Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .

.................... 447 xv ..............................................................................Rhino 2..................................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index.........................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

rhino3d.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. and Find. Index. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. 17 . Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. under the topic Help. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www.rhino3d. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. Help Access Rhino's Help file. see the Rhino Command List.Rhino 2. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running.com/support/faq.rhino3d.com Web site www. and by the time the product was in beta testing. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. the name stuck. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. To explore the related topics.

Lens length displays on status bar. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1.Rhino 2. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Front. F8. Ortho pane on the status bar. click the Planar pane on the status bar. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . In parallel views like the default Top. drag with the right mouse button. and Right view. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift.

PageDown. Rotate mouse wheel. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. PageUp. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 .

Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Lens length displays on status bar. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Keyboard tab and Aliases tab.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names.Rhino 2. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. See Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.Rhino 2. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. 26 .0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.

At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the world coordinates. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. the point will lie on the world x.3 and press Enter. type 12. enter the starting point for the line.6. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.0 and press Enter. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the construction plane. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.y plane.z and press Enter. click Line. type 0. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. then click Single Line. type r2.z and press Enter. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. type coordinates in the format: x. with r prefix relative coordinates.0. then click Single Line. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt.and y-coordinates.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. type w12. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.6. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0. click Line.Rhino 2.y. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.0 and press Enter. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. 27 .10 and press Enter. click Line. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. type coordinates in the format: wx. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates.10 in the construction plane coordinates. This starts the line at the construction plane origin. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note If you enter only x. Note If you enter only x.and y-coordinates. type coordinates in the format: rx.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.6. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates.y.6. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.10 and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type w0. then click Single Line. y and z coordinates to place points. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.

click Line. A white tracking line will display. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. enter the starting point for the line. then click Single Line. indicating the new location of the selection set. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. type 4<45 and press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. enter the starting point for the line. click another point in the perspective viewport. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. click Line. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. Click the left mouse button to select the point.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. click a point in the perspective viewport. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. type r4<45 and press Enter. click Free-form. then click Single Line. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. Notice the location of the marker in the other views.axis) and press Enter. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. 28 . At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Interpolate Points. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.Rhino 2. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport.axis) and press Enter. At the Next point of curve. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.

Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. Positive numbers are above the construction plane.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode.D points using 2.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. Or press Tab twice. 29 . and click again. then click Single Line. Continue with picking locations. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. From the Curves menu. Change viewports.Rhino 2. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Press Tab. Place the first line point. Drag the mouse out.D. type NoElev. then press Ctrl and click. but only if the point can be truly 3. was when you pressed Tab. release Ctrl. You can start elevator mode in another location. Specifying 3. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. press Ctrl. negative numbers are below. After starting elevator mode. click Line. Release Ctrl.

type a distance and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. From the Curves menu. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Turn on end object snap. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . Your line will pass through the end of the curve. then click Single Line. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. type <60. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. Or. the marker snaps to the curve end. click Line. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. Click to place the point. enter the starting point for the line. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle.Rhino 2.

but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. then click Single Line. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. From the Curves menu. click Line. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. Click to place the point. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.Rhino 2. type 10. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. Or. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. Click to place the point. you can turn them on. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. enter the starting point for the line.

you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. so those are the things that need to be merged. the surfaces cannot be merged. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. this will become more clear. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface.Rhino 2. 32 . which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary.

Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. Text height The text height in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. extension line offset distance. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. The text height. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. extension line extension. 33 .

Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line.Rhino 2. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. 34 . Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. regardless of the direction of the dimension line.

Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. 35 . This setting is scale independent. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Custom Set the custom options. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. When the Refine check box is selected. but may take very long to shade and render. whenever you start a new model without a template. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. is from 1 to 100. but should shade and render relatively fast. and higher polygon count. This setting is scale independent. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Document Properties dialog box. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. more accurate meshes. Notes tab Add notes to your model. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults.Rhino 2. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. type information you want to save with the model. when not zero. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. these settings are used. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. Document Properties dialog box.

Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. Refine is selected. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. more accurate meshes.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. edge to Srf options. Jagged seams is not selected. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. In practice.Rhino 2. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Max edge length. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. By default. Min edge length. By default. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Setting Max dist. This option is scale dependent. and lower polygon count. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. The default values is 16. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. By default. Max dist. and higher polygon count. When the Refine check box is selected. 36 . Document Properties dialog box. When the Refine check box is selected. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Simple planes is not selected. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. less accurate meshes. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. After initial meshing. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. and Max dist. When the Refine check box is selected.

all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. This makes the image appear smoother. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image.Rhino 2. but also slows down rendering. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. With small objects. In practice. Background Sets the color of the render background. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. if the shadows are turned on. In Rhino. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. None Each pixel is sampled once. use bigger shadow offset. With large objects. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. use smaller shadow offset. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. 37 .0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. None No shadows. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. In general. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not.

2micron(s) Millimeters 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. trimming surfaces.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. Select Decimal. When you change from one units to another.2mm 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2meter(s) Kilometers 1.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 .2(") 1-1/2" 1.2cm 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2mic 1. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. Document Properties dialog box. or Feet & Inches. Fractional.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. Mils 1.2km 1.2m 1.Rhino 2. the relative tolerance is used instead.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1.2c 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. In those commands. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands. For example.

or Extents of the selected objects. set multiple templates. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template.Rhino 2.01 millimeters. You can create new viewports.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. In general. Extents. and use predefined viewport configurations. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Zoom Window. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. Rhino 2. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. and place a named viewport on top. 39 . rename viewports. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. Use defined and named views. step through the viewports. Close the viewport. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. You can specify which viewport is maximized. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport.001.01 to 0. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes.

all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. To select additional objects. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. Crossing.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. To remove an object from a selection set. Select objects General Click an object to select it. To bring all your objects into view. click Set View > Plan. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. from the View menu. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. Edit viewport properties. When the selection menu pops up. When you make a Window selection. 40 . the current object and its designation in the list highlight. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. from the View menu. When you make a Crossing selection. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Edit Grid properties. click Zoom Extents All. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected.

0. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. you'd get one line. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. Import and export file types Rhino 1. no 2. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. press Enter or the spacebar.x files from Rhino 2.x files into Rhino 2.x 3D models (. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . In the File name box.0 If you load a 1. Sweep1.0 If you save as a 1. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. type a filename.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. and you picked an edge as a curve. Copy. click Export or Save As. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole.x file from Rhino 2. When object is highlighted.x file into Rhino 2. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). For instance if you have a plane.Rhino 2. but if you picked it as a boundary.3dm).0.0 rendering information is saved in the 1. Saving 1. Sweep2). select Rhino 1. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Click another object.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu.x file. In the Save as type box.

type a name for the 3DS file. select 3D Studio. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided.Rhino 2. from the File menu.5.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties.2. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. Or. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. in the Files of type. In the File name box. Or. type a name for the 3DS file. from the File menu. MAX 2. If no object name is defined. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. Click Save. 2. click Import/Merge. For version 3. select 3D Studio. 42 . Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1.2. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. If so. Click Open.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. They are not converted to NURBS. In the File name box. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. or MAX 2.0 use IGES to transfer files. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName.0. In the Open dialog box. click Open. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. 2. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. When building morph targets.0. click Save As. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter.

RhinoMax20imp. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. RhinoMax2imp. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. or RhinoMax25imp. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. (3dmimp.dli.dli from the directories in your MAX2. RhinoMax25imp. Now mesh your curved surfaces. select Rhino 3D Models. and RhinoMax20imp.dli.0 Command Reference File formats In general. are imported in several pieces. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. 3DS MAX version 2.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model.Rhino 2.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. use 3DS file format. From the MAX2. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.rhino3d.5 plug-ins path. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. This happens because MAX2. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. from the Files of type box. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in.3dm. MAX does not export NURBS curves. or 3D Studio R4. Attempt trimming? 43 .dli into your "3dsmax2.dli. Only Spline objects get exported.5 File menu.5\plugins\" directory.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. RhinoMax2imp.5. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. This happens because the MAX2. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. export to a DWG.dli. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. click Import. Select the 3DM file to import. In the MAX2.5 File Import dialog box. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. The Rhino web site at http://www.5.dli.

Save the 3DM file from Rhino." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette.5 as a single surface. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Given the information we have. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. 3D Studio MAX 2. The Rhino web site at http://www.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. Click the MAX2. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. CurveCV. Using developers tools.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question.5 NURBS object. from the Files of type box. NURBS curves: 44 .5 or 3DS DOS. In general. If you answer "no.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. From the MAX2 File menu.dli and RhinoMax2imp.rhino3d. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Curve. select Rhino 3D Models. To closely examine and edit MAX2.dli or RhinoMax2imp.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. Surface. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. Open 3D Studio MAX2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp.0 Command Reference If you answer yes.5 module called "ACISMAX2. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. (3dmimp.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool).0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. click the Sub-Object button.Rhino 2. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. click Import. If MAX crashes.0. Be patient. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. Select the 3DM file to import. 3DS MAX version 2.

are imported in several pieces. 45 . CurveCV.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. From the Tools menu.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Select a MAX2 NURBS object.at/duck3. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. Open 3D Studio MAX. In the File Import dialog box. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. From the File menu. Curve. click Mesh.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. Clear the Weld control. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. from the Files of type box. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name.rhino3d. select Rhino 3D Models. 3D Studio MAX 3. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. If there is no Rhino object name. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. click Import. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. Click the Sub-Object button.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory.habware." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2.1. Some surfaces.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. Surface. On December 10 1997.Rhino 2. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. Select the 3DM file to import. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. obj+number is used as a name. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1.

select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. It does not fix geometry problems.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. All of the version types export curves. type a name for the file. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. select ACIS SAT. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.0 is currently not suggested.0 ACIS Version: 2. click Export Selected.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.5 ACIS Version: 1. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. click Save As. To change these into splines. At the Select object prompt.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. Or. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. select the curves and explode them. but import in as bodies. In the Save as type box. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. select the options for the export. Using ACIS Version 5. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. In Rhino.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1.and v-direction vectors. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. from the File menu.Rhino 2. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves.0 ACIS Version: 3. Click Save. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. In the File name box.

0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. click Import/Merge.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. click Open. In the File name box.0 ACIS Version: 4. type a name for the AI file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4. select a scale option. under Scale. Click Open. select Adobe Illustrator.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. Or. from the File menu. In the Files of type box.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. 47 . In the AI Import Options dialog box.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.Rhino 2.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4.

