Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

................................................................Rhino 2........................................................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index.............. 447 xv .......................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. and Find. under the topic Help. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. and by the time the product was in beta testing.rhino3d. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears.Rhino 2. Index.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. see the Rhino Command List.rhino3d. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. To explore the related topics. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.com/support/faq. the name stuck. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. 17 .rhino3d. Help Access Rhino's Help file.com Web site www.

Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. F8. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Ortho pane on the status bar. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Front. and Right view. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. In parallel views like the default Top.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar.

Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . PageDown. Rotate mouse wheel. Rotate mouse wheel.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. PageUp. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Lens length displays on status bar. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

See Options dialog box. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names.Rhino 2. Some are designed in to be shortcuts.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. 26 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance.

At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the construction plane coordinates. with r prefix relative coordinates. type w0. type coordinates in the format: wx. enter the starting point for the line. click Line.y plane.z and press Enter. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. the point will lie on the construction plane.10 and press Enter. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. click Line.6. type r2.3 and press Enter. then click Single Line.6.y. type 12.6.0. click Line. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. y and z coordinates to place points. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. type coordinates in the format: rx. type w12. type 0. Note If you enter only x.10 and press Enter. Note If you enter only x.and y-coordinates. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt.Rhino 2. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.0 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt.and y-coordinates.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.y. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. then click Single Line.0. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.z and press Enter. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. the point will lie on the world x.0 and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.6. 27 . type coordinates in the format: x. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt.10 in the world coordinates. then click Single Line. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.

then click Single Line.axis) and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Interpolate Points. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. click another point in the perspective viewport. click a point in the perspective viewport. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. click Line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. click Line. Click the left mouse button to select the point. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Free-form. A white tracking line will display. enter the starting point for the line. type r4<45 and press Enter. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. At the Next point of curve. indicating the new location of the selection set. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane.axis) and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. type 4<45 and press Enter. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. 28 . type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. then click Single Line.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. Continue with picking locations.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. was when you pressed Tab. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Or press Tab twice. negative numbers are below. but only if the point can be truly 3. Change viewports. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Release the left mouse button to place the objects.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. Press Tab. Place the first line point. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. Drag the mouse out.D points using 2. From the Curves menu. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. type NoElev. press Ctrl. release Ctrl. After starting elevator mode. 29 . click Line. then press Ctrl and click. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Release Ctrl. You can start elevator mode in another location.D. Specifying 3. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. then click Single Line. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. and click again. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock.

When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. then click Single Line. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Turn on end object snap. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. enter the starting point for the line. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. the marker snaps to the curve end. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. type <60. Or. Click to place the point. type a distance and press Enter. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . click Line. From the Curves menu. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick.

Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. then click Single Line. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. type 10. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. From the Curves menu. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. you can turn them on. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves.Rhino 2. Click to place the point. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. Click to place the point. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. click Line. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. Or.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter.

which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. this will become more clear. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. the surfaces cannot be merged.Rhino 2. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. 32 . their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points .0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. so those are the things that need to be merged. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary.

Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. 33 . extension line offset distance. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command.Rhino 2. Text height The text height in Rhino units. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. extension line extension. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. The text height.

Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. 34 .Rhino 2. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view.

Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Custom Set the custom options. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. When the Refine check box is selected. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. these settings are used. This setting is scale independent. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. and higher polygon count. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. is from 1 to 100. but may take very long to shade and render. Notes tab Add notes to your model. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. whenever you start a new model without a template. This setting is scale independent. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Document Properties dialog box. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. more accurate meshes. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. type information you want to save with the model. 35 .0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. but should shade and render relatively fast. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. when not zero. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range.

edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. and Max dist. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. When the Refine check box is selected. Simple planes is not selected. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Max edge length. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. and lower polygon count. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Max dist. In practice. Max dist. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Refine is selected. Jagged seams is not selected. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. By default. less accurate meshes. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. The default values is 16. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. and higher polygon count. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Min edge length. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. After initial meshing. 36 . The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. This option is scale dependent. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. By default. By default. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. When the Refine check box is selected. more accurate meshes. edge to Srf options. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing.

Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. This makes the image appear smoother.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. None No shadows. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. With small objects. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. In Rhino. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. None Each pixel is sampled once. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. With large objects. use bigger shadow offset. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. In practice.Rhino 2. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Background Sets the color of the render background. In general. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. but also slows down rendering. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. use smaller shadow offset. if the shadows are turned on. 37 . A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location.

Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.2mm 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. Select Decimal.2(") 1-1/2" 1.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. the relative tolerance is used instead.2meter(s) Kilometers 1.Rhino 2. trimming surfaces.2c 1. For example.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. In those commands. or Feet & Inches. Document Properties dialog box. When you change from one units to another. Fractional.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box.2km 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . Mils 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1.2mic 1.2micron(s) Millimeters 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.2cm 1.2m 1.

001. Zoom Window. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. In general. and use predefined viewport configurations.01 to 0. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. Close the viewport. set multiple templates. Extents.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. step through the viewports. You can create new viewports. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. and place a named viewport on top. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport.Rhino 2. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. Rhino 2. rename viewports.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. Use defined and named views. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.01 millimeters. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. or Extents of the selected objects. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. You can specify which viewport is maximized. 39 .

Crossing. When you make a Window selection. To remove an object from a selection set. click Set View > Plan. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set.Rhino 2. click Zoom Extents All. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. When the selection menu pops up. Edit viewport properties. To bring all your objects into view. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. from the View menu. from the View menu. To select additional objects. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. Edit Grid properties. When you make a Crossing selection. Select objects General Click an object to select it. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. 40 . Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select.

x file. Import and export file types Rhino 1. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). no 2. and you picked an edge as a curve. select Rhino 1.x file into Rhino 2.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.3dm). Saving 1. In the Save as type box. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. Copy. you'd get one line. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Click another object. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. Sweep2). When object is highlighted.x 3D models (.x files into Rhino 2. type a filename.0 If you save as a 1. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. but if you picked it as a boundary.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. For instance if you have a plane.0. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. In the File name box.0.Rhino 2.x files from Rhino 2. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object.0 If you load a 1.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. press Enter or the spacebar. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move.x file from Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. Sweep1.

For version 3. 42 . select 3D Studio.5. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. Or. When building morph targets.Rhino 2. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.2. select 3D Studio. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. MAX 2. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. 2. from the File menu. from the File menu. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. type a name for the 3DS file. click Open. click Export Selected. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. Click Save. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. 2. or MAX 2. Or.0. in the Files of type. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the Open dialog box. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. They are not converted to NURBS. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work.2. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Open. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. click Import/Merge. In the File name box.0. If so. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. type a name for the 3DS file.0 use IGES to transfer files. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. If no object name is defined. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. click Save As.

NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. This happens because the MAX2. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. Select the 3DM file to import.dli.dli. select Rhino 3D Models. RhinoMax2imp. RhinoMax20imp. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves.0 Command Reference File formats In general.3dm. use 3DS file format. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces.dli. or 3D Studio R4. Now mesh your curved surfaces. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. are imported in several pieces. from the Files of type box.5.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX.5\plugins\" directory. RhinoMax25imp. and RhinoMax20imp.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS.5 plug-ins path. MAX does not export NURBS curves. This happens because MAX2. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. In the MAX2. Attempt trimming? 43 .5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. export to a DWG.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. Only Spline objects get exported. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2.5. 3DS MAX version 2. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. click Import.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. The Rhino web site at http://www.5 File menu. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.dli. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface.5 File Import dialog box.dli from the directories in your MAX2. From the MAX2. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. Open 3D Studio MAX2. (3dmimp. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.Rhino 2.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. or RhinoMax25imp.dli. RhinoMax2imp.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.dli into your "3dsmax2. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.rhino3d.

3DS MAX version 2. Be patient.5 as a single surface. Surface. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. NURBS curves: 44 . The Rhino web site at http://www.rhino3d. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. Curve.dli and RhinoMax2imp. To closely examine and edit MAX2.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. 3D Studio MAX 2.Rhino 2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. click the Sub-Object button. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. From the MAX2 File menu. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. Click the MAX2.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. CurveCV. Using developers tools. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). If you answer "no. Given the information we have. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2.0. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. from the Files of type box. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. select Rhino 3D Models.5 NURBS object. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. If MAX crashes. In general.5 or 3DS DOS.dli or RhinoMax2imp. Select the 3DM file to import. (3dmimp. click Import. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.5 module called "ACISMAX2. Open 3D Studio MAX2.

This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. CurveCV. 45 . it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. click Mesh. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools.Rhino 2. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. select Rhino 3D Models. Select the 3DM file to import. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool).rhino3d. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. Some surfaces. Open 3D Studio MAX.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. from the Files of type box. Clear the Weld control. Curve. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. obj+number is used as a name. Surface.1. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. Click the Sub-Object button. are imported in several pieces.habware. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name.at/duck3. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. In the File Import dialog box. From the Tools menu. click Import. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. If there is no Rhino object name. 3D Studio MAX 3.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. On December 10 1997. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. From the File menu. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models.2 or 3D Studio VIZ.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1.

0 is currently not suggested. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. In the File name box. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . In the Save as type box. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. click Export Selected.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. To change these into splines. select the curves and explode them. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support.Rhino 2. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. click Save As. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. type a name for the file.5 ACIS Version: 1.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. Click Save. Using ACIS Version 5.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. from the File menu. select the options for the export. All of the version types export curves. Or.0 ACIS Version: 2.0 ACIS Version: 3. It does not fix geometry problems. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.and v-direction vectors.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. At the Select object prompt. but import in as bodies. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. select ACIS SAT. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In Rhino. The options can be changed by editing the INI file.

5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.Rhino 2. from the File menu. In the File name box.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. under Scale. Click Open. type a name for the AI file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. click Open.0 ACIS Version: 4. In the Files of type box. In the AI Import Options dialog box. select Adobe Illustrator. 47 . Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Import/Merge.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. select a scale option. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. Or.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4.

from the File menu.ini. Or. under Scale. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. In some situations. select AG. From the File menu. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. click Save As. In the File name box. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. type a name for the AG file. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. from the Files of type box. Under some circumstances.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change.Rhino 2. click Open. From the File menu. type a name for the AG file.5. In the Open dialog box. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. Or. select AG. type a name for the AI file. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0.0 > 8. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. Or. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. In the Save as type box. In the AI Export Options dialog box. click Save As. In the Save as type box. click a scale option. In the File name box. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. click Export Selected. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. select Adobe Illustrator. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. Make the viewport you want to export from active. not text.0 files. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. curves need to be refit before exporting.1 units from the original curve. click Export Selected. To save AGLib binary files: 48 .11 fall off the page in Illustrator. Click Save. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. from the File menu. In the File name box. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. Click Open. Rhino only reads curve geometry.

select the options for DXF export. from the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. They are not converted to NURBS. select AutoCAD DWG. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. type a name for the DWG file. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. regions. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. or anything in paperspace. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. select AutoCAD DXF. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. In the File name box. rays. click Save As. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. type a name for the DXF file. Rhino will not import images. Click Save. type a name for the DXF file. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. Click Open. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. click Open. from the File menu. click Export Selected. Click Save. select AutoCAD DXF. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. from the File menu.Rhino 2. Or. From the File menu. click Import/Merge. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Save As. select the options for DWG export. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. click Open. Click Open. In the File name box. In the Files of type box. AutoCAD line types are ignored.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. type a name for the DWG file. from the File menu. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the File name box. In the File name box. click Import/Merge. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Or. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. Or. OLE objects. In the Files of type box. Object properties. select AutoCAD DWG. From the File menu. XREF's are imported. Or.

3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. OLE objects. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. export curves as splines. or circle. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. regions. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. curves are approximated with polylines. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on.Rhino 2. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. rays. They are not converted to NURBS. circle. Rhino will not import images. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. but do not properly read polyface meshes. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. or anything in paperspace. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. arc. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. arc. This means if the curve is just one line. use RAW instead. or circle. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. 50 . circles.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. 2-D curves are simplified. you can export either polyline or spline entities. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. 3-D curves are never simplified. arcs. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. and line entities. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face.

They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. but increase the number of polyline segments. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. line. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. select Object Properties (. This setting uses current model units. and ellipses as NURBS curves. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. arcs. and line entities. or ellipse. arcs. In the File name box. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. The larger this number.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. type a name for the file. arc. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. From the File menu. For silhouette lines.csv). and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. lines. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. If the simplify tolerance is too small. not the file header. or later DWG/DXF. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. If the simplify tolerance is too large. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file.Rhino 2. circle. it will be exported as such. it is exported as a simple entity. Use simple entities Circles. In the Save as type box. ellipses. click Export Selected. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. Click Save. ellipse. line. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. circle.

This setting determines how the station lines are created. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline.0. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments.C). 52 . Rhino produces one component for each shape. You can give each shape the name you would like here.0.S) or only half (. If you have previously selected a centerline. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Rhino must approximate each polyline. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. When exporting curves as polylines. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified.Rhino 2. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. object name. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. layer color. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. The larger this number. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. All component origin shift is considered 0. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. Each component will have the same name as the shape. object render color and selected mass properties. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save.

You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Or. Or. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select Moray UDO. which does not have the 65. Click Save. They are not converted to NURBS. Object names will be used when exporting the . type a name for the LWO file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.lwo file instead of a generic name. or Windage (sail). The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. click Open. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO.Rhino 2. In the File name box. The LWO file is limited to 65. type a name for the LWO file. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. click Save As. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Note Object names are supported. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. 53 . select Lightwave. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. If the same name is used for multiple objects. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu.535 points for the entire file. type a name for the UDO file. Moray automatically numbers the objects. In the Save as type box. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the File name box. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. In the File name box. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export Selected. Each component will initially be a member of this part. Or. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. click Save As.000 polygon limitation. from the File menu. Containment. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. from the Files of type box. click Import/Merge. Click Save. Click Open. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. click Export Selected. select Lightwave.

type a name for the file. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges.INC file. they will be ignored with no warning. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. surfaces.Rhino 2.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. Rhino creates a . You can lie to Solid Edge 6. and curves Solid Edge 6. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. 54 . from the File menu. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. surfaces. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering.UDO file and a . click Save As." Solution The model probably exported just fine. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. Planes are important primitives. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. Click Save.0 will not read in open surfaces. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. In the File name box. and colors.stmuc. To import the object into Moray. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. select Parasolid X_T. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. In the Save as type box. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. only closed solids will be imported. they display a blank window. from Create menu. select the target application for the export. click Export Selected. If the file contains open surfaces. Or. click User Defined. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. When you export to UDO.com/moray/. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www.

click Export Selected.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. Or. however. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. Click Save. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. In the Save as type box.rhino3d. ISBN: 0201508680.bmrt.Rhino 2.rhino3d. Addison-Wesley Pub Co.rendering. select RenderMan. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www.graphics. from the File menu. 55 . RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. ISBN: 1558606181. type a name for the RIB file. In the File name box. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. click Save As.

org. Make sure the correct view is active when you export.povray. from the File menu. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. click the big blue "R. type a name for the POV file. Export to RIB file format supports render background color.rib reboot your computer. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. Rhino writes the surface. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout.rendribrc. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . select POV-Ray Mesh. Or. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. however. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. color. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Click Save." Two windows will open. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. Set up your scene with materials and lights. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. transparency.povray. and highlight. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. The transparency color is the color of the object. The intensity is always set to 1.1. click Save As.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). 56 . Use Properties to set the object names." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. and opacity statement for each object. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. click Export Selected. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To cancel the rendering process.org. To test render the scene. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. In the File name box. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light.

Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. but object colors are. type a name for the RTF file. In the Open dialog box. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. In the Save as type box. or into one large POV file. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. click Save As. select Raw Triangles. from the File menu. transparency. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. Or. Textures are not exported. Click Open.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. Set up your scene with materials and lights. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. They are not converted to NURBS.inc and lights." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. In the File name box. 57 . Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. from the File menu. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Or.Rhino 2. click Import/Merge. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. click Export Selected. and highlight. type a name for the RAW file.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). Click Save. from the Files of type box. click Open. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the File name box. select Raw Triangles. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces.

click Open. from the File menu. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. type a name for the SLC file. click Export Selected. Or. from the File menu. Click Save. click Export Selected. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. Or. from the File menu. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt.0127mm. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. click Save As.0381mm. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. click Import/Merge. select STEP. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. In the File name box. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Or. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select SLC. 0.0762mm. click Save As. and use ExplodeMesh. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. 0.Rhino 2. The slices will be evenly spaced. In the File name box. click Import/Merge. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. from the File menu.0508mm and 0. In the Open dialog box.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. use DXF instead. In the Save as type box. 58 . 0. From the File menu. type a name for the STEP file. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. from the Files of type box. Import it back into Rhino. (For example. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. type a name for the STEP file. select STEP. Click Save. Export it in RAW format.0254mm. Or. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. In the Save as type box. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. Consequently. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. click Open. Click Open. The greater the number of polygons.

set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. From the Tools menu. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. but doesn't glue the edges together. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. from the Files of type box. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. In the Save as type box. Or. 59 . In the File name box. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. to get JCAD to work. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. then click Join.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. then click Unify Normals.) Select the new mesh object. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. click Polygon Mesh. type a name for the STL file. If a mesh point is highlighted. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. From the Tools menu. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. click Polygon Mesh. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. that is.ini file to look like this. They are not converted to NURBS. then Weld (angle=180). For example. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. In the File name box. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. Use JoinMesh. select STL. Click Save. click Export Selected. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. if two triangles share an edge. Instead. to control STL accuracy.Rhino 2. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. then click Weld. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. from the File menu. Click Open. click Save As. type a name for the STL file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. From the Tools menu. click Polygon Mesh. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. select STL. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. then they have the same idea of up. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. To see if the result has any holes or gaps.

Or. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. In the Save as type box. Rhino now 60 . Click Save. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. click Export Selected.D geometry and topology information. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. type a name for the VDA file.y plane. select VDA. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. type a name for the WRL file. click Export Selected. from the File menu. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. click Save As. From the File menu.axis toward the x. click Import/Merge. symbols. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. etc. Or. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. from the File menu. It does not support assembly and feature information. Render color. select VDA. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Texture assignments are currently not exported. click Save As.Rhino 2. In the File name box. click Open. shine. Click Open. Or. type a name for the VDA file. views. Click Save. select VRML. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. from the Files of type box. It does not support representation of drawing information. In the Open dialog box.

setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. from the File menu. type a name for the file. but will make the WRL file much larger.pdf. If it does not work with your VRML viewer.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. From the File menu. This can be tricky.Rhino 2. Or. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. In general.0 and 2. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file.viewpoint. select Windows Metafile. Or.0. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. click Export Selected. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. you should try 2. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. click Save As. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export.com/software/mtx2html. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. Click Save. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. In the File name box. and if so. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. type a name for the WMF file. from the File menu. (The MTS file contains the actual data. Render Mesh tab.0. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected.exe. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. 61 . a utility that comes with DirectX SDK.0 first. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. click Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.) Outside of Rhino. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html.viewpoint. try 1. You can download it from http://developer. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output.

click Export Selected. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. in the Save as type box. and click Save. 1 2 In the File name box. type a name for the DXF file. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. This means various settings have different values for each product. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box.3ds A file yourfile. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. select IGES. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. Click Save. In the File name box. Detailed options Author. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. 62 . Sender's product ID. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver.Rhino 2. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex.x is created. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. Organization. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. From the File menu. enter a name for the file. select an IGES type. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. from the IGES type box.

To create an IGES import log.ini. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command.Rhino 2. the IGES file will be empty.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance.2 or 5. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. When Rhino 2.ini. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. To import trimming curves as curve objects. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.

If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary.Rhino 2. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". an IGES level number is automatically selected. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . you need to do a bit of sleuthing. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. 2. but this is not required. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. 1. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. To see if this is the case. A flavor is terminated by a blank line..Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. When Rhino reads an IGES file.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. A layer to level function is available in Rhino.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. Spaces and tabs are ignored. . 3.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . This file can contain multiple flavors.) are ignored. Lines that begin with semi-colon (. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino.).. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping." For example. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window.

It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. click New. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. click Close. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. Other(). If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. you will get it. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. 65 . lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero.Rhino 2. or Logical/Positional().igs and gamma. regardless of type.igs open gamma. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities.igs. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. Definition(). Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. Rhino reads alpha.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. If one of the Annotation().igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. accepting only entities marked as geometry.igs. set the options for the IGES type. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. If you do something like: open alpha.igs normally. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read.

If the max degree is set to five. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. click Close. this number should be one. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. and click Delete. The number must be bigger than zero. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. and MacOS style line endings. Unix. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. The difference is 5. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. and MacOS uses CR. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. arcs. In most cases. set the options for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.2 and 5. click Close. Unix uses LF. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. from the IGES type list box.3. IGES 184 entities. and click Edit. 66 . In the IGES Export Types dialog box. select an IGES type. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance.2 stores years using two digits and 5. IGES arcs. set the options for the IGES type. If the max degree is set to three.Rhino 2. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. and maximum degree five. or IGES circles. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. from the IGES type list box. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. and click Copy Type. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.3 using four digits. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. select an IGES type. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces.

Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing.rhino3d. If you get better results with one export type. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. In the File name box. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. when possible. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). 67 . the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. when possible. If the max degree is set to three. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. select the options for OBJ export. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. when possible. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. type a name for the OBJ file.Rhino 2. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). Or. Try to load both files into your product. and maximum degree five. select Wavefront OBJ. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. click Save As. Click Save. try the following test. If the max degree is set to five. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. click Export Selected.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. from the File menu. maximum degree three. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.com/rhino so we can document this file format. In the Save as type box. Curves are not exported. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.

mesh export is disabled. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. Options Skip Don't export meshes. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. If is far from 100% satisfactory. Export object names Exports object names. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example.mtl file contains one material definition per object. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. Export layer names should be cleared. Export layer names Exports layer names. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.obj file. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. CR (Mac OS) Return only. To export to MAX. By default. The . 68 . There are also references to these materials added to the . LF (Unix) Line feed only. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves.ini file. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Export material definitions Creates an . This material name is exported for use by the renderer. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. End of line character CRLF (Windows.Rhino 2. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. The option you choose depends on where the file is going.obj file. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters.mtl file with the same name as the . We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list.

Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.x. select the trim curve. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. Or. it is recommended that you save your work. In the Save as type box. select IGES. try using OBJ format instead.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select the surface. and then restart MAX. type a filename. click Export Selected. In the File name box. After a large IGES import.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . In the File name box. select 3D Studio MAX 3. and Customize > Preferences. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. To distinguish between separate entities. and flip the trim. From the IGES Type box. it is recommended that you save your work first. select IGES.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. make it independent. All data that is not grouped. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. select Alias V8. and set the display to wireframe. click Export or Save As. Note When merging an IGES file. In this case.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. type a filename. For the fastest import. and resides in the same level will import to the same object.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. select Ashlar Vellum. In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.Rhino 2. select AUTOFORM.

click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. select CADCEUS. select AutoShip.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. 71 . click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the File name box. select Breault Research's ASAP. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.

type a filename. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . From the IGES Type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CATIA.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select CamSoft. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the File name box. select IGES. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

click Export or Save As. Surfaces and Solids. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the File name box. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. In the Save as type box. select IGES. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select Cosmos/M. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. even those that are trivially trimmed. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations.

select Cosmos/M. select FastShip. In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 74 . In the File name box.Rhino 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.

In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. select IronCAD. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. type a filename. type a filename. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select Integrity Ware. From the IGES Type box. select FastSURF.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . click Export or Save As.

select LUSAS.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. select Mastercam. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. select IGES.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . In the File name box.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Surfaces and Solids. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. In the File name box. select Maya. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. click Export Selected. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. select ME30.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. from the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. 77 . type a filename.

In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . click Edit options. click Geometry.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. Version 5. You may set these options as you see fit.3. In the Save as type box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. select Microstation. in the Description box. select IGES. select Mechanical Desktop.opt. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. From the IGES Type box. set IGES Version to either 5. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. 78 . click Structure.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. Surfaces and Solids.IGESOUT dialog box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. To get the best results. In the File name box. click DE Mappings. click Export or Save As. and click OK. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. Version 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. (The MDT defaults work fine.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. To save these settings.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. type a filename. click Start and Global.2 or 5.Rhino 2. In the File name box. type a filename.

select IGES. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. Multisurf 3. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select NASA GridTool.1. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. the current version of Multisurf is 3.1 using an IGES file. select IGES.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. type a filename. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing.000000 79 .ini file. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. If you add the following section to your Rhino. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. select Multisurf.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. type a filename.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. select OptiCAD. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. select NuGraf. select IGES.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

pro file then read it in before exporting. In the Save as type box. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.pro file or save them as rhino. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. type a filename. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. From the IGES Type box. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. select IGES. Note With Pro/E version 20.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 .0001 will produce good results.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. If you set your tolerances right. In the File name box. use these settings in the Pro/E config.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX.001 to 0. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. somewhere around 0. when exporting to IGES. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. use the "All Parts" option.01 units.Rhino 2. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.

the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The more trims you have. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. 82 . Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. If the curves are planar. then. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. there are now two types.Rhino 2. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. Surfaces and Solids. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. even those that are trivially trimmed.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. Surface replace is another good tool to use. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Things like fillets and drafts . When modeling in Rhino. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E.

Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. In the Save as type box. There is no geometry information in it.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. a surface. select SDRC's I-DEAS. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. From the IGES Type box. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. type a filename.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. you will not get back what you sent. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. and a solid. click Export or Save As. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. select IGES. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

phoenixtools.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.phoenixtools.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.7sp1 and 3.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. Check out their web site for more information: www. In the Save As dialog box.txt contains command line option information.com.com Plugin download link page: www. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. All three have their own problems and benefits. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. select Softimage. then click IGES.phoenixtools.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. 2 84 . from the IGES Type box. from the Save as type box. From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. select IGES.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Save As. SGI and x86 (Intel). Open Softimage. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. Softimage can also import 3DS. 1.igs MyDSCFile. DXF. In the IGES Export dialog box. 3. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Run iges2soft.okino. for SI versions 3. select Softimage.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. Type a filename and click Save.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha.8: ftp://ftp. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later.

