previous control point in vdirection. deselect all objects. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 125. 367. invert. meshes. 136. 377. 24 SelectLayer command. duplicate objects. surfaces. 370. objects for render preview. 137. 374. toolbar layout. 2. 371. 178. 368. 370 SelDups command. 230. 373 SelSrfs command. 369 SelCurve command. 365. 370 SelLayer command. 372 SelPrev command. 335. objects by layer number. 365. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command.

grid. by function. 323. 382. 182. 383. 181. Osnap toolbar. 382. to the end of a curve. broken edges. 390 snap: along a line. 120. 220 ShowGrid command. Right. near a curve. 207 SetSnap command. 386 ShowSelected command. 318. 383 Shift key. 242. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 380. 3. 183. 381 shade:. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 92. 379. x-axis. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. with grid. 298. to a point object. 384. 183. project object snaps to construction plane. 386 ShowPts command. 380 Settings command. 383 ShadeOptions command. 2. 381 shade: continuous. 385 ShowPoints command. 381. with wireframe. 385 ShowOsnap command. 94. 184. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 246. 212. 426 ShowAll command. to the midpoint of a curve. 84. 261. 338 shortcuts. selected hidden objects. 96. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 5 shine in rendering. 339. along a line tangent to a curve. 183. 384 ShowCamera command. 78. 385. shortcuts. vertical. 246. 261. 241. 362 Set View toolbar. edges of surface or polysurface. 220. 388 sketch:. in all viewports. 81. pane. 182. 241. 242. 2. 184. 181. 376. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. right construction plane. naked edges. OpenGL. 184. 386 ShowStatusBar command. edit points. 382 shaded display. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. midway between two points. tangent to a curve. 181. bitmap in a separate window. 384.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. continuous shaded mode. selected objects in all viewports. 383 ShadeSelected command. 4 Shift+PageDown. 392. 42 Smooth command. 389 Sketch command. to the intersection of two curves. onto a curve. 80. toggle object snaps. 2. 389. 82. 133. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 298. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 383. 79. 379 SetPt command. options. 385 ShowGrev command. 343. to an object. 78. 426 Show command. curve on polygon mesh.Rhino 2. 363. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 79. 95. flat in one viewport. 212. 81. 184. display context menu. to the view. 376. 184. 384. flat in all viewports. 242. 337. handlebars. 386. 318 SetPlanar command. 183. 2. 318. 94. 355. change size. curve with digitizer. to the center of a circle. 388. 389 skinning. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 385. 184. 359. 79. options. top construction plane. 80. to surface isoparm. 79. 78. 355. 5. 386 ShowPt command. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 318. 381. to next used. Top. 81. 242. 98. 206. to previously used. 382. 409 ShowToolbar command. 391. 387 silhouette curves. 220. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 250. working directory. 386 Silhouette command. 380 SetGroupName command. 83. 244. 206. 84. 386. 386. 3 Points. printer. 80. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. with no smoothing on mesh. selected objects. 178. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 273 SLA export. 2. 182. keys. 322. viewports. 23. control points. 383 ShadedViewport command. 376. 382. object. 119. 388. 119 ShowToolbox command. 377. 78. 125. 140. by key. 385. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 409 set:. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 379 SetOrtho command. to construction plane. scripting tools. 241. 183. 376 SetGridSnap command. 383 shadow. 183. 182. 125 show: background bitmap. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 119. 94. 377 SetHotspot command. perspective angle. 382 ShadeAll command. 250 SetLayer command. 425 Shade command. continuous in perspective view. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 218. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 5. 173 ShowCV command. 78 461 . 84. 385. perpendicular to a curve. 379 SetPts command. 206. 400 ShowTitle command. 162. 376 SetGLShade command. z-buffer. 246. 384 show:. turn off object snaps. 383. z-axis. 250. 119 ShowTrace command. hidden objects. 84. 181. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 5 Shift+PageUp. built-in aliases. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. flat with grid. 378 SetObjectName command. 425 Shade1 command. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 409. spotlight hotspot. 245 ShowMenu command. from a point. 21 Shear command. 390 smooth curve or surface. 384. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 357. 383 shear objects. 387 sketch: curve. hidden control points. to a knot. 183. 183. 381 set construction plane. 218. 76. 339. 82. 76. toolbar. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. toggle OpenGL mode. 23. 264. to a surface. 337. 77. 153. 94. 218. on surface. 42 SLC file exchange. 92. 74. 183. 92. 339 ShowEdges command. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 2. 98.