This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. In the Open dialog box.Rhino 2. from the File menu. Under some circumstances. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the AI Export Options dialog box. select AG. type a name for the AI file. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. under Scale. Click Open. From the File menu. Or. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily.ini. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. type a name for the AG file. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. type a name for the AG file. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. In the File name box. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. from the Files of type box. In the File name box. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. In the File name box. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. select Adobe Illustrator. from the File menu. click Save As.1 units from the original curve. Or. Click Save. Rhino only reads curve geometry.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. curves need to be refit before exporting. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. not text. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . click Open. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. click Save As. select AG. In some situations. from the File menu. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. From the File menu. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9.0 > 8. Make the viewport you want to export from active.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Or. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. click a scale option. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format.0 files. click Import/Merge.5. click Export Selected.

AutoCAD line types are ignored. select AutoCAD DXF. click Import/Merge. Rhino will not import images. From the File menu. select AutoCAD DWG. In the File name box. type a name for the DXF file. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. Or. click Export Selected. regions. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. In the Files of type box. Object properties. from the File menu. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. Click Save. type a name for the DWG file. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select AutoCAD DWG. Or. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces.Rhino 2. type a name for the DWG file. Click Open. click Open. or anything in paperspace. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. select the options for DWG export. XREF's are imported. from the File menu. rays. In the Files of type box. from the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Save As. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. select the options for DXF export. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. click Export Selected. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . Click Open. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. OLE objects. They are not converted to NURBS. from the File menu. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. click Open. click Import/Merge. Or. type a name for the DXF file. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Or. click Save As. select AutoCAD DXF. From the File menu. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. Click Save. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.

When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. circle.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. OLE objects. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. curves are approximated with polylines. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. 50 . arc. and line entities. you can export either polyline or spline entities. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. regions. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. arcs. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. or circle. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. 3-D curves are never simplified. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. arc. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. circles. Rhino will not import images. use RAW instead. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. 2-D curves are simplified. rays. or anything in paperspace. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. They are not converted to NURBS. but do not properly read polyface meshes. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. or circle. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. This means if the curve is just one line. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. the combined layer will be off in Rhino.Rhino 2. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. export curves as splines.

the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. In the File name box. line. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. arcs. line.Rhino 2. If the simplify tolerance is too large. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. it will be exported as such. but increase the number of polyline segments. From the File menu. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. Click Save. circle. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. and line entities. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. If the simplify tolerance is too small. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. lines. The larger this number. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. not the file header. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. type a name for the file. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . For silhouette lines. This setting uses current model units. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. select Object Properties (. it is exported as a simple entity.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. ellipse. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. click Export Selected. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. or later DWG/DXF. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. In the Save as type box. arc. ellipses. or ellipse. Use simple entities Circles. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. circle.csv). arcs. and ellipses as NURBS curves. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12.

Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. The larger this number. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. object render color and selected mass properties. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. All component origin shift is considered 0. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. Rhino produces one component for each shape. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. object name. This setting determines how the station lines are created. Each component will have the same name as the shape.C). You can give each shape the name you would like here. When exporting curves as polylines. 52 . This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. layer color.Rhino 2. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name.0. Rhino must approximate each polyline.S) or only half (.0. If you have previously selected a centerline. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments.

You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. Containment. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Save As. Click Open. click Export Selected. click Save As. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. from the Files of type box. select Lightwave. Object names will be used when exporting the . Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. from the File menu. Click Save. The LWO file is limited to 65.535 points for the entire file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the File name box. Or. Click Save. or Windage (sail). from the File menu. In the File name box. If the same name is used for multiple objects.Rhino 2. from the File menu. Each component will initially be a member of this part. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Note Object names are supported. click Import/Merge. click Export Selected. type a name for the UDO file. In the File name box. type a name for the LWO file. select Moray UDO. which does not have the 65.000 polygon limitation. In the Save as type box. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. type a name for the LWO file. select Lightwave. Moray automatically numbers the objects. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Open dialog box. They are not converted to NURBS. 53 . Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains.lwo file instead of a generic name. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Or. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. Or. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. click Open.

click User Defined. 54 . from Create menu. and curves Solid Edge 6. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray.Rhino 2. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. Planes are important primitives.stmuc.INC file. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6.UDO file and a . To import the object into Moray. click Export Selected.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. In the File name box. they display a blank window. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks.com/moray/. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle." Solution The model probably exported just fine.0 will not read in open surfaces. only closed solids will be imported. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. and colors. When you export to UDO. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. select the target application for the export. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. type a name for the file. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. surfaces. In the Save as type box. Rhino creates a . Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. Or. Click Save. click Save As. from the File menu. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. surfaces. If the file contains open surfaces. they will be ignored with no warning. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. select Parasolid X_T. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen.

com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. In the File name box. Or. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. ISBN: 0201508680. 55 .rendering. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. Click Save.bmrt. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz.graphics.rhino3d. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. ISBN: 1558606181. from the File menu. click Save As. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. In the Save as type box. type a name for the RIB file. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. select RenderMan.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. click Export Selected.Rhino 2.rhino3d. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. however.

1.povray. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults).Rhino 2. and opacity statement for each object. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . In the File name box. To cancel the rendering process. type a name for the POV file. select POV-Ray Mesh. click Export Selected. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. 56 . transparency. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. Use Properties to set the object names. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. click the big blue "R. color. Click Save. Or. and highlight. Set up your scene with materials and lights. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. click Save As. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. To test render the scene." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. In the Save as type box. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. Export to RIB file format supports render background color. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. from the File menu. The transparency color is the color of the object. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.rib reboot your computer. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. however. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp.rendribrc. The intensity is always set to 1. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render.povray. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary.org. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. Rhino writes the surface.org. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object." Two windows will open.

Click Save. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal.inc and lights. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export Selected. Or. In the Open dialog box. select Raw Triangles. 57 .Rhino 2. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. click Save As.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. but object colors are. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. Or. type a name for the RTF file. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Click Open. transparency. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. or into one large POV file. from the Files of type box. click Open. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. In the File name box. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). from the File menu. click Import/Merge. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. In the Save as type box. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. from the File menu. Textures are not exported. and highlight. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. They are not converted to NURBS. select Raw Triangles. type a name for the RAW file. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. In the File name box.

from the File menu. type a name for the SLC file.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. from the Files of type box. select STEP. Or. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. click Export Selected. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Import it back into Rhino. click Save As.0127mm.0508mm and 0. Click Save. In the Save as type box. from the File menu.0762mm. (For example. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. use DXF instead. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. All quadrangles are converted to triangles.Rhino 2. From the File menu. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. type a name for the STEP file. Consequently. select STEP. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. from the File menu.0254mm. click Open. In the File name box. 0. 0. In the File name box. from the File menu. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. Or. type a name for the STEP file. click Import/Merge. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Save as type box. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. Or. select SLC. Click Save. click Import/Merge. Click Open. Or. The greater the number of polygons.0381mm. click Save As. click Open. In the Open dialog box. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. 0. and use ExplodeMesh. The slices will be evenly spaced. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. 58 . The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. click Export Selected. Export it in RAW format. In the File name box.

then they have the same idea of up. From the Tools menu. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Use JoinMesh. but doesn't glue the edges together. then click Unify Normals. then Weld (angle=180). 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. select STL. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. then click Weld. To see if the result has any holes or gaps.) Select the new mesh object. type a name for the STL file. then click Join. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. From the Tools menu. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. In the File name box. Or. click Polygon Mesh. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. type a name for the STL file. click Export Selected. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. that is.Rhino 2. Click Open. Instead.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. In the Save as type box. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. select STL. to get JCAD to work. They are not converted to NURBS. 59 . You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. For example. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. click Polygon Mesh. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. if two triangles share an edge. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. click Polygon Mesh. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Click Save. to control STL accuracy.ini file to look like this. from the File menu. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. click Save As. From the Tools menu. If a mesh point is highlighted. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines.

set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.axis toward the x. Or. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. type a name for the VDA file. From the File menu. click Save As. click Import/Merge. select VDA. Or.Rhino 2. shine.D geometry and topology information. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. etc. select VRML. from the File menu. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player.y plane. Texture assignments are currently not exported. click Export Selected. It does not support assembly and feature information. Render color. click Export Selected. In the File name box. click Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. type a name for the VDA file. from the File menu. Click Save. symbols. In the File name box. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. from the Files of type box. select VDA. Rhino now 60 . views. Or. Click Open. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. In the Open dialog box. click Open. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. It does not support representation of drawing information. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. In the Save as type box. type a name for the WRL file. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. from the File menu.

enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. click Save As.0 first. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black.pdf. Or.viewpoint. type a name for the file.viewpoint.Rhino 2. click Export Selected. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. In the Save as type box. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. select Windows Metafile. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. click Export Selected. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. (The MTS file contains the actual data. You can download it from http://developer. you should try 2. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer.) Outside of Rhino. Render Mesh tab. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. but will make the WRL file much larger.exe.com/software/mtx2html. from the File menu. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Click Save. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. In the File name box. and if so. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. type a name for the WMF file. select Viewpoint Technologies Export.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. In the Save as type box. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport.0. This can be tricky. try 1. from the File menu. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. From the File menu. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. 61 . In general.0 and 2. click Save As. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. In the File name box. Or. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK.0.

PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. in the Save as type box. type a name for the DXF file. Sender's product ID. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. From the File menu. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. This means various settings have different values for each product. and click Save. Detailed options Author. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. enter a name for the file.Rhino 2. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. select an IGES type. 62 . To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. from the IGES type box. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. Click Save. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes.3ds A file yourfile. In the File name box. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry.x is created. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. select IGES. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. click Export Selected. Organization. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. 1 2 In the File name box.

the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. the IGES file will be empty. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file.ini. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. To import trimming curves as curve objects.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed. To create an IGES import log. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 .0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. When Rhino 2. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.2 or 5.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command.ini.Rhino 2. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance.

2. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 .Delicious" = 13 "Apple . You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. This file can contain multiple flavors. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. A flavor is terminated by a blank line. you need to do a bit of sleuthing.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping.).Rhino 2. but this is not required.. When Rhino reads an IGES file. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. To see if this is the case.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N".txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules.) are ignored. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. 3. an IGES level number is automatically selected." For example. . Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. Spaces and tabs are ignored.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. 1.. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. Lines that begin with semi-colon (.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: .

or Logical/Positional(). you will get it. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. accepting only entities marked as geometry. 65 .igs open gamma. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. click Close. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. If you do something like: open alpha. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. Definition().igs and gamma. set the options for the IGES type. Other().igs normally. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. Rhino reads alpha. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. click New. regardless of type. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent.igs. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read.igs. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If one of the Annotation().igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta.

set the options for the IGES type. from the IGES type list box. and MacOS uses CR. arcs. and click Copy Type. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type.2 and 5. Unix uses LF. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. this number should be one. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. or IGES circles. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. In most cases. and maximum degree five. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. select an IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If the max degree is set to three.2 stores years using two digits and 5. and click Edit.3 using four digits. click Close.3. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. The number must be bigger than zero. Unix. 66 . MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. The difference is 5.Rhino 2. maximum degree three. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. and click Delete. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. set the options for the IGES type. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. IGES 184 entities. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. click Close. If the max degree is set to five. from the IGES type list box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. select an IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. IGES arcs. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. and MacOS style line endings. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.

IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. try the following test. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. If the max degree is set to five. In the File name box. maximum degree three. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Or. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.Rhino 2. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. click Save As.com/rhino so we can document this file format. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. when possible. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). Curves are not exported. select the options for OBJ export. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Try to load both files into your product. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. when possible. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. Click Save. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. from the File menu. type a name for the OBJ file. select Wavefront OBJ. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). If you get better results with one export type. 67 .0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. and maximum degree five. when possible.rhino3d. If the max degree is set to three. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces.

The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. If is far from 100% satisfactory. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. End of line character CRLF (Windows. The . CR (Mac OS) Return only. To export to MAX. There are also references to these materials added to the . 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. Export layer names Exports layer names.ini file.mtl file with the same name as the . Export object names Exports object names. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. LF (Unix) Line feed only. Export layer names should be cleared.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. Export material definitions Creates an . Options Skip Don't export meshes. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. 68 . 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. mesh export is disabled.obj file. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. By default. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation.obj file.Rhino 2.mtl file contains one material definition per object.

From the IGES Type box. select IGES. In the Save as type box. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. select Alias V8. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. try using OBJ format instead. it is recommended that you save your work. it is recommended that you save your work first. select 3D Studio MAX 3.Rhino 2. change your viewport layout to a single viewport.x. and set the display to wireframe. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. To distinguish between separate entities. In the File name box. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. and flip the trim. In the Save as type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . Note When merging an IGES file. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. In this case. select the surface. click Export Selected. All data that is not grouped. Or. For the fastest import. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. After a large IGES import. select the trim curve.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. type a filename. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. click Export or Save As. and Customize > Preferences. and then restart MAX. From the IGES Type box. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. make it independent. from the File menu.

In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select Ashlar Vellum. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select AUTOFORM.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. type a filename. type a filename.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.Rhino 2. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select CADCEUS. click Export or Save As. type a filename. 71 .0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. select AutoShip. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select Breault Research's ASAP.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. select IGES. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select CamSoft.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select CATIA. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. In the File name box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select IGES. type a filename. In the File name box.

In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. even those that are trivially trimmed. type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities.Rhino 2. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. click Export or Save As. Surfaces and Solids. In the Save as type box. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Cosmos/M. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file.

From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Cosmos/M. select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select FastShip. 74 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.

select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select FastSURF. In the File name box. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. In the File name box. type a filename. click Export or Save As.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IronCAD. select Integrity Ware. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select LUSAS. select IGES.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. select Mastercam. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.

From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids. type a filename.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. In the File name box. type a filename.Rhino 2. from the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select Maya. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. 77 . select ME30. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export Selected. click Export or Save As. Or. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. From the IGES Type box.IGESOUT dialog box. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 .opt. select Mechanical Desktop. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. To save these settings. You may set these options as you see fit.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. select IGES. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. click Start and Global. type a filename. Version 5. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. 78 .2 or 5. click DE Mappings. In the File name box. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. Surfaces and Solids. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. To get the best results. (The MDT defaults work fine. click Edit options. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. Version 5.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers.3. in the Description box. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. click Geometry. set IGES Version to either 5. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. and click OK. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Microstation. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. In the Save as type box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. click Export or Save As. type a filename. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. From the IGES Type box. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. click Structure. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.

1. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3. select IGES. In the File name box. If you add the following section to your Rhino. select NASA GridTool.Rhino 2. select Multisurf. type a filename.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation.1 using an IGES file. Multisurf 3. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. the current version of Multisurf is 3. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. click Export or Save As.000000 79 . This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves.ini file.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . From the IGES Type box. select OptiCAD. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. select IGES. In the File name box. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select NuGraf. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.

type a filename. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. Note With Pro/E version 20. when exporting to IGES. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . In the Save as type box. If you set your tolerances right. select IGES. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino.pro file or save them as rhino. From the IGES Type box.001 to 0.Rhino 2.pro file then read it in before exporting. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. use the "All Parts" option.0001 will produce good results.01 units. somewhere around 0.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry. use these settings in the Pro/E config. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.

There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. even those that are trivially trimmed. Surfaces and Solids. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. 82 . Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. Things like fillets and drafts . then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The more trims you have.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. If the curves are planar. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. there are now two types. Surface replace is another good tool to use. then. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. When modeling in Rhino. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole.

select SDRC's I-DEAS. a surface. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. type a filename. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E .Rhino 2. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. There is no geometry information in it. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. In the Save as type box. you will not get back what you sent. click Export or Save As. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. select IGES. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. and a solid. In the File name box. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino.

phoenixtools. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. 3.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. select Softimage. In the Save As dialog box. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.8: ftp://ftp.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. for SI versions 3. from the Save as type box.7sp1 and 3. select IGES. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later.phoenixtools.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export. From the File menu. DXF. Check out their web site for more information: www.Rhino 2.com Plugin download link page: www. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. All three have their own problems and benefits.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3. select Softimage.okino.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. Softimage can also import 3DS. Open Softimage. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. SGI and x86 (Intel). then click IGES.igs MyDSCFile. click Save As. from the IGES Type box. Run iges2soft.phoenixtools.com.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. 1. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. In the IGES Export dialog box. 2 84 . Type a filename and click Save.txt contains command line option information. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model.

IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. select Solid Edge. Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. click Export or Save As. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. type a filename. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. In the Save as type box. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.Rhino 2. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.

0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.001 or 0.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0.0 Points=116 86 . select IGES. type a filename. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the Save as type box. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. To export models to Rhino. click Export or Save As. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino.0001 before building the geometry. Experiment with different settings for optimal results. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Surfaces and Solids.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select SolidWorks.

which within human perception. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Also. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. ribs. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. Generally. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. is tangent. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. by nature. shelling. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. try to model with smooth. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. then shelling is likely to fail. and investigate alternative approaches.. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. etc. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. leaving features such as fillets.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. which works on both edges and faces. Nothing replaces experience.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0001.Rhino 2. 87 . select SUM4.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. Shelling. select IGES. type a filename. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. select SURFCAM. type a filename. click Export or Save As. for SolidWorks. to test feasibility. SUM 4. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.

In the File name box. type a filename.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .Rhino 2. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.

In the File name box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select TekSoft. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. type a filename. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. select Unigraphics. select IGES. type a filename.

In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. select Yamaha ESPRi. 90 . Surfaces and Solids. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. type a filename. Context-sensitive menu with object selected.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. select IGES. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the Save as type box. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

Edit the Rhino. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. The same limitation does not apply to render color. type values in the Hue. In addition. The first item is always to repeat the last command. or drag to manipulate the view. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. For maximum speed. actions related to objects appear in the menu. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable.Rhino 2. and Value boxes.txt in the Rhino install directory.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click.ini file. Saturation. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. select a color. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. 91 . from the Named Colors list.ini file to add or change menu items. If no object is selected. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. type RGB values in the Red. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. Context-sensitive menu indicator. If context-sensitive menu is on. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Green. and Blue boxes.

Near. If object snaps are locked. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. right-click the Lock checkbox. and Knot object snaps can persist. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. Quad. on the status bar. Midpoint.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. 92 . the appropriate object snap displays. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. and Point will not work for that pick. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. Point. if End. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. or can be activated for one pick only. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. All object snaps behave similarly. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. click Osnap. When activated. Center. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. Perp. When an object snap is active. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. After the pick. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. Only Near. As you pass your cursor over an object. Intersection. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. To clear all persistent object snaps. End. Tan. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. For example. Near. To display the Osnap dialog box. End.Rhino 2.

Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .Rhino 2. Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box.

Near. for example in ExtractIsoparm. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. from the Tools menu. This command is useful for command files. and Knot. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. all others will be cleared. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. 94 . The normal object snaps are evaluated first. At the Persistent Osnap prompt.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. Center. Valid options are NoSnap. Midpoint. Intersection. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. Tan.Rhino 2. The marker jumps to the endpoint. OrientOnSrf. with no spaces. If a command is active. separated by commas. then click End. Only these object snaps will be set. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. Quad. InsertKnot. click Object Snap. Point. Perp. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. Click to enter the endpoint. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. it turns off all persistent object snaps. or just suspends them for one pick. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. End.

Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. then click Point. click End. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. from the Tools menu. On the status bar. Click to enter the point. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor near a point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to its midpoint. click Mid. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. click the Osnap pane. The marker moves along the curve. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. The marker jumps to it. the seam point on closed curves. then click Mid. click Point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. 95 . click Object Snap. Click to enter a point on the curve.Rhino 2. Click to enter the midpoint. click Object Snap. then click Near. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. click Near. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a curve. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. and the "corners" of surfaces. On the status bar. Near object snap Snap near a curve.

On the status bar. tangent to the curve. Click to enter the point of intersection. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Cen. then click Intersection. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to it.Rhino 2. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click Int. from the Tools menu. from the Tools menu. Click to enter the center point. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to its center point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Move the cursor along a curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. On the status bar. Move the cursor along a curve. then click Perpendicular To. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. perpendicular to the curve. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Center. click Perp. then click Tangent To. click Object Snap. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. 96 . Click to enter one of these points. from the Tools menu. Click to enter one of these points. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a curve. Move the cursor near an intersection. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve.

The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. Move the cursor along a circle. with From. arc or ellipse. You can set this point. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. click Quad. Click to enter one of these points. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. without picking it.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. click Object Snap.Rhino 2. from the Tools menu. or similar surface edges. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Click to enter the knot point. and relative coordinate entry. angle constraint. type Knot. then click Quadrant. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. click Object Snap. 3 Example 97 . from the Tools menu. then click From. Set your constraints relative to the base point. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. On the status bar. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. then click Knot. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. click the Osnap pane. without entering that point for the original command. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. From object snap Snap from a point. Move the cursor near a curve. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. and finally choose the point for the original command. pick a point. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. In the Osnap dialog box. Similarly. click Tan. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. You can use another object snap to pick this point. At the Choose a base point prompt. distance constraint.