The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the File name box.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. click Export or Save As.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. In the Save as type box. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. From the IGES Type box. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the Save as type box. type a filename. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. Surfaces and Solids. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. select Solid Edge.

Experiment with different settings for optimal results. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. select SolidWorks.0001 before building the geometry. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. Surfaces and Solids. type a filename. In the File name box. To export models to Rhino.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. From the IGES Type box.001 or 0.0 Points=116 86 .

000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. by nature. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. leaving features such as fillets. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. then shelling is likely to fail. select IGES. In the Save as type box. Shelling. which works on both edges and faces. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. 87 . sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. type a filename. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. shelling.0001. and investigate alternative approaches. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. From the IGES Type box. try to model with smooth. type a filename. ribs. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. select SURFCAM. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. to test feasibility..0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. select IGES. for SolidWorks. In the File name box. is tangent. Generally. Nothing replaces experience. Also. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. etc. select SUM4. SUM 4. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. which within human perception. click Export or Save As.

2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.Rhino 2. type a filename.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. click Export or Save As. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .

In the File name box.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. type a filename. type a filename. select IGES. select Unigraphics. click Export or Save As. select TekSoft.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 .

Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 90 . Context-sensitive menu with object selected.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the File name box.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. select IGES. select Yamaha ESPRi. type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.

From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. Saturation. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. The first item is always to repeat the last command. from the Named Colors list. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately.ini file to add or change menu items. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. In addition.ini file. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. Context-sensitive menu indicator. Edit the Rhino. and Blue boxes. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. For maximum speed.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. or drag to manipulate the view. type values in the Hue. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. type RGB values in the Red. actions related to objects appear in the menu. If context-sensitive menu is on.Rhino 2. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. If no object is selected. The same limitation does not apply to render color. select a color. Green. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. and Value boxes.txt in the Rhino install directory. 91 .

Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. If object snaps are locked. the appropriate object snap displays. Near. Center. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. Only Near. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. When activated. Tan. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. Quad. For example. To display the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. and Knot object snaps can persist. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps.Rhino 2. or can be activated for one pick only. Point. As you pass your cursor over an object. on the status bar. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. To clear all persistent object snaps. if End. Perp. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. right-click the Lock checkbox. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. click Osnap. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. All object snaps behave similarly. When an object snap is active. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. 92 . Near. Midpoint. End. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. and Point will not work for that pick. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. After the pick. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. End. Intersection.

Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.Rhino 2. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box.

If a command is active. Quad. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. Center. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. or just suspends them for one pick. and Knot. all others will be cleared. End. Near. Valid options are NoSnap. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. for example in ExtractIsoparm. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. separated by commas. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line.Rhino 2. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. Point. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. with no spaces. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. Click to enter the endpoint. click Object Snap. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. Only these object snaps will be set. Intersection. The marker jumps to the endpoint. Midpoint. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. then click End. Tan. 94 . Perp. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. InsertKnot. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. This command is useful for command files. At the Persistent Osnap prompt.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. from the Tools menu. it turns off all persistent object snaps. OrientOnSrf.

Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click Mid. and the "corners" of surfaces. On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. Click to enter the point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Near. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter the midpoint. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. then click Mid. Near object snap Snap near a curve. 95 . In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. On the status bar. click End.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a point. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor near a curve. then click Near. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. the seam point on closed curves. click Point. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. The marker moves along the curve.Rhino 2. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. Click to enter a point on the curve. click Object Snap. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. The marker jumps to it. then click Point. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to its midpoint.

In the Osnap dialog box. Move the cursor near an intersection. from the Tools menu. Click to enter the center point. In the Osnap dialog box. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. click Perp. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. then click Intersection.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. click Object Snap. Click to enter one of these points. tangent to the curve. from the Tools menu. 96 . Move the cursor along a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. perpendicular to the curve. then click Tangent To.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor near a curve. The marker jumps to its center point. Click to enter the point of intersection. click Object Snap. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. Move the cursor along a curve. click Cen. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. click Int. click Object Snap. On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. then click Center. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. then click Perpendicular To. Click to enter one of these points. The marker jumps to it. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. On the status bar.

You can use another object snap to pick this point. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. 3 Example 97 . You can set this point. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. then click From. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. arc or ellipse. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. with From. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. On the status bar. then click Knot. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. pick a point. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. Click to enter the knot point. and finally choose the point for the original command. Click to enter one of these points. click Tan. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. Set your constraints relative to the base point. In the Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. and relative coordinate entry. then click Quadrant. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. distance constraint. click Object Snap. or similar surface edges. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. From object snap Snap from a point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Quad. without picking it. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. angle constraint. Move the cursor along a circle. At the Choose a base point prompt. without entering that point for the original command. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Similarly. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor near a curve.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. type Knot. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point.

Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. for greater precision. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. The cursor moves only along the curve. Mid. and Quad. from the Tools menu. then click Tangent From. select the curve. click Object Snap. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. from the Tools menu. End. then click From. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. 98 . Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Point. you can use simple snaps. click Object Snap. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. then click Perpendicular From. At the Choose a base point prompt. from the Tools menu. Note When selecting points during this sequence.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. Cen. Near.Rhino 2. snap to the end of the line. At the Choose a point prompt. select the curve. type 2 and press Enter. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. At the Click near the curve prompt. Int.

Along object snap Track along a line. select a second point. and Quad) for greater precision. Point. Or. Int. Mid. you can use simple snaps (End. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. Note When selecting points during this sequence. At the End of base line prompt. select a second point.Rhino 2. Int. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. type AlongParallel. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. Cen. The marker tracks along the tangent line. Near. At the Start of tracking line prompt. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. Click to enter a point on the line. Near. The marker moves only along the line. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. The marker moves only along the line. At the Start of base line prompt. Cen. Int. At the End of tracking line prompt.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. and Quad) for greater precision. in the Object Snap toolbar. you can use simple snaps (End. Point. then click Along Line. from the Tools menu. 99 . pick a point for the start of the parallel line. select a first point to specify the tracking line. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. and Quad) for greater precision. Click to enter a point on the line. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Point. Mid. right-click the Along toolbar button. At the Choose a point prompt. Cen. Near. Note When selecting points during this sequence. click Object Snap. you can use simple snaps (End. Mid.

The marker moves only along the surface. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. it is off. you can use simple snaps. Point.Rhino 2. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. for greater precision. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. from the Tools menu. 100 . select Project to CPlane. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. click Object Snap. but works on curves. Click to enter a point on the surface. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. Mid. When Osnap projection is on. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. End. By default. select the surface. Intersection. and Knot. Center. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. Note When selecting a point on the surface. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. and the cursor is over an object snap point. Near. At the Click near the surface prompt. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. then click On Surface.

and OBJ file export. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. General tab. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. Information Technical information about the command displays. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Isoparms at surface knot locations. go to the Options dialog box. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. 2. POV-Ray. and the other positive integers. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. and RenderMan RIB.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. 101 . 0. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. 1.Rhino 2. The valid values are -1. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. Object Properties.

or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer.0 Command Reference Object Properties. Color Sets the color of the light. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. using a plug-in library. 102 . Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. Light tab Edit light object properties. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. texture.Rhino 2. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Turns light on or off. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. From top left to bottom right. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. Material tab Edit object material properties. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. transparency. To change the material assignment of the layer. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. finish. this tab displays the properties for that light type. you can set the color.

or a polygon mesh. polysurface. To change the color of the wireframe display. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Unlike more advanced renderers.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Object Properties. Clear this option to remove the bump map.Rhino 2. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Text tab Edit text properties. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. From top left to bottom right. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. 103 .

0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box.25 inches. Command string Command alias definitions. The two sizes update each other. 104 . Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Options dialog box. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. When you place annotation text. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts.Rhino 2. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. Example If your units are inches. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

110

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. from the smooth geometry. Also. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. 114 . Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. you will see improved performance. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. Render Mesh tab. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Choose between the quick render preview. highlights. The next time you shade the same model. click Options. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card.Rhino 2. and a backdrop image. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. and the color-andshadows Render. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. For highest quality results. click Use OpenGL. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. On the Shade tab. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. spotlighting. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. shadows. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. this shading mode may be much faster. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Render Render your model to see a realistic view.

The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. so it won't be deformed. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. The next time you render the same model. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. When you draw the plane. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. from the smooth geometry. Self. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Render Mesh tab. the patterns may probably disappear. you will see improved performance. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. of the view in the active viewport. Also. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. In some situations. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Rhino Render tab. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces.5. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading.Rhino 2. 115 . Render tab. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Jagged spotlight edges and self. which might appear in waves.0 or 1. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box.

Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. That will usually solve the problem. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges.Rhino 2. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. Correct shadow. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. Self-shadowing artifacts. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. If you’re getting self. The scale of the objects is very large. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Change the size of the light. Sometimes the conversion 116 . If you increase it too much. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. If the problems still persist.shadowing effects.

asp. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. Windows 95. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. they look jagged. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. available from Microsoft at www.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros).dll and Glu32. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Name Layer name.Rhino 2. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. change the color of the wire frame. you can turn them all off at once. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. and download the latest drivers. On Status of layer.microsoft. you may not have the current drivers. Even if you got the card last week. Start Rhino. if you were working on a human figure. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. To update Windows NT drivers. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. To set the column width. Off Status of layer. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. For example. To update your OpenGL drivers. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. Otherwise. If this does not fix the problem. 117 . Or you can organize your parts a different way.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. and since the polygons are flat.com/windows/downloads/winntw. select them all with one selection. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. When objects are on a layer. please read section the next section. This helps you organize your model. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. contact Rhino Technical Support.

Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. You can snap to objects on this layer. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. or a polygon mesh. To change the color of the wireframe display. 118 . finish. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. transparency. Unlike more advanced renderers. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy.Rhino 2. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. you can set the color. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. polysurface. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. texture. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box.

The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. In the Layer dialog box. type a new name and press Enter. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. and Invert the selection. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Clear this option to remove the texture map. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. select the name on the list. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. 119 . Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino.Rhino 2. If you don't remember the layer names. select a set of layers. click New. You can select all layers. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. You cannot create new layers with these names.

0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. When a model has a large number of layers. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. from the list select the layers you want to delete. In the Select Color dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . click the color column of the layer you want to change. select all the displayed layers and delete. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. use the Empty Layers filter. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Rhino 2. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. click a filter option. To delete empty layers. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. In the Show box. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. select a color for the layer. Click Delete.

use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. set the desired filter options. off. or locked. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. click Filtered Layers. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves.Rhino 2. and whether or not there are objects on the layer)." are on or locked. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box.

As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. Sweeps. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. try adding a few more cross sections. then use a ruled surface. generally. then the surface created by loft will.Rhino 2. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. If you are after a flag-like surface. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. Sweep1. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. 122 . Rules. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. Think of each curve you select in Loft. or accordion bellows-like surface. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. Lofts. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. then try Loft. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. then use the one closest to the top of the list. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. If you are after a tent-like. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. If this doesn't help. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. stair-like. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. The rail curve directs the surface along it. The surface is smooth.

Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. If you have a several of closed curves. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. the surface will twist. use a Sweep2. 123 . while keeping the other end fixed.Rhino 2. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side.

Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. For each of these four ways. or no curves. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. there are four ways to fillet. several. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. and thus the fillet. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. For a given radius. 124 . the intersection of the offsets can have one. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. there may be several fillet pieces. for this choice of sides.0 Command Reference As mentioned. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. 125 . These pieces can be grouped into connected components.

126 . If yes. No. If no. yes. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. Because of this.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. When that is the case. then the surfaces are left intact. If split. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. and split. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. When Extend = yes.Rhino 2. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible.

127 . then no fillets will be created.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect.Rhino 2. their offsets may intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. If two surfaces are tangent. and a fillet will exist.

If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. except cross-sections are lines.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. no fillet will be created. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. Otherwise. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. 128 . Fillets across seams of closed surfaces.Rhino 2. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. rather than arcs.

Do each surface individually. do not pick A and B first. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. a spherical patch will be made. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. In this case. If you do. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. B and C. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. 129 . Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. If one is a polysurface. When joining A. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. Objects have overlapping surface areas. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. no corner patch will be attempted. Additionally." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids.Rhino 2. If both are single surfaces. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. In this case. joining A to C. but it may not fit. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii.0 Command Reference In general. it doesn't. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. on an open surface or polysurface. it is projected. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. then the result to B will work. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. The picking order can make the difference. However. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. The result will have a hole at the corner. Often. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. Once we have a curve on the surface.

Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. the operation can fail. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command.Rhino 2. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. You can also move control points to the same location. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. not mesh objects. or visa versa. 130 . This point is also called a singularity. For success using the Booleans.

click From Objects. and Intersection do not work. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. In this example. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. we chose the cone first. and then click Intersection.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. In this example. At the Select object for intersection prompt. select one object. 131 . there are three possible intersection curves. the Intersect command may give different results. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. At the Select object to intersect prompt. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. In this example. but Difference. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean.Rhino 2. In this example. Depending on the order the objects are selected. The objects will Union. the two boxes are just touching along one side. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. select the second object.

In our simple example. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. if your objects are polysurfaces. If your objects are very complex. this may not happen. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. To get all the possible curves. so we will Explode it. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. Therefore. however. you would expect to get all three curves. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order.Rhino 2.

click Split. click Extract Surface. From the Solid menu. select the two faces of the box as shown below. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines.Rhino 2. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. At the Select object to split prompt. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. At the Select cutting objects prompt. 133 . Delete the small wedge of the cone. select the cone. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. Explode the cone.

This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. From the Edit menu. and is achieved by flipping the normals.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. go through the same code. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. The intersection involves isolated points. click Trim. intersection. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. So. difference. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. select the two curves. In this case. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. 134 . The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. union. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. A – B = A intersect ~B. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping.Rhino 2. There is no intersection.

Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. etc.Rhino 2. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display.ini file. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. planes. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. To edit the Rhino. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. Exit Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. To understand the results. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. select the check box for the toolbar. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar.ini to open it for editing. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros.ini. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. 135 . the outside is the side to which the normals point.ini and restart Rhino. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. Edit the Rhino. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. cylinders. find the folder where Rhino is installed. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. Find the setting you want to change. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Surfaces overlap. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. In Windows Explorer.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Double-click Rhino.

ini file. type the new name. The toolbar moves to a new position. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. loses its title bar. it has no title bar. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. until the preview frame of it changes shape. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. which can be on or off the Rhino window.Rhino 2. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Or. and is docked. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. and click Properties. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. The title bar appears on the toolbar. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. The toolbar appears or hides. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. The title bar appears. The toolbar reshapes. select the toolbar. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. 136 . This is a setting in the Rhino. click Properties. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar.

Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. and click Import Toolbar. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. click Properties. Press and hold Ctrl. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. and click Properties. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. Click Open. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. and click New Toolbar. 3 137 . and from the Toolbar menu. and drop in the desired position. Or. click Delete. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The linked toolbar appears. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. it will distort the bitmap icon. and from the Toolbar menu. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.Rhino 2. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. select the toolbar. Release the mouse button. click Import. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. Or.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. select the toolbar. and click Delete Toolbar. click New. and from the Toolbar menu. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Or. select the toolbars to import. select the toolbar. Or. Click Import. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The linked toolbar appears. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. and from the Toolbar menu. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Or. which has the white triangle in the corner. right-click the toolbar name in the list. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout.

Press and hold Shift. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. 138 . Press and hold Shift. The toolbar appears. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. Move the cursor over a link button. The buttons rearrange. select Float to Top to make the link button float. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Press and hold Shift. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. clear Float to Top. The linked toolbar vanishes. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button.Rhino 2. and click the right mouse button. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Press and hold Ctrl. Release the mouse button. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. The toolbar is floating. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. In this case. Or. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. it will distort the bitmap icon. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar.

Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Use this area to edit your bitmap. If you don't know what to enter. and click the right mouse button. 139 . Or. Press F2 to view the command history. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. type text in the ToolTip box. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command.Rhino 2. and click Add Button. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. A blank button is added to the toolbar. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. You can change the ToolTip. Press and hold Shift. Click Close. You can clear the image. type text in the ToolTip box. Press and hold Shift. draw with the paint tools. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. for example: Zoom In | Out. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. the left and right mouse buttons commands. click OK. Press and hold Shift. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. capture a portion of the screen. and click the right mouse button. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. and the bitmap icon. Release the left mouse button. click Add Button. and from the Toolbar menu. In the Delete Button dialog box. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. right-click the toolbar name in the list. select the toolbar. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. or import a bitmap created with a paint program.

This is the time to set the toolbar button size. click Edit Bitmap. and click the right mouse button. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Grab. Note You can shift the image left. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. Press and hold Shift. Click the pencil tool. A square replaces the cursor. from the Edit menu. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Or. To undo a mistake. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. from the Edit menu. right. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. the button is blank. 140 . Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Or. click Undo. click Edit Bitmap. Press and hold Shift. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Clear. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. and click the right mouse button. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. then OK. from the Edit menu. Press and hold Shift.Rhino 2. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. up. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. click Edit Bitmap. Press and hold Shift.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color.

select a bitmap file.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. type a bitmap file name.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. Click Open. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. from the File menu. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. and click the right mouse button. This script moves objects.4 13. Click Save. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. from a text file. command aliases. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.-4 8. 141 .-3 1.0 5.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. from the File menu. click Export Bitmap.Rhino 2. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. which stops the creation of point objects.4 -4. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list.1 4. shortcut keys. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. click Import Bitmap. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. Press and hold Shift.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object.

The default is 20.Rhino 2. Microsoft JScript 5. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. variable names. then click Paste from Clipboard. 142 . Automation servers. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. is a fast. and Java applets. layername2. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. These scripting languages allow loops. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). Divs is the samples per knotspan. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Press F2 to view the command history.5. If you don't know what to enter. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. portable. click Commands. the Web's only standard scripting language. From the Tools menu. The default is 1. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. browsing for files. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. Mode is always 1. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. Fit is the fitting method. 1=Fit. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. Options are 0=Interpolate. queries.

The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model.for instance. If your model doesn't pass Check. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . If your model doesn't pass Check. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. you have to explode the model. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. then edit the trim curves. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. Rhino will let you do it. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. These damaged areas can cause problems. re-trim the surface. though. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. you may find some of those microscopic edges. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . then it will list some specific problems. To fix broken edges. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. 143 . If a model passes Check. If Rhino matches the large edges. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer.rvb. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. For more information on scripting. and Check doesn't check for those things. Some bad model parts. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers.microsoft. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. and join everything back together again. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. If you zoom in enough.Rhino 2. Another problem is having a tiny. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. see: http://msdn. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. The first one to try is the Check command.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro.

One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. you can Undo changing the degree. You will get this error message. FitCrv. 144 . Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode.Rhino 2.0 5. Untrim or DetachTrim. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. If there are lots of tiny edges.5 5. the Join command can get confused when that happens. simple edge-to-edge matching. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. To draw a non-G1 curve. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.10 5. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. Additionally. open up the kink by control point editing. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. and Join. Thus. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points.0 5. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Split the curve at the kink. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together.4 10. Solution: Rebuild the curve. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). This test does not check the geometry. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. Trim again. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.

The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Edge direction. Some operations. Rhino 2. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. In short. Use this to install as a standalone node. but not right on top of each other. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. Join and Booleans in particular. 145 . You will get this error message. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. fix curve and retrim. and then control point edit the extrusion. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). This option takes precedence over the /key option. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. You can put control points very close to each other. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Usually. Solution: DetachTrim.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. Solution: Open up the stacked points. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Solution: Open up the stacked points. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. The warning lets you know when this has happened. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege.Rhino 2. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. Solution: Rebuild the edge. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. Internal control points are coincident. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. You will get this error message. Extrude it. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. but not right on top of each other. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Draw a Circle. You can put control points very close to each other.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.

contact your network administrator. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. it does not modify the shape of the surface. the license is added back to the available license pool.0" as a workgroup node. This is an installation option. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. When a Rhino workgroup node starts.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. Thus. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. When a node shuts down. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. visit www. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. 146 . unlike standalone Rhino.com/plug-ins. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425.rhino3d. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. No special hardware is needed.htm. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. For details on setting up a workgroup. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications.0 as a workgroup node. Very little administration is required. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses.com/plugins/developer.rhino3d. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one.Rhino 2.

Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. trim curves are ignored. 2. called the pedge. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. When the initial mesh grid is made. 1. called the edge. 3.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. Rhino meshes all trim edges. and tolerance values for each of the curves. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. 0. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. two 2.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. 3.90 degrees The range is from . 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. After the initial grid is made. 147 . the marker will snap to the snap point.D curves. 0. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. 8/3. the cursor turns into a crosshair. When using elevator mode. For example.D curve. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. The 3. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or .D curve (the one you see). If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). Each 2. 2.D edge. Cursor. then e_tol tells how close the 3. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. 1.Rhino 2. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. which also approximates the intersection. Marker. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. If an object snap is on. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. the draft angle is 0.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. 1/3. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge.90 degrees to 90 degrees. and pe_tol tells how close the 3.D edge is to the surface.

Sphere with normal direction displayed However. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. 148 . blue on one side. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. etc. If you hold it at the ends. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). Solid objects do not have naked edges. flat constant on the other). Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. When you have a finished solid. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. the stiffness of the rope. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. or a polysurface. when you have a single surface. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. The other side is the inside. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. or reflective metal on one side. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. red on the other. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. Imagine a rope. However.Rhino 2. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example.) with a polynomial definition. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane.

In some other 3-D programs. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. it is also a solid. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Ortho pane. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. 149 . Planar pane and Osnap pane. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. From left to right they are: Layer pane. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. this is called a "quilt. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. surfaces. Snap pane. and solids. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection.

When no command is active. Esc deselects all objects. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats.direction is indicated by the green arrow. Surfaces have three directions. If objects are selected and no command is active. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. 150 . The u. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command.direction is indicated by the red arrow. The u. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers.Rhino 2. v. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. If a mesh is generated from a solid. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. Esc clears the command prompt.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. Esc turns off the points. units. A rectangular surface with the u. v.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. and the v. no objects are selected. You can save your own templates to base future models on. grid size. and tolerances. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. u. and normal. there will be no holes in the mesh. U. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. You can display the u.

Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Press Enter for triangle prompt. Turn control points on for an existing mesh.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. 3View Three-viewport layout. You can shade and render the wireframe view. and Third corner of polygon prompts. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. 4View Four-viewport layout. Second corner of polygon. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. At the Fourth corner of polygon.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Or. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. 151 .

The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Start the AddNextV command.Rhino 2. 152 . Start the AddNextU command. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Start the AddPrevU command. Surface with four control points selected 153 . The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection.

Use the Group command to group objects together. Start the AddPrevV command.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. select an object to add to a group. 154 .Rhino 2. 2 At the Select groups. prompt select the group or enter a group name. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. 1 At the Select objects prompt.

you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. AlignProfiles Align two curves. 155 . AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. The curves must be planar. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. World Front. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. 1 2 Select the objects. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. At the Select curve to change prompt. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. or World Right. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it.

select a point that defines the start of an angle line. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. End of first line prompt. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. Start of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point.Rhino 2. 156 . pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines.

select the surface to apply the mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh.Rhino 2. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. and fitted onto the selected surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface.0000 degrees. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. select the surface on which to apply the curves. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. 157 . If the surface is trimmed. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface.

But that swaps u and v on the surface. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. 158 . At the Start of arc prompt. If you use the Mirror transformation. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. enter the angle for the arc. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. ApplyMesh guarantees that. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. enter the center of the arc's radius. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. you can make such morphs. enter the end point of the arc. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. For example. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. Arc Draw an arc. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. enter the start point of the arc. At the End point or angle prompt. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. one of which has been squished around in some way. so if you Mirror something. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. although if you understand the process and work at it. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. Then.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. mesh the most complex surface first. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface.Rhino 2. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. If making morph targets. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. enter the center of the arc's radius. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. Generally. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. Or. Start. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface.

enter a point on the arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. enter the start of the arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points.Rhino 2. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. At the End of arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. Arc from three points 159 . At the Point on arc prompt. You can enter the number of control points.

enter the radius of the arc. select the first curve. and radius. enter the start point.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. enter the start point. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. At the Choose arc prompt. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start.Rhino 2. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. Arc from start point. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the end point. At the Radius prompt. enter the end point. At the Direction prompt. end point. end point. 160 . End. select the second curve. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. If the radius value is too small. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the End of arc prompt. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. enter a radius value. At the End of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. Tangent. End. At the Radius prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.7e-006.34 (+/.1.0). If you cannot see the entire report. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. product moments.4601236.0. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.1. second moments.8545412. 161 . select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.014). area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1e-006. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt. First moments. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.Rhino 2. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.1.0 (+/. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).

1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.77350269 (+/. For example.1e-009.36650165 (+/. with a surface or open polysurface. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.73205081 (+/. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.0.1e-009) Ry: 1.0 and 6. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0. In order to get the particular moment you need.10.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 .0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.1e-009) Ry: 3.0 (+/.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.0 is shown below.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.Rhino 2.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate.1e-009) Rz: 3. Area = 60 (+/.1e-009.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.1e-007) y: 300 (+/. and sometimes contradictory.5.73300329 (+/.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.88675135 (+/. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface. Different disciplines and textbooks use different. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.1e-009) Rz: 6.0) zx: 0 (+/. As an example.46410162 (+/. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. if you select a box polysurface.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.

the area. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. In terms of integrals. The relationship between the area first moments. In particular. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. and area product moments.Rhino 2. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. area first moments. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. In terms of integrals.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. area second moments. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis.

y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. press Enter. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals.Rhino 2. At the Number in X direction prompt. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. type the y-interval and press Enter. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. type the x-interval.and y-intervals. At the Number in Y direction prompt. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. those distances are applied to the array directions. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. Transform. The array directions are the x. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. Or. to indicate the x. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. At the Number in Z direction prompt. 164 .

select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. At the Select path curve prompt. set the number of elements to array. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. type the z-interval and press Enter. 165 . Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. specify twist behavior. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. Or. choose two points that define the z-interval.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve.Rhino 2. or the spacing distance along the curve.

select a curve on a surface. At the Basepoint prompt. Enter a value of 1 or more. Objects arrayed along line. You can continue to place objects. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. curve on surface. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. At the Select the surface prompt. choose a center point for the array. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. At the Center of polar array prompt. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. and object to array. type an angle and press Enter. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions.Rhino 2. 166 . type the number of copies and press Enter. At the Angle to fill prompt. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. Surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. select objects to copy along the curve.