158. X_T file export. X_T file export. plane. 417. 238. 192. 133. 223. 200. rebuild. 273. 229. 135. 2. 201. 161. 393 Sphere2Pts. truncated cone. 426 STL: ascii tag. 173. 430 startup commands. 15. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 70. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. polygon mesh. 247. 19. 132. 189 SrfMatch command. 324. 421. 393. center. 393 Sphere3Pt command. select all. 395. 317. 84 snap:. 216. 307. 426 surface analysis:. from 3 or 4 points. 416. 392 Sphere toolbar. 290. 386. 38. 372. 165. 243 Surface toolbar. 96. 101. for rendering. extrude curve along path. 88. revolved. 162. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. trim. from heightfield bitmap. 306. 373. from three points. 398. 223. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 354. make periodic. from planar curves. unroll. 407. plane from three points. loft. IGES file exchange. 307. create fillet between. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 162. 69. 189. 238. 273. 391. 273. 320. from curve network. 371. 92. 400. 262. split. 3. 399. patch. 344. 133 sphere. 409. 380. 277. 160. 133. 126 Stretch command. 223. 236. 68 Softimage plug-in. 426. 69. 321. 171. 277. 398. 218. 401. 94. 242. match. change degree. 157. 352. 396 SplitSrf command. 410. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. sweep two rails. untrim. 409 SnapSize command. 284. 42. viewport vertically. 344. 250. 160. 273. 286. 324. rule. 238. make nonperiodic. 340. 423 STL:. panes. 277. 397 SplitEdge command. 309 SrfBlend command. 398. cutting plane. 372. 160. 249. 325. 285. 133. 413. 133. blend. 279. 192. 166. 325. extrude. 380 snap to locked objects. 396. 161. 398. draw curve through control points. 380. 16. 307. 295. 83. one object with another. 298. 251. 113. minimum radius of curvature. 356. 393 Sphere2Pt. 317. toggle. 247. 240. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 287. 288. select all. 216. 392. 79. 385. 284 SrfMerge command. 233. extend. 162. 392. 182. from 3 or 4 curves. create variable radius fillet between. 382. 284. 402. 399 SrfPts command. 80. 153. 4. skin. 417. box from three points. 81. 393 SphereD command. 400 STEP file exchange. offset. 428. 165. 399 SrfPt command. 306. 392. 281. 42. 190. 261. turn on or off. surface at isoparms. 281. 202. 164. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 2. 395. 105 surface normal. 406. display. 237. 395. 154. file exchange. 393 sphere:. 163. 238. 250. toolbar. torus. 289. 5. 157. extrude into solid. hotspot. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 241. 384. 240. 78. extract from polysurface. 398. 396. 228. Boolean intersection. 236. 224. 371 Spotlight command. 104. 364 SubCrv command. 281. 164. 233. 118. 398 SrfCV command. 395 split:. 393. 159. 400 SubCurve command. create. 367. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 189. 35. 90. 92. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 417. 392. 216. 397 Split command. 238. 355. box. 355. tolerance. 132. 393 Spiral command. sweep along path. 201. 317. 115. cap planar ends. developable. 426 462 . 165. 348. 22 support. 298. 324. 238 Standard toolbar. 190. 84 Softimage file exchange. 70. Booleans. 391. 229. 217. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 38. turn on or off. 38 SortPoints command. 114. IGES file exchange. chamfer. 288. 236. cylinder. 401. 410. 302. 320. 298. 180. 1. tube. 392 SnapToLocked command. 114. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. hide backfacing control points. 410. ellipsoid. 82. 275. 238. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 399. 411. 157. 372. 392. 42 Stereograms. 218. 402. 393 Sphere3Pts command. baseball sphere. 35. cone. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 90 status bar. from grid of control points.Rhino 2. 398. 240. 406. 42 StopScript command. 324. 395. 386. 243. 396. 236. 15. extrude curve to point. 163. export object properties to. 397. 36. 334 spacebar. 240 solid:. 273. select all. Boolean union. 249. 263. 295 Sphere command. 361. 229. 166. 366. 324. 233. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 320. 401. 338. comma-delimited file export. 316. 103. 243. 399 SrfSum command. 391 snap mode. 421. 288. 354. shortcuts. drape. reparameterize. 192. by diameter. 381. 398 spreadsheet. 161. 411 SolidWorks. from grid of points. 69 Solid Edge. 377. 317. 340. 281. 200. 192 Surface menu. 391. 394 spline. 192. 284. 218. maximum radius of curvature. 173. mean curvature. 163. 400 StatusBar command. viewport horizontally. periodic. 406. pipe. 153. reverse direction. 203. 399. 229 SrfAlign command.0 Command Reference Snap command. 153. 198. 276. 416. 247. 166. 236. 330. 328. 313. 160 summary information. 339. 414. 10. 429. 361. 288. plane vertical to construction plane. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 416. 399 SrfPoints command. 201. 10. 2. merge. 84. 344. develop. 234. 160. 164. 255 split: edge of a surface. 306. 392. 399. 278. 385. 373. 396. 133. 38 Solid toolbar. 417 surface:. 173. 76. 360. 251. 398 spotlight:.

205. Arc. 168. 367. set viewport. 400. 258. 409. 340. import from another layout. 400 SwapUV command. 407. 143. 392. 1. 145. 463 . hide toolbar. 185. 247. 377. 5. 210. 39. 273. 124. 121. 352. 120. 140. grid axes on or off. 388. move button. 400. 79. 381. 346. 407. 372. 166. 408 Text command. 203. Circle. 409 toolbar layout. 401. ortho. 19. edit. 379. 177. 231. perspective view on and off. display of command prompt. 425. 94. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 344. unlink flyout. 385. 369. 198. save layout as different name. 80. tear off flyout. solids. 134. float icon to top of cascade. 72 technical support. 412. 323. 215. 3-D Digitize. 22. 259. 123 Toolbars. 212. 123. 330. 296. 162. 78. 245. 242. pop up with middle mouse. 294. 324. edit annotation. Curve. 359. 422. 226. 210. 322. 313. 334. 353. 200. 207. 181. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 340. 197. 379. Curve Tools. 330. 209. 187. 206. 39. 306. CPlane View. 272. 169. 367. 288. 122. Background Bitmap. 173. right. 210. 353. 323. 419. edit bitmap icon. 50. 155. 302. 121. 293. 292. 426. 123. 297. 198. 82. edit button image. angle. 284. 387. 179. 396. 245. viewport title. 119. 185. 307. save button image to file. 397. 328. 358. 420. 220. ortho mode. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 121. 215. 332. Analyze. 120. 395. 260. 362 text: annotation dot. menu bar. 344. 420. relative. 195. 141. 177. capture icon. 137. 308. close. 120. 420 Title command. 84. 83. 420. 322. 229. 429. 123. Box. 288. 122. 409 TiltRight command. 135. new file. 14 Tan object snap. rename toolbar. 400 SwapView command. 425. 321. 168. Extend. 120. control polygon highlight. IGES export. definition. 384. title bar on or off. 409. 148. 189. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 226. 201. 39. 404 Sweep1 command. move. 168. 356. scaled size. change. 317. 264. 216. display of title bar. 123. 241. 165. 13. 373. 136. 235. 122. 423. 390. rendering of curves. 221. 406. 122. 266. 374. 425 Toggle34View command. 253. 365. 149. change name. 124. 