Cen. then click Tangent From. from the Tools menu. snap to the end of the line. click Object Snap.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. click Object Snap. select the curve. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. for greater precision. At the Click near the curve prompt. Note When selecting points during this sequence. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. At the Click near the curve prompt. from the Tools menu. 98 . At the Choose a point prompt. and Quad. then click From. click Object Snap. Int. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. The cursor moves only along the curve. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. you can use simple snaps. then click Perpendicular From. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. Near. from the Tools menu. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from.Rhino 2. type 2 and press Enter. End. At the Choose a base point prompt. Mid. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. select the curve. Point. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line.

At the End of base line prompt. and Quad) for greater precision. click Object Snap. select a first point to specify the tracking line. select a second point. The marker tracks along the tangent line. At the Start of base line prompt. and Quad) for greater precision. you can use simple snaps (End. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. 99 . Cen. Near. Int. you can use simple snaps (End. Along object snap Track along a line. then click Along Line. Point. Int. Mid. from the Tools menu. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Point. Near.Rhino 2. Point.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. and Quad) for greater precision. Or. Mid. type AlongParallel. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. At the Choose a point prompt. you can use simple snaps (End. Int. in the Object Snap toolbar. Click to enter a point on the line. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. right-click the Along toolbar button. Cen. Note When selecting points during this sequence. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Click to enter a point on the line. At the Start of tracking line prompt. The marker moves only along the line. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. The marker moves only along the line. select a second point. Mid. At the End of tracking line prompt. Cen. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. Near.

Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. Intersection. End. Click to enter a point on the surface. By default. and the cursor is over an object snap point. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. Center. for greater precision.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Note When selecting a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. then click On Surface. The marker moves only along the surface. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf.Rhino 2. At the Click near the surface prompt. 100 . When Osnap projection is on. Near. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. you can use simple snaps. click Object Snap. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. select Project to CPlane. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. select the surface. Mid. it is off. Point. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. from the Tools menu. and Knot. but works on curves. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve.

The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. General tab. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. 0. Object Properties. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. One isoparm on knot-free spans. 1. and the other positive integers. and RenderMan RIB. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. go to the Options dialog box. 101 . The valid values are -1. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Information Technical information about the command displays. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list.Rhino 2. or just the knot isoparms. POV-Ray. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. Isoparms at surface knot locations. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. and OBJ file export. 2. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on.

Rendering properties can be assigned to layers.Rhino 2. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. finish. To change the material assignment of the layer. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. you can set the color.0 Command Reference Object Properties. 102 . texture. From top left to bottom right. Color Sets the color of the light. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Material tab Edit object material properties. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Turns light on or off. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. transparency. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. using a plug-in library. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. Light tab Edit light object properties. this tab displays the properties for that light type.

in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. 103 . Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Clear this option to remove the texture map. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. or a polygon mesh. polysurface.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. To change the color of the wireframe display. Unlike more advanced renderers. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box.Rhino 2. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Text tab Edit text properties. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Object Properties. From top left to bottom right. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.

Example If your units are inches. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Options dialog box. When you place annotation text.Rhino 2.25 inches.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Command string Command alias definitions. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. 104 . The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. The two sizes update each other. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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If the objects you are rendering are very complex. The next time you shade the same model. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. click Use OpenGL. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. Render Mesh tab. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. Also. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. spotlighting. click Options.Rhino 2. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. On the Shade tab. and a backdrop image. from the smooth geometry. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. shadows. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. highlights. For highest quality results. this shading mode may be much faster. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. and the color-andshadows Render. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. Rhino takes that time to calculate. 114 . see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. you will see improved performance. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Choose between the quick render preview.

Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering.0 or 1. 115 . Jagged spotlight edges and self. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. so it won't be deformed. Render Mesh tab. Render tab. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Rhino Render tab. from the smooth geometry. The next time you render the same model. the patterns may probably disappear. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. In some situations. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. you will see improved performance. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. which might appear in waves. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems.5. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort.Rhino 2. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. Self. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. Also. When you draw the plane. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. of the view in the active viewport. Rhino takes that time to calculate. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box.

Change the size of the light. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. Self-shadowing artifacts.shadowing effects. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges.Rhino 2. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. Sometimes the conversion 116 . If you’re getting self. If you increase it too much. If the problems still persist. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. Correct shadow. The scale of the objects is very large. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. That will usually solve the problem. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth.

you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. change the color of the wire frame. contact Rhino Technical Support. you can turn them all off at once. To set the column width. For example. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. When objects are on a layer. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. and since the polygons are flat. Windows 95. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. please read section the next section. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. available from Microsoft at www.microsoft. Name Layer name. If this does not fix the problem. Otherwise. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Off Status of layer. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Or you can organize your parts a different way. Start Rhino. they look jagged. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack.com/windows/downloads/winntw.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). and download the latest drivers. 117 . Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. To update your OpenGL drivers.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. if you were working on a human figure.Rhino 2. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. select them all with one selection. To update Windows NT drivers. This helps you organize your model. you may not have the current drivers.asp. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized.dll and Glu32. On Status of layer. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. Even if you got the card last week.

Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. polysurface. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. 118 . you can set the color. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. To change the color of the wireframe display. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. You can snap to objects on this layer. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Unlike more advanced renderers. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. texture. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object.Rhino 2. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. transparency. or a polygon mesh. finish. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display.

In the Layer dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. click New. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. 119 . The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. type a new name and press Enter. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. You can select all layers. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. select the name on the list. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. Clear this option to remove the bump map.Rhino 2. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. If you don't remember the layer names. Clear this option to remove the texture map. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. select a set of layers. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. You cannot create new layers with these names. and Invert the selection.

On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. To delete empty layers. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. use the Empty Layers filter. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. click the color column of the layer you want to change. from the list select the layers you want to delete. select a color for the layer. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. When a model has a large number of layers. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. select all the displayed layers and delete.Rhino 2. Click Delete. click a filter option. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . In the Select Color dialog box. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. In the Show box.

and whether or not there are objects on the layer). set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. click Filtered Layers.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. or locked. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. set the desired filter options. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 ." are on or locked. off. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z.Rhino 2. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word).

Think of each curve you select in Loft. then use the one closest to the top of the list.Rhino 2. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. generally. or accordion bellows-like surface. If you are after a flag-like surface. Rules. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. The rail curve directs the surface along it. If this doesn't help. The surface is smooth. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. Lofts. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. try adding a few more cross sections. Sweeps. then the surface created by loft will. 122 . then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. then try Loft. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. stair-like. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. Sweep1. If you are after a tent-like.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. then use a ruled surface. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface.

It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. use a Sweep2.Rhino 2. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. the surface will twist. while keeping the other end fixed. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. If you have a several of closed curves. 123 .

or no curves. the intersection of the offsets can have one. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. and thus the fillet. For each of these four ways. there are four ways to fillet. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. then intersecting the resulting surfaces.Rhino 2. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. 124 .0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. For a given radius. several.

125 .0 Command Reference As mentioned. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component.Rhino 2. for this choice of sides. These pieces can be grouped into connected components. there may be several fillet pieces.

Rhino 2. yes. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. and split. When Extend = yes. Because of this. When that is the case. If split. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. 126 . No. If yes.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. If no. then the surfaces are left intact. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails.

then no fillets will be created.Rhino 2. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. and a fillet will exist. their offsets may intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. 127 . If two surfaces are tangent.

Rhino 2. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. no fillet will be created. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. Otherwise. rather than arcs. except cross-sections are lines. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. 128 . Everything is the same as filleting surfaces.

especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. In this case. If one is a polysurface. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. then the result to B will work. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. on an open surface or polysurface. no corner patch will be attempted. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. Do each surface individually. In this case. Additionally. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls.Rhino 2." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. 129 . FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. The picking order can make the difference. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Once we have a curve on the surface. B and C. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. If both are single surfaces. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Often.0 Command Reference In general. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. However. When joining A. The result will have a hole at the corner. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. do not pick A and B first. If you do. it is projected. but it may not fit. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. a spherical patch will be made. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. joining A to C. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. Objects have overlapping surface areas. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. it doesn't. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface.

When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. For success using the Booleans.Rhino 2. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. or visa versa. You can also move control points to the same location. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. not mesh objects. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. 130 . the operation can fail. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. This point is also called a singularity. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect.

you can use other techniques to get the results you want. the Intersect command may give different results.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area.Rhino 2. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. select one object. At the Select object for intersection prompt. 131 . In this example. the two boxes are just touching along one side. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. there are three possible intersection curves. The objects will Union. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. and then click Intersection. In this example. select the second object. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. and Intersection do not work. we chose the cone first. In this example. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. click From Objects. In this example. but Difference. Depending on the order the objects are selected. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. At the Select object to intersect prompt.

this may not happen. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. you would expect to get all three curves. however. Therefore. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. To get all the possible curves. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. In our simple example. so we will Explode it. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command.Rhino 2. If your objects are very complex. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. if your objects are polysurfaces. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces.

At the Select cutting objects prompt. 133 . 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. click Extract Surface. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt.Rhino 2. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. select the cone. From the Solid menu. Explode the cone. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. Delete the small wedge of the cone. At the Select object to split prompt. click Split. select the two faces of the box as shown below.

At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. go through the same code. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. The intersection involves isolated points.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces.Rhino 2. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. From the Edit menu. 134 . you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. A – B = A intersect ~B. There is no intersection. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. click Trim. and is achieved by flipping the normals. So. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. union. intersection. In this case. difference. select the two curves.

enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Find the setting you want to change. In Windows Explorer. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. cylinders. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. the outside is the side to which the normals point. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. etc. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. find the folder where Rhino is installed. To understand the results.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance.ini and restart Rhino. planes.ini to open it for editing. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. select the check box for the toolbar. To edit the Rhino. Surfaces overlap. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. For a polysurface that is not a solid. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.ini file. Edit the Rhino. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface.Rhino 2. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. Exit Rhino. Double-click Rhino.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.ini. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. 135 . By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros.

Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. and click Properties. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. loses its title bar. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt.Rhino 2. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. until the preview frame of it changes shape. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. select the toolbar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. click Properties. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. and is docked.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. which can be on or off the Rhino window. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. The toolbar reshapes. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area.ini file. Or. type the new name. This is a setting in the Rhino. The title bar appears on the toolbar. 136 . Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. it has no title bar. The toolbar appears or hides. The title bar appears. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. The toolbar moves to a new position.

The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. The linked toolbar appears. Or. 3 137 . Or. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Or. Or. and click Import Toolbar. Click Import. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. click New. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. and drop in the desired position. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. The linked toolbar appears. and from the Toolbar menu. and click Delete Toolbar. select the toolbar. select the toolbars to import. and from the Toolbar menu. Release the mouse button. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. select the toolbar. which has the white triangle in the corner. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. it will distort the bitmap icon. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and click Properties. click Properties. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and click New Toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Or. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. click Import. Click Open.Rhino 2. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. click Delete. select the toolbar. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Press and hold Ctrl.

138 . The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. Press and hold Ctrl. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. Release the mouse button. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. Press and hold Shift. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. In this case. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Move the cursor over a link button. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. Press and hold Shift. The buttons rearrange. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Press and hold Shift. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. select Float to Top to make the link button float. The toolbar is floating. Or. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. The linked toolbar vanishes. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. or to a different position in the same toolbar.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. and click the right mouse button. it will distort the bitmap icon. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The toolbar appears. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. clear Float to Top.Rhino 2.

capture a portion of the screen. for example: Zoom In | Out. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. You can clear the image. Release the left mouse button. 139 . Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. Use this area to edit your bitmap. A blank button is added to the toolbar. click Add Button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Press F2 to view the command history.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. the left and right mouse buttons commands. Press and hold Shift. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Or. and click Add Button. and the bitmap icon. You can change the ToolTip. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. and click the right mouse button. select the toolbar. and click the right mouse button. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. Press and hold Shift. type text in the ToolTip box. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. right-click the toolbar name in the list. In the Delete Button dialog box. draw with the paint tools. If you don't know what to enter. Click Close. click OK. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons.Rhino 2. Press and hold Shift. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. type text in the ToolTip box. and from the Toolbar menu.

Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. To undo a mistake. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Or. and click the right mouse button. Press and hold Shift. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. Press and hold Shift. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons.Rhino 2. the button is blank. click Grab. click Edit Bitmap. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. and down using the keyboard arrow keys.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. click Undo. click Edit Bitmap. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. from the Edit menu. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Note You can shift the image left. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. 140 . The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. click Edit Bitmap. then OK. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Or. from the Edit menu. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Press and hold Shift. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. A square replaces the cursor. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. and click the right mouse button. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. up. right. Press and hold Shift. from the Edit menu. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Clear. Click the pencil tool.

Click Open.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. Press and hold Shift.1 4. from a text file. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. type a bitmap file name.Rhino 2. shortcut keys. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. 141 . click Import Bitmap. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. command aliases. This script moves objects. click Edit Bitmap.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream.-3 1. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. Click Save. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. select a bitmap file.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script.4 -4. and click the right mouse button. from the File menu. click Export Bitmap.-4 8. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. from the File menu.4 13. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. which stops the creation of point objects.0 5. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line.

browsing for files. layername2. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). Mode is always 1. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript.Rhino 2. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Options are 0=Interpolate. The default is 1. and Java applets. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. is a fast. 142 . Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. the Web's only standard scripting language. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. Divs is the samples per knotspan. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. then click Paste from Clipboard. The default is 20. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. portable. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. If you don't know what to enter. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Fit is the fitting method. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. variable names. Microsoft JScript 5. queries. Automation servers. These scripting languages allow loops. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition.5. 1=Fit.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. From the Tools menu. Press F2 to view the command history. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. click Commands.

If your model doesn't pass Check. Some bad model parts. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. though. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. re-trim the surface. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged.microsoft.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. you have to explode the model. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer.Rhino 2. see: http://msdn. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. If Rhino matches the large edges. The first one to try is the Check command. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. Another problem is having a tiny. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. If your model doesn't pass Check. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. If a model passes Check.rvb. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. and join everything back together again. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. For more information on scripting. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. 143 . and Check doesn't check for those things. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check.for instance. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. then edit the trim curves. To fix broken edges. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. Rhino will let you do it. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. you may find some of those microscopic edges. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. If you zoom in enough. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . These damaged areas can cause problems. then it will list some specific problems. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer.

the Join command can get confused when that happens.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs.0 5. Solution: Rebuild the curve.Rhino 2. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. To draw a non-G1 curve.10 5. If there are lots of tiny edges. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. This test does not check the geometry. Untrim or DetachTrim. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. Additionally.0 5. FitCrv. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0.4 10. and Join. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. open up the kink by control point editing. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. you can Undo changing the degree. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. 144 . Trim again. Thus. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.5 5. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. You will get this error message. Split the curve at the kink. simple edge-to-edge matching.

Non-singular edge has coincident control points.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. Extrude it. 145 . Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can put control points very close to each other. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Draw a Circle. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. Solution: DetachTrim. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. and then control point edit the extrusion. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Usually. fix curve and retrim. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Join and Booleans in particular. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. Solution: Rebuild the edge. Rhino 2. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. In short. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. but not right on top of each other. The warning lets you know when this has happened. You can put control points very close to each other. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Use this to install as a standalone node. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. You will get this error message. Internal control points are coincident.Rhino 2. Edge direction. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Some operations. You will get this error message. but not right on top of each other.

If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services.com/plug-ins. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses.htm. the license is added back to the available license pool. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. 146 .0 as a workgroup node.com/plugins/developer. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. For details on setting up a workgroup. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically.0" as a workgroup node. visit www. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. contact your network administrator. When a node shuts down.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. it does not modify the shape of the surface. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. Thus. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network.rhino3d.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. This is an installation option. Very little administration is required. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down.rhino3d. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. unlike standalone Rhino. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. No special hardware is needed.

If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . 0. Each 2. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing.90 degrees The range is from . 1. 2. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. the cursor turns into a crosshair. two 2. the marker will snap to the snap point.D curve. Rhino meshes all trim edges. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol.Rhino 2. 3. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. After the initial grid is made. 1. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. Marker. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. The 3. For example.D edge. the draft angle is 0.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. When using elevator mode. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge.D edge is to the surface. Cursor. When the initial mesh grid is made. 0. called the pedge. called the edge. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation.D curves. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. 147 . False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. 2. then e_tol tells how close the 3.90 degrees to 90 degrees. 1/3. If an object snap is on.D curve (the one you see).D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. and tolerance values for each of the curves. which also approximates the intersection. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. trim curves are ignored. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. 3. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 8/3.

Normal direction Every surface has a normal. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect.) with a polynomial definition. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. Imagine a rope. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. etc. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. 148 . the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. the stiffness of the rope. When you have a finished solid. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. red on the other. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. The other side is the inside. flat constant on the other). Normals are also used for lighting a surface.Rhino 2. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. However. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. or reflective metal on one side. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. If you hold it at the ends. blue on one side. when you have a single surface. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. Solid objects do not have naked edges. or a polysurface.

Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode.Rhino 2. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Ortho pane. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. 149 . Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. surfaces. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. and solids. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Snap pane. In some other 3-D programs." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. this is called a "quilt. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. it is also a solid. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes.

If objects are selected and no command is active. v. The u. You can save your own templates to base future models on.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. v.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. no objects are selected. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. grid size. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. Surfaces have three directions.direction is indicated by the red arrow. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. and tolerances. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. When no command is active. Esc clears the command prompt. 150 . Esc deselects all objects. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. and the v. U. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. A rectangular surface with the u. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. and normal. You can display the u. units. there will be no holes in the mesh. If a mesh is generated from a solid. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow.Rhino 2. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. u. The u. Esc turns off the points. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino.direction is indicated by the green arrow. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points.

pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. You can shade and render the wireframe view. 3View Three-viewport layout. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. 4View Four-viewport layout. Press Enter for triangle prompt. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. 151 . Turn control points on for an existing mesh.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. and Third corner of polygon prompts. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Or. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Second corner of polygon. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon.

Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Start the AddNextV command.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface. 152 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddNextU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected 153 . Start the AddPrevU command.Rhino 2.

Start the AddPrevV command. Use the Group command to group objects together.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. 2 At the Select groups. 154 . 1 At the Select objects prompt. prompt select the group or enter a group name. select an object to add to a group. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.

At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. World Front. 155 . select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap.Rhino 2. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. AlignProfiles Align two curves. or World Right. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. At the Select curve to change prompt. The curves must be planar. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. 1 2 Select the objects.

pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. Start of second line prompt. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. End of first line prompt. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. 156 . select a point that defines the start of an angle line.

At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. and fitted onto the selected surface. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. If the surface is trimmed. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. select the surface to apply the mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. 157 . You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder.0000 degrees.Rhino 2. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. select the surface on which to apply the curves.

So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. enter the end point of the arc. If you use the Mirror transformation. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. you can make such morphs. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. one of which has been squished around in some way. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. For example. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. mesh the most complex surface first. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. If making morph targets. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. so if you Mirror something. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. Generally. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. But that swaps u and v on the surface.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). enter the start point of the arc. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. enter the center of the arc's radius. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. Then. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. Start. Arc Draw an arc. ApplyMesh guarantees that. 158 . enter the center of the arc's radius. At the Start of arc prompt. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them.Rhino 2. enter the angle for the arc. although if you understand the process and work at it. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. At the End point or angle prompt. Or.

0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. enter a point on the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. At the End of arc prompt. enter the start of the arc. At the Point on arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. You can enter the number of control points. Arc from three points 159 .Rhino 2.

160 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. At the End of arc prompt. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. Tangent. End. Arc from start point. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. At the Choose arc prompt. and radius. enter the start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. enter the radius of the arc. At the End of arc prompt. select the second curve. At the Radius prompt. enter the start point. end point.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. End. If the radius value is too small. enter the end point. select the first curve. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. end point. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the end point. enter a radius value. At the Direction prompt. At the Radius prompt.Rhino 2. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want.

Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. First moments. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. second moments. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. If you cannot see the entire report.0.014). 161 . select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1e-006.7e-006.0 (+/. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.34 (+/. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.8545412. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).0).4601236.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.1. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.1. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. product moments. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.1.