At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. type a number of objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. type a number of objects.Rhino 2. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. If the surface is a trimmed surface. Array along a surface 167 . Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. At the Select surface to array along prompt. choose the surface to array along.

Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). At the End of line prompt. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. See the PluginManager command. the path.Rhino 2. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. enter the start of the arrow.rhp Options set the resolution. enter the end of the arrow. If the Audit command detects a database error. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. otherwise you must select a folder. it prints a detailed description of the error. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. the model's folder will be used as the default. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. 168 .0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export.

you must edit your Rhino. Back Set to world back view.Rhino 2. 169 .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. Files tab. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. automatic Autosave is turned off.ini. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. This sphere is two joined surfaces. At the Radius prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. choose a radius. By default. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. choose a center point. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. Files tab. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Note By default. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. General tab. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

To bend the entire object. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. At the End of third axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the amount of bend. Bend Bend objects. choose an endpoint. Bend 170 . At the End of spine prompt. To bend the entire object.Rhino 2. place the point outside the object. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. At the Start of spine prompt. choose an endpoint. place the point outside the object. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose an endpoint. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. choose a center point. choose the second endpoint of the line. At the End of second axis prompt.

0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. enter the end of the angle to bisect. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. Bend moves the control points of objects. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. you will only bend that part of the object. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.Rhino 2. The remainder of the object is kept straight.only control points. and meshes. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. 171 . curves. enter the start of the bisector line. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. or enter a length and press Enter. enter the start of the angle to bisect. You can't bend a polysurface . surfaces.

select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. 172 .Rhino 2. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end.

select a surface edge. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. If you are joining curves. or press Enter. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. tangent directions. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. it applies to both ends. At the Select first set of edges. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. select adjacent edges. The Blend command creates G2 blends. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. 173 . and then use Blend to fill in the gap. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. If you need a G1 blend.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. and curvature is called a G2 blend. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. In either case. To do this. A blend curve that matches location. delete the arc. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. tangent direction. If a blend appears to tight or loose. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. it applies only to the second end. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. tangent direction.Rhino 2. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). and one of the curves is a blend curve. tangent direction. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. then you should probably use InsertKnot. and curvature. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. tangent direction. and curvature. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. tangent direction. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. tangent direction. Note The location. If it is invoked after picking the first end. The location. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. the greater the number of control points. the higher the degree. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. This gives you more control over the shape. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. it will no longer be periodic. 183 . The number of control points added depends on the degree entered.Rhino 2. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. click the new layer. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. but adds control points between each knot span.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. If you raise the degree of a surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory.

The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Select objects. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. enter the center point. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. When the user gets back in the office. select one object. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. use the CheckInLicense command. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. enter the radius point. When users get back in the office.Rhino 2. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. To check a license back in. Note Delete or rebuild the object. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. Diagnostics. 184 . CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. Circle Draw a circle.

You can enter the number of control points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 .0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.Rhino 2. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.

enter a point on the circumference. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Second point on circle prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. select the first curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. enter a radius. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. At the Third point on circle prompt.Rhino 2. delete the extras. enter a third point on the circumference. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter the end of the diameter. 186 . Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. enter a second point on the circumference. select the second curve. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. There may be multiple circles. Tangent. At the Radius prompt. You can enter the number of control points. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.

Note To reduce the size of the model file. 187 . Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. or are tangent to a second curve. delete the extras. select the second curve. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Point Select a point for input. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point.Rhino 2. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. At the Third tangent curve. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. select the third curve. There may be multiple circles. select the first curve.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.

Press F2 again to close the window. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. Point objects are not a part of any other object. right click in the Rhino Command History window. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. At the Base point for closest point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. 188 . CommandHistory View command history. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. or in the Command area. Note Point objects display as small squares. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects.Rhino 2. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. To start one of those commands. enter a point. pick it from the list. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window.

If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. Cone Draw a cone. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. At the End of cone prompt. Commands List all Rhino commands. choose a radius. it is pasted.Rhino 2.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. it is pasted as a command script. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. If there is text in the Clipboard. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. Or. choose a center point for the base. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . At the Radius prompt. look at the Command List in this help file. Without the command area. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2.

enter the middle point for the conic. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter.Rhino 2. At the End of conic prompt. enter the end point for the conic. Conic 190 . Or. At the Reference vertex prompt. Conic Draw a conic section curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. enter the start point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature.

type T to select tangent curves. select a second curve.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Second reference curve prompt. Parabolic Rho value of 0.Rhino 2. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 .S) intersects chord(A. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic.5. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. Point on first curve prompt. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. If you work out the details.5 and less than 1. First reference curve prompt. B. Curvature point or rho prompt. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle.C). Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. select a curve. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Point on second curve prompt.0 and less than 0.5. let T be the point where line(B. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S.

enter the reference vertex for the conic. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. 192 .0 and 0. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. At the End of conic prompt.5. Or. Parabolic Rho value of 0. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. End control points are at the same location. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0.5 and 1. so the w<1 case is elliptical.Rhino 2. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. enter the end point for the conic.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically.5. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots.

One of the contour planes will go through this point.Rhino 2. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. 193 . polysurfaces. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Blend. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Match. curvature.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Position. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. BlendSrf. choose a base point. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. and meshes for contour line creation. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. At the Contour plane base point prompt. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted.

enter the distance between contours and press Enter. 194 . The higher this number is. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. generated in both directions from the base point. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines.Rhino 2. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. At the Distance between contours prompt. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. At the Control polygon display density prompt. the less dense the control polygon will display. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces.

type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. The original curves are removed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. Larger angles result in coarser polylines.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. Edges can't be converted with this command. At the Angle tolerance prompt. 195 . Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. select an object to create polylines from. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. select curves and press Enter. use the ExtractWireframe command first.Rhino 2. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines.

CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key.Rhino 2. 196 . to copy the object in the same place.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. When you Paste objects into Rhino. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. At the Point to copy to prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. it is created when the object is pasted. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. snap spacing. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Or. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. type I and press Enter. choose a point to move the copy from. to move the copy vertically. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. choose locations for copies. Or. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. If the layer does not exist. type v and press Enter.

At the CPlane origin prompt. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. At the CPlane orientation prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. 197 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.Rhino 2. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. choose a point on the x-axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. choose a point on the y-axis. At the CPlane elevation prompt. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. choose the new origin. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points.axis. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard.

The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes.and yaxes to a new location. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point.D. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt.D location where it needs to be. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. in the dynamic preview. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. choose the new origin. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. 198 . Once your construction plane is positioned. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. for example. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. drag the construction plane's new x. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.Rhino 2. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt.

pick a point for the construction plane to pass through.Rhino 2. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. select a curve or surface. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. 199 . At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane.

choose the new origin. choose the new origin.axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.Rhino 2. choose a point on the x.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis. 200 . CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. choose a point on the z. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Z axis direction prompt. At the CPlane origin prompt. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the x. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt.

At the Select planar curve prompt. cut openings in the unrolled surface. select the first planar curve.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Use UnrollSrf. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. the original surface must be developable. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt.Rhino 2. select the second planar curve. select a surface. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. Top view of profile curves 201 .

" 202 . Example For an example. Look in the index under "Curve.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve.Rhino 2. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. From 2 Views.

At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. pick on a seam point marker. 203 . CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions.Rhino 2. pick a new location for the seam point. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. and move it along the curve. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. They are connected with a line. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. press Enter. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. For each overlap interval. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. joining the ends of the overlap interval. When you are done adjusting the connections. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. At the Location of seam point prompt. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve.

reversing the direction of the curve. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. 204 . You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.

At the Select profile curves in order prompt. At the Select point on the surface prompts.Rhino 2. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. select a surface. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. press Enter to end the command. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. pick near a control point. with the control polygons. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. At the End of cross-section line prompt. V or Both directions. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. end the line for the cross section plane. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. Press Enter to stop creating curves. that passes through the profile curves.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. The control point for the surface appear. At the Start of cross-section line prompt.

Rhino 2. space the cross section curves relatively evenly. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . For best results. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves.

Or. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. click to create the circle object. the curve is locally flat.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. select a curve.Rhino 2. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. This does not automate finding the inflection points. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. 2 207 . press Esc to end the command without change. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. 208 . points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. curvature. In the Curvature dialog box. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. and other important properties. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature.Rhino 2. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. For example. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. set the style and range. Options Gaussian In the images below. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature.

Rhino 2. (Planes. cylinders. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. Blue areas should be safe. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. In the case of an offset. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature).>1000) and the red close to infinity.>100.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. 209 . In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. In the case of the mill. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Set the value for blue rather high (10. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep.

or to the right of the curve. then we establish a convention. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. unlike a simple soap film.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point.Rhino 2. This is known as signed curvature. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. these values may not be appropriate. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. both free and attached to objects. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. and the direction. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. As a starting point. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. A soap bubble. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. These meshes can be large. If we care about this. this may result in a rather uninformative image. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 .0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. the normal to the surface at that point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. At any point on a curve in the plane. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. You have to map values to saturated computer colors.

and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. This contrasts with a soap bubble.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. such as wire loops. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. Adjust the length. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. even when other commands are started. 211 .Rhino 2. u. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. close the dialog box. Curvature graph on surface. frequency. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area.

They are not curvature continuous. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. In other words. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. However. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. Degree 5 curve 212 .Rhino 2. or tangent only. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.

0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. To see the circle. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. To better grasp this." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . the curve is "smooth" or "fair. At any point on a curve (except lines). curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. 3. negative when the circles point opposite ways. Curve Draw a curve by control points. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). 3. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. If the graph changes smoothly.D point. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. pick a point on the surface. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. If isoparm display is turned off. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous.D normal. minimum principal curvature. Gaussian curvature. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. that is.Rhino 2. As you move your cursor. maximum principal curvature. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. Press F2 to show the Command History window.

press Enter. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. The curve closes. When drawing a high degree curve. enter an additional control point. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. enter additional control points. At the Next point. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. enter the start of the curve. and pick.Rhino 2. To end the curve. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . At the Next point.

Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. First moments.0 (+/. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. product moments. 4 215 . At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.4601236. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. select the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select the box. it is created when the object is pasted. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box. If the layer does not exist. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Object properties and location are stored with the object. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0.1.34 (+/. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.7e-006. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.1.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box.8545412. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.1e-006.0. second moments. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.014).0). When you Paste objects into Rhino.

select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. At the Start of cut plane prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the End of cut plane prompt. press Enter to stop making cut planes. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623.0001). Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.0. select the end point of a line that defines a plane.3921 (+/.Rhino 2. select the first point of a line to define a plane. select the box. 216 .0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects.

second moments.7e-006.8545412. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. choose a center point for the base. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0). Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.4601236. product moments. Solid cylinder 217 . select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. choose a point for the center of the top surface. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box.Rhino 2. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. First moments. At the End of cylinder prompt.1e-006. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.0 (+/. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. choose a radius. select the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. At the Radius prompt. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1.

saved views. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. To start a new model. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Delete Delete selected objects. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. use the Erase command. All objects in the model are deleted. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter.Rhino 2. use New command instead. 218 .0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Layers. Press Delete. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

use the arm to choose a y. choose an origin in Rhino.Rhino 2. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. In the Baud Rate dialog box.axis is perpendicular to the x.axis. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Similar to Untrim . 219 . Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. select the proper serial port and baud rate. Rhino will do it for you. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. select your digitizing arm. use the arm to choose an x. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. select a boundary to detach. You do not need to ensure that the y. Microscribe. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary.axis in the real world. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. and the trim curve is created. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve.axis in the real world. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing.

Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. Digitize the third set of reference points. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. choose an x. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. recording reference points as you go. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. arcs. choose a y. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. circles. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Whatever the reason. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. If it is more convenient.axis in Rhino. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. you can use the digitizer. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. 220 . At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input.Rhino 2. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. or the object moves slightly. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. and is assigned to the F12 key. and curves with the digitizer. Thus. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. You can draw lines.

Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. use the arm to choose a y. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer.Rhino 2. click Digitize. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. X. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. From the Tools menu. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. and O. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. This is the reference polyline.axis on the table. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . x. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. or you need to close and restart Rhino. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. From the Tools menu. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. and Y for the origin. Label each point O. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and then click Calibrate. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.. and y. Y. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. click Digitize. use the arm to choose an x. If the digitizer or object moves.axes.axis on the table.

move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. a point is sampled. enter 2. At the Start of axis prompt. type the scale factor for all digitized input.Rhino 2. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. You can space the planes at intervals. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. To digitize in millimeters.0254. enter a point on the base plane.4. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. To digitize in centimeters. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. enter a second point on the base plane. Press Enter when you are finished. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. and spacing. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. enter 0. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. enter 25. At the Third point on plane prompt. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. Type C to create a closed curve. hold the pedal. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. When you finish digitizing points on the object.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. To digitize in meters. 222 . direction. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. enter a third point on the base plane. enter the start of the section plane axis. As long as the pedal is depressed. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. The planes are defined with a base point. At the Second point on plane prompt.54. specify how you want to space the planes. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. enter the distance between sampled points. pick a second line. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. At the Second dimension point prompt. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. As long as the pedal is depressed. a point is sampled. pick a point for the dimension line location. 223 .Rhino 2. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. When you release the pedal. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. At the Dimension line location prompt. Rhino samples points. At the Select second line prompt. pick a line.

pick a curve. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. pick a point for the dimension line location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. At the Place the dimension prompt. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . At the Second dimension point prompt.Rhino 2.

turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. At the Second reference point prompt. At the Place the dimension prompt.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. pick a curve. enter an angle for the dimension line.Rhino 2. Or the first point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. enter the second point of a reference angle. 225 . At the First dimension point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location.

Press Enter to terminate the display. At the Second dimension point prompt. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. red and green arrows show the u. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Or.Rhino 2.directions at the point. pick a point for the dimension line location. select a curve. surface or polysurface. At the Dimension line location prompt. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. to change the direction. Curve direction 226 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. type F. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension.and v. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Press Enter when done prompt. On surfaces. Dir Show direction display.

VRreverse Reverses the v-direction.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. 227 . unless you apply textures. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. VReverse. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. pick a location for the directional light. The location of the directional light does not matter.and v. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. The directional light icon does not render or shade. the UReverse. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface.order and direction.Rhino 2. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction.

Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. light the scene less. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. like gray.Rhino 2. Distance Measure the distance between two points. clear the Disable checkbox. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. right-click the Disable checkbox. 228 . Darker colors. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. pick a point.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. When Object snaps are disabled.

Note Point objects display as small squares. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. 229 . with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. At the Length of segments prompt. use the Split command. select the curves to divide and press Enter. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. type an integer number and press Enter. At the Number of segments prompt. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.0000 units. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line.

The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. surface. use the Split command. use the Dir command to flip the curve. or polysurface to evaluate. When a polysurface is picked. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. 230 . Point objects are not a part of any other object. If you want points to start at the other end.Rhino 2. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. select a curve. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt.

You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. You can check this with the Dir command. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. 231 . type the text to show in the dot. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. At the Location of dot prompt. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. enter the location of the dot. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis.

A surface is created that drapes over the objects. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. DragMode Toggle drag mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction.Rhino 2.

For example.Rhino 2. select an object to duplicate. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. dimensions. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. The object will be duplicated in place. type c (curve). The Dup command only duplicates curves. or lights.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. Duplicate border curve 233 . Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. then select the edge to duplicate. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. and press Enter. textblocks. meshes. To limit your selection to surfaces. surfaces. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. Because of this. and solids. type f (face). DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. Dup Duplicate an object. and polysurfaces. or bnd (boundary). surfaces. but it only makes points. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. It does not duplicate points. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. the surface will always sag more than the original. edge. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer.

select the edges of a surface. Or. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. select the second curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the third curve. 234 . The edges are duplicated as separate curves.Rhino 2. For many surface creation commands. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. select the fourth curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. press Enter to create a triangular surface. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. select the first curve. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface.

select a dimension. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. EditDim Edit dimension text.Rhino 2. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. type new text. For a surface from closed planar curves. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. You can use surface edges.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt.Rhino 2. select a text block. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. 236 . Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. They are not the same as knots. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. set the options. Type the new text. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. In the Edit Text dialog box.

you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Example If your units are inches. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. You can enter the number of control points. The two sizes update each other. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). When you place annotation text.25 inches. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . At the End of second axis prompt.Rhino 2. enter the endpoint for the first axis. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. enter the center point. At the End of first axis prompt.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. enter the endpoint for the second axis.

enter a point on the ellipse curve. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the end of the axis. enter a focus point. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt.Rhino 2. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. enter start of an axis of the ellipse.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. At the End of first axis prompt. enter the end of the second axis. At the End of second axis prompt. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. 238 . enter the second focus point. Draw an ellipse from focus points.

enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. End of second axis prompt. choose an endpoint for the major axis. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points.Rhino 2. End of first axis prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. choose a center point. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint. or type a height and press Enter.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. 239 . End of third axis prompt. enter the second focus point. enter a focus point. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.

and other important properties. These meshes can be large. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. 240 . Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis.Rhino 2. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. curvature. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. When you use the EMap command.

under Zebra and EMap.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. 241 .Rhino 2. When More reliable is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. on the Shade tab. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. but will always work. When Faster is selected. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. in the Options dialog box. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. select More reliable. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene.

No means there is one drag point. as with the Blend command. At the End of region to edit. In each case. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. 242 . This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. At the Start of region to edit.Rhino 2. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. you are moving control points of the curve. select a surface edge. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. One-point-per-end mode. maintains the tangent direction. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. drag point indicators.

aliases. During EndBulgeSrf editing.Rhino 2. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script. the script Circle 0. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. For example.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1.1 2. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way.1 2. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. After editing.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. 243 .

Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save.z format. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. select the surface to evaluate. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. and the U. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. Exit Exit Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. Note Erase is the same as Delete. click points on the surface.y.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. 244 . select the objects you want to erase. Press Enter when done prompt. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. the untrimmed surface is used.Rhino 2. select a point. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. Note When a polysurface is picked. A point object is created on the surface. If the surface is trimmed. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface.

Rhino 2. type a filename. 245 .0 files. Use the Explode command. Export Export selected objects to a file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. Click Save. select the file type you want to use. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Click Save. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. This command is obsolete. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. type a filename. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. In the File name box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. object name. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. In the Files of type box. File. Rhino supports several file types. In the File name box. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. In the Files of type box. layer color. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. object render color. and selected mass properties. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. select objects to explode. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects.

select Rhino 2 3D Models. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. select a boundary object to extend to. At the next Select boundary objects. type a filename. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. Or. Press Enter when done prompts. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. Or. enter a name for the text file. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. Click Save. The extension is joined to the original curve. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. In the Files of type box. In the File name box. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Extend Extend a curve. At the next Select object to extend prompts. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. select objects to extend.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases.Rhino 2. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. 246 .

At the Radius of arc prompt. surfaces. enter the end of the extension. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. type an angle for the arc. select a curve to extend.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. type a number for the radius and press Enter. Note You can use any combination of curves. Type=Line Makes a line extension. and solids as boundary edges. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. Or. At the End point or angle prompt. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. Or. 247 .

select a curve to extend. use Extend a curve.Rhino 2. Select near the end of the curve to extend. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. enter the endpoint of the extension.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. At the End of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. use Extend a curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 .

0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. type a distance to extend and press Enter. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. near the end you want to extend. At the End of line or length prompt. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. Or. if possible. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. the extension will be joined to the original curve.Rhino 2. enter the endpoint for the line extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. select the curve to extend. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. Options Join If Join=Yes. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. 249 . select a curve to extend.

ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Then the surface is extended on the end.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. depending on the shape of the object. or pick two points to specify the distance. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. This fixes the original.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. 250 . The extension length is based on parameterization. Note With the linear extension. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. enter an amount to extend. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization.

Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 .Rhino 2. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. If you need angled cross sections along surface. choose a point. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. If you need curved cross sections. In contrast to InsertKnot. and polygon mesh objects. Extract several isoparms. surfaces. If you need to place an object on a surface.and v-directions of the surface. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. and isoparms display at the marker. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. v or both directions. use Project or Intersect. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. The marker is constrained to the surface. and Loft a surface through them.

You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. If you choose the Copy option. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. select curves and press Enter. drag the desired distance and pick. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. At the Extrusion distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. surfaces. 252 . Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. Note ExtractPt works on curves. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. and polygon mesh objects. The original surface is left intact. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Solid Tools. the surface is copied. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. or type a distance and press Enter. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface.Rhino 2. select surfaces and press Enter.

Rhino 2. Round. The choices are Sharp. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. then the extrusion is in that direction. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. This option does not appear for open curves. Smooth. and Chamfer. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . Otherwise. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal.

select surfaces and press Enter. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. The default is vertical to the construction plane. At the Extrusion distance prompt. At the Point to extrude to prompt. or enter a distance and press Enter. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. choose the point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. To draw a deformable plane. select the curve to extrude. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. At the Select path curve prompt. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. 254 . select the curve. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. select the path curve. draw two lines at right angles.Rhino 2. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. pick a point.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. use Create a 1-Rail sweep.

0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. or accept the default and press Enter. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. At the Tolerance prompt. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Fillet Fillet two curves. type R and press Enter. enter a number. Or.Rhino 2. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. Join To change the Join option. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. select curves and press Enter. 255 . select the second curve near the end for the fillet. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. type J and press Enter. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. type the fillet radius and press Enter.

Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go.Rhino 2. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. choose the second surface to fillet. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. choose the first surface to fillet.

When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. enter a tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. At the Fitting tolerance <0. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. The curves are refitted. For scripting. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. The original curves are unchanged. 257 . select curves and press Enter. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. In general. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.Rhino 2. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. If you have a dense string of points.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces.

Each face has a constant monochrome color. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. axes. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. The grid. click Options. object highlighting. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. this shading mode may be much faster. If OpenGL shading is turned on. Each face has a constant monochrome color. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. On the Shade tab. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. the OpenGL shade options will be available. 258 . and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.Rhino 2. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. click Use OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.

enter a number and press Enter. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command.Rhino 2. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. 259 . but their directions are reversed. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. On the Shade tab. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. that define the outline of the flattened surface. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. If Booleans give unexpected results. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. The objects looks exactly the same. click Options. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. this shading mode may be much faster.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. click Use OpenGL. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. select curves. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. At the Increment size prompt.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL shading is turned on. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. such as Union instead of Difference. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view.

All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Front Set to world front view. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 .select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. select the new backbone curve to flow to. Instead of drawing a line before the command. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one.Rhino 2. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. This curve will be used as a new backbone. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. Flow does not work on polysurfaces. Flow works on the control points of an object . type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. especially those with trimmed edges.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. At the New backbone curve . The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. At the Original backbone curve .

GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. Grid Toggle the display of the grid. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed.Rhino 2. select the second curve near the coinciding end.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . you must edit your Rhino. At the Second curve .select near end prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.select near end prompt. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. 261 . select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.

The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars.Rhino 2. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. A handlebar displays on the curve. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. You can then apply commands to the entire group.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. Group Place selected objects in a group. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. select the curve or surface to edit. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. 262 .

The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. or enter a length. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. 263 . pick a point. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. In the Heightfield dialog box. adjust options. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. At the First corner prompt. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. pick a point. A handlebar will display on the surface. At the Second corner or length prompt. Height The scale of the height of the surface. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. select a bitmap file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. select the surface to edit. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap.

enter the start of the helix axis. select Turns or Pitch.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. enter the end of the helix axis. If you select Turns. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. 264 . enter the number of turns for the helix. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. If you select Reverse twist. At the Radius prompt. enter the radius for the helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. At the End of axis prompt. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. If you select Pitch. the helix will twist counterclockwise. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. This is the line the helix will wind around.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. 265 . and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. Status bar: Osnap Or. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. close the Osnap dialog box. If you exit the model and reopen it. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. select the objects you want to hide.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Visibility. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard.Rhino 2. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times.

from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. the more concentrated the hotspot. 266 . At the Spotlight hotspot prompt.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. Longitude=X. Use 1. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. The smaller the number. and press Enter. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates.axis.Rhino 2. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. Waterline Length Length at water line. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. (This is a limitation of the command. ) prompt. enter a number between 0. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. The information displays in a separate window. that is.axis or the y. The visible objects hide. the command does nothing. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). only half of the model needs to be given. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. The longitudinal direction. not a statement of a physical principle.0 and 1.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.

Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. type a filename. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. select curves. Note Rhino supports many file types. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. the objects are placed on the current layer. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Click Open. the command will fail. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. The objects are reparameterized. In the File name box. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). File. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. If the imported file type does not support layers. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. Import Import or merge objects from another file. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane.Rhino 2. 267 . in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. select Rhino 3D Models. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. and STL Tools File menu.

Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. and z-directions.3dm hi 1. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then.Rhino 2. 268 .000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing. or a point to rotate from.3dm hi 2.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm tricky 1a.3dm tricky 1a 2. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.3dm tricky 1a 1. select Rhino 3D Models. it does. Scale Scales the objects. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. choose an insertion point for the imported objects.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. In the File name box. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. etc. and rotate. If you say no. At the Rotation Angle <0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm bg 32985. If you say yes. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. Click Open. At the Scale factor <1.0.3dm Untitled a 2147483647.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. scale. Press Enter to place the model at 0. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. Options Rotate Rotates the objects.3dm bg 32986.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. y. choose a start angle.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. type a filename. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. After inserting kinks. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. 269 . The marker is constrained to track along the curve. choose points where you want to insert a kink. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. select the curve to insert edit points to. press Enter to end the command.

0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. 270 . At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. pick points on the curve for new knots.Rhino 2. pick points of the surface for new knots. select a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. or Both. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. V.

At the Start of line prompt.Rhino 2. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. The curve closes automatically. press Enter. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. enter additional points. enter an additional point. Main. enter the start of the curve. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. and pick. To end the curve. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. A straight line replaces part of the curve. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. At the Next point of curve. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. and the parts are joined. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. 271 . InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points.

InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. select a surface. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. 7. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve.Rhino 2. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. 272 . Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. and 11. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. choose the first point of the curve. 3. The marker is constrained to the surface.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. At the Next point on curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. 9. 5. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. Valid degrees are 1. Sharp When you make a closed curve. When you draw an interpolated curve. At the Start of curve prompt. choose an additional point. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves).

Object snaps End.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. 273 . Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Close Creates a closed curve. Cen.Rhino 2. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Near. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Midpoint. and Intersection work. Knot.

Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. Intersect Intersect two objects. select the objects.Rhino 2. Invert Invert the selection. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. use the BooleanIntersection command. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Non-polyline curves are rejected. To create surface and solid intersections. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points.

The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. When you are finished selecting objects to join. Points selected. Join Join objects. Contrast this with the Invert command. 275 . press Enter. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Invert also selects the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. which also selects other objects. select objects.

276 . the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. Booleans.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. depending on what you may do with the model. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. BlendSrf. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. no join occurs. but are not coincident.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. then the second one gets moved. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. BlendSrf. NetworkSrf. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. If the edges are too far out of line. If not. Booleans. If you use JoinEdge. For simplicity. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. For the group joiner. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. doing a Join. use MergeSrf. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap.Rhino 2. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. and resetting the tolerance. or Patch. When two edges are joined. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. a 3. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. use MergeSrf. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. you can have some problems later on. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. Do you want to join these edges?". Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. or Patch. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together.015 units apart. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. Using the Millimeter template. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. NetworkSrf.

No mesh points are moved.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. y. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. use MergeSrf. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. Booleans. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. The picking order can make the difference. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. merged or deleted. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. This command does not work in all cases. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. NetworkSrf. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. 277 . Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance.Rhino 2. The action performed is reported on the command line. If there are naked edges. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. BlendSrf. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. or Patch. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. select curves. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible.

Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. Select Points. but you cannot select them. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Click the Lock option. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Start the Lasso command. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. press Enter to close the lasso. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Lasso Select points with a lasso. select the layers you want to lock.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. 278 . Rhino displays objects on locked layers. See the PluginManager command.

surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. type the name of the layer to turn on. Note For layer names with spaces. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. Click the Off option.Layer Three". From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer.Layer Two. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. Note For layer names with spaces.Layer Two.Layer Three". To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.Layer Two. type the name of the layer to turn off. LayerOn Turn a layer on. from the list. In the Edit Layers dialog box. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Layer Three" 279 .Two. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Two.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). Note For layer names with spaces. type the name of the layer to lock.Rhino 2. from the list select layers you want to turn on.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. In the Edit Layers dialog box. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. select the layers you want to turn off. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. LayerOff Turn a layer off. unlike the Lock (object) command.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). separate the layer names with commas: One. separate the layer names with commas: One. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Click the On option. separate the layer names with commas: One.Two.

Press Enter to stop the command. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. pick additional points. At the Next point of leader. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. At the Next point of leader. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. They will not show in the perspective view.Rhino 2. you must edit your Rhino. Left Set to world left view. pick the start of the leader. This is the arrow end. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. Press Enter when done prompt. pick the next point on the leader line.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 .

BothSides option selected 281 . select a curve or edge. At the End of line prompt. polysurfaces. surfaces. and meshes. pick the end point for the line. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. including lines and polylines. polylines. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. and can be used to create other curves.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. circles. pick the start point for the line. arcs. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. ellipses. Line Draw a line. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. Line. The line extends on both sides of the start point. you can select any of these curve objects.

and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. 282 . use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. enter the end of the line. enter the second point. At the Start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. enter the start of the base line. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. enter the start of the base line. At the End of base line prompt.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. enter the start of the line. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2.

LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. At the Pivot angle prompt. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. type an angle and press Enter. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. At the End of line prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. enter the end of the base line. and parallel to the current construction plane. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. At the Select object prompts.Rhino 2. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. pick the end of the line. enter the end of the line. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. At the End of line prompt. 283 .

select the first curve near the start of the desired line. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. enter pick endpoints for segments. 284 . When you are finished drawing lines.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. At the End of line prompts. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. press Enter. enter the start of the first line segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.

enter the end of the line. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. 285 . select a point on a curve for the start of the line. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves.Rhino 2. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt.

LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. 286 . BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.Rhino 2. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.

LineV Draw a vertical line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. enter the second endpoint. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. BothSides option selected 287 . or enter a length and press Enter. At the End of line prompt. Line vertical to construction plane.Rhino 2.

Load Loads a selected script file. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. enter an integer. the code interpreted and run immediately. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. on the Options dialog box. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. If the script file just contains script expressions. or press Enter to accept the default. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. select one object. You can download plug-ins. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line.Rhino 2.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. See the PluginManager command. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Close Closes the dialog box. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded.com/plug-ins.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object.rhino3d. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. 288 . the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. from www. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions.

The unlocked objects lock. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. In the scripts folder (e. At the Location of seam point prompt.0 Beta\Scripts). Preview. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script.0 Beta). pick on a seam point marker. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.g.exe is located (e.0 Beta\System). Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. When you are done adjusting the connections. In the Loft Options dialog box. select the objects you want to lock.g. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. In the install folder (e.. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.g. 289 . You can snap to locked objects. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. Select open curves near the same ends.. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. and move it along the closed curve. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. Note You cannot select locked objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. In the folder where Rhino. press Enter. adjust options. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. Lock Lock objects.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .

Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. 291 . FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. reversing the direction of the curve. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves.

This is also known as a ruled surface. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves.Rhino 2. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Available when you have selected three shape curves. 292 . Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Units tab before lofting. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface.

Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. 293 . So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. tear. These are called ruling lines. the surface is not developable. and some steel ship hulls. You may get no surface or a partial surface. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. too. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. cones. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. If the curves have kinks. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). If the surface is not linear in one direction. Preview Click to preview the loft. or wrinkle.Rhino 2. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. you may get unexpected results. Surfaces can be created in other ways.

Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. 294 . results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. You just have to be careful. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable.D surface. thereby smoothing the surface. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3.

Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. expand the plates. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. 295 .D models. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects.y-plane. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. select the layout and object visibility options. though. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. aluminum).Rhino 2.

If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout.Rhino 2. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. 296 . Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown.D drawings from mesh objects. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). they may not appear on the correct layer.D view. If two surfaces pass through each other. Note This command does not create 2. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. There is no way to avoid this.

Match Match two curves. To get a feel for what the command does. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. At the Select curve to match . At the Choose an object prompt. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. This command tries to fix those surfaces.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt.pick near end prompt. Close the dialog box. If the curve was open. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. If a joined curve is made periodic. 297 . MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. select the surface you want to make non-periodic.Rhino 2. it is closed. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Sometimes. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. select a curve to make periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Other closed curves. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. Then use control point editing on both curves. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. select the first curve at the end that will move. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded.

Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity.Rhino 2. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match. 298 .

Rhino 2. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. 299 . If you edit this curve with control points. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. The curves are merged together after the match.

This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.select near edge prompt. select the edge of the target surface. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . select the edge of the surface to match. reversing the direction of the curve. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. 300 .Rhino 2. At the Select target surface . In the Match Surface dialog box. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. If the target surface is also untrimmed. choose the type of match.select near edge prompt. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape.

or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. If necessary. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. 301 .Rhino 2. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. Generally.

Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. percent. in degrees.Rhino 2. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. in units. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. 302 .

If it is roundish.Rhino 2. 303 . (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. but if the conditions are wrong. but you will get something. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster.) In usable terms. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. it can twist the surface near the edge. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. especially if tight tolerances are specified. That may be several seconds. If refinement is specified. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. it may be useful to preview without refinement. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. it will stay roundish. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. but it will still be a valid trim. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. If the surface being changed is trimmed. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. If you need to match to part of an edge. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. In these cases. This is the hardest condition to meet. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. If refinement is interrupted. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). This is sometimes useful. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically.2. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target.knot spacing to curvature vector. If it isn't. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. Something like position = 0.

MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. must share an endpoint. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. double click the viewport title bar. Or. select the first surface to merge. Maximize Maximize Rhino. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. 304 .1 ) prompt. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. select an adjacent edge. must belong to the same surface. select the second surface. double click the viewport title bar. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Right click the viewport title bar.Rhino 2. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. then click Restore. then click Maximize. Note The edges must be naked. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. if possible. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. and the prompt repeats.

Rhino 2. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero. End view of original surfaces .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces. Smooth The surface will be smooth.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .

The resulting surface can be edited. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth).0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. The default is 1 (full smoothing). Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. editable surface. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. In some ways. with finer or coarser mesh. 306 . Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. Once you have trimmed surfaces. Generally. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. For closed surfaces.Rhino 2. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. mirroring it. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. you have to approach things differently.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. A mesh can be preview and then created. This is useful for modeling half of an object. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints.

Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Scale independent. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Simple planes is not selected. edge to Srf options. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. Scale independent.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears.Rhino 2. which is the default. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. which is the default. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. 307 . Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. more accurate meshes. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. The default is zero. Zero means no minimum. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. When the Refine is checked. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. No refinement results in faster meshing. Scale independent. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. and higher polygon count. Setting Max dist. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. less accurate meshes. Jagged seams is not selected. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. and lower polygon count. Zero means no limit. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Limits the size of the polygon edges. and higher polygon count. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Default is 0. When the Refine is checked. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. more accurate meshes. after initial meshing. Scale-dependent. By default. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. When this Refine is checked. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. In practice. and adjustment for trim boundaries. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. Max dist. By default.

except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. or type in a height and press Enter. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Or type in a length and press Enter. If a length was entered. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. choose the cone's point. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. choose a width by picking. choose a center point for the base. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. At the Height prompt. or type in a width and press Enter. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. At the Other corner or length prompt. not editable. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab.Rhino 2. choose a corner of the box. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. At the End of cone prompt. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. at the Width prompt. choose a height. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. choose a diagonal corner. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. 308 .

and a open cone-shaped mesh. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. choose a radius.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. choose a center point for the base. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. joined from a base and top circular meshes. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . At the Radius (Diameter) prompt.Rhino 2. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. At the Height prompt. choose a height. joined from a base circular mesh.

to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Or type in a length and press Enter. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. choose a width by picking. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles.Rhino 2. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. choose a corner of the plane. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. At the Other corner or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. If a length was entered. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. 310 . or type in a width and press Enter. at the Width prompt. choose a the diagonal corner.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction.

Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. 311 .Rhino 2. choose a center point. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. choose a radius. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere.

choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Select the objects.Rhino 2. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. 312 . The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. choose a point to move the objects from. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Minimize Minimize Rhino. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Press delete to delete the original. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. choose a point on the mirror plane. As you move the cursor. Note Mirror makes a copy.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. Move Move objects. The original is left selected. Mirror Mirror objects. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt.

Slider scale affects this mode. Along control polygon The u. pick a base point.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. choose a location for objects. you can type corner1. 313 . to move the objects vertically. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. v-. At the Choose offset point prompt. or z-direction. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. type V and press Enter. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement.0 Command Reference Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. corner3. pick a new location for the base point.sliders to move the selected control points. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. At the Point to move to prompt. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction.Rhino 2. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. During the command. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. corner2. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. Modeling Aids tab.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. y-. To move objects small amounts. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. MoveUVN Use u-. and n.

NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. 314 . All points to edit have to be selected. rename or delete unwanted named views. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time.Rhino 2. All points to edit have to be selected. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. NamedView Edit named views. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. rename or delete unwanted construction planes.

You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. you can turn the automatic sorter off. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. 315 . The default is the system tolerance x 10. If a curve and surface edge overlap. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance.Rhino 2. The surface will be created. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Edge Matching After the command is done. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. you will be prompted to select the curves manually.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. If you want to select the curves individually. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. be sure to select the surface edge. the best guess is made at the surface. The default is the system tolerance. the surface will have four edges.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Position. Tangent. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Select from Loose.

This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. select a template to base your model file on. and tolerances. For example. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. viewport layout. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. Or enter options to create a viewport specification.Rhino 2. 318 . if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. grid settings.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. layers. NewViewport Create a new viewport. drag a window for a new viewport. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. units. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. New Create a new model. Use New to open the template you want to change.

0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface. Start the NextV command. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. Start the NextU command.Rhino 2. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the u-direction is selected.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. or enter a length and press Enter. choose a point on the surface. At the Point on surface prompt.Rhino 2. 320 . pick a point for the end of the line. At the Length of line prompt. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. select a surface. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current.

type information you want to save with the model. Line normal to a surface. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. copy. it will be open next time the model is opened. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files.Rhino 2. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Offset Offset a curve. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes.

Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. sphere. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt.Rhino 2. cylinder. A surface and its offset 322 . Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. the resulting surface is exact. When a plane. enter an offset distance and press Enter. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. Otherwise. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. click on one side the curve. torus. or cone is offset. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Note For best results. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Negative values offset the other way. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. select a curve or edge. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance.

When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO.Rhino 2. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. not the trim edges. Note Rhino supports several file types. In the File name box. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. select Rhino 3D Models. All other layers will be turned off. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. type a filename. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. An arrow indicates the offset direction. so the fact that they are locked is lost. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. they are not converted to NURBS objects. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. File. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. they are also unlocked. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. select the layer to turn on. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Open Open an existing model. When you turn the layers back on. Click Open. 323 . select an object on the layer you want to turn off.

click Open. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. or some of them may be hidden. Scale If Scale=No. whether it is floating or docked. the buttons in them. Options Opens the Options dialog box. to orient copies of the objects. The objects are moved. 324 . but objects remain the same size.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects.Rhino 2. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. The prompt will change to Scale=No. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. and whether it is hidden or showing. and the number of columns when floating. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. the screen position of each toolbar. type s and press Enter. type c and press Enter. pick a target point for the first reference point. from the File menu. select a workspace file. Or. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. pick a target point for the second reference point. In the Open Workspace dialog box. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects.

pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. If the curve does not start on the edge. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. pick a point on the surface to define the target point.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. 325 . The two triplet of points define two planes. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. pick a point that. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. select the surface. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. to orient copies of the objects. with the other two reference points. type c and press Enter. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. Or. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. The three points are not interchangeable.Rhino 2. select objects and press Enter. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge.

pick a point on the surface to define another target point.and v-directions. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical.Rhino 2. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. As you move the cursor over the surface. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. 326 . It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. The Mirror option toggles between them. There are four possible orientations on the surface.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt.

It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. Shift Note The Ortho command. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. and the F8 key. Ortho Toggle ortho mode.Rhino 2. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. 327 . click a point on the curve to move the object. select a base point on the object. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. The cursor tracks along the curve. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. you will get different end results. select the curve you want to align the object to. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. At the Base point prompt. If you pick this point in different views. are all toggles.

Modeling Aids tab. When polysurfaces are meshed. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. The default angle is 90 degrees. When Ortho is on. At the Ortho Angle prompt. If more than one object is selected.Rhino 2. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. and Toggle.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. 328 . type the new angle and press Enter. Note When Ortho is on. Polysurface made of four surfaces. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. The default angle is 90 degrees. Packed textures. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. the packed texture coordinates are created. Off.

PanRight Pan the view right. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.Rhino 2. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. use the Pan command. use the Pan command. Front. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Pan Pan the view. PanDown Pan the view down. 329 . Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanLeft Pan the view left. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. Plan parallel views like the default Top. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for an end of the parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. and then click Vertex. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. use the Pan command. click Parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. click Parabola. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. Direction. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Focus From the Curve menu. enter a point for an end of the parabola. and then click Focus. Focus. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. show a direction for the parabola. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. 330 . From the Curve menu.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. This is the "open" direction. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola.

End. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. 4 Focus and direction. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point on the parabola's edge.Rhino 2. Uncapped paraboloid. 4 Vertex and focus. 331 . enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.

they are pasted into your model. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard.0 Command Reference End. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. When you Paste objects into Rhino. If the layer does not exist. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid.Rhino 2. Uncapped paraboloid. 332 . it is created when the object is pasted.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. but with proper configuration. Minimum of 8 points per curve. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. For a trimmed patch. it will be very close to reasonable input. adjust options. use a starting surface with a similar shape. but it also can produce some unexpected results.Rhino 2. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. curves. To make a highly curved surface. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. Note This command can be very useful. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. These don't have to be connected. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. In the Patch Options dialog box. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. and edges to base the patch on. select the point objects. 333 .0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. you may need a starting surface. select curves that form a closed shape. Even for a relatively flat patch. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane.

and type PerspectiveMatch.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. aliases. 2 The wallpaper image. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts.Rhino 2. Pause is a built in command option. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. Perspective Set to perspective view. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. you must edit your Rhino. 334 . If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective.

The first point on the image. 335 . 4 All points picked on the model.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.Rhino 2. All points picked on the image. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. The first point on the model. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points.

Pick carefully. If possible. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. This aids in accurate image point picking.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. you have modified your model. Note The image must be a true perspective image. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. Sloppy picking gives you garbage.Rhino 2. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. In particular. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. etc. changed the viewport settings. Make the image view large. Pipe Draw a pipe. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. At the Length of picture frame prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . select a bitmap file to use. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image.

PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. At the First end radius prompt. 337 . at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. At the Second start radius prompt. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. Thick The pipe has two walls. type T and press Enter. At the Second corner or length prompt. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. enter the radius for the pipe. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. select a curve. at the End radius prompt. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe.Rhino 2. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. select a curve. At the Starting radius prompt.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. At the Second end radius prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. and the closed pipe is created. At the First corner prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. If the pipe objects are capped. Click Open. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. Or. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. For an open curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. select a bitmap file. if the curve is closed.

Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG.Z> prompt. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. enter the camera point. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). TGA. scale it. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. see Place a bitmap backdrop. By default the Top. and JPG. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. and temporarily hide it.Rhino 2. You can move the background bitmap. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. align it (move and scale in one operation). Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. At the New target location <X. To place a backdrop behind your model. 3-D Digitizing. In PARALLEL viewports. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. 338 .Y. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. PCX. enter the target point. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. Placing a second deletes the first. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera.Z> prompt. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. BMP. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center.Y. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. Front. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. remove it.

then click Control Points. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. then those objects are not visible on the screen. enter the target point. In PERSPECTIVE views. then those objects are not visible on the screen. In PARALLEL viewports. click Free-form. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu Set View.Rhino 2. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). PlaceTarget Place the target location. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. regardless of where the previous point was picked. From the Curve menu. 3-D Digitizing. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera.Y. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. 339 . click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. Without Planar on. In PERSPECTIVE views. Planar Toggle planar mode. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X.Z> prompt. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

enter additional vertices for the polyline. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. select a mesh object. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. press Enter.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment.Rhino 2. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. making a closed polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. At the Next point of polyline prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. To end the polyline. start the polyline. To end the polyline. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. enter additional vertices for the polyline. press Enter. enter the start point of the polyline. 349 .

Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. making a closed polyline.Rhino 2. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. 350 .

The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Start the PrevV command. Start the PrevU command. 351 . Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction.

using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. 352 . Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Always. color. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. If you fit the image to the page. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. No viewport edge is printed. the contents are printed on top of each other. and each viewport is printed in its area. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. and number of copies. the central part of the view is printed. print scale.Rhino 2. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. If viewports overlap. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. print to a file. The part that does not fit is not printed. the objects outside the viewport are printed.

Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. too. not printing from perspective viewports.Rhino 2. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. and same orientation.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. If the objects don't fit. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. Curve projected to a surface 353 . (Actually. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. Then. PrintSetup Set up your printer. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. if they don't fit on the page. hide them. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Light objects do not print. as the paper you're printing on. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. If you want to print at some other scale. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Print. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. It will crop objects that are visible. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Project will never work correctly for this. surfaces. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . curves. This command works on points. choose to keep or delete the input objects. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. however. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. lines. Basic shapes like ellipses. and free-form curves work well.Rhino 2. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Properties Edit object properties. and polysurfaces. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. set the projection type for the viewport. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. circles. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel.

the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. Toolbar: Menu: Main.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. Point Editing. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. Organic. surfaces. Point Editing.Rhino 2. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. To control point edit a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. Organic.

Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. Then. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. select a curve to measure. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. use the fewest control point possible. select the surface to pull the curves back to. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts.Rhino 2. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. When drawing the curves.0000. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. Both commands ask for the viewport name. Use curve commands to draw the curve. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface.

select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. select a rail curve. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. the result looks exactly the same both ways. rail curve. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. select a profile curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. Profile curve. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point.Rhino 2. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. in addition to being revolved. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . At the Revolve axis direction prompt. In this case.

not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.4.2.9. use the Enter command.5. Note When building command files.7.1 26. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.9 Enter etc….1.0 27. You can then select a file from the list. If the rail curve is closed.4. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.8. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.1. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.0 23.5. If you read in a particular file often.9. ! Interpcrv 23.4. If you leave off the filename.0.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin. a file dialog box appears.5.Rhino 2. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.8. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. select the file to read. readcommandfile myfile. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. 358 .1. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.2. The file contents are copied into the command line. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.txt Click the button to read the file.1.0 23.

ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file.Rhino 2. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. 359 . click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. but a more accurate fit. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. use the FitCrv command. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. leaving only the rebuilt curves. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. the highest number of control points is shown. When you are satisfied with the results. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. click OK. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. If more than one curve is selected. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts.

To see what it does. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. select an object. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. in the Degree box. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges.Rhino 2. Edges are pulled away from the surface.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. in the Point Count boxes. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. Joined and exploded polysurface. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. draw two planes several units apart. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 .

Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. choose a corner for the rectangle. At the Other corner or length prompt. Or.Rhino 2. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt.an v-directions. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. 361 . Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. enter the length of the rectangle. You will be prompted for the width. Degree Sets the degree of the surface.

Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. enter the end of the same edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. select the center point of the rectangle. Or. select a corner point. enter the length of the rectangle. At the Corner or length prompt. 362 . You will be prompted for the width. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. At the End of edge prompt. At the Width prompt. enter the width of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt.Rhino 2. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs.

Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. At the End of edge prompt. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt.Rhino 2. 363 . At the Height of rectangle prompt.

RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. click Preview. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. 364 . set the polygon count. General tab.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. To see the results of the reduction. This makes this command scriptable. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. Or. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. type c and press Enter. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. to remap copies of the objects. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. For one thing. After RefreshShade. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. avoid clearing meshes. To reduce the size of the model file. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. 365 . which may be undesirable in some cases.

366 .0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2.

At the Select knotline to remove. and Blend commands. select objects.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. which is equal to the degree. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. 367 . select a curve. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction.Rhino 2. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. Sweep2. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Use the Group command to group objects together. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. select a surface. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. In particular. At the Click knot to remove prompt.

Render tab. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. and render again. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. 368 .0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes.Rhino 2. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. increase the size of the viewport. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. expanded to fill the page. Render tab. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. When on. It has a single menu: File. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. the current working folder.

or bump mapping. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. Toolbar: Render 369 . Does not show shadows. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading.Rhino 2. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. When on.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. zoom. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. Basically. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects.

Example You have two surfaces side by side. The y. (In this example. The x. However.length for both is about 22 units. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture.and vdomains for the surface. and similar prompts. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. the x. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. set the new limits of the u. 370 .directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command.Rhino 2. In this example. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. At the New U begin domain prompt. let's call them lefty and righty. it is distorted. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. including the domain unless you apply textures. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization.and v. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22.length of righty is about 11. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. the texture is not distorted. First you must set the u.

then click the name of the view to restore. select the named view to restore. then click Set View. Revolve Revolve a curve. select the construction plane to restore. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes.Rhino 2. RestoreView Restore a named view. choose a point on the revolution axis. or to restore only the view. 371 . Or. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. select one or more curves. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Right click the title of a viewport. Use the NamedView command to edit named views.

At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. enter the number of control points. defining the revolution axis. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. click Exact or Deformable. Enter the Start angle and End angle. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. select a curve. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface.Rhino 2. select a surface that is not a polysurface. In the Revolve Options dialog box. The marker tracks on the curve.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. 372 . select a surface that is not a polysurface. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. choose a second point. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. If you choose Deformable. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick.

Right Set to world right view. choose a point to rotate the objects around. or a point to rotate to. choose a start angle. choose an end angle. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. type C and press Enter. 373 .Rhino 2. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. or a point to rotate from. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Type 0 to use the default tolerance.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. to rotate copies of the objects.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect.

type c and press Enter. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. the following prompt appears. Or. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. type in an angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. If you entered a point to rotate from. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. 374 .Rhino 2. At the End of rotate axis prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. choose a point on the rotation axis. to rotate copies of the objects.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. choose a second point on the rotation axis. etc. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis.

This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. etc. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. At the End of rotation axis prompt. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Second reference point prompt. place the construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. 375 . Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane.Rhino 2. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. etc. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. Or. pick a point. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis. etc.

Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. RotateUp Rotate the view up. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Run Run another application from Rhino. use the RotateView command.Rhino 2. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. At the Name of program to run prompt. 376 . Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Press the arrow keys. use the RotateView command. type the name and path of the file to run. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateView Rotate the view. RotateRight Rotate the view right. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

Rhino 2. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Push Pin When the button is depressed. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. In the File name box. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. See the PluginManager command. type a filename. Otherwise. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Cancel Closes the dialog box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. File. 377 . or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. Click Save. or SaveAs dialog boxes. you can use RunScript command. Save. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Note Rhino supports several file types. select Rhino 2 3D Models. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. Save Save your model. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. Language Specifies the language of the code. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute.

Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. units. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. Note Rhino supports several file types.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Save. type a filename. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. viewport layout. Click Save. Files tab. layers. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. select Rhino 2 3D Models. or SaveAs dialog boxes. 378 . You can set up grid settings. Click Save. and tolerances and save them in a template. In the File name box. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. type a filename. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. You can also save default geometry with the template. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Note Templates are normal 3DM files.Rhino 2. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent.Rhino 2. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. all objects with no name are selected. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. This command is "transparent. SelPolyline Select all polylines. Note You can use wild cards (*.) to select multiple objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. etc. ?." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. enter an object name. SelNone Deselect all objects.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. 388 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear.

" It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. 389 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit.direction based on previously selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. SelPt Select all point objects. Start the SelU command.