409. 288. 88. 148. 409. 351. two rails. file location. 222. 268. 323 TCone command. 15. 121. 150. 165. 366. 153. 409. 362. 124. dragging based on view plane. display of status bar. 180. 393. 220. 265. 208. 415. import button image. 283. 151. 206. 90. 162. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 124. new button. 365. 90. 405 target. 120. 368. 367 Thaw command. 71 Swap. 223. 119. 183. 144. 104. 179. 120. 370. 220. 404. 122. 409. 179. 204. 174. 269. 249. 308. capture button image. 119. 218. 262. 351. 343. 192. 173. 122. open toolbar. 391. planar curves. 156. 400 sweep. 51. 208. 323. 385. 403. Ellipse. 123. 169. 400. 269 TanLine command. 178. 125. 363. 121. 171. 361. 368. toolbar on and off. save. 366. 336. 279. 122. 323. 142. 243. 405. crosshairs on and off. 168. 174. 221. change button size. 363. programming. 390. 368. 331. 120. 121. 121. 316. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 182. 134 TGA file format. Array. float toolbar. 195. 363. 409. 248. 385. 90. 311. 216. 123. 364. viewports. 389. display of viewport title. 384. 90. 384. 419. 150. 218. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 190. 401. 362. 265. world axes on or off. 215. 103. 249. 119. 120. 230. 184. 40. 134. 156. 257. 246. 236. 234. 215. 420. 330. 271. surface u and v. 143. 322. 337. control polygon display. 410. 353. 409. 409 toggle. 302. Annotate. 338 texture for rendering. 161. cascade. 339. Dimensions. 197. 152. 414. 135. 379. 120. 333. 244. snap mode. 305. 124. 388. 231. 323. 140. 187. 73 template. 233. 413. 125. 232. 173. 120. 281. 164. 149. 357.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 241. 348. edit 2-dimensional. 255. 236. 339. 160. 363. 92. 230. 124. 392. 120 ToggleToolbox command. new toolbar. 203. scripting. BMRT Materials. 401. display program. planar mode. 281. delete toolbar. 399. 407 text:. 371. 335. 120. 387. 185. 345. 321. 152. 383. 122. reshape toolbar. clear the bitmap image. 228. 308. 223. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 178. 22 toolbar buttons. 248. 398. 261. 124. 151. clear button image. 172. 355. 318. 342. 192. 272. 251. 135. 209. 96. grid on and off. 101. 407. surfaces. 409. 216. 352. save. 254. 235. 217. 263. 402. 256. copy. 290. 428. 338. 330. 302. 260. 81. 164. 309. properties. 338. 387. delete button. 221.Rhino 2. 401 Sweep2 command. 154. 51. 400. 240. 407. 245. 409. 279. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 3-D Digitizing. 170. 15. 360. 395. 139. 396. 163. 409 TiltLeft command. toggle toolbar on and off. 288. 298. 257. Edge Tools. 352. 363. 404 TAB key. 256. 353. 409 title bar. 349. 430. 415 tilt view. 212. show toolbar. 400. 379. 409. hide flyout. along path. rendering of edges. 207. status bar on or off. move toolbar. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 303. Curve From Object. 221. 162. 141. 407. 420. 121. 326. 230. 125 Toolbar command. 157. 305. 194. 245. 82 tangent line. 311. 120 tolerance. 320. 407 Texture command. 163. save. 269 Taper command. 295. 238. 138. 408. left. 255. 402 Sxtrd command. 391. 125. Diagnostics. 142. 386. 171. 220. BMRT Lights toolbar. 121. 416. 258. 297. 245. 347. 22. 139. 417. 343. 337. 239. 375. 270. 255. 239. 382. 170. 338. persistent object snaps. 90. 407. 407 TextObject command. 311. 167. 204. display viewport. 224. 325. 222. 232. 122. 144. 205. 187. 394. 411. 304. copy button. 124. 217. 23. 119. 409 TogglePerspective command. display of menu bar. 80 TanFrom object snap. dock. 402. 213. 267. model size. create cascading toolbar. 189. open. 389. 288. 125. 421.