0 (+/. and sometimes contradictory. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. Different disciplines and textbooks use different. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.77350269 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 3. if you select a box polysurface. In order to get the particular moment you need.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.1e-009.46410162 (+/.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.73205081 (+/.5. with a surface or open polysurface. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-009) Rz: 6. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.0) zx: 0 (+/.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 1.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 .1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 3.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. As an example. Area = 60 (+/.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.0 is shown below.10.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.Rhino 2.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.88675135 (+/.1e-009.0.73300329 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.36650165 (+/. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.0 and 6. For example.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.

The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. In terms of integrals. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. area second moments. The relationship between the area first moments. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. In particular. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. and area product moments. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals.Rhino 2. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. In terms of integrals. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. area first moments. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 .

At the Number in Z direction prompt. to indicate the x. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. press Enter. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt.and y-intervals. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. 164 . type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects.Rhino 2. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. Transform. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. The array directions are the x. Or. At the Number in X direction prompt. type the x-interval. those distances are applied to the array directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. type the y-interval and press Enter. At the Number in Y direction prompt. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects.

type the z-interval and press Enter. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. specify twist behavior. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Or. or the spacing distance along the curve. set the number of elements to array. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. At the Select path curve prompt. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. 165 . You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface.Rhino 2. choose two points that define the z-interval. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed.

0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. Enter a value of 1 or more. 166 . At the Angle to fill prompt. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. and object to array. select objects to copy along the curve. Surface. type the number of copies and press Enter. select a curve on a surface. curve on surface. type an angle and press Enter. You can continue to place objects. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. Objects arrayed along line. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. At the Select the surface prompt. At the Center of polar array prompt. At the Basepoint prompt. choose a center point for the array. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects.

pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. At the Select surface to array along prompt. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. choose the surface to array along. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. type a number of objects.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. Array along a surface 167 . type a number of objects.Rhino 2. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. If the surface is a trimmed surface. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects.

Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. it prints a detailed description of the error. otherwise you must select a folder. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. At the End of line prompt. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. the path. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. If the Audit command detects a database error. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly.Rhino 2. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically.rhp Options set the resolution. enter the end of the arrow. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. See the PluginManager command. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. 168 . enter the start of the arrow. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. the model's folder will be used as the default. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.

Note By default.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. This sphere is two joined surfaces. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius.ini. automatic Autosave is turned off. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. General tab. choose a center point.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. 169 .Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. Files tab. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. Files tab. By default. Back Set to world back view.

choose the amount of bend. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint. At the End of second axis prompt. To bend the entire object. place the point outside the object. Bend 170 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. At the End of spine prompt. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose an endpoint. place the point outside the object.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. At the End of first axis prompt. choose an endpoint. To bend the entire object. At the Start of spine prompt. choose a center point.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. Bend Bend objects. At the End of third axis prompt. choose the second endpoint of the line.

At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. you will only bend that part of the object. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. The remainder of the object is kept straight. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. Bend moves the control points of objects. or enter a length and press Enter.only control points. and meshes. enter the end of the angle to bisect. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. surfaces. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. enter the start of the angle to bisect. 171 .0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. enter the start of the bisector line. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. You can't bend a polysurface . curves.Rhino 2.

This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. 172 .Rhino 2. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. If a blend appears to tight or loose. and curvature is called a G2 blend. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. To do this. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. The Blend command creates G2 blends. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. it applies to both ends.Rhino 2. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. and curvature. select adjacent edges. In either case. 173 . At the Select first set of edges. tangent direction. If you need a G1 blend. tangent direction. it applies only to the second end. or press Enter. Note The location. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. If it is invoked after picking the first end. then you should probably use InsertKnot. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. A blend curve that matches location. tangent direction. select a surface edge. and one of the curves is a blend curve. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. tangent direction. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. The location. tangent direction. delete the arc. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. If you are joining curves.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. and curvature. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. tangent directions. tangent direction. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

click the new layer. This gives you more control over the shape. the greater the number of control points. If you raise the degree of a surface. 183 . it will no longer be periodic.Rhino 2. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). It is possible to add/remove control points more locally.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. the higher the degree. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. but adds control points between each knot span. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box.

Circle Draw a circle. Note Delete or rebuild the object. enter the center point. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. select one object. Diagnostics. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. To check a license back in. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. use the CheckInLicense command.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. enter the radius point. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. Select objects. When the user gets back in the office. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network.Rhino 2. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. 184 . When users get back in the office.

Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . You can enter the number of control points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.Rhino 2.

At the Second point on circle prompt. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. delete the extras. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. Tangent. select the second curve. 186 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. enter a point on the circumference. At the Third point on circle prompt. select the first curve. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter a second point on the circumference. There may be multiple circles. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. enter a radius. At the Radius prompt. enter a third point on the circumference. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. enter the end of the diameter.Rhino 2. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.

Note To reduce the size of the model file. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. select the second curve. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. 187 . ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. select the first curve.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. select the third curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.Rhino 2. Point Select a point for input. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. There may be multiple circles. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. or are tangent to a second curve. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. At the Third tangent curve. delete the extras. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve.

To start one of those commands. pick it from the list. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. or in the Command area. Point objects are not a part of any other object.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. CommandHistory View command history. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. 188 . Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. Note Point objects display as small squares. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. enter a point. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. right click in the Rhino Command History window. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. Press F2 again to close the window. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point.Rhino 2. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. At the Base point for closest point prompt. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. Note To show the list of recently-used commands.

At the Radius prompt. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. choose a center point for the base. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Without the command area.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. Or. look at the Command List in this help file. choose a radius. If there is text in the Clipboard. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. Cone Draw a cone. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. Commands List all Rhino commands. it is pasted. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. At the End of cone prompt. it is pasted as a command script. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 .

Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. At the Reference vertex prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. enter the end point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Conic 190 .Rhino 2. At the End of conic prompt. Or. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Conic Draw a conic section curve.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. enter the middle point for the conic. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. enter the start point for the conic.

Second reference curve prompt. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. Parabolic Rho value of 0. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle.Rhino 2. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. B.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. select a curve. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. type T to select tangent curves.5. Point on second curve prompt.5. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. select a second curve.S) intersects chord(A. Point on first curve prompt. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. First reference curve prompt. Curvature point or rho prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. If you work out the details. let T be the point where line(B.C). Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0.0 and less than 0.5 and less than 1.

At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. At the End of conic prompt. End control points are at the same location. enter the end point for the conic.5.Rhino 2. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. 192 . so the w<1 case is elliptical. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. Parabolic Rho value of 0.5. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. Or.5 and 1. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. enter the reference vertex for the conic. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. This point partially defines the plane for the conic.0 and 0. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature.

Blend. Position. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. At the Contour plane base point prompt. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. choose a base point. Match. and meshes for contour line creation. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. 193 . Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same.Rhino 2. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. One of the contour planes will go through this point. BlendSrf. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. polysurfaces. curvature. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface.

the less dense the control polygon will display. At the Distance between contours prompt.Rhino 2. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. generated in both directions from the base point. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. 194 . At the Control polygon display density prompt. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. The higher this number is. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons.

use the ExtractWireframe command first. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight.Rhino 2. select curves and press Enter.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. Edges can't be converted with this command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. 195 . At the Angle tolerance prompt. select an object to create polylines from. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. The original curves are removed. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines.

choose locations for copies. Or. If the layer does not exist. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. Object properties and location are stored with the object. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. At the Point to copy to prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard.Rhino 2. to move the copy vertically. it is created when the object is pasted. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. snap spacing. choose a point to move the copy from. 196 . they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Or. to copy the object in the same place. type v and press Enter. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. type I and press Enter.

0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane.axis. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. 197 . All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane elevation prompt. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. At the CPlane orientation prompt. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the y-axis. At the X axis direction prompt. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z.Rhino 2. choose the new origin. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. choose a point on the x-axis.

you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin. Once your construction plane is positioned. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want.D location where it needs to be. 198 . This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. in the dynamic preview. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.D. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands.Rhino 2. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. for example. At the CPlane origin prompt. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. drag the construction plane's new x. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane.and yaxes to a new location.

pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. select a curve or surface. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. 199 .

At the X axis direction prompt.axis.axis. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. 200 . At the Z axis direction prompt. choose the new origin. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis.Rhino 2. At the X axis direction prompt. choose a point on the x. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose the new origin.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. choose the new origin. choose a point on the z. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the x.

select a surface. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. At the Select planar curve prompt. the original surface must be developable. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. cut openings in the unrolled surface.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Top view of profile curves 201 .Rhino 2. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Use UnrollSrf. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. select the second planar curve. select the first planar curve.

Look in the index under "Curve." 202 . Example For an example. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane.Rhino 2. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. From 2 Views.

Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. pick a new location for the seam point. press Enter. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. joining the ends of the overlap interval.Rhino 2. and move it along the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. When you are done adjusting the connections. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. They are connected with a line. pick on a seam point marker. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. At the Location of seam point prompt. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. For each overlap interval. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. 203 . The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.

Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. 204 . reversing the direction of the curve.Rhino 2. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.

Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. V or Both directions. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. press Enter to end the command. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. select a surface. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. The control point for the surface appear. with the control polygons. At the Select point on the surface prompts. end the line for the cross section plane.Rhino 2. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. that passes through the profile curves. Press Enter to stop creating curves. pick near a control point. At the End of cross-section line prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. For best results. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves.Rhino 2. space the cross section curves relatively evenly.

and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. Or. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. click to create the circle object. This does not automate finding the inflection points. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. the curve is locally flat. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. 2 207 . press Esc to end the command without change.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. but it makes it possible to mark them manually.Rhino 2. select a curve.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. curvature. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. 208 . set the style and range. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures.Rhino 2. In the Curvature dialog box. For example. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. and other important properties. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. Options Gaussian In the images below. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands.

In the case of an offset. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature).0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero.>100. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question.Rhino 2. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. 209 . Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. Blue areas should be safe. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. cylinders.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion. Set the value for blue rather high (10. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature.>1000) and the red close to infinity. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. (Planes. In the case of the mill.

If we care about this. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. and the direction. These meshes can be large. then we establish a convention. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface.Rhino 2. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. As a starting point. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. This is known as signed curvature. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . unlike a simple soap film. or to the right of the curve. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. this may result in a rather uninformative image. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. You have to map values to saturated computer colors.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. the normal to the surface at that point. A soap bubble. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. both free and attached to objects. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. these values may not be appropriate. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. At any point on a curve in the plane. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature.

A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. 211 . Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. frequency. such as wire loops.Rhino 2.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. This contrasts with a soap bubble. Adjust the length.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Curvature graph on surface. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. u. close the dialog box. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. even when other commands are started.