Rhino 2. The control points on the surface display. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. Press Enter to finish selecting rows. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface.and v. select the surface. A surface with control points selected 390 .direction. At the Select row of points prompt.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u.

or both directions. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.Rhino 2. v-direction.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . Start the SelV command. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v.direction based on previously selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction.

This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. 392 . SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card.Rhino 2. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. You can download plug-ins. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. Note Type w to start a window selection.rhino3d. FlatShade. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. from www.com/plug-ins. Shade tab. ShadeAll. and FlatShadeAll. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application.

From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. SetLayer Set the current layer. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. 393 .0 to 255) Transparency (0.0 to 1.Rhino 2. select the layer to set current.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. The Undo command will work. select an object on the layer you want to be current. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. Lets you name or rename a group. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. In the Edit Layers dialog box. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name.

It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Note The object material can be used by RIB.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. POV-Ray.Rhino 2. If no object name is defined. Object names are exported to IGES.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt.0 to 255) Transparency (0. Or. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. double-click the viewport title bar. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. If the object name has already been used. Rhino uses a generic name. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. To set names for a group of objects.0 to 1. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. 394 . It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. 3DS. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. and OBJ material/shader export. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Moray UDO. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. Or. POV. and RenderMan RIB. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command.

enter one of the options. check the coordinates you want to set. To set names for individual objects. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. use the SetObjectName command. At the Ortho is Off. POV-Ray. Object names are not used in Rhino.Rhino 2. and RenderMan RIB. 395 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. For example. Select the objects. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. enter one of the options. SetPt Set control point location. Starting number Sets the starting number. if you selected ten unnamed objects. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. In the Set Points dialog box. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". At the Planar is On. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES.

The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. enter the viewport width in pixels. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. At the Viewport height prompt. At the Grid snap is Off. etc. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. You still see interactive drawing of curves. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. enter the viewport height in pixels. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff.Rhino 2. 396 .

0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. If OpenGL is turned on. click Options. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Shade Shade a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. zoom. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . Note Be patient on the first shade. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. It may not be very quick the first time.Rhino 2. monochrome. The grid and axes are not shown. Pan. this shading mode may be faster. On the Shade tab set the options. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. select the working directory. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. and a special background color appears. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. Subsequent renderings may be faster. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. and no antialiasing. with no shadows. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. the OpenGL shade options will be available.

and no antialiasing. see www. click Options. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. with no shadows. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. The grid. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. The objects in current viewport are shaded. monochrome. axes. then Rhino will use it. click Options. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. If you use OpenGL Shade. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. object highlighting. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. The grid and axes are not shown. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and a special background color appears. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2. click Use OpenGL. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. click Use OpenGL. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. zoom. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). On the Shade tab. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. 398 . If OpenGL is turned on.com/software/optimizer/. It may not be very quick the first time. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. this shading mode may be much faster.sgi. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.opengl. For more information. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Pan. Subsequent renderings will be faster. Be patient on the first Shade. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. On the Shade tab. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL.org/ and www.

The click cannot be near curves. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. isoparms. Shear Shear objects. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. select the objects to shear.Rhino 2. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. or annotation or the object will be selected. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. points. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. you can click on a shaded object to select it. You do not have to select an isoparm. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. 399 . Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded.

The edge is highlighted.Rhino 2. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. 400 . Broken edges show in the selected objects color. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. The base point does not move with the shear. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. select objects and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. pick the base point for the shear. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. If you exit the model and reopen it. At the Reference point prompt. If your object has broken edges. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. Show Show hidden objects. Visibility. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt.

terminate the command. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. If you cannot see the naked edges. The edges highlight. Edge Tools. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. press Enter to terminate the command. Status bar: Osnap 401 . The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface.Rhino 2. At the Press Enter when done prompt. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. Camera icon. Sometimes.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. At the Press Enter when done prompt. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface.

and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. with underlying surface control points shown 402 .Rhino 2. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. To fix this. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Organic. When textures are applied to surfaces. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. select the objects you want to show. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. Original trimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. At the Select objects to show prompt. You will see no visible change in the surface.

the silhouette looks like an oval. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. if you look at a doughnut from the top. If you look at a doughnut from the side. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. For example. 403 . This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins.Rhino 2. only backwards. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. the silhouette is two circles.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly.

form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. a polyline appears along your path. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. drag the mouse. Release the mouse button.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. Sketch Sketch a curve. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points.Rhino 2. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. 404 . You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Or. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt.

form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. select the surface to sketch on. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. press Enter. drag a curve. Sketch on surface 405 . Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. The marker is constrained to the surface.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. At the Click and drag to sketch. Or.Rhino 2. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. type C. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt.

01 and 1. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. From the Edit menu. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. The default is 0. too. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. The larger the number. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. Smooth Smooth objects. 406 .Rhino 2. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. Smooth works on mesh objects. click Smooth. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. From the Transform menu. select the curves. smoothing the curve or surface. then click Control Points On. meshes. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0.2. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. The selected control points will move slightly. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. The selected entities will appear to melt. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail.00. adjust the Smooth factor. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. click Point Editing. In the Smooth dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode. Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .

and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. it is grayed out. Grid tab. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Modeling Aids tab. choose a center point. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. Note When Snap is on. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. A sphere is single closed surface. SnapSize Set snap size. When Snap is off. 408 .Rhino 2. Note This is different from the grid size. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. or enter a distance and press Enter. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Sphere Draw a sphere. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. choose a point for the radius. At the Radius prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. choose the third circumference point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the first circumference point. At the Second point on sphere prompt.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. 409 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose the second circumference point. A sphere is a single closed surface. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. A sphere is a single closed surface. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the End of diameter prompt. choose an endpoint for the diameter. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter.

Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. If you select Turns. At the End of axis prompt. select Turns or Pitch. enter the radius for the spiral. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral.Rhino 2. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. If you select Reverse twist. enter the number of turns for the spiral. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. If you select Pitch. enter the start of the spiral axis. enter the end of the spiral axis. 410 . At the Radius prompt. This is the line the spiral will wind around. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral.

411 .Rhino 2. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. The marker moves along the curve. and points. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. type p and press Enter.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. the polysurfaces are ignored. At the Select cutting objects prompt. select the cutting objects. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. surfaces. press Enter. select the objects to split. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. select the curve to split.

the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. Options control the direction of the split. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. to access option directly. or b. 412 .press Enter when done prompt. At the Split point prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top.Rhino 2. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. and Right view. select points at which to split the surface. surfaces and polysurfaces. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. Select a surface. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. Front. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. select a point.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. At the Point to split edge prompt. the marker is constrained to the edge. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. v. Type u. The edge is split into two edges.

This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm.Rhino 2. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. then Split.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.and v-directions of the surface. 413 . and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. and then deleting the extra isoparms.

That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. pick a target point for the spotlight. At the Degree in V prompt. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. Or. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. set the radius of the spotlight. and position. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. like gray. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter.it stays the same. pick a location for the spotlight. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone.Rhino 2. hotspot angle. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. length. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. beam angle.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. Darker colors. light the scene less. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. The spot light icon does not render or shade. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. not the range of the light. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . At the End of cone prompt.

0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. Or. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. At the Point prompts. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter points until all the points have been entered. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the Second corner of surface prompt. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt.Rhino 2. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. At the Number of points in a column prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. choose the fourth corner. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. 415 . enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. choose the first corner. choose the third corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. enter points until all the control points have been entered. At the Third corner of surface prompt. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the second corner.

0 -4.5.Rhino 2. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. the surface is created but not point objects.2. pick a point for the new start point.5. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0. and run the CommandPaste command.5 0. At the Start of curve prompt. At the End of curve prompt.10 4.-2.-5.10 -4.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar. The marker is constrained to the curve. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.0 4.2.2.5 0. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.33.-5.5.-2.33.10 4.0 0.33.33.5.10 -4.5.-2.2.5. SwapUV Swap a the u. select the following text. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.33. KeepPoints When on.-5.-2.2.5. select a surface that is not a polysurface.-2.10 0.0 -4.0 4. When off. copy it. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.33.5.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.5. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.33.5 -4.5. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.5 4.2.33.33. select a curve.33.33.5.-2.33.5 -4. pick a point for the new end point.5.5 4.5.5. 416 .and v-directions of a surface.5.0 0. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command. SwapView Swap views of two viewports. click in the other viewport to swap.

Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. the shape will twist with the surface edge. reversing the direction of the curve. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. If the shapes are tangent to the surface.Rhino 2. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. select the single rail curve for sweeping. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. 417 . select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. the new surface should also be tangent. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. adjust options.

the cross section curves need to be compatible. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. If you don't use Smooth. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. (The original curves are not modified. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. reversing the direction of the curve. The swept surface is created. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. 418 .Rhino 2. adjust options. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. If you use the Smooth option.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Note To create a single surface. With closed rail curves. Preview Click to preview the surface.

Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. use the Maintain height option. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep.Rhino 2. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. 419 .

your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. Preview Click to preview the surface. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. If you get the wrong surface. If you use the Rebuild option. (The original curves are not modified.) With closed rail curves. but want to control where the sweep ends. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. and continues to the ends of the rails. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve.Rhino 2. To create a single surface. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. one of two possible surfaces appears. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. If you don't use Rebuild. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. the cross-section curves need to be compatible.

or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. At the End of taper axis prompt. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing.Rhino 2. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. Taper Taper objects. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. At the Start of taper axis prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. 421 . At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into.

422 . Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. Taper moves the control points of objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. End of cone prompt. curves.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. You can't taper a polysurface . you will only taper that part of the object. second Radius prompt. Radius prompt. surfaces. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. TCone Draw a truncated cone. and meshes. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. choose a radius for the base of the cone. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose a center point for the base.only control points. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane.Rhino 2. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. Type the text. 2000. surfaces. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. or solids. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. set the options. 423 . TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. It will not show in a perspective view. When you place annotation text. Example If your units are inches. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. In the Edit Text dialog box. and XP. The two sizes update each other. or solids based on TrueType fonts. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. enter the start position for the text.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).25 inches. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. in the form of curves. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt.

select a font. in the Font box.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. In the Text height box. select a font. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. In the Font Style box. In the Font Style box. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. specify the height of the text characters. In the Text box. The text appears in the Sample window. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. select Solid. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Text height box. select a style. Under Create. select Surfaces. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Text box.Rhino 2. type text characters to make into surfaces. select a style. specify the height of the text characters. type text characters to make into solids. The text appears in the Sample window. Under Create. in the Font box.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. the screen position of each toolbar. and whether it is hidden or showing. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. add new buttons to toolbars. adjust the size of buttons.Rhino 2. create new toolbars. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. Top Set to world top view. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. The workspace holds the toolbars. 425 . the buttons in them. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. import toolbars from a different workspace file.

you must edit your Rhino. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. click the parts of objects to trim away. When you are finished trimming. 426 .0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. When you are finished selecting objects. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. choose a center point. press Enter. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus.Rhino 2. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. select objects you want to trim other objects with. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. At the Radius prompt. At the Second radius prompt.

Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. imaginary extensions of the line are used. choose a radius for the tube wall size. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. 427 . choose a radius for the second tube wall size. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Front.Rhino 2. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. surfaces and polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. At the first Radius prompt. To trim a surface with more than one curve. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. choose a center point for the tube's base. Tube Draw a tube. At the second Radius prompt. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. and Right view. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. use trim several times. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. or use Split.

Turntable Continuously rotate your view. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running.Rhino 2. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Note The view rotates about the target point. Twist Twist objects. 428 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. and Render Preview. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Shade. Press Esc to stop the turntable.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt.

By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. If you entered a point to rotate from. the following prompt appears. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. The opposite to undo is Redo. or construction planes. curves. choose a point on the twist axis. choose a second point on the axis. type c and press Enter.only control points. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. At the End of twist axis prompt. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. to twist copies of the objects. surfaces. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. General tab. You can't twist a polysurface .Rhino 2. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. type in an angle. and meshes. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. edit. 429 . but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Or. Twist moves the control points of objects. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. you will only twist that part of the object. or transform commands. viewports. Undo Undo the last command. or choose a point to rotate from.

Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. 430 . You can then apply commands to the individual objects. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object.Rhino 2. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. their normals are flipped. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Render your mesh. For example. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. This makes this command scriptable. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. If some of the faces that should render disappear. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh.

Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. For example. Export in desired format. Use UnifyMeshNormals. If you see inside the mesh. normals point the wrong way. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. re-join the meshes. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. explode it.Rhino 2. If more than one object is selected. In general. 3DFace object. When polysurfaces are meshed. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. UnLock Unlock locked objects. All polygons have a face normal direction. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. The 431 . At the Select objects to unlock prompt. select the objects you want to unlock. the packed texture coordinates are created. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. Once the normals are correct. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display.

Rhino 2. Unpacked textures. If the surface is developable. 432 . Packed textures. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. Polysurface made of four surfaces. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. select a surface or curves.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state.

Surfaces such as spheres. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. it may be geometrically developable. In Rhino. you can remove the trim curves. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. a developable surface has to be single span linear. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. This is not like folding out a box. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. but not meet that requirement. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. an information message is printed at the command line. This command may take some time. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). an information message is printed at the command line. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. removing any attached geometry. 433 . Curves on a surface can also be developed.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. Surface Tools.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. tori. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting.

Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface.Rhino 2. 434 .0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim joined polysurfaces. Untrim removes the trimming curve. Trimmed surface.

0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box.0. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Appearance tab. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. you can change the lens length of the camera. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu.3921 (+/.Rhino 2. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates.0001). 436 . The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties.

volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. 437 . At the End radius <x> prompt.3. second moments. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. select a surface or part of a polysurface.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. If an edge point was picked.7e-007). and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. At the Point on edge prompts.1.-4e016. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. choose a point on the edge.Rhino 2. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. At the Start radius prompt. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. enter or drag a radius. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. First moments.4649522 (+/. enter a radius for this point. select a surface or part of a polysurface. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii.7e-007. product moments. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.9553974. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt.2e-007.6. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.6. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2.

Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. It does not change when you zoom.Rhino 2. pan. Weight Edit control point weight. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. or rotate your view. In other cases. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. 438 . one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider.

they are replaced by a single mesh point. In our case. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. see the SetPt command. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. If we want a smooth roof. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. No points in the blue mesh are welded. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees.Rhino 2. we can use weld with an angle of 40. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. To perform a similar operation with control points. At the Angle tolerance prompt. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. To get this to happen. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. 439 . Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. and file export for stereolithography. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. texture mapping on mesh objects. When shaded.

Thus. the bottom right is (1. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not.0). It does not physically fuse the vertices. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. they must be joined before welding is effective. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. Use JoinMesh. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. See Importing and exporting STL files. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. top left is (0. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. Welding in MAX is different. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. 440 . In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. 3D Studio MAX).1). then Weld (angle=180). Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. Weld does not report the results on the command line. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam.Rhino 2.1) and top right (1. they always get welded.

Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. surface. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. At the Select object prompt. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command.0 Command Reference What Display object information. the grid. object highlighting. World axes icon on 441 . axes. The wireframe of the objects.Rhino 2. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. select a curve. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. or polysurface. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. When objects are rendered in Rhino. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. and black is the farthest away. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. size.ini file set the color for the icon. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. 442 . the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. set the stripe direction. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. In the Zebra Options dialog box. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. on the Shade tab. and color. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering .Rhino 2. where white is the closest to your eye. WorldYAxisIcon=. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it.

curvature. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. tangency. 443 . The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface.Rhino 2. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Tangent matches. the surfaces touch. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. curvature. Position. MatchSrf. and other important properties.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. this means the position. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. and curvature between the surfaces match. These meshes can be large.

select More reliable. on the Shade tab. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. 444 . Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. If you have a wheel mouse. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping.Rhino 2. but will always work. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. in the Options dialog box. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. When Faster is selected. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. under Zebra and EMap.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 .0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out.Rhino 2.

the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. Note In a perspective view. ZoomWindow Zoom window. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. type a zoom factor and press Enter.Rhino 2. 446 . pick a point for the center of the view. drag a window to zoom.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. At the Zoom factor prompt. This is particularly useful in perspective views. ZoomX Change the zoom factor.

28. 150. 204. 139. 251. 308 align:. 149. suspend autoclose. 393 34View command. 220. 152 Arrow command. 144 Area command. 168. 33. 5. 149 ArrayCurve command. with a MicroScribe. 151 arrow annotation object. 30 add object to selection. 31 AG file exchange. 169 3CPlane command. 123 Arrowhead command. 135 ACIS file export. 133. 14. 255. 385 analyze:. 5. 148. 221. 205. 152 ASAP file exchange. 143. command aliases. end and radius. 145 AreaCentroid command. 141 ApplyMesh command. 368. to suspend object snaps. 231. 10. 333. 55 Ascii STL tag. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 5. 14. 88. 24 AddNextU command. 149. 245. 2. profile curves. 151 ArrayCrv command. arrow. 148. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. DXF file exchange. tangent to two curves. 309 AlignProfiles command. 426 Analyze toolbar. 255. 5. 140 Along object snap. 142. 152. MAX 3. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 143. 152 arrowhead on curve. 62 447 . 148 Array toolbar. 324 3Rectangle command. 207. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 142 Arc toolbar. 215 annotation. 144 Arc command. options. 251. 152. 5. 210. 5. 144. 141 ApplyCurves command. 230. 5. 170 2-D drawings from model.0. end and direction. polar. 5. measure between two lines. 207. 266 animate view. 5. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 187. 149. 204. 144. 53 aliases. 151 ArraySurface command. 251. toolbar button function. with FaroArm. 127. 180. 149 Array command. around a pole. 140 Align command. 27.0 IGES. 5. 322. 5. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 5. 151. 143 Arc3Pts command. 29. 407. 5. 139 All command. 198. VIZ. 5. 135 3DM file exchange. DWG file exchange. 230. 5. initialize. 281 AttachEnd command. 206. 137 AddPrevV command. 205. 10. 305. shortcuts. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 150. 203. 28. MAX 1. 26. 393 3View command. 5. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. set up function key for click. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 88 align: background bitmap. 151. 232. from the last point. 207. 251. set spacing between points.Rhino 2. 206. 5. 3. 123. 279 2Sphere command. 426 angle: constraint. 127. 136 AddPrevU command. circular. 215. from three points. 5. 135 4View command. 5. dot. 138 AddToGroup command. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 305. 232 Arc3Pt command. 412 Annotate toolbar. 151 array:. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 29. 229. 307. 5. 150. export. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 143. 192. 135 3Arc command. arrowhead on curve. 206. 141 arc: extend by. 3DS file format. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 205. 231. add notes to the model. 362 3Plane command. 251. 33. 204. 346 3Sphere command. 28. 205. 221. 212. DOS. 5. 203. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. calibrate. 150 ArraySrf command.0 Command Reference Index !. MAX 2. 140. 281 Audit command. 206. scale factor. from start. 298. 361. 340. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. 138 adjust end bulge. 215. 323 3-D digitizing:. 53. 152 AnnotateDot command. set ortho. rectangular. 146 arguments at the command line. 141 ApplyCrv command. 255. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 76. 312 Angle command. 162. 206. on a surface. 82 AlongTan object snap. 150. 163 3Circle command. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 144 ArcTTR command. 150. 27. 149 ArrayPolar command. MAX 3. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 5. 333. 125 array: along a curve. 205. set scale.5. 140. dimension. 143 ArcDir command.0 OBJ. 35. 34. 5. 140. 5. create planar sections. 5. MAX 2. extend to a point. 5. 27. import. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 82 Alt key. 53. 140 angle:. 203. 136 AddNextV command. pause input. built into Rhino. 32 AGLib file exchange. to copy while dragging. 330. 29. 207. 33. 29 3DFace command. 152. 145 AreaMoments command. 123 2Circle command. 144 arc:. disconnect. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 139 Align3D command. 180. 144 ArcSER command. export options. 152 Attach command. 265. 152. 312 AngleLine command. 205. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 239. Release 12 export. 5. 143 3Box command. 152 AutoCAD. 34. 139 AlignTrace command. 2. 28. 197. 195.2. sketch curve with. 5. 144.

166 ChangeLayer command. 250 button.0 file exchange. difference. 5. 161 BooleanDifference command. 164. variable radius between surfaces. 369 C2View command. 122. snap size. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 323. troubleshooting. 297. 157. 122. 292 Box command. settings. 321. cut. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 162. 366 CArc command. 113. 123. 351. 365. 123. 124. 145 chamfer: two curves. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. set construction plane z. set construction plane x. as 256-color bitmap. 170 CircleTTR command. 160. 204 camera. 165 ChamferSrf command. 168 Check command. 232 CATIA file exchange. background. 85. toolbar button tooltip. toolbar button image. 184. surface degree. 250. 171. 124 capture viewport. show hidden background. 366. surface. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 168 check objects for errors. import button image. 172. place. 425 Back command. convert NURBS curve to. object properties. 162. 170. 163. 156 blend:. 115. toolbar layout. 180. 162 BoundingBox command. 139. 133. 165 change. 421 Blend command. 124. 5. 123. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. toggle world icon. 169 CircleD command. 316 448 . 171. 321. 245. 179. 161 Bottom command. 116. 154 baseball-style seams. 172 built-in aliases. ellipsoid. ortho angle. 321. 365. 56 cancel command. copy toolbar button. lock. width. 172 CLine command. area. 199. layer. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 168 CheckInLicense command. 168. 124. 312. 154. 124. 320. 12. 168. move. 297. 5. 124. 168. 232 Clipboard. 163 B-spline. edit button icons. 102. hide background. 297. selection. 384. 169 Circle3Pts command. 145. from three points. 13. sphere. 90. 125. 5. 162 box: from length. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 168. 168 choose one object.Rhino 2. 164 cap open planar ends. 351. 154 Between object snap. 153. 90. 164. 170. 123 Cap command. 161 buffer. 322 blend: curve. 384. undo buffer. 316. 162 bottom view. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. command. undo levels. 124. 321. align backgound. intersection. as bitmap. 133. with toolbar button. 124. backdrop for rendering. 198. 243. 171 clear. 172. 179 BI command. 169. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 122. 5. 250. clear button image. 392. 170. 322. 384 background bitmap:. remove background. copy to. place background. 320. 167. 249. 425. 249. scale. 55 axis. 231 CArcPt command. 5. 123. polygon mesh. 322 CamSoft file exchange. move background. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 171. delete toolbar button. toolbar. floatation. 249. 243. 139. 163 box:. 153 background bitmap: align. 421 BlendSrf command. 39 BMRT support. 157. 229. hide. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 297. 152 autosave:. 366. 56 center: buoyancy. 392. 250 centroid. 349 ClearUndo command. 322. remove. time control. 122. select. 165 Chamfer command. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 139. 292 Box3Pt command. 338 buoyancy. 168. 180. 139. paste from. 123. 5. place. union. 101. 139. 152. 166. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. use for tracing. scale background. 167. 164 chamfer:. 351. 338. 24 circle: by diameter. 154. 250 Center object snap. 160 bi-rail sweep. 384 bad objects. 5. 124 C command. 169. radius. clear undo. 39 BMP file format. 162 Box toolbar. 133. use. 160. 198.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 160 Bend command. 123. 118. 312. 155 bitmap. center of. move toolbar button. 79 center:. 363. two surfaces. 54 autosave: file location. 166. edit toolbar. 5. 101. the layer of an object. 125. 156. 133 BU command. 161. tangent to two curves. 365. 171 circle:. render meshes when saving file. 170 CircleTTT command. 168 Circle toolbar. 39 Boolean. 159. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 153 back view. 160. 2. 297. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 157. 170. 409. 90 Autosave command. 162. from center. from three points. height. 123. 170 Circle command. 163. 164 capture image for toolbar button. tangent to three curves. 158. show. 365. 5. 171. 184. 90. 368. 351. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 322. 90 ChangeDegree command. 153 BD command. 362 ClearMesh command. 321. 322. render meshes. 5. 161. 322. 351. 365. 172. 163 Box3Pts command. 133. save button image to file. 123. 368 Baseball command. 171 Circle3Pt command. 249. display grid. 245. 367. 384. capture button image. 156. 363. edit button image. 402 Bisector command. 367. 130. to the Clipboard. 84 Bezier curve. with Esc key. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 160 BooleanUnion command. 114. to current layer. 249. 184.

add previous in u-direction to selection. 297. 181 CPlane3Pts command. toggle display of. 2. 181 CopyClip command. options. 5. 303. set weight. relative polar coordinates. 15 construction plane. 197. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. display recently used. assign to mouse buttons. 131. 182. move through a point. 182. 245. 119. 246. 137. view front of. 335. 173. 202. 174. set to z-axis. construction plane coordinates. 104. 177. 138. set top. 114. macro. select next in u-direction. move to coordinate location. 373. 5. coincident. distance. 13. add next in u-direction to selection. bend. holes in surfaces. 172. objects to Clipboard. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 122. 5. 172 cloud of points. 303. 249. 88. 406. 343. 178. set normal to curve. display axes. 181 CPlaneFront command. 246. select next in v-direction. 342. 181 Copy command. 125. 173. G1. and ndirections. 298. create curve from. 126. settings of one construction plane to all. 89. save. 419. 228. project object snap to. 178 CPHighlight command. 327. add previous in v-direction to selection. display in clipboard or history. 375. weld. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. turn grid on or off. 123. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. view right of. 174 conic:. coordinates. 406 Cone command. 246. 183. 172 ClosestPt command. view to all viewports. 15. 10. 5 command:. 4. list all. 218 Contour command. 173. 180. v-. 88. set origin. 176 constraint. set right. 181. 362. set to vertical. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 197. View top of. old. 176. shortcut. 202. select row in vdirection. 183. 126 conic: curve. 10. 303. 183. 85. list. 338. 88. 183. project objects to. 419. 115. for spotlight editing. 155. 183. read from file. 178. view left of. 182 449 . 164. viewport. 115. 342. move along Z. toggle construction plane entry. 338. 184. set to 3 points. 234. 11. 359. 172. 181. draw curve using. 11. 176 ConicPerp command. 179. view back of. 359. 173 CommandPrompt command. 14. G0. G2. 374. 327 Cob command. 172. 164. 336. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 11 copy: command shortcut. 131 control points. 74. 180. 323. 123. 249. 12. previous. 89. 184. view bottom of. 375. 173. 398. 131 command history. set to previous. 75. 11. 5. 245. named construction plane. 422. 104. 88. set origin of all construction planes. 75. 173 COn command. options. toolbar. 136.Rhino 2. AutoCAD. display. 345. 75. 297. 154. 21. 181. 172. highlight. 339. 373. set front. 180. extract. 292. polar coordinates. 181. 182. 184. 292. 180. 419. 180. 380. rotate. 179 Coons patch. 174. move all through a point. set to x-axis. 181. 140. 5. 182. 419. plan view. 126. false. 413 command aliases. along line. wheel. set the number of thin gridlines. 177 continuous shading. copy settings of one to the all. 182. 180. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. 122. show hidden. 339. 235. render. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. 173 commands: list of all. 245. render window to Clipboard. select previous in v-direction. 75. 182 CPlaneO. 138. 178 control point definition. 323. 90. 251 command area. 250. 172 ClosePoint command. 84. 131. 406. 419 context menu. set distance between grid lines. 125. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 298. set to object. arguments. 183. 176. 84. place point objects on. 136. 137. 5. 413 CommandHistory command. 180 copy:. display for a point. 5. 155. 125. dialog box. 2. 386. script. 166. 11. 184. angle. 119. 234. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 2. 90. render window. 11. 181 CopyViewToAll command. truncated. set to next. 304. 245. 344. hide. 140. 173. 338. delete from a curve. 335. Esc to cancel. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 133. 245. 173 cone:. curve. polygon mesh. 131 ControlPolygon command. 173 command names. 405. 179. 5. 184. 173 commands:. 178 control vertex. 11. history. 175. 398. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 57 CPDash command. 89. 10. 228. select row on surface. move in u-. set to view. 422. 177. 406 ConfigScript command. layer. add next in v-direction to selection. 5 CPlaneObject command. 362. 2 command line. 217 COff command. 12. 11 coordinates. 75 continuity. 75 comma-delimited file export. 11. 182. 195 color. 12. 174. 235. 14. 343. 195 cone: cone. 133. 172 Closest point to an object. objects. 88. 173 Commands command. 166. 181. select previous in u-direction. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 181 CPlaneNext command. 18. 114. 219 coordinate entry. 35 command: alias. 173. set display density. 379 control polygon. 181. 173. 183. 386. 419. turn on. 5. make all have same orientation. entering coordinates. 126. 176 Conic command. add to surface. rendering to Clipboard. perpendicular to curve. 246. relative coordinates. 172 CloseViewport command. 172 CommandPaste command. 5. world coordinates. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 125. paste from clipboard. 136. undo. toggle display. turn off. 245. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 419. 177 contour curves. 379. 335. 75. next. 379. import from 3DM file. toolbar button. set extents of. taper. 339. 179 ConvertToBeziers command.0 Command Reference close. toggle world coordinate entry. curve and surface.