88. File. 339. 180. 180. 15 Units command. 83. 409. 337. 261. 153. 298. 330. 240. POV Lights. 374. 105. 364. 295. 425 turn on. 254. 244. 90. 429 Undo command. 415 Ungroup command. Copy command. command line. 323. 425. trimmed surfaces. Rotate3D command. 201. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 140. 162. 2. 358. 398. 288. 152. 359. Organic. 94. 134. 370. 229. 92. 172. autosave. 342. 82. 325. 180. 348. layer. Set View. 357. 413. definition. 239. 414. 324. 412 Transform toolbar. 283. 161. 373. 413. 142. shrink to trim boundary. 337. 134. 390. 363. 323. 333. 102. 402. 330. 166. 16. 245. 384. 326. 397. 399. 181. 429 UndoMultiple command. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. Orient3Pt command. 305. 386. title bar. 406. 219. 365. 425. 288. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 135. 336. 368. 366. 311. 204. 214. 425. control points. 414 Ungroup objects. view change. Orient command. 309. 161. 179. 348. 19. 84. 413 u-direction: move control points. 306. Scale1D command. Geometry Fix. 358. 223. 243. 400. 318. 307. 258. 339. grid axes. 244. 396. 409. 373. 150. 113. layer. 386 troubleshooting. 296. 355. ScaleNU command. 185 u-direction definition. 364. set. 249. Select. 251. 148. 172. 154. Surface 2. 49. Standard. 424. 322. 405. 101. 281. 410. 386. ArrayCrv command. 296. 412. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 423. 277. 416. 288. 164. 41. 363. 162. 390. 267. 96. 338. 429. 221. SetPt command. 140. 428. 242. 409. 339. 374. 379. 404. 407. 339. 377. 382. 296. 386. 167. options. 78. 409 Tools toolbar. 423. 406 Tube command. POV Materials. 420. 149. 154. 339. 228. 313. 373. 349. 270. 233. 412 transparency in rendering. OrientOnSrf command. 363. Sphere. OrientPerpToCrv command. 263. 292. 154. 308. 409. 309. 229.0 Command Reference 233. 81. 246. 349. status bar. 263. 198. 41. 308. 303. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 400. 247. 263. 346. 244. 262. 171. 343. 367. 331. 135. 425. world axes. 273. 269. 184. 330. 366. 307. 412 transform:. 2 Torus command. 384. 83. 273. 288. 245. 399. Transform. 356. 415. 136. 173. control points on selected objects. 141. 348. 345. Scale. 172. 307. 218. 173. menu bar. 271. 339. 400. 203 trimmed surfaces. 174. status bar. 123 464 . 317. 90. menu bar. 266. 234. 390. 308. 99. 311. 251. 413. 2. 245. 213. 410 trim:. 103. reverse. 361. Surface Analysis. 412 U command. Scale command. 379. 290. 417. 343. 259. grid. 386 Unicode fonts. 153. RemapCPlane command. 302. 341. 328. 236. 145. 309. ProjectToCPlane command. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 339. 2. Polygon. 236. 261. 385. 241. 409. 409. 152. 349. 290. 405. Rectangle. 88. 364. 82 tracking line. 294. 372. 413. 324. 383. 357. 296. along a line. 386. 368. layers. 365. along a line tangent to a curve. OpenGL. 304. along a line perpendicular to a curve. command. 317. 293. 229. 409. 82. 148. 311. 101. 218. Surface. 208. Solid Tools. 401. 238. 425. 173. 412. 173. 259. 332. 203. 48. 357. 238. 135. Mass Properties. 403. 288. 338. 413 undo:. 208. 154. 364. 417. redo. 398. 357. 429. 416 UnGhost command. 382. 258. 173. 236. 206. 202. Plane. 400. 321. 353. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 410. 355. 2. 297 u-direction curves. 342. STL Tools. 80. 371. 321. pop up at cursor. 296. 379. 415 units systems. 92. Fillets and chamfers. 298. 300. 338. 51. 411 turn off. 366. 264. IGES. 381. 430. 409 Top command. 253. 48. 383. 149. 395. 19. 383. 381. 296. Extrude. 375. 1. Set CPlane. 168. 393. 96. 180. 140. 220. 157. 383. 338. 298. 229. Mirror command. 414 UndoSelected command. 92. 205. 263. 228. 249. 369. IGES export file types. 345. 79. 161. 94. 352. 173. 386. 229. 249. 405. 249. 365. 162. 2. 284. 50. 358. 244. 427. 334. 243. 361. 153. 151. 210. 339. 256. Solid. 392. autosave. 299. 417. 362. 356. 349. Viewport Layout. Surface Tools. 263. 331. 268. 236. 410. 352. 365. 251. 101. 261. 16. 339. grid. 224. 307. 338. 90. 236. 137. 398. 321 track. 355. 386. Tools. Smooth command. Rotate command. Visibility. 422. 96. 408. 339. control points. title bar. 104. world axes. 366. 