They are not curvature continuous. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. or tangent only. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. However. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous.Rhino 2. In other words. Degree 5 curve 212 . Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.

Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. If isoparm display is turned off. Curve Draw a curve by control points. maximum principal curvature. As you move your cursor. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. To see the circle. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . Press F2 to show the Command History window. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. To better grasp this. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. pick a point on the surface. 3. At any point on a curve (except lines). Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. 3." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. If the graph changes smoothly. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. minimum principal curvature.Rhino 2.D point. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. Gaussian curvature. that is. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). negative when the circles point opposite ways. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves.D normal.

Sharp When you make a closed curve. At the Next point. The curve closes. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. enter additional control points. enter the start of the curve. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. You must draw one more control point than the degree.Rhino 2. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. and pick. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. press Enter. enter an additional control point. To end the curve. When drawing a high degree curve. At the Next point. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic.

0). select the box.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0 (+/.014). second moments.0. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. it is created when the object is pasted. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. If the layer does not exist.1. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1e-006.1. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.7e-006. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.34 (+/. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. product moments. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.8545412. select the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.Rhino 2. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. select the box. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. 4 215 . select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. First moments.4601236. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the first point of a line to define a plane. 216 . Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects.0001). select the end point of a line that defines a plane.3921 (+/. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the End of cut plane prompt.0. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. At the Start of cut plane prompt. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. press Enter to stop making cut planes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.

Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. choose a center point for the base. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.8545412.7e-006.4601236. At the End of cylinder prompt.0). volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.1. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt.0 (+/. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. select the box. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. second moments.1. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1e-006. First moments. product moments. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Solid cylinder 217 . choose a point for the center of the top surface. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.Rhino 2. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.1. At the Radius prompt. choose a radius.

To start a new model. Press Delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. If you want to post-select objects to delete. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Layers. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. use New command instead.Rhino 2. use the Erase command. 218 . Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. saved views. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. All objects in the model are deleted. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Delete Delete selected objects. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit.

Rhino 2. In the Baud Rate dialog box. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. use the arm to choose an x. select your digitizing arm. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.axis.axis is perpendicular to the x.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. use the arm to choose a y. You do not need to ensure that the y. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. select a boundary to detach. 219 . Surface after outside trimming curve detached. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt.axis in the real world. Rhino will do it for you. Similar to Untrim . and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axis in the real world. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and the trim curve is created. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. choose an origin in Rhino. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. select the proper serial port and baud rate. Microscribe.

At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. and curves with the digitizer. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. you can use the digitizer. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Whatever the reason. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. 220 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. choose an x. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Digitize the third set of reference points. You can draw lines. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the first two sets of reference points.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt.axis in Rhino. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. Thus. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. arcs. or the object moves slightly. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. If it is more convenient. choose a y. circles. and is assigned to the F12 key.Rhino 2. recording reference points as you go. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.

use the arm to choose a y. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Label each point O. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. From the Tools menu.. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. press Enter to use the world coordinate system.Rhino 2. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points.axis on the table. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. and Y for the origin. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . and y. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. and then click Calibrate. or you need to close and restart Rhino. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. Y. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. From the Tools menu.axes. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. and O. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. use the arm to choose an x. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. click Digitize. Microscribe. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. click Digitize. This is the reference polyline. X. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.axis on the table. x. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. If the digitizer or object moves. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use.

Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. As long as the pedal is depressed. Type C to create a closed curve. The planes are defined with a base point. enter the start of the section plane axis. 222 . enter a second point on the base plane. To digitize in centimeters. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. Press Enter when you are finished. specify how you want to space the planes. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. You can space the planes at intervals. At the Third point on plane prompt. and spacing. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. To digitize in meters. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. enter 0. a point is sampled. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. enter a third point on the base plane. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. hold the pedal. At the Second point on plane prompt. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. direction. When you finish digitizing points on the object. enter a point on the base plane. type the scale factor for all digitized input. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. At the Start of axis prompt. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box.4. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. enter 2. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. To digitize in millimeters.0254. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal.54. enter 25.

Rhino 2. As long as the pedal is depressed. 223 . a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. a point is sampled.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. enter the distance between sampled points. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a line. At the Dimension line location prompt. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Rhino samples points. At the Place the dimension prompt. When you release the pedal. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. pick a second line. At the Select second line prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.

DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Place the dimension prompt.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. pick a curve. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.Rhino 2. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location.

DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. pick a curve. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. 225 . Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. At the First dimension point prompt. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. enter the second point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt.Rhino 2. Or the first point of a reference angle. At the Second reference point prompt. enter an angle for the dimension line.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve.

At the Dimension line location prompt.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. to change the direction. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt.directions at the point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. At the Press Enter when done prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. surface or polysurface. pick a point for the dimension line location. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. On surfaces. pick a point for the dimension line location. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. select a curve. type F. Dir Show direction display. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick a point on the model to dimension to.Rhino 2.and v. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. Press Enter to terminate the display. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. red and green arrows show the u. Curve direction 226 .

The directional light icon does not render or shade. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. 227 .and v. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. The location of the directional light does not matter. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. unless you apply textures. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. the UReverse. pick a location for the directional light.order and direction. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. If the textures don't apply in the right direction.Rhino 2. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. VReverse.

To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Darker colors. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. light the scene less. right-click the Disable checkbox. When Object snaps are disabled. pick a point. 228 . persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. clear the Disable checkbox.Rhino 2. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. Distance Measure the distance between two points. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. like gray.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. type an integer number and press Enter. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. At the Number of segments prompt.Rhino 2. At the Length of segments prompt. select the curves to divide and press Enter. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 229 .0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments.0000 units. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. select curves and press Enter. reversing the direction of the curve. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. use the Split command. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. Note Point objects display as small squares. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length.

use the Split command. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. If you want points to start at the other end. 230 . surface. When a polysurface is picked. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. or polysurface to evaluate. use the Dir command to flip the curve. Point objects are not a part of any other object. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.Rhino 2. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. select a curve.

You can check this with the Dir command. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. type the text to show in the dot. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts.Rhino 2. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. At the Location of dot prompt.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. 231 . Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. enter the location of the dot. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value.

0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode.Rhino 2. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . A surface is created that drapes over the objects.

at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. then select the edge to duplicate. select an object to duplicate. type c (curve). edge. or bnd (boundary). to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. surfaces. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. type f (face). It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. the surface will always sag more than the original. Duplicate border curve 233 . The Dup command only duplicates curves. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. or lights.Rhino 2. and press Enter. It does not duplicate points. but it only makes points. Because of this. and polysurfaces. textblocks. dimensions. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. The object will be duplicated in place. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. and solids. meshes. surfaces. For example. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. Dup Duplicate an object.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. To limit your selection to surfaces. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object.

select the fourth curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.Rhino 2. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. select the third curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. 234 . Or. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. select the second curve.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the first curve. For many surface creation commands. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. press Enter to create a triangular surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the edges of a surface. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface.

In the Edit Dimension dialog box. type new text. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. For a surface from closed planar curves.Rhino 2. You can use surface edges. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . EditDim Edit dimension text. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. or you can eliminate the angle brackets.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. select a dimension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross.

select a text block. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Type the new text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. In the Edit Text dialog box. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. set the options.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. They are not the same as knots.Rhino 2. 236 .

Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. When you place annotation text. The two sizes update each other. At the End of first axis prompt. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the End of second axis prompt. enter the center point.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. enter the endpoint for the second axis. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . You can enter the number of control points. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Example If your units are inches. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. enter the endpoint for the first axis.25 inches. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor.Rhino 2. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes.

enter a point on the ellipse curve. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. enter the end of the axis. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. At the End of first axis prompt. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Draw an ellipse from focus points.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a focus point. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the second focus point.Rhino 2. 238 . EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. At the End of second axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the end of the second axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt.

End of third axis prompt. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. or type a height and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint for the major axis. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. choose an endpoint.Rhino 2. enter a focus point. End of first axis prompt. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 239 . Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. enter the second focus point. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. choose a center point. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. End of second axis prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.

select a bitmap file to use for mapping. curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials.Rhino 2. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. and other important properties. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. 240 . These meshes can be large. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. When you use the EMap command.

under Zebra and EMap. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. select More reliable. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. in the Options dialog box. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. When Faster is selected. on the Shade tab.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface.Rhino 2. 241 . Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. but will always work. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. When More reliable is selected.

Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. maintains the tangent direction. you are moving control points of the curve. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. select a surface edge. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. 242 . The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. At the End of region to edit. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. In each case. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces.Rhino 2. drag point indicators. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. No means there is one drag point. as with the Blend command. One-point-per-end mode. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. At the Start of region to edit. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete.

0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. the script Circle 0. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. 243 .and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. After editing.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. During EndBulgeSrf editing. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.1 2.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1.1 2.Rhino 2. aliases. For example.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u.0 Command Reference Surface before editing.

Rhino 2. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. Press Enter when done prompt.y. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. click points on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. Note When a polysurface is picked. A point object is created on the surface. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. Note Erase is the same as Delete. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. and the U. select a point. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. select the surface to evaluate.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. 244 . If the surface is trimmed. Exit Exit Rhino. the untrimmed surface is used.z format. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. select the objects you want to erase. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1).

You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Rhino supports several file types. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. In the Files of type box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file.Rhino 2. select objects to explode.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. select the file type you want to use. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces.0 files. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. In the Files of type box. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. File. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. layer color. Export Export selected objects to a file. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. This command is obsolete. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. object render color. Click Save. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. In the File name box. and selected mass properties. object name. 245 . select Rhino 2 3D Models. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. Click Save. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Use the Explode command. In the File name box. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. type a filename. type a filename.

select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. select a boundary object to extend to. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Or. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file.Rhino 2. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Click Save. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. Extend Extend a curve. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. 246 . select objects to extend. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. In the Files of type box. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. type a filename. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. At the next Select boundary objects. The extension is joined to the original curve. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. enter a name for the text file. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. select Rhino 2 3D Models. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. At the next Select object to extend prompts. In the File name box. Press Enter when done prompts.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases.

Or. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. enter the end of the extension. select a curve to extend. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. Note You can use any combination of curves. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended.Rhino 2. and solids as boundary edges.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. type a number for the radius and press Enter. At the End point or angle prompt. Type=Line Makes a line extension. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. surfaces. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. 247 . ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. type an angle for the arc. At the Radius of arc prompt.

use Extend a curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. use Extend a curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Select near the end of the curve to extend.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. enter the endpoint of the extension. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step.Rhino 2. select a curve to extend. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. At the End of arc prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 .

At the End of line or length prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. 249 . select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Options Join If Join=Yes. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface.Rhino 2. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. select a curve to extend. near the end you want to extend. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. enter the endpoint for the line extension. if possible. type a distance to extend and press Enter. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. select the curve to extend. Or. the extension will be joined to the original curve.

Then the surface is extended on the end. The extension length is based on parameterization. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself.Rhino 2. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. This fixes the original. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. 250 . there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. or pick two points to specify the distance. depending on the shape of the object. enter an amount to extend. Note With the linear extension. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization.

Extract several isoparms. and Loft a surface through them. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. choose a point. If you need angled cross sections along surface. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. and isoparms display at the marker. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. and polygon mesh objects. In contrast to InsertKnot. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. v or both directions. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. use Project or Intersect. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. surfaces. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. The marker is constrained to the surface.and v-directions of the surface. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface.Rhino 2. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. If you need curved cross sections. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. If you need to place an object on a surface.

If you choose the Copy option. Note ExtractPt works on curves. The original surface is left intact. surfaces. Solid Tools.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. or type a distance and press Enter. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. and polygon mesh objects. select curves and press Enter. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. select surfaces and press Enter. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. drag the desired distance and pick. Toolbar: Menu: Main. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. At the Extrusion distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. 252 . the surface is copied.Rhino 2. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt.

BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. and Chamfer. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 .0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. Round. The choices are Sharp.Rhino 2. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. This option does not appear for open curves. Smooth. Otherwise. then the extrusion is in that direction.

To draw a deformable plane.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. 254 . choose the point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. select surfaces and press Enter. pick a point. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. select the path curve. At the Extrusion distance prompt. draw two lines at right angles. At the Select path curve prompt. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. The default is vertical to the construction plane. At the Point to extrude to prompt. or enter a distance and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. select the curve to extrude. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. select the curve.Rhino 2.

type J and press Enter. type the fillet radius and press Enter. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. type R and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. Or. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. At the Tolerance prompt.Rhino 2. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. 255 . Fillet Fillet two curves. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. or accept the default and press Enter. enter a number. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Join To change the Join option. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems.

The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. choose the second surface to fillet. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. choose the first surface to fillet. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt.Rhino 2.

Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. In general. The curves are refitted. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. select curves and press Enter. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. At the Fitting tolerance <0. enter a tolerance. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. If you have a dense string of points.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. The original curves are unchanged. For scripting.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Each face has a constant monochrome color. 257 . If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.Rhino 2. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points.

object highlighting. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. click Use OpenGL. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. this shading mode may be much faster. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. 258 . On the Shade tab. Each face has a constant monochrome color. The grid. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display.Rhino 2. axes. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. If OpenGL shading is turned on. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Each face has a constant monochrome color. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. such as Union instead of Difference. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. click Use OpenGL. enter a number and press Enter. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. At the Increment size prompt. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. but their directions are reversed. that define the outline of the flattened surface. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. click Options. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If Booleans give unexpected results. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. this shading mode may be much faster. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. On the Shade tab. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command.Rhino 2. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. the OpenGL shade options will be available. The objects looks exactly the same. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. If OpenGL shading is turned on. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. 259 . but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. select curves.

type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. especially those with trimmed edges. At the New backbone curve . Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. At the Original backbone curve . Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. Flow works on the control points of an object . Flow does not work on polysurfaces. Instead of drawing a line before the command. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. This curve will be used as a new backbone. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 .select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. select the new backbone curve to flow to. Front Set to world front view. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects.

Grid Toggle the display of the grid.select near end prompt. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed.Rhino 2.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve .0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. 261 . select the second curve near the coinciding end. you must edit your Rhino. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.select near end prompt. At the Second curve .

Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Group Place selected objects in a group. A handlebar displays on the curve. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one.Rhino 2. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. 262 . You can then apply commands to the entire group. select the curve or surface to edit.

At the Second corner or length prompt. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. At the First corner prompt. Height The scale of the height of the surface. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. or enter a length. pick a point. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. 263 . Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. select the surface to edit. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. A handlebar will display on the surface. pick a point. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. In the Heightfield dialog box. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. adjust options. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. select a bitmap file.

Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. the helix will twist counterclockwise. select Turns or Pitch. If you select Reverse twist.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. 264 . enter the number of turns for the helix. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. enter the end of the helix axis. enter the radius for the helix. At the Radius prompt. If you select Turns. This is the line the helix will wind around. At the End of axis prompt. enter the start of the helix axis. If you select Pitch. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes.

Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Status bar: Osnap Or. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. select the objects you want to hide. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Organic. 265 . The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. If you exit the model and reopen it. Visibility.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. close the Osnap dialog box.

Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. not a statement of a physical principle. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. Waterline Length Length at water line. enter a number between 0. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). At the Spotlight hotspot prompt.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. that is.0 and 1. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone.axis or the y. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot.Rhino 2. The visible objects hide.axis. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. (This is a limitation of the command.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. The information displays in a separate window. and press Enter. Longitude=X. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. ) prompt. the more concentrated the hotspot. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. The smaller the number. only half of the model needs to be given. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. Use 1. 266 . the command does nothing. The longitudinal direction.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. 267 . the command will fail. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. File. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. type a filename.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. and STL Tools File menu. In the File name box. select curves. Click Open. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. select Rhino 3D Models. Import Import or merge objects from another file. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. the objects are placed on the current layer. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Note Rhino supports many file types. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts.txt Improve Reparameterize an object.Rhino 2. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. The objects are reparameterized. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. If the imported file type does not support layers.

Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it.3dm hi 1.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1.3dm tricky 1a.0 with no changes in rotation or scale.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. select Rhino 3D Models.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you say yes.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. type a filename.3dm bg 32985. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. and z-directions. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs.3dm hi 2. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. Options Rotate Rotates the objects.3dm tricky 1a 1. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. it does. and rotate. In the File name box. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes. y. Click Open. etc. Scale Scales the objects. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm tricky 1a 2. 268 .3dm Untitled a 2147483647. choose a start angle. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. scale.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then.3dm bg 32986. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.0. or a point to rotate from. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. Press Enter to place the model at 0. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. At the Scale factor <1.Rhino 2.3dm tricky 1a 1. If you say no. At the Rotation Angle <0. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag.

The marker is constrained to track along the curve. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. After inserting kinks. select the curve to which you want to add a kink.Rhino 2. press Enter to end the command. select the curve to insert edit points to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. choose points where you want to insert a kink. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. 269 .

0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. or Both. select a surface. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. 270 .Rhino 2. V. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. pick points of the surface for new knots. pick points on the curve for new knots. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.

To end the curve. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). A straight line replaces part of the curve. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. At the Start of line prompt. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. enter additional points. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. Main.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. enter an additional point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve.Rhino 2. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. and pick. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. and the parts are joined.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. The curve closes automatically. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. enter the start of the curve. 271 . At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. press Enter. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. At the Next point of curve. At the End of line prompt. pick a point for the end of the straight segment.

form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. choose an additional point. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. select a surface. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. The marker is constrained to the surface. Sharp When you make a closed curve. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Valid degrees are 1. 5. At the Next point on curve. 3. At the Start of curve prompt. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. 7. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization.Rhino 2. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. and 11. choose the first point of the curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. When you draw an interpolated curve. 9. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. 272 .

0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Object snaps End. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Close Creates a closed curve.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Near. 273 . it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Knot. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline.Rhino 2. and Intersection work. Cen. Midpoint.

Rhino 2. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Non-polyline curves are rejected. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. To create surface and solid intersections. use the BooleanIntersection command. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Intersect Intersect two objects. select the objects. Invert Invert the selection.

Points selected. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. select objects. 275 . Invert also selects the polysurface. which also selects other objects. press Enter. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. When you are finished selecting objects to join. InvertPts inverts point selection only.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. Contrast this with the Invert command. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. Join Join objects.Rhino 2.

If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). then the second one gets moved. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. NetworkSrf. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. no join occurs. use MergeSrf. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. and resetting the tolerance. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. BlendSrf. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. When two edges are joined. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. Booleans. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. use MergeSrf. you can have some problems later on. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. depending on what you may do with the model. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. or Patch. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. If the edges are too far out of line. doing a Join. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. or Patch. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. but are not coincident. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. 276 .D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. For simplicity.Rhino 2. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. If not. If you use JoinEdge. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are.015 units apart. NetworkSrf. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. Using the Millimeter template. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. For the group joiner. Do you want to join these edges?". BlendSrf. a 3. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Booleans.

LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x.Rhino 2.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. BlendSrf. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. select curves. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Booleans. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. 277 . Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. The action performed is reported on the command line. y. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. merged or deleted. or Patch. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. use MergeSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. NetworkSrf. The picking order can make the difference. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. If there are naked edges. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. This command does not work in all cases. No mesh points are moved. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces.

Click the Lock option. Select Points. In the Edit Layers dialog box. 278 . Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. select the layers you want to lock. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. See the PluginManager command. press Enter to close the lasso.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded.Rhino 2. Start the Lasso command. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. but you cannot select them. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Lasso Select points with a lasso. Rhino displays objects on locked layers.

Layer Two.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. type the name of the layer to turn on. from the list select layers you want to turn on. separate the layer names with commas: One.Layer Three". select the layers you want to turn off. separate the layer names with commas: One. type the name of the layer to turn off. from the list.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. Click the Off option.Layer Three" 279 .Two.Two. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces.Layer Two. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. unlike the Lock (object) command.Two. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt. LayerOn Turn a layer on. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Note For layer names with spaces. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Click the On option.Rhino 2. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Three". surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Layer Two. LayerOff Turn a layer off. type the name of the layer to lock. separate the layer names with commas: One.

pick the start of the leader. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. pick the next point on the leader line. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. This is the arrow end. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. pick additional points. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. They will not show in the perspective view.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . you must edit your Rhino.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader.Rhino 2. At the Next point of leader. At the Next point of leader. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Left Set to world left view. Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. Press Enter to stop the command.

and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. arcs. Line Draw a line. The line extends on both sides of the start point. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. circles. you can select any of these curve objects.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. Line. surfaces. polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. and can be used to create other curves. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. pick the end point for the line. At the End of line prompt. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. BothSides option selected 281 . including lines and polylines. and meshes. select a curve or edge. pick the start point for the line. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. polylines. ellipses.

use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. enter the second point