281. 195. rebuild. polyline through point objects. 390. 248. 191 curvature:. arc from three points. 2 Ctrl+S. 241. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. extrude straight. 316 Ctrl+X. offset. 238. 183 CPlaneToView command. 189. delete control points. contour. 233. 236. 131. 170. 265. 281. 179. 235. 182 CPlanePrev command. display graph. end. 15. 197 curve degree. 164. 304. 15. 326. 192. divide by number of segments. 185. 179. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 255. duplicate border of surface. add knots. adjust end bulge. 194. point. 351. 174. 226. 326. 198 Ctrl+Y. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 185 CrvBox command. 162. 200 450 . 195. 156. circle from center. 389. bounding box. 4. 213. 302 Ctrl+O. 168. 241. 387. 305. 304. 139. 314. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 131. convert to Beziers. 187. direction. revolve. 271. 281. 143. line perpendicular to two curves. 239. 175. 391. 218. 218. 2. 239. arc from start. make periodic. circle by diameter. from 2 views. blend. 230. 256. 4. 165. 197. match ends. 155. interpolate on surface. 187 CrvStart command. 177. 387. 177. measure between two curves. 388. 133. sketch on polygon mesh. 265. 253. 298. 197. extract wireframe from surface. 267. 4. 257. 164. 183 CPlaneRight command. select all. 194. 232. refit. 305. 369 Crv2View command. 268. sketch on surface. 221. 231. 144. 184 CPlaneZ command. 202. circle from three points. 340. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 216. 2. 169. 213. 165. extend by line. 202. raise degree. pull to surface. analyze surface. 369. 195. 369. 217. interpolate through polyline. 195. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 194. 389. 174. 3. 267. extend to surface boundary. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 255. 323. 233. 190 CullCP command. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 389. 90. 238. 141. 271. 187 CrvEnd command. 333. 169. 2. 90. toggle. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. sketch. 258. 187 CurveSeam command. 256. 157. 269 Curve command. project onto surface. 387. 2. 248. adjust seam point. 258. 238. tangent line. 255. constrain along line. points. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. 226. 336 Ctrl + Tab. place point at end. align in two views. convert to polyline. 187 CrvSeam command. 187. duplicate edge of surface. 191. arc. 340. 164. 254. 141. graph on. 191. 24. 339. 245 Curvature command. measure radius. curvature graph. Gaussian. circle tangent to two curves. 257. 187 CurveOverlap command. 387 curve:. apply to surface. 230. 306. line vertical to construction plane. 189. spiral. constrain to plane. 197. 330. 184 CPlaneX command. 189 CSec command. 367. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 24. 343. 144. 241. extend. 133. 256.Rhino 2. 168. 249. 337. 356. polyline. 346 cross sections through profiles. 186. 24. helix. parabola. extract isoparms from surface. surface from network. 334. from point cloud. 197. 187 CurveSketch command. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 395. 189 crosshairs. section. 236. 339. 355. graph off. radius. 311. 339. 327. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 388. 2 Ctrl+Tab. fair. conic. 333. 236. 4. 298. 156. 413 CullControlPolygon command. extrude to point. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 139. 226. 197 curve. line segments. 174. 196. smooth. 143. 178. 170. menu for selecting from multiple objects. flatten section of. 195. 216. simplify. extend by arc. 334. 221. 268. 197. 394 CurveBlend command. 239. 232. 156. 3 Ctrl+C. mean. tracking line. periodic. 323. 254. insert edit point. 4 Ctrl+V. 169. 367. 188. 268. 195. 390. 2. 170. 177. constrain to ortho. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 15. 184 CPlaneV command. 330. 281. 367. 270. 231. 230. marker. 389. 4. 195. 222. 2. extrude along path. intersect two objects. 327. 239. 343. 180 Ctrl+N. 343. 217. 187. 197. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 217. from control points. constrain parallel to view plane. silhouette. 162. 255. 4. 185. 195. 351. 179. 248. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 387 Curve toolbar. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. extend by arc to a point. 232. 389 CurveStart command. 184 CPlaneView command. 185. from interpolated points. 236. 355. 388. fillet. line normal to a surface. 337. 142. 234 CreatePCurves command. 189 CSV export. 311. place point at start. 13. 270. line tangent to two curves. 187. 305. 269. 304 Ctrl+A. 314. 268. 188. 337. 3 crossing:. 190 cursor. 257. crosshairs. 307 Ctrl+P.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 25. ellipse. 2. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. selection. 198 CutPlane command. cross sections through profiles. 253. 162 CurveEnd command. remove knots. 189. 162 CrvDeviation command. 141. 348 Ctrl+Z. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 394. 184 CPTog command. 183 CPlaneTop command. 14. 258. 142. 144. 218. 165. bisector line. 4. 239. 156. 165. 235. 279. line. 305. 156 CurveBox command. chamfer. 185 CRectangle command. 235. 369 crossing selection. arc tangent to two curves. 155. curvature graph off. single line.

22. 288. 201. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. display broken. 133. 207 DimAngle command. 372 Deselect command. 210 DimHorizontal command. annotation text. 104. 251 dot: annotation. 209. 209. 207. 395. set scale. 196. vertical. 205 DigScale command. 216. 22. 85. 370. 15. 217 DupEdge command. planar section. 204. 279. 288. 213 divide:. radius. change degree of surface. 207 DimDiameter command. render mesh settings. create 2-D curves. 217. 212 distance: constraint. 216 Drape command. 370 DWG file exchange. 210 Dir command. objects. angle between lines. 385. 212 DisableOsnap command. 215 Dot command. 422 Display command. 206. 23. 212 distance display. 17. toolbar. 34 DXF file exchange. persistent object snaps. 12. 3-D digitizing. 206. 218. 208 DimRadius command. 160 Dig command. 203. 213. 203 DigCalibrate command. 205. 207. 384 diameter dimension. with FaroArm. 214 domain:. 15 divide: curve by length. wallpaper. 209 DimRecenterText command. 206 DigSketch command. command button. 245. 210. 208. 272. 22 degree. 260. 208. 370. 425. 127. 218 e_tol. naked. 207 DimAligned command. hydrostatic calculation. control points. disconnect. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 203 develop a surface. 260. 384 edge: create curve from. object discription. 23 distance:. 208. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 209 DimVertical command. 206. 211 DirectX file export. 213 Divide command. 372 DeselectAll command. 19. dimension text. 206 DigSection command. set up function key for click. 210. 88. aligned. edit text. display curve or surface. 260. 121. sketch curve. split. 298 DigPause command. 108 Dup command. isoparm density. 204 DigClick command. 272 date. diameter. Notes tab. broken edges. grid axes. 17. 160. 107. 218. 132. 168. 165 Delcam file exchange. 33 DynamicShading command. 250 display: bitmap window. 195. merge. 127. edge of surface. curve by number of segments. 217 DupBorder command. 202 delete:. 219. 122 Delete command. 144 direction. 123. 416 developable surface definition. rebuild. 243. 45 dirty looking rendering. 12. 166. Rhino. 212. 208 dimension. 212 display:. 124. 201. control polygon. 120 document properties: notes. 338. 19. 91. 210 DirArc command. 105. Render Mesh tab. 202 DeleteAll command. 135. with MicroScribe. viewport properties. 167. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 220. 166. object. 205 DigDisconnect command. 395. set spacing between points. 239. shortcuts. show. 220. 2. 197. 211. 243 DirectionalLight command. 58 delete: all objects. 2. 385. 411. select all objects. 215 draft angle. 127. 213 DivideByLength command. 119. from last point. 372 DetachTrim command. 279 Dragmode. Boolean. 396 edge:. 196. 208 difference. 384. 209. in Split command. reverse object direction. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 208. 215 drafting. 288. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 19 document properties:. 207. join two out of tolerance edges. button image. 10. 245. 18. toggle. 217. 212. units. 168. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 123 451 . 217 draw. 293 Cylinder command. tolerances. points at naked edges. 202 Deselect All. 207. naked edges. 330. 384. toolbar button. 202. 330. horizontal. 205 displacement. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. curve. 368.0 Command Reference cutting objects. raise curve degree. polylines. calibrate. toolbar button bitmap icons. 131 Ebroken command. grid. 293 data structure for object. 202. 210. 344. 22. 202. 344. 330. 251 Domain command. polygon mesh. 218. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. intialize. 165.ini. 217 DrapePt command.Rhino 2. options. 135. 265. 209 DimRotated command. 201 cylinder:. 251. in Trim command. 217. 3-D polygon mesh face. 121. 213 dock a toolbar. 212 disconnect digitizer. 205. 123. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 17. 19 DocumentProperties command. 104. surfaces. 19. 396 EdgeSrf command. recenter text. 178. 214 domain: match. 206 DigSpacing command. 385. 208 DimOptions command. 265. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 99 disable. options. 410. layer. pause input. rotated. 207. 384. 218 duplicate. 250. 209. 219. lines. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 197. 277 diagnostics. edit points. 10. 218. 220. 344. 205. 219. 122. select all. 205 digitize. border of surface. 132. 15 Distance command. 215 dot:. 217 drape surface. 370. 209. change. 106. summary. 385.

124. curve to surface boundary. surface.Rhino 2. VRML. 154 Ellipsoid command. 220 EJoin command. IGES. Solid Designer (IGES). 11. 233 extend:. SLA. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 238. insert on curve. 70. 10. object properties to file. 37. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 36. 429 End object snap. 236. OptiCAD (IGES). 63. 53. 63. AutoCAD (DWG). Applied Geometry (AG). surface into a solid. 30. 231. AutoCAD (DXF). 219 EditPtOn command. 32. 26. export to. 223 elliptical conic curve. 54. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 4 F9. triangles. 70. 47. 235 ExtractSrf command. 234. 230 Extend toolbar. 64. 231. ME30 (IGES). 35. 385 ESplit command. 41. 51. 4 F8. 58. 238. 233 extract. 51. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 12. 62. 69. Tebis IGES. 232. 13. 36. 420 EditDim command. 127 Esc key. 35. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 230. 57. 42. 64. 3. 93. 128. Viewpoint Technologies. 4 Fair command.0 Command Reference edit points. 224 EMerge command. 385 EnakedPt command. isoparms from surface. TekSoft IGES. Moldex DXF. 73. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 52. 59. 236. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. CamSoft (IGES). 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 40. 228 error messages. 3D Studio MAX 3. 62. 229 export:. DirectX. 229. 74 Export command. 37. 71. 55. 235. 36. 230. Softimage (IGES. 222 EllipseEnds command. SURFCAM (IGES). 54. 78 EndBulge command. 227. 119. POVRay (POV). 232. 48. 227 environment map. 2. 231. command aliases. 33. 239 fair curve. 71. 230 extend. 45. 233 ExtendByArc command. Solid Edge (IGES). 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 40 errors in model. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 222 ellipse:. 53. 31. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 69. 65. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 232 ExtendByLine command. 46. curve along path. 12 Enter:. 229 explode:. 236. 236. 231. 60. 43. 74. 222 Ellipse command. 253. 26. 3 Enter: command for scripts. LUSAS (IGES). 92. 228 EvaluatePt command. 237. 31. Yamaha ESPRi. 56. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 174 Elmo command. 229 Explode command. 55. 52. Metastream. 221. 330 End key. 58 452 . 123. Wavefront (OBJ). 45. 72. 228 exit Rhino. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 59. 260 elevator mode. 224 erase objects. 35. 37. 253. unable to run program renrib. 221. 133. 69. 60. 30. 35. ACIS. 56. 42. 67. 58. surface. FastSURF (IGES). 44. 223 ellipsoid:. 33. 231. 29. 32. 133 EShow command. 356. 31. 45. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. Alias (IGES). NASA GridTool. 238. by arc. 41. NuGraf (IGES). 59. 55. 230. 233. Pro/E (IGES). 63. 202. AutoShip (IGES). Microstation (IGES). 26. 33. 60. 30. arc to a point. Maya (IGES). 62. SAT file format. 233. 123 edit:. 2. CAD 3D SUM 4. 46. 236 Extrude toolbar. 235 ExtractPt command. curve on surface. 41. 228 EvaluateUV command. 238 F1. 131. 343 ElmoSrf command. 133 Escape key. 12 ELine command. 229 ExplodeMesh command. curve. 220. 72. Unigraphics (IGES). 229 export. 234 Extend command. 232. Alias (OBJ). 58 FastSURF file exchange. polygon mesh. 35. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 230. Multisurf (IGES). 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 236. 58. 233 ExtendSrf command. control polygon. 219. GHS. 54. 228 expand a surface. 92. 57. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 356 extrude:. Delcam (IGES).0 (IGES). 131 FAQ. 46. 64. STL. Adobe Illustrator (AI). FastShip (IGES). 44. 220. 73. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. IronCAD (IGES). 45. 3D Studio (3DS). 396 EvaluatePoint command. 235. turn off. 239 false color display. 73. 233. wireframe curves from surface. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. Mastercam (IGES). 68. Plug-in). CSV file. 288 Enaked command. 228 Excel. 4 F2. 45. show. 226 endpoint object snap. raw triangles (RAW). 53. 232. 56. 220 EditText command. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 73. by line. 234. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 46. 2. CADCEUS (IGES). 45. SolidWorks (IGES). 221 EllipseD command. Commadelimited file. 63.0 (IGES). 67. options. Moray (UDO). 229 Exit command. Integrity Ware (IGES). 58. surface from polysurface. AUTOFORM (IGES). 55. turn on. 65. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 238 Extrude command. 61.0 (OBJ). 239 FastShip file exchange. curve to point. 344 EMap command. 133 enter coordinates. 3D Studio MAX 3. 236 extrude: curve. mesh to IGES file. Catia (IGES). 236. 229. 68. curve by offset. PostScript. 53. 61. 71. 42. space and rightmouse click. 45. Cosmos/M (IGES). 61. 13. 40. from focus points. 1 Faro command. 29. Lightwave (LWO).

initial mesh grid. 249 HidePts command. 251. 386 HideAll command. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. curve. 134. 249 HideCV command. 48. 239. 241 FlatShade1 command. 133. 386. 133. 251 floating license. 277. bumpmap. 1. 377 Group command. 386. set the number of lines. 279. 221 fonts. 47. 245 GridSections command. 174 icon. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 71. set distance between lines. 330. troubleshooting import problems. object names. 379. 247 Helix command.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 305. 36 glossary terms. 54. 262. 56. 260. seamless mesh. 220. 1 Help command. 53. 250. two surfaces. 59. 132. 192. Esc key. 251. technical support. 273. 307. 55. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 54. 245 GridOptions command. 131. 171. 119. IGES export type details. 240. objects. 246 HBar command. 278.Rhino 2. 119 Hide command. 249. edge of polysurface. 120. 214 fillet. 70. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. command line. 3D Studio MAX 3. save. save as. surface. 325 FitCrv command. text. 55. 277. set snap size. developable surface. texture mapping coordinates. 49. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. spacing. 338 history. 246 handlebars. 255. 362 FileProperties command. 410. 273. 119 HideToolbox command. 46. tolerance. 176 G1 continuity. 361. 49 IGES export:. 246. 361. 194. 239. false color. 387 HSV color. new. 244 G0 continuity. snap to. toolbar. command area. 135. shortcut. Unicode. 368. 172 hold. 239 fillet:. 133. 377. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 67. 246. 58. 386. 259. 130. 60. 2 hidden layer name. 262. 131. 250. 133. set the extents of. 133. 131. 380. periodic curve. 273. 360. reduce size of model. 281 FlatShade command. 75 hue. 241 FitPlane command. 236. 262. 104 fit a plane through points. 132. 246 Group objects for selection. isoparm. 135 grid: axes . 407. show hidden control points. Breault Research's ASAP. 168. 123. name. 50. wireframe. 246 Gridsnap command. 61. 242 flatten. AutoShip. 413. tracking line. 172. 378. 250 HideToolbar command. 415 Ghost command. 249. 54. types. 415 Freeze command. 250 hide: background bitmap. 243 Flip command. swap hidden status. 348. cursor. 245. 246 Heightfield command. 426. 361. 453 . 248 help: display Help file. 62. 50. 307. 69. marker. 246. 131. 123. 2. 5. 130. text. 249 HideSwap command. 302. 53. 68. polygon mesh export. 212 frequently asked questions. AUTOFORM. 249. Alias|Wavefront. control point. 65. 122. Enter key. 1 help:. 81 Front command. 417 FlattenSrf command. 131. 245 grid:. 425 IGES: file exchange. 2. unlock locked objects. 337. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 57. normal. import. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 46. simple controls. 1. 134. edit using. objects. 425. run application from inside Rhino. objects. 132. 302. 46. 380 GridAxes command. 249 HidePoints command. control points. 119 HideTrace command. 249 HidePt command. show selected. 220. 131. 235 FltE command. 133. 176 G2 continuity. 396. 246 HBarSrf command. flyout toolbar. open. 395. NURBS. 360.0. 407. 133. 244 Flow command. 417 ghost: a layer. 122. 228. 415 GHS file export. Ashlar Vellum. 130 Flow along a curve. 124. 64. 55. 250. 249. 133. 379 IGES file types. 53. 249. polysurface. 52. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 416. 339. definition. toolbar. 246 GridSize command. keep last used on top. 302. 390. 75 Hydrostatics command. 244 Flowline command. 255. 273 freeze:. 134. 46. 251. 385. 134. 131. 386. 378. 380. edit toolbar button. naked edge. 245 Grid command. periodic surface. 240 Fillet command. 362 file:. 46. 246. 74. 133. 336. 12. Osnap dialog box. 249 hide:. 63. 380 GridThick command. edit points. unlock locked objects. panes. 72. 122 font. 407 freeze: a layer. 307. 273.turn on or off. 46. 262. 261. 1 From object snap. 229. 362 File toolbar. 194 GCon command. 246. 123. 229. 416. 229. 242 FlatShadeAll command. world axes. 249. 384. 250. 240 FilletSrf command. 245. 203. 171. section of curve. 55. center of. 176 Gaussian curvature. CADCEUS. 244 front view. 240 FilletEdge command. 73. 229. 120. 251. 240 filter the layer display. 246 group. 339 HideOsnap command. status bar panes. 103 hidden objects. 243 floatation. axis lock. 12 Home key. template. 131. 429 Horizon command. units. 18. 249 highlight in rendering. 132. 131. 273 ghost:. turn on or off.

135 jagged shadows. 57. surfaces. 101. 263 LayerOn command. 33. 57. 102. 37. SolidWorks IGES. 53. 257 InterpPolyline command. 259. Mechanical Desktop. 33. 265 length:. 67. 58. 396. 152. 72. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 58. 167. new. 307. 70. 63. 307. 10. 168. ME30 IGES. Multisurf. 132. Delcam. purge empty. 252 information. 103. 140. 251 IncrementalSave command. stereolithography STL. 71. 254. 265 Length command. 133 Layer toolbar. 68. Cosmos/M. 160. Mastercam IGES. Yamaha ESPRi. 160. 61. 258 IntersectCrv command. 131 insert: edit point. 73. 262. 60. 71. 60. 53. 255. 69. 54. 261 Join command. 101. 255. 70. SURFCAM. definition. Microstation. 59. 261 JPG. 3D Studio MAX 3. 10. 260. 74. 254. 252 insert:. 263. 283. 104. two objects. delete. snap to. AutoCAD DWG. definition. 71. 264 left view. 59 isoparametric curve. translate IGES/Rhino. 73. 63. 251. 262 last point. 262 LayerOff command. Solid Edge IGES. toolbar from another layout. 135. TekSoft IGES. 66. SDRC's I-DEAS. select objects by. 32. 130 license:. Tebis. Solid Designer. split surface at. Unigraphics IGES. 62. 121. 32. 264 length: measure curve. 260. CATIA. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. wireframe view. 59. 63. 377 layer:. 41. 48. 377. rename.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 103. 63. 425. Solid Designer IGES. 263 leader: arrow. 68. Pro/E. 101 Layer pane. 101. Boolean. Lightwave LWO. 85. aliases. 338. 103. LUSAS IGES. OptiCAD IGES. 263. 15 lathe. triangles. 54. 69. 65. NuGraf IGES. 56. 37. set material properties. FastSURF IGES. 63. 119 initial mesh grid. 261 JoinEdge command. 152. 62. 69. SUM 4. 53. Solid Edge. Applied Geometry AG. Integrity Ware IGES. 160 Invert command. 366. Cosmos/M IGES. Tebis IGES. 58. 168. angle from. Alias IGES. 256 interpolate. 312. 91. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 371. Multisurf IGES. 140. 59. Unigraphics. 60. 55. 29. 70. 41. 259 join:. change to current. CADCEUS IGES. 103. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 90. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. curve. 26. 3D Studio 3DS. 61. 307. 56. 160. OptiCAD. 104. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 260 JoinFaces command. filter display. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. Maya. 65. 256. Softimage IGES. 64. 52 import. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 59. 73. 70. 31. FastShip. 160. 261 JoinMesh command. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 71. CAD 3D SUM 4. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 255. 312. Integrity Ware. 104. 355 layer: change color. insert in surface. 254 InsertEditPoint command. Adobe Illustrator AI. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 168 license manager. 104. AUTOFORM IGES. 77. 258 intersect:. 61. 56. 2. turn off by selecting an object. 42. 78. 73. 104. CATIA IGES.Rhino 2. display density. named views from a 3DM file. construction planes from 3DM file. 64. check out from workgroup license manager. Pro/E IGES. 64. 42. 255 Int object snap. 81. 253 InsertKink command. 343. CamSoft IGES. 69. 73. management. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 103. 63. 132 isoparm. 26. change for an object. 62. Softimage. 322 JScript. knot. 3D Studio MAX 3. SolidWorks. 126 kink. 377. 10. 56. curve on surface. 71. 64. 14. 63. 55. 72. 167. 396. 140. 263. NASA GridTool IGES. Delcam IGES. 42. 64. 132. set current. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 46. 168. 72. 65. LUSAS. FastShip IGES. 168 454 . 253. arrowhead on curve. 253 InsertKnot command. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 254. remove from curve or surface. turn all layers on. 257 intersect: Boolean. 62. 54. 59 InterpCrv command. IronCAD IGES. 253 InsertKinks command. TekSoft. 55. 307. 59. 60. 251 import:. 69. insert on curve or surface. 67. 46. 71.0 IGES. 15. IronCAD. 258 intersection.0. 33. 261 JoinSrf command. 256. 264 leader:. 251. 60. FastSURF. 264 Left command. Microstation IGES. 81. 101. 14. dialog box. 254.0 IGES. 56.0 OBJ. Raw triangles RAW. 78. 377 LayerLock command. NASA GridTool. 55. 343. insert in curve. 46. 152 Leader command. Mastercam. 46. turn on. 258 InvertPt command. 261 Lasso command. 31. objects. 76. 73. 104. 67. kink in curve. 257. turn off. 41. 259. 253. 371. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. Maya IGES. 103. match. select from list. AutoCAD DXF. match attributes. 367 JPG file format. 68. 258 Intersect command. 58. 59. set material. 62. display for object. 29. 253. distance from. 351. 251 Improve command. 58. SURFCAM IGES. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 67. 167. 363. IGES. surface or polysurface. 102. object snap. 132. 121. 74 Import command. 99 JCAD STL export. 253 knot. 263 Layer command. 46. 61. 254 Insert command. ME30. 61. AutoShip IGES. 253. 262 lasso selection. 46 IGES:. one layer on. 254 InsertKnots command. 425 ini file. 283. 283. 69. 58. 57. 132. 104.

378 maximize: current viewport. 283 MatchSrf command. 141. 126. 213. 130 map. 365. persistent object snaps. 349. 270. texture. 232. 348. 273 lock: a layer. 266. 135. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 88. 265. 105. 377. 270. set for export. 342. select naked edges. 265. 212 LockSwap command. 377 Maximize command. 194. options. 104. 266. reduce density. perpendicular to two curves. 281 manage: license. deviation between two curves. 273 loft surface. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 371. cylinder. 329. tangent to a curve. 272 LoadScript command. decrease number of faces. 357. 245. area centroid. 266 Line4pts command. 273. 270 LineTT command. 288. 266. 180. layer. 145. 92. 334. 61 MDT IGES options. distance. 228 LooseLoft command. 296. 101 manage:. 220. 286. 271. 240. 339. 62 ME30 file exchange. clear render mesh for all objects. 328. 296. 292. 265 line:. 211. 399. 268. single line. polyline. 271. 256. 12. 296 macro. 86 material:. 212. 292. 268. 284. 194 measure: angle. area. run from shortcut key. apply to surface. 134. 287 Match command. 279 Make2d4View command. 267. 338. 265. 342. perpendicular to curve. 161. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 192. objects. 134 marker definition. 187. 410. 333. 255. 338 mapping coordinates. 338. 268. 330. 125. 270 LineV command. 288. volume. 271 Line command. 179. 12. 155. pop up at cursor. 88. point. 268. 378. 333. surface. 24 menu bar. 270. geometric continuity. layer attributes. 60 LWO file exchange. snap to. 145. 213 measure:. 146. deviation of points and curves from a surface. extend by. 86 lights. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 293. 294. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 269. viewport. 74. vertical to construction plane. breaking apart. bisector. 40. 340. 415. 293. 340. 270. two adjacent edges of a surface. 191. 371. 225. run from external file. spotlight. detailed options. density for primitives. 261. 259. 417 Make2D command. 171. 455 . 272 list data structure of an object. run from toobar button. 155. 273 LockOsnap command. 333. 290. 272 LoadPlugin command. 123. from four points. 284 MatchLayer command. run from an alias. 288 menu:. 326. 288 mesh: 3D face. paste script from Clipboard. 329. 37 M command. 225. 294. 194 MaxViewport command. 228. 102. set properties for layer. 371. 173. 135. 420. 338. 273 lock:. volume centroid. swap status with unlocked objects. 229. 420. 38 match: curve ends. area moments. 261. 285. 251 merge:. 262. 245. 348. 396. 140. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 273 Logoff command. 61 mean curvature. 75. 284 material: for rendering. 224. 269 LineTP command. 268. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 288 MergeSrf command. tangent to two curves. 283. set viewport. 398. create. 221. curve curvature. 304. 90 Main toolbar. Rhino. select all. 290. 91. 265. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 334. toggle display. 377 maximum curvature. 267 LinePP command. 265. 155. 162. 269. 288. join. 420. 210. 337. 334 Line4Pt command. 273 Lock command.Rhino 2. clear at save time. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. cone. 148. segments. 212. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 395. 345. 33. insert straight segment into curve. 288 Menu command. 421 MeasurePoint command. from NURBS object. 145. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. export to IGES file. select all. environment. 288. 290. definition. 281. 3DFace. 268 Lines toolbar. 23. bump. 229. 191. volume moments. 291. 334 merge: surface. 415 locked layer name. 304. 358. 281. unlocked objects. 334 LineTan command. 267. 130 manage layers. 271 List command. 267. 142. 290. axis. radius. 266. 228 Logout command. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 290. 288 Merge command. 292. 125. 145. 212. 140. run with middle mouse. 421 Measure command. polyline through point objects. 333. 131 mass properties. 173. 236. 84.0 Command Reference Light tab. 281 match:. 420. seamless. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. from closed polyline. length. 212. 273. directional. 338. 145. 74. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 268 Lines command. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 288. 255. 266 LineAngle command. 37 line: at angle from line. 84. 52. 228. 39. 288 maximize:. 331. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 232. 23. 141. 145. 211. 92. 304. 328. 273. 269. 255. 283. 288 Maya file exchange. plane. 267 LinePerp command. 187. explode. 288 MergeEdge command. 156. 39. 262. 62 menu: context. BMRT. 41. 224. 371. convert each face to NURBS surface. 239. normal to a surface. 212. 289. unlock locked objects. set for layer. 103 locked objects. 123. 363. 377 Material properties. 421. clear render mesh. box. 273 Loft command.

424 Mesh command. 206. and n-directions. between two points. 290 Mesh toolbar. 82. construction point through point. 303. 306. 64 NURBS. display. an object. 92. 355. 12. 309. unlock. 366 normal: definition. 296. 91. set for multiple objects. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 229. 243. 81. 292 MeshCylinder command. set properties. wheel function. toolbar button. 415 object names. 92. 78. 292. remove flipped. 298 NamedView command. 294. 249. 295. 82. 297 Mscribe command. 302. options. 251. 249. 292. 30. 251. 84. 141. on surface. restore. 33. 385 name. 132. 229. 385. 379. 78. 85. 79. 338. show toolbar. surface. 294. 80. 338. 83. 377. multiple objects. 4. 303 NextU command. 205. 305 offset:. surface display. 3. 83. 82. 147. 62 middle mouse button function. 251. 123. 79. 305. 338. 421 Moray UDO file export. 78 Notes command. surface. 305 notes in Rhino file. 302 New command. 294 MeshSphere command. viewport active. 133. 30. export to OBJ. turn off. 79. reparameterize. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 298. 261. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 296 modeling aids. perspective viewport active. 292 MeshCone command. surface control points in u-. 80. 120. 82. 338 OBJ file exchange. 296 minimum curvature. 348. 121. 134. 306 OffsetSrf command. toolbar. scale and rotate. 379. 363. set mesh the same. 146. 78 Object Snap toolbar. end. 298. 385. 379. 81. 302 NewViewport command. 309. definition. 349. 3. 311. view. 145. 298. snap to a curve. set for single object. 371. 90 move: background bitmap. tangent from curve. 297 MoveTrace command. 135. 92. 82. 295. read from file. export to file. parting line. 84. 423 MeshBox command. 84. 215. reverse direction. 212. draw line. 2. to move objects. export to IGES. 378. 132. 302 new:. lock. weld. 79 NetworkSrf command. pull direction. 12. 293. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 372 non-uniform scale. 2. 37 object: description. 414. viewport. move control points. 343. 338. 63 Near object snap. 41. tangent to a curve. improve. 251.Rhino 2. 295 MeshToNurb command. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 312 mold. 79. 307 Offset command. 343. 78. unify normals. 378. 122. 2. 308. off construction plane. layer. 4. 243. 79. 212. 296. 298. 297. 80. 414. 243. 229. 261. 295. 309. 46 moments. 308. 148. 52. 384. 290. group. 306. 304. 302. 90 Midpoint object snap. point. 355. 296 move:. 362. 79. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 297 MoveUVN command. 423 mesh:. scale and rotate on surface. object to align with curve. 296 Minimize command. 84. 75 named construction planes. intersection. 78. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 103. 83. 133. 93. 363. 296. 298. 414. definition. a view. 216 Moldex command. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 132. objects to new construction plane. 378. 348. 414. 135. 215. 81. 204. parameterization. 183. edit. 304. 387. 90. 385. read from file. 304. 304. 114. 294 MeshPolyline command. 384. 338. 92. 343. 409. 302 next. 296 Metastream file export. 409 object:. 63 naked edge. 212 object snap:. 171. objects. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 118 Normal command. 293. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 123. 132. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 302. show hidden. 113. 305. 290. 297. 80. 379 Named Colors list. 414 NoSnap command. 81. 131 NoElev option. 425 offset: curve. 212. 322. show. 311. 2. disable. 303 NextViewport command. 234. 141. toggle persistent. 362 named view. 84. 140. 377. 12 None command. 140. 423. construction planes through a point. 304 NextViewportToTop command. near. 297. 141 mouse. 194 Mirror command. 80. 317 nudge. 355 NamedCPlane command. 305 N-sided patch. 355. 46 Moldex DXF file export. set persistent. perpendicular to a curve. 243 456 . 378 object properties. toolbar button. 425. 183. 115. 84. 323 Microsoft Excel. 303. export to RIB. 120. 296. save. 103. restore. 80. 293 MeshDensity command. options. 298 new: file. from. 113. 79 minimize: Rhino. 387. viewport to top. center. 37 morph target. 122 Move command. 349. 415. 132 O command. viewport. hide toolbar. 81. 311 OBJ export properties. 297. 296 minimize:. 297. perpendicular from a curve. ortho viewport active. knot. 362. 362. 304 normal:. 296 mirror objects. 297. export to. 35 object snap: along. v-. 343. 121. 385. project to construction plane. 304 node. midpoint.0 Command Reference sphere. 293 MeshPlane command. 298 NamedViews command. 303 NextV command. 363 name:. 79. 298 Multisurf file exchange. quadrant. 35. 203. 229 Microstation file exchange. 132. 117. toolbar. save named construction plane.

98. object snap radius. 96. 96. 220. 339. 90. 133. 38 parting line. 96. 426 OpenGL:. 314 parabola. 307. 3DS MAX 2. 312 Osnap: pane. isoparm density. 130. 28. 323 Pa. 2. 351. shortcuts. 323. 313 PanUp command. 90. 373. 314 parabolic curve. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 92. 2 Patch command. 96. 40 perspective angle . 88. 90. 92. 253. nudge increment. camera and target location. file locations. 133 PanLeft command. 314 Parabola command. press shift to toggle. 281. 317 pause digitizer input. 82 PerpLine command. from three points. 316. Softimage. 96 options:. 329. 68 PNG file format. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 133. 366. 307. 92. toolbar. turn on or off. Planar. 88. 320 place. place at end of curve. 101. click ortho pane to toggle. 92. Ortho. 90. 90. 311. detailed polygon mesh. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 290. 205 pause for user input in script.Rhino 2. 333 PluginManager command. 373 Point toolbar. use for shade. 325 Plane command. 27. 314 Pan command. 307 open:. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. left. 206 PlanarSrf command. right. 92. 5. 92. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 330. 322 PlaceTarget command. 379 Ortho pane. 318 Perspective command. 133. 92. 324 Plane3Pts command. 313. polygon mesh. 374. 311 Orient3Pt command. 200. 379. View tab. 224. 90. 324. make surface non-periodic.2. 246. 218. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. Files tab. 2 PackTextures command. Layer. 190. startup commands. snap increment. 325 plane:. 387 paste. toggle. 64 options: aliases. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 325 PlaneV command. 92. select method. 200. 101. 2. redraw speed. Appearance tab. load. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. surface. 309. 316. 313 PanRight command. 97.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 323 planar mode. 320 Pipe command.set. 133. 4. 130. 366. 176 PCX file format. shade. 425 Orient. trim options. 90. 131 pedge. 308 Orient command. 330. 27. 2. 351. 308 OpenGL: toggle. control polygon appearance. 312 PageDown key. 262. 88. 94. 324 plane: cut through objects. 307 OnSrf object snap. 339. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. 324. 325 plug-ins. 3DS MAX 1. 311 ortho mode. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 94. 318 perspective view. 90. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 78 Osnap:. set. digitize. 318. 325. toggle. saved toolbar layout. 2. 131. target location. 2. place multiple. 325. objects from the clipboard. set angle. 92. 314 PanDown command. 281. 29. 325. 96. 327. 322. 307 OneLayerOn command. 339 point: control. 90. Modeling Aids tab. manager. 249. 93. 290. 96. by three points. 119. 313 Pan:. 323 planar section. 84 open: file. 322.0. 3DS MAX 2. 90. 363. 309. toggle. Shade tab. grid of. 339 POffSelected command. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 84 OneLayerOff command. 363. 338. 133. 2 Pan: down. 96. 321. place at start of curve. 94. 313. on a surface. place one. 318 PConic command. 88. make surface periodic. Aliases tab. 321. 95. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. make curve periodic. 318. options. 258. 174 parameterization. 133. 131 periodic. 88. 272. 313 Panes. 92. 79 point objects. 308. 311. 133. undo number. 376. on surface from UV coordinates. 322. 130. 367 pe_tol. 98 Options command. pan distance. 386. 373. 90. 281. 254. 379. General tab. 376. create curve from. 281. 4. 88. 330 457 . 5. Snap. middle mouse button function. 94. autosave. lock to axis. 172. set. Keyboard tab. 92. 119 Open command. 253. 308 Options dialog box. 328. 323. 326. 313. 326 Point object snap. 96. 206. view. 92. 12. 133. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 272. 330. background bitmap. options. shortcuts. fit through points. Osnap.5. 309. 133 Osnap command. 88. 308 orient objects. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. about. 96. options. 94. 28. 90. 311. 200. 325 Pline command. 290 Organic toolbar. 311 Ortho command. 2. 133 OrthoAngle command. up. select all. 313. trackball motion. 323 Plan command. 213. 68 PictureFrame command. 327 Point command. 188 point cloud. 325 Plane3Pt command. 80 Perpendicular line. 329. 133 Perp object snap. ortho angle. 2. to curve. 324 Plane toolbar. 375. 133 P command. 326. 187. 92. 92. 94. 312. 379. 312. 326. 323 Planar command. 98. curve. change interface appearance. 68. shortcut keys. 367 POff command. 29. no-repeat commands. troublshooting. 308 OpenWS command. 133. 133. 422 Point filters. developers.

select previous in v-direction. 339 PointsOn command. 343. 338 properties. 334 polysurface. join. inscribed. 335. 372. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 339. 65 program toolbar functions. 68 POn command. 10. 337 ProjCP command. 386. 425 PtOff command. 337. 413 Points command. 371. 131. render. 85. cone. 137. 259. 121. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. cylinder. 202. 414. Polytrans Softimage translation. draw on mesh. 335. 179. material. 330 points:. named construction planes from file. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. explode. 220. 379 preview. select all. objects to construction plane. 86 Properties Text tab. 343 rebuild:. 339 PopupMenu command. 339 PtOn command. 330 PointsOff command. 187. 337. 333. 228 quinitics. 229. 294. 136. 331. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. select naked edges. box. 334 PopupToolbar command. 340 rail revolve. 12. 137. 303. render mesh. 339 purge empty layers. 259. 353. 338 Project command. 86. 235. select previous in u-direction. 349. 3D face. 209. 328 polar array. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 190. 188 PointCloudSection command. named views from a 3DM file. 334. clear render mesh for all objects. 386. 257. create from control points. 171. 338 project: curve to surface. 366 PrintSetup command. 141. surface. 87 properties:. set normals the same. 294. hide back. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 349. relative. 81 QueryDomain command. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. measure. 254. select next in v-direction. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 420. hide edit and control. 292. 339 PointTest command. 334 PostScript file export. 412. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. add next in v-direction to selection. grid. 296. 372. 337 project:. 336 print. 339 pull curve to surface. 41 read. invert selection. density for primitives. 293. 337 Print command. draw. 340 RailRev command. 343. 338. 344 RebuildEdges command. 292. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 382 QRenderAll command. 353 previous viewport. apply to surface. 50 Quit command. 209. 295. 336. 340 QRender command. 19. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 179. 290. 220. select connected. 214 QueryUVPoint command. join. show edit and control. 361. 333. 338. viewport. 123 Proj command. 259. 372 Polytrans. 228 radius: dimension. 303. 138. display information about an object. 171. 333 polyline:. 344. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 254. 293. 261. 343. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 332 polygon:. select with lasso. 340 Radius command. 378. 229.0 Command Reference point:. select next in u-direction. 19. render using OpenGL shade. 337 Pro/E file exchange. add previous in v-direction to selection. weld. viewport layout from file. 339 PtOffSelected command. 343 rebuild: curve. 261. from closed polyline. control points. 290. 425. 90 458 . 249. 335. 68. 343 ReadCommandFile command. to file. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. sphere. from NURBS object. 339. 327 PointDeviation command. twist. 86. 46 POV Lights toolbar. explode. 10. 12. 295. 35. 12. 338 Projection command. 367. absolute. 343. interpolate curve through. 40. 87. 64. 344 RebuildSrf command. coordinate points. 382 Quad object snap. 344. 424.Rhino 2. image of model. 41 POV-Ray file export. 17. 136. 292. 331 polygon mesh. 423. 331. 293. 36. delete control on curve. 197. 423 Polygon toolbar. 334 Polyline command. 329 PointLight command. select object to turn off. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 332 PolygonEdge command. 328 PointGrid command. add previous in u-direction to selection. 190. 21. through point objects. show control. 262. 338. 330 PointsFromUV command. 141. 291. 2 PrevU command. 85 Properties Material tab. 296. plane. 294. 339 Pull command. 223 PolarSphere command. 35. 340 radius:. 420 Properties command. toolbar. 368. 135. 331. document. 235. 414. 303. 340 RailRevolve command. 136. 345 Rebuild command. 381 QRender1 command. 344 recent commands list display. knot. 150 polar coordinates. 197. select all. 368. 335 PrevViewport command. 64. to Clipboard. object. 290. 229. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 19. 331 Polygon command. from edge. 138. 257. 18. 19. 259. 361. 332. 121. notes. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 229. 371. options. 366. 333. 260. clear render mesh. export to file. edit points. 249. 335 PrevV command. 343. 202. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 262. 135. 339. convert each face to NURBS surface.

360 RotateUp command. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 354. 10. 359. 353 RenderCurves command. file to a different file name or file type. 120 restore: current viewport size. 353 RenderEdges command. scale and move on surface. 4. 351. 288. 324. 359. named view. 355 Rev command. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. objects. save image in render window. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 340 Revolve command. autosave. 75 Rhino 1. 24. 425 render:. 355 revolve: surface from curve. Rhino from being minimized. 25 Rhino web page. image in the render window. 20 render problems. 338. 40. 309. 3. 345. 362. 338. 320. 2. 348 ReduceMesh command. named construction plane. 324. 347 Rectangle command. bumpmaps. copy to Clipboard. textures. mesh settings. 4. 355 revolved surface. 345 Rectangle toolbar. through three points. 171. 359 RotateCPlane command. 320. 345 Rect3Pt command. 360. 2. command aliases. 183 Restore command. 363. 3. 351. 412 Rotate command. 363. 148 rectangular surface. 361. 126. 325 RectCen command. 39. 4. 252. 347 rectangle:. 171. 351 RemoveTrace command. 324. 338 Ribbon command. 362. 5. 3. curve knots. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 355 restore:. highlight. 352 rename. 361 S command. 355. 349 relative coordinates. 360. left. 152. 309. place lights.0 Command Reference Rect command. 346. 346 RectangleCen command. 338. 352. 416 rotate: construction plane. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. ii roll out a surface. 358. 2. 359 RotateDown command. a surface. clear render mesh for all objects. 1 Rhino. 360. 352. Top construction plane. 356 Right command. 4. 1. 5. 379 RenderOptions command. 382. object from selection. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 346. 24. 203. 183. 99 Render toolbar. right. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 230. 346. 378. 346 RectangleV command. 94 RIB file export. 352 render plug-in application: options. 325. vertical to construction plane. 19. 351. 348. 1 RhinoScript options. an object. trim curve from surface. 30 save: as small file. 360 RunScript command. named construction plane. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 3. create background image. 2. edges. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 356 RevV command. 429 RedoMultiple command. toolbar. 353. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 352 RenderCrv command. 308. transparency. down. 357 right mouse button. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 172. 346 rectangle: center. 120. 360 rotate:. 355. 354 reparameterize. 2 redo:. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 3. 354 repeat command exclude list. shine. 308. 357. 353 RenderPreview command. 338. 360. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 356 RGB color. 338. 338 Render command.Rhino 2. 346. 348 Redo command shortcut. 4. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 309. 355 RevU command. sequentially numbered versions of model. 398. 30. 181. 2. 349 RemapCPlane command. 346 RectV command. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 357 rotate view. surface using rail curve. 125.ini. 353. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 30. 25. 103. 360 RotateLeft command. move and scale. 181. background bitmap. 353. preview using OpenGL shade. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command.0. 288. 357. 2. 363. from three points. 241 RefreshShade command. corner. 273 ruled surface.0 file exchange. layer. 19. 181. materials. 360 RotateView command. 348. 363. Rhino 1. 358. up. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 172. 96. 459 . 353. 121 render: BMRT. 358 RotateCamera command. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. file. 39. wallpaper. 360 Run command. 2. length and width. 347 redo: last undone command. 251. 351 RemoveKnot command. 381. 348 refit a curve. 96. curves. 354. 353. 351 RemoveKnots command. 39. 133 right view. 357 right-click menu. close render window. 355 revolve:. named view. 352. 429 Redo command. 90 reshape a toolbar. button image to file. 391 SAT file export. 347 rectangular array. vertical. 338. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. options. 203. Front construction plane. 39. 355. 103. 363. 4. objects in 3D space. view change. 412 Rotate3D command. clearing render meshes. why the name. edges of polygon meshes. 181. 349 remove. 119 Rhinoceros. 355. 338. 352. 360 Rule command. 355 RestoreView command. 120. 340. 171. 3. 398. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 360 RotateRight command. 363. view continuously.

construction plane to next used. 366. 367 screen:. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 367 SelAll command. 371. to file in 256 colors. 368 SelColor command. 369. 370 SelID command. 364. 183. 377. 246. 370. 25. 362 save:. distance between grid lines. 376. with a window. 136. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 367. points objects. 374 SelV command. 335. 375. 373 SelPt command. 372 SelSrf command. 372 SelPoint command. to file. 365. construction plane origins to a point. lasso.0 Command Reference shortcut. 24 SelectLayer command. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 371 SelLayerNumber command. construction plane with 3 points. 372. 184. 373 select:. 365. 335. maximized viewport by name. 184. 67 Sect command. 339. by layer. 309 Scale command. 363 SaveView command. 126 scripting:. 371 SelLights command. in shaded viewport. with mouse method. 366. 262. 206. 368. 372 SelPrev command. 262. 103. construction plane to x axis. rotate and move on surface. 258. 354. 371 SelectName command. 383. spotlights. 373. 373 SelU command. 303. toolbar layout. 373 SelSolid command. 373. construction plane origin. construction plane vertical. deselect all objects. 369 SelCrv command. 126. 366. construction plane to object. coordinates of points. 303. 362 SaveCPlane command. 373 SelPolyline command. previous control point in udirection. 363 SaveAs command. 363 SaveWSAs command. 308. 138. 373 SelSurface command. invert. 181. 364. 25. 125. subparts of objects. 184. IGES. objects uniformly. 372 SelGroup command. toolbar layout as different name. digitizing scale. 368 SelCrossing command. bad objects. 368 SelectConnected command. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 415. add previous control point in u-direction. curves. 371 SelLight command. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 367. 25. 365 screen capture. 363 SaveSmall command. control polygon display density. 361 save template. 138. 125. 184. 372 SelNone command. 369 SelCrvs command. row of control points in udirection. next control point in v-direction. 366 scale:. 374. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 129 scripting tools. 136. to Clipboard. 75 Select Points toolbar. 246. 377. surfaces. 372. add previous control point in v-direction. add next control point in v-direction. 90. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 90 Select Color dialog box. 363. 373. 370 SelLast command. 372 SelPolysrf command. 137. 182. 372. front construction plane. 370. 375 SelWindow command. 181. 369. construction plane to view. 371. 363. 182. 24. 372. 309. 259. 335. 183. 365. 50. 376. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 372. 375 Select toolbar. 369 SelDim command. construction plane to zaxis. 371 SelName command. JScript. 371 SelMeshes command. 362. 262. 371. 259. 363 SaveWS command. 152. construction plane to previously used. 365 ScaleNU command. 368. layers from list. 335. 373. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. all objects. 369 SelCurves command. 372 SelSolids command. connected points. 373 SelPts command. 373. dimensions. 372. objects non-uniformly. objects by name. 126. objects in one direction. template. 367 SelBadObjects command. 354. 374. 181. 103. 370 SelDup command. 370. objects in two dimensions. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 136. 50. 369. 379. 24. 370 SelDups command. 246. 373 SelSurfaces command. polysurfaces. next control point in u-direction. 366 Scale1D command. 230. 288. 373 SelSrfs command. 367. 137. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 367. 262. 369. 137. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. extents of grid.Rhino 2. 460 . move and rotate. duplicate objects. 376. 375. 370. 365. 368. 303. invert point selection. objects for render preview. 178. 376 set: active viewport by name. 363 scale: background bitmap. objects to shade. 371 SelMesh command. VBScript. 366. 374. 138. 303. 51. 136. 369 SelCurve command. 308. by object ID. 172. 364. 368 SelectID command. 366 ScaleTrace command. 361. meshes. objects instead of control points. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 339. 370 SelLayer command. 383. objects. with crossing window. 2. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 371. 258. 367 Section command. 367 section curves. 373 SelUV command. 366. 368 SelConnected command. 258. 364 Scale toolbar. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 364. 364 Scale2D command. polylines. 368. 371. 370 selection menu. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 383. 371. 252. 363 Save command. 309. objects by layer number. objects to unlock. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. current layer. rows and columns of control points on surface. 182. 370. previous control point in vdirection. 372 SelPolylines command. 362.

Osnap toolbar. selected objects. 241. 2. 250. 181. keys. 120. broken edges. to the view. 339. edit points. 92. 385. 355. to the center of a circle. in all viewports. 184. 264. 81. 80. 318 SetPlanar command. 81. 383. 381 shade: continuous. 382. 79. 84. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 250 SetLayer command. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 390 smooth curve or surface. 206. 82. 183. x-axis. to an object. vertical. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 183. 2. 96. 242. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 384 ShowCamera command. 337. 387 silhouette curves. turn off object snaps. control points. 2. 380 SetGroupName command. 218. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 218. selected hidden objects. 220 ShowGrid command. 2. to a surface. 220. bitmap in a separate window. 386 ShowPts command. 119 ShowToolbox command. flat with grid. 183. 383 shadow. 386. 178. 181. continuous shaded mode. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 425 Shade1 command. 78. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 388. 241. 125 show: background bitmap. 385. 74. by key. with no smoothing on mesh. 184. 355. 244. edges of surface or polysurface. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 379. perpendicular to a curve. 94. 426 ShowAll command. object. working directory. 76. 92. 80. 385. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 184. Top. 5 Shift+PageUp. continuous in perspective view. 386 ShowPt command. 119. 246. handlebars. 23. 2. printer. 298. from a point. 384. 386 ShowSelected command. flat in one viewport. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 376. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 79. 339. 250. 183. 376. 322. 389 skinning. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 184. 212. 363. 95. onto a curve. 5 shine in rendering. 182. 4 Shift+PageDown. 386. 385 ShowGrev command. 83. 338 shortcuts. along a line tangent to a curve. 21 Shear command. to a knot. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 94. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 5. 3 Points. 383 Shift key. z-buffer. 376 SetGLShade command. 79. 125. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. near a curve. 76. 387 sketch: curve. shortcuts. 153. Right. 182. 81. 377. 386 Silhouette command. 426 Show command. to surface isoparm. curve on polygon mesh. 94. 183. 391. 218. 382.Rhino 2. 380 Settings command. 119. 382. 381.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 84. change size. 140. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 379 SetOrtho command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. perspective angle. 78. 98. 376. 98. 323. to the intersection of two curves. 182. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 379 SetPt command. 220. 389. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 212. 242. 386 ShowStatusBar command. scripting tools. 385 ShowPoints command. naked edges. 383. 242. 246. hidden objects. 23. 183. tangent to a curve. 383 ShadeSelected command. 362 Set View toolbar. 78. 245 ShowMenu command. 409 set:. 318. 339 ShowEdges command. 162. options. 386. project object snaps to construction plane. 181. 381 shade:. 261. 392. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 5. 384 show:. 381 set construction plane. curve with digitizer. 207 SetSnap command. 383 shear objects. 380. 359. 382 ShadeAll command. midway between two points. z-axis. flat in all viewports. built-in aliases. 119 ShowTrace command. 400 ShowTitle command. 183. 385 ShowOsnap command. to a point object. 382. 384. OpenGL. options. 206. 241. spotlight hotspot. grid. 78. 42 Smooth command. to construction plane. 409. 181. 84. 318. 357. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 42 SLC file exchange. along a line perpendicular to a curve. right construction plane. 78 461 . 389 Sketch command. pane. to the end of a curve. 184. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 384. 183. toggle OpenGL mode. 381. 84. 133. 385. 388 sketch:. 384. 409 ShowToolbar command. 425 Shade command. 173 ShowCV command. 388. to the midpoint of a curve. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. viewports. 182. 79. 183. with wireframe. 376 SetGridSnap command. 378 SetObjectName command. 92. 377 SetHotspot command. 298. 337. 383 ShadeOptions command. 261. 383. 390 snap: along a line. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 382 shaded display. with grid. 343. 273 SLA export. on surface. 246. toolbar. 2. 184. selected objects in all viewports. 242. toggle object snaps. 379 SetPts command. to next used. 206. 3. 383 ShadedViewport command. 80. display context menu. 318. 387 SimplifyCrv command. to previously used. hidden control points. 82. by function. 77. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 94. top construction plane.

430 startup commands. 1. periodic. 313. from 3 or 4 points. create fillet between. unroll. 243. 340. 307. 160. 324. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 395. 426 STL: ascii tag. X_T file export. 262. 417. 38. 372. 417. 238. 233. extrude curve to point. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 189. 192. 162. 218. 223. 320. 284. 153. 133. 401. make nonperiodic. 306. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. from grid of control points. 2. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 5. 238. 400. 90 status bar. 38 SortPoints command. match. 288. 234. 340. 373. 302. 399. 391. 423 STL:. 306. 348. 391 snap mode. 281. 126 Stretch command. 69. 275. export object properties to. 409. 401. create. toolbar. chamfer. 410. 15. X_T file export. 180.Rhino 2. 273. 380. 133 sphere. 83. 281. 84 snap:. 247. 393 Sphere2Pt. cylinder. 372. 69 Solid Edge. extrude curve along path. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 190. 233. 284. 364 SubCrv command. 285. extend. 273. 317. 161. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 243. 281. 192. 68 Softimage plug-in. 216.0 Command Reference Snap command. 354. 410. from 3 or 4 curves. 392. minimum radius of curvature. 153. 273. display. by diameter. 396. 361. 414. 247. 251. 115. 398 SrfCV command. offset. 192. 398. extract from polysurface. 261. 355. 42 Stereograms. 236. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 381. 243 Surface toolbar. 392. 317. 228. from curve network. 157. 281. draw curve through control points. cone. 217. 428. select all. 182. 321. 392. 132. 251. 393 sphere:. cap planar ends. 238. 90. 163. 200. truncated cone. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 324. 396. 236. 171. from planar curves. 392 SnapToLocked command. 76. 360. 263. 189 SrfMatch command. 355. 401. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 166. viewport vertically. 324. 133. 82. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. rebuild. from three points. 276. 240. 324. 240. plane from three points. 224. 154. 160. 218. 273. 70. 79. 2. 229. rule. 325. 240 solid:. 380 snap to locked objects. 380. 114. 372. 397 Split command. 421. 277. 160. 421. untrim. 399. 88. 94. 84. 278. 320. plane. IGES file exchange. 392. 218. 202. reverse direction. 166. 273. hide backfacing control points. 173. 399 SrfPoints command. create variable radius fillet between. 393 Spiral command. 133. 334 spacebar. 371. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 413. baseball sphere. patch. 201. select all. pipe. 190. hotspot. from heightfield bitmap. 317. for rendering. 398. split. 284. 284 SrfMerge command. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 393 SphereD command. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. turn on or off. 135. 417. extrude. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 366. 367. 298. sweep along path. 36. 153. 289. 16. change degree. extrude into solid. 409 SnapSize command. panes. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 426 surface analysis:. 38 Solid toolbar. 92. 157. file exchange. 173. 42 StopScript command. 307. develop. 398. 277. cutting plane. 200. 216. 394 spline. 392 Sphere toolbar. 255 split: edge of a surface. 393 Sphere2Pts. 223. 250. 416. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 385. 159. turn on or off. 417 surface:. 229. 157. 240. 105 surface normal. box. 162. plane vertical to construction plane. select all. 411 SolidWorks. 385. 398 spreadsheet. 277. polygon mesh. 238 Standard toolbar. 192. 35. 163. 42. 223. 22 support. 295 Sphere command. 3. 384. 400 STEP file exchange. 386. 158. 279. center. 103. 398. 391. 395. Boolean intersection. 371 Spotlight command. 399. 306. 352. 288. 338. skin. 19. 344. developable. mean curvature. toggle. 410. 236. 396. 429. box from three points. from grid of points. 236. 298. 35. 395 split:. 398. 426. 393. 324. 113. 238. 133. 15. 396 SplitSrf command. 339. 399 SrfSum command. 406. 290. one object with another. 396. 407. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 164. 233. 203. 164. 118. 286. 288. trim. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 249. 80. 161. 395. 10. 69. torus. 399. 398 spotlight:. 328. surface at isoparms. 330. 395. 373. tube. 400 SubCurve command. 250. 133. 316. 165. 84 Softimage file exchange. 92. 397 SplitEdge command. comma-delimited file export. drape. reparameterize. 162. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 400 StatusBar command. 70. 160. sweep two rails. Boolean union. maximum radius of curvature. 344. 101. 392. 81. 192 Surface menu. 236. 163. 325. 406. 4. 402. 411. 344. shortcuts. 399 SrfPt command. 38. 10. tolerance. 391. 399 SrfPts command. 229 SrfAlign command. 160 summary information. 426 462 . 288. 397. 189. 165. 298. 287. 392. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 386. 2. 173. 238. 166. make periodic. viewport horizontally. 78. loft. 307. 402. 361. 356. 198. IGES file exchange. 377. 241. 354. 317. 216. Booleans. 416. merge. 309 SrfBlend command. 201. 320. 382. 104. 393. blend. 229. 114. 416. 96. 247. 165. 42. 249. 295. 238. 132. ellipsoid. 164. 201. 237. 398. 406. revolved. 161. 242.

5. 123. 78. 367. 330. new file. 264. 294. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 83. 302. Arc. 71 Swap. 161. 326. 226. 90. 265. 407. 164. 51. 364. 409. 124. 409. 210. 266. 409 toolbar layout. 236. 81. 238. 255. 290. 121. display of title bar. 248. 179. 124. 392. open. 346. 206. 125. 173. 362. 168. 173. 417. 22. new button. 124. title bar on or off. 395. 218. 138. 401. 134. 120. dragging based on view plane. 84. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 178. new toolbar. 90. 409 toggle. tear off flyout. 283. 355. dock. 122. 272. 323. 135. 205. 406. 262. 124. 210. 216. 324. 82 tangent line. 135. 269 Taper command. 143. world axes on or off. 195. 236. 367. 265. 160. 244. delete button. 168. 247. control polygon display. 243. Edge Tools. 353. 353. 167. 352. 171. 420 Title command. 303. 361. 134. 178. move. change. 288. 410. 397. 103. 372. 313. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 409. 222. 404. 120. 142. 121. 170. 405 target. 122. 201. 396. 232. 381. 253. 400 SwapView command. 122. 120. 388. 245. 416. Background Bitmap. 163. 267. planar curves. 330. save. 415 tilt view. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 221. 337. 342. 216. 353. 338. right. 399. 231. 165. import button image. 302. 368. 234. 256. 223. 245. float icon to top of cascade. 13. Curve Tools. 139. 422. 125. 120. 409. 362.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 208. 404 Sweep1 command. 3-D Digitizing. 413. 419. 123. 428. 185. 401. 155. change name. 407. 269. 420. 323 TCone command. 344. show toolbar. 279. 123. edit 2-dimensional. 249. 217. 311. 409. 263. 150. 288. 331. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 179. 400. 120. 235. 168. 365. 258. 320. hide flyout. 120. 359. 409. 426. display viewport. 143. 22. 177. planar mode. 121. Annotate. 379. display of command prompt. 306. 400. 298. 323. 311. display program. 339. 318. 401. 308. persistent object snaps. along path. 352. 39. 293. 90. unlink flyout. 162. 387. 141. 254. 400. 185. 297. 189. crosshairs on and off. 195. 305. 351. 420. BMRT Lights toolbar. 343. 368. 383. 349. 391. status bar on or off. 125. 82. 363. 304. 205. scripting. 162. 338 texture for rendering. 367 Thaw command. 393. left. 226. 121. 121. 390. 187. 198. 395. Extend. 385. 409. 125. 185. Circle. 269 TanLine command. 124. clear the bitmap image. 242. 363. 240. 421. 139. 216. 407. Ellipse. 94. 400 SwapUV command. set viewport. import from another layout. solids. 140. 398. 120. 119. create cascading toolbar. 423. 203. 23. 377. 123. 420. 347. copy button. 338. 260. 125 Toolbar command. 209. 229. 73 template. 220. 122. 230. 384. 251. 39. 120. 357. 122. 363. 90. 156. 412. 382. 379. 135. 429. 335. 408 Text command. angle. 271. display of viewport title. 168. float toolbar. 348. 257. 330. 360. 101. 148. 338. 119. programming. relative. move toolbar. 173. 296. 261. 387. 409. 22 toolbar buttons. 123. 407 text:. 407 Texture command. 141. 192. 121. 419. 92. properties. 221. 183. 284. 241. display of menu bar. 150. 189. 414. 325. 171. 425. 297. 209. 305. 365. toolbar on and off. 144. 40. 207. 292. ortho mode. 366. BMRT Materials. Curve. 402. 239. 179. model size. clear button image. grid on and off. 166. CPlane View. 368. move button. 420. 164. 210. 14 Tan object snap. 134 TGA file format. 358. Box. 80. display of status bar. 165. 122. 104. 396. 233. 172. 425. 182. file location. 375. 169. 384. 119. 206. 203. 215. rename toolbar. 156. 409 TiltLeft command. 255. save. 288. 149. 215. 390. 369. 157. 328. 323. 51. 344. 389. 123 Toolbars. 409 title bar. 404 TAB key. 389. 245. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 174. 370. snap mode. 124. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 407. 121. Dimensions. 430. 394. 322. 402. 162. 333. 215. 152. scaled size. 425 Toggle34View command. two rails. 386. 208. 72 technical support. 122. 204. 308. 220. 374. 177. save button image to file. 332. 363. 152. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 15. perspective view on and off. 379. 39. 270. 198. 409. 119. 288. 19. 352. Diagnostics. 353. save. grid axes on or off. 273. 371. 124. 379. 321. 224. cascade. 204.Rhino 2. 281. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 246. 239. toggle toolbar on and off. IGES export. 15. 363. rendering of edges. 258. pop up with middle mouse. 148. 88. 405. 366. 323. 388. Curve From Object. 356. surfaces. 197. save layout as different name. 411. 184. 96. 340. Array. 339. 256. 231. 408. 409 TogglePerspective command. 336. 255. 212. 153. 192. ortho. 334. 268. 384. 181. 409 TiltRight command. 409. Analyze. 385. 257. 337. 402 Sxtrd command. 170. 407. 197. 309. 136. 122. 245. 221. 401 Sweep2 command. 200. 123. 272. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 221. 220. 340. 220. 392. 121. capture icon. 122. 151. 80 TanFrom object snap. 1. copy. 79. 259. 169. viewports. 400. 149. 343. 316. open toolbar. change button size. delete toolbar. 385. 137. 230. hide toolbar. 121. 463 . 50. 124. 142. 217. rendering of curves. 215. edit annotation. 207. capture button image. 232. 373. 351. 409. 140. 235. 154. 145. surface u and v. 119. menu bar. 307. 120 tolerance. 330. edit button image. 281. 295. 3-D Digitize. 120. 311. reshape toolbar. 322. control polygon highlight. 174. 420. 187. 403. 279. 308. 387. 317. 322. 345. 90. 230. 400. 407 TextObject command. 163. 120. 249. viewport title. 391. 180. 241. 400 sweep. 213. 151. 248. edit bitmap icon. 222. 218. close. 362 text: annotation dot. 288. 302. 120. 245. 228. 415. 144. 212. 190. 260. edit. 321. definition. 194. 407. 223. 323. 187. 120 ToggleToolbox command.

364. 155. 137. File. Copy command. Transform. 141. 200. 298. 430. 425. 363. Surface 2. ArrayCrv command. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 414. status bar. 355. 194. layer. 429 UndoMultiple command. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 409 top view. 229. 153. 50. 413 undo:. options. IGES export file types. 244. 311. 410. 409. 412. 390. Tools. 425. 413. 422. 331. 172. 249. 349. 148. 244. 180. 425. Rotate3D command. 288. 92. 221. Surface Tools. 373.Rhino 2. Scale2D command. 83. 140. 50. control points. reverse. 236. 365. 362. 356. 429. 201. 351. 366. 173. 152. 259. 92 Trim command. 338. 425. 263. OrientOnSrf command. 173. 364. 381. 296. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. command line. 140. autosave. 277. 420. 179. 236. command. 381. 1. 73 union. 240. 161 unit systems. along a line. 244. 379. 203. 307. 409. 103. 307. 229. world axes. 160. 398. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. Microscribe. 370. 304. 94. 236. 334. 82. 90. 142. 306. Mass Properties. 358. 412 transparency in rendering. status bar. 205. 261. 358. 393. 413 u-direction: move control points. 324. 338. 151. Taper command. grid axes. 357. 308. 263. 296. 413. 234. 152. 379. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 417. 326. 203. 96. 202. 228. 82 tracking line. 268. 337. 90. 210. 78. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 316. 88. 366. Sphere. 386 Unicode fonts. 409. 276. 172. 406. 294. Rotate command. 100. Mirror command. redo. 361. 424. 375. 296. 224. 414 UnhidePoints command. 296. 171. 92. 51. 362. Scale. set. Point Editing. 369. 296. 263. 356. 206. grid axes. 49. 84. 284. 173. 400. 416. Render. 429. Set CPlane. 208. RemapCPlane command. 249. 281. 190. 99. 368. 81. 331. 203. 264. Smooth command. 295. 412 U command. 167. 417. pop up at cursor. 229. 382. 391. 2. 415 Ungroup command. 150. 173. 328. 213. 261. 414. 154. 41. 416 UnGhost command. 372. 258. 240. all layers. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 183. 142. 154.0 Command Reference 233. 153. 229. 392. 358. 182. 238. 94. 308. 322. 379. 256. 410 TraceBitmap command. 166. OpenGL. 406 Tube command. definition. 228. 368. 409. 333. 154. 374. 297 u-direction curves. 317. 288. 108. 384. 288. 203. 386. 245. 101. 302. 101. 307. 413. 360. 399. 283. 48. 171. along a line tangent to a curve. 236. 397. 309. 218. 363. 249. 407. Extrude. 240. 390. 154. POV Lights. 220. 262. 365. 273. 212. 182. 253. 417. Surface Analysis. 336. 347. Object Snap. title bar. Lines. Fillets and chamfers. STL Tools. 258. Scale command. 414 UndoSelected command. 185 u-direction definition. 173. 373. Point. ArrayPolar command. 198. 254. 262. 348. Flow command. 377. 181. 219. 386. 184. Standard. 349. 220. 105. 140. 19. 334. 396. 339. 338. 386 troubleshooting. 90. 333. 348. 345. 288. 138. 245. 241. 273. 385. 386. 377. 365. layers. 330. 349. 409. 384. 409 Tools toolbar. 330. 173. 382. 131 transform: Array command. 339. 427. 311. 410. 204. 268. grid. 412 Transform toolbar. world axes. 307. 253. 415 Toolbox command. 323. Organic. 303. 145. 173. 348. 208. 367. 96. 275. 308. 383. 411 turn off. 245. 339. 168. 261. 383. 216. 255. 410. 358. 48. 408. 412 Twist command. Orient3Pt command. ArraySrf command. 321. Visibility. 251. 214. 355. 161. IGES. Bend command. 342. Main. 245. 134. 269. 302. 153. 263. 92. 337. 203 trimmed surfaces. 386. menu bar. 262. 373. 311. 123 464 . 218. 357. 262. 404. 383. 164. Orient command. 108. 326. 349. 325. 151. 317. 365. 339. 338. 357. 390. 423. 357. 409. 148. 318. OrientPerpToCrv command. 148. Booleans. 428. 349. 383. 90. 367. 192. 262. 103. 135. 19. 246. 330. 412. 322. 259. 396. 83. 356 u-direction:. 400. 429 Undo command. 339. 338. 135. 153. 361. 420. 245. 161. Plane. 412 transform:. 133. 251. 180. 339. 162. Solid. 358. 180. Set View. 172. rendering. 16. 249. 305. 318. 353. 400. 236. 296. 361. 2 Torus command. 290. 321 track. 249. 339. 409. Shear command. 263. 405. 2. 342. 88. Geometry Fix. 323. 203. 245. Viewport Layout. Twist command. 357. grid. 384. 79. Layer. 261. 300. 239. 405. 390. 104. command line. 288. 365. Mesh. 233. 80. 357. 270. 425 turn on. 104. 425. 180. 172. 399. 94. 324. 409 Top command. 2. 345. 102. 304. 414 Ungroup objects. 293. 149. 343. 298. 162. 101. 88. 413. 150. 341. control points on selected objects. 161. 41. 82. 290. 309. 92. 309. Move command. 398. 335. 154. 266. 203. 374. 342. 247. 229. 307. 339. POV Materials. 229. 190. 410 trim:. 90. 313. 348. 372. SetPt command. 244. layer. 379. 96. 2. 375. 339. 148. 223. 405. 409. autosave. 359. 2. 265. Rectangle. 308. 148. 15 Units command. Surface. 309. 344. 366. 414 unfold a surface. 113. 162. 364. 260. 346. 157. 332. 299. 405. 165. 409. in text. 386. 15 truncated cone. 423. 364. Boolean. control points. 386. 307. Select. trimmed surfaces. 180. 401. 135. shortcuts. 251. 348. 292. 16. 426 Turntable command. 339. 363. 365. 348. Scale1D command. 403. 174. 309. view change. menu bar. 134. title bar. 321. Select Points. 271. 244. 352. 371. 243. ProjectToCPlane command. 352. 402. 400. Solid Tools. 395. 288. 238. 149. 243. 421. 83. 82. 395. 298. 415. 136. 338. 19. 311. shortcut. 242. 392. 415 units systems. 330. 267. 140. IGES export type details. 398. 338. shrink to trim boundary. 366. Polygon. 263. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 351. 355. 343. 180. ScaleNU command. 399.

set top view. 347 view: back view. 429. 224. zoom out. 355. 153. pan. 212. 409. 51 weight: edit control point. 360.Rhino 2. 264. 425 ViewportProperties command. 415 unlock:. 132. 376. 54 vertex. 322. 244. next active. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 356 v-direction:. 321. 45 workgroup: check in license. 24. 190. construction plane back. 318. 412. 323. 314. plan view. rotate left. 429 viewport layout:. zoom window. redraw speed. 135. top view. 90. close. 384. 429. 325. 273. perspective view. unlock objects. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 336. 386. pan left. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 273. set left view. 273. 304. 244. 325. 360. 90 window selection. 264. 357. 3 window:. 423 weld:. 236. 153. object. 412. 135 WireframeViewport command. 165 UpDegSrf command. 397. 271. 288. 397. 360. 304. 425. right view. 304. 181. with mouse. 163. 318. copy to all. set maximized by name. zoom in and out by a percentage. 172. 322. 162. 250 water plane area. 298. 264. 318. 384. front view. 425 wireframe:. 419. 24. zoom in. 343. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 423. new. 421 VPlane command. 323. rectangle. 409. 377. 428. 429. 421 VRBSrf command. 417 Untrim command. 357. 313. 318. 416 untrim a surface. 430. 420 VolumeCentroid command. control points. 360. 134 VBscript. shade. read from file. 2. 428. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 322. tilt left. 419. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 415 UnPackTextures command. 249. 302. next ortho active. 357. 153. 416 UnrollSrf command. 409. 343. selected objects. 400. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. zoom. 126 Vline command. 302. 420. 419. 249. 360. bottom view. zoom extents. 25. 420. 185. 44 W command. swap viewports. rotate down. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 168 465 . lock objects. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 400. 429. 249. 288. split vertical. 288. 244. 379. create from surface. 168. 347 VRML file export. 304. synchronize. 379 Weld command. rotate right. 153. 24. 322. 420 ViewportTitle command. 384. construction plane bottom. 11 user input in script. construction plane front. 135. 383. 415 UnLockSelected command. 383. 409. construction plane left. 420 views. swap. reverse. 423 wetted surface area. 357. zoom extents in one viewport. left view. 325 Vrbf command. 363. maximize viewport. 421 VolumeMoments command. rotate up. 163. show control points. 172. set viewport. camera. make previous active. 422 Weight command. menu. 343. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 250. 343. 376 Wallpaper command. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 297 v-direction curves. layout. edit named. 336. 397. 298. 343. 314. set back view. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 184 VDA file exchange. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. zoom all to the same scale. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. control point. 404. 162. 405. 181. zoom extents selected. 288. 318. 430 viewport:. place target. 132. line. 430. display. set right view. 313. zoom window and set a target point. 23. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 415 UnLock command. 421 VRectangle command. 425. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. set front view. 415. 302. three viewports. 190. pan down. 376. zoom window. 190. 185 v-direction definition. 429. 96. 419. 397. 43 v-direction: move control points. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 135. 355. 417 unwrap a surface. 288. 360. 302. 430 view:. set bottom view. 422 water level. construction plane right. 383. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 1 window: select. 303. maximize. 323. 23. 126 VCPlane command. set active by name. 428 Windows Clipboard. 244. 429. properties. save named. 131. 415 Visibility toolbar. 425 WMF file export. 162.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. pan up. 420. 415 Visual Basic script. set to shaded display. 422 weight:. set to wireframe display. 135. set all to match. print. object snaps. 363. 135. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. set density. target. 271. split horizontal. hide back. 400 viewport properties. 131 vertical. 415 visibility:. 162. 430. 377. continuously rotate. 303. 430. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 313. 313. 430. 420 viewport title menu. read named from file. 419. plane. rotate. 347. 23. move next to top. create new. 409. 45 viewport: bring to top. 420. 198. 302. 386. wireframe viewport. next perspective active. 338. 249. zoom extents in all viewports. 425 WireShade1 command. 336. tilt right. 271 Volume command. 323. restore named. 404 visibility: control points. 134. check out license. 386. 404. 416 UpDeg command. 250 What command. pan right. 338 wireframe display. isoparm. set perspective view. 400. 96. 429. 415 unroll a surface. 430. 420. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 313. 376. 409. 264. place camera and target. 419. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh.

4. 429 ZoomOut command. 430. 308. 430 ZoomX command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 430 ZoomDynamic command.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 96. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 130. 3. 430 ZBuffer command. 217 ZBufferPt command. 168. save. 428. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 11 WorldAxes command. 425 world coordinates. 429 ZEA command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 363. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 308. 430 466 . 429 ZoomIn command. in and out by a percentage. 3 zoom:. 44 X_T file export. 363 world axes. 381 workspace. 2. 426 ZM command. 430 ZoomWindow command. 363. 429 ZoomPrev command. 429. extents in all viewports. 429 ZoomSelected command. set colors. 217 ZBufferPts command.Rhino 2. 233 XtndF command. 2. 429. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 428 ZoomNext command. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 233 Xtra command. 168 workgroup:. 430 ZP command. 168. 430. open. 429 Zebra command. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 3. 5. in. 96. previous view. window. 429. 429 ZS command. 430 ZSA command. 430 Zoom command. 429. 428. 430 zoom window. 2. 425 WRL file export. 428 ZoomExtents command. 428 Zoo. 429 ZoomP command. 425. 38 XtndB command. extents in one viewport. window and set a new target point. 429. 428. 425. 168 working directory. 97. out. 74 Z command. check out license. 430 ZoomTarget command. options. 4. save as different name. check in license. toggle display. 429 ZoomMouse command. 2. 430. 428. 216 ZE command. 430. 130 zoom: dynamic.

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