326. 334. 414 unfold a surface. 90. Shear command. 362. 151. 309. Boolean. 180. 190. 253. Scale2D command. 103. 338. 104. 348. 100. 244. 409 top view. 172. 90. 183. 88. 409. 50. 133. rendering. 357. 311. 348. 338. 302. 180. 192. 108. Lines. 165. 73 union. 344. 318. 414. 200. 15 truncated cone. 308. 415 Toolbox command. 229. 268. 161 unit systems. 395. Move command. 330. 358. 108. 142. Select Points. 333. 203. 392. 358. 263. 357. 316. 154. ArraySrf command. IGES export type details. 349. 155. 255. 265. 173. shortcut. 412 Twist command. Main. 194. Mesh. 276. Point Editing. 171. 160. 150. 212. 262. ArrayPolar command. 347. 153. 356 u-direction:. command line. 391. 409. 92. Taper command. 83. 351. 367. 309. 405. 203. 148. 377. 421. 384. 396. 375. grid axes. 399. 304. 307. 245. 348. 220. 262. 182. in text. 249. 131 transform: Array command. 245. 372. 82. 275. 426 Turntable command. 322. 410 TraceBitmap command. 203. Twist command. 288. 138. 260. Microscribe. 148. 240. Object Snap. 19. 379. Booleans. 140. 365. 261. all layers. 216. 390. shortcuts. Bend command. 240. Layer. 351. 365. 360. 203. 94. 190. 420. Point. 148. 335.Rhino 2. 203. 182. Flow command. 342. 361. Render. 262. 414 UnhidePoints command. 307. 245. 262. 92 Trim command.

unlock objects. 23. zoom. place camera and target. 135. 360. 181. maximize viewport. zoom extents. restore named. 420 ViewportTitle command. 379 Weld command. 419. save named. three viewports. create from surface. 323.Rhino 2. 415 Visibility toolbar. hide back. zoom extents selected. 135. 302. 383. tilt right. 273. plane. 347 VRML file export. 415 UnPackTextures command. tilt left. 318. set viewport. 135. swap. pan. 172. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. rectangle. front view. target. 415. 250. 356 v-direction:. 165 UpDegSrf command. set back view. 323. 313. 412. 421 VRectangle command. 264. 357. 131 vertical. pan down. 96. 162. 409. 190. 429. 415 unlock:. rotate left. 415 Visual Basic script. 132. 304. 376 Wallpaper command. next perspective active. 343. 425 WireShade1 command. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 24. 304. 325. 236. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 347 view: back view. 288. new. set front view. zoom window. plan view. 429. 322. 425 ViewportProperties command.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 224. 343. 343. zoom in. 417 unwrap a surface. 135. 404. 298. wireframe viewport. 318. 430. 134. 190. 162. 417 Untrim command. set density. 357. 264. 430. zoom out. 336. 45 viewport: bring to top. perspective view. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 425. 416 UpDeg command. 153. 249. 415 UnLockSelected command. 163. close. 314. 430 viewport:. 302. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. set all to match. split horizontal. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. zoom all to the same scale. 430. 288. read named from file. 423 wetted surface area. 131. 419. rotate up. 24. 132. 421 VRBSrf command. 244. 415 visibility:. 325 Vrbf command. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. right view. 383. 415 unroll a surface. 409. 409. with mouse. 185. 168 465 . rotate. layout. 397. copy to all. 249. 429 viewport layout:. 304. menu. 271 Volume command. 416 UnrollSrf command. 162. 168. set right view. 271. 412. 244. 397. 430. 153. camera. 429. 23. 419. 428. 184 VDA file exchange. 376. top view. 250 water plane area. 1 window: select. 297 v-direction curves. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 357. pan left. check out license. 363. 360. 264. 314. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. bottom view. 318. 313. 376. 363. 400. 288. set maximized by name. 360. 420 viewport title menu. construction plane left. zoom in and out by a percentage. synchronize. 397. 321. set to shaded display. 325. 386. 322. 386. 405. 163. left view. 416 untrim a surface. 273. 288. 273. 302. 338 wireframe display. 421 VPlane command. 355. 298. 425. 430. 322. 162. set to wireframe display. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. set left view. 400 viewport properties. properties. zoom extents in all viewports. 264. 347. 322. 44 W command. 303. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 271. 313. construction plane back. 318. 425 WMF file export. 249. 360. 377. 422 weight:. swap viewports. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. control points. 338. 420. 422 water level. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 409. 400. 423 weld:. 190. 409. 54 vertex. 323. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 384. 429. 386. 376. 400. reverse. object. 51 weight: edit control point. 303. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. line. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 419. 420. next ortho active. read from file. set perspective view. 404 visibility: control points. 429. 181. 383. 428 Windows Clipboard. 379. move next to top. 336. print. 90 window selection. maximize. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 11 user input in script. 355. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 415 UnLock command. 25. 126 Vline command. pan up. 318. 428. split vertical. 153. zoom extents in one viewport. 421 VolumeMoments command. 135. 430. 153. 23. 420. control point. 384. 419. 250 What command. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 313. 343. 425 wireframe:. 43 v-direction: move control points. 2. 313. 302. place target. set bottom view. construction plane front. 420. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 288. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. zoom window. show control points. 90. shade. 422 Weight command. zoom window and set a target point. 212. 420. 135 WireframeViewport command. 343. 24. 360. 126 VCPlane command. redraw speed. 3 window:. 198. 244. 96. display. 409. 377. 244. 423. 302. 360. 45 workgroup: check in license. 304. 404. 397. 420 views. 185 v-direction definition. edit named. rotate right. rotate down. construction plane right. 419. 430 view:. create new. pan right. set active by name. make previous active. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. lock objects. 429. 357. continuously rotate. 249. 429. 384. construction plane bottom. 323. set top view. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 336. 134 VBscript. object snaps. 172. isoparm. next active. selected objects.

426 ZM command. 168 working directory. 38 XtndB command. save as different name. 96. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 429. 2. in and out by a percentage. 4. 429. 216 ZE command. 217 ZBufferPt command. 363 world axes. 425. 5. 428. 2. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 429 ZEA command. 429 ZS command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 97. 430. 430 ZBuffer command. window and set a new target point. 11 WorldAxes command. 430 ZoomDynamic command. window. 74 Z command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 425 world coordinates. 430 ZoomTarget command. 430. toggle display. 428 ZoomExtents command. 168. 168. 2. 429. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 96. 428 ZoomNext command. check out license. 430 zoom window. 233 XtndF command. 44 X_T file export. 430 ZSA command. extents in one viewport. 425. check in license. 430. 429. 168 workgroup:. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 217 ZBufferPts command. 428 Zoo. 429 ZoomIn command. 430 Zoom command. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 428. 430. set colors. 3 zoom:. previous view. 4. 429 ZoomP command. 308. 130. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 233 Xtra command. save. 428. 2. 429. 130 zoom: dynamic.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. extents in all viewports. in. 429 ZoomMouse command. 430 ZoomWindow command. 363. 308. 381 workspace. 3. 429 ZoomOut command. 429 Zebra command. 363. 430 ZoomX command. open. out. 428. 430 466 . 425 WRL file export. 3. 430 ZP command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. options.Rhino 2. 429 ZoomPrev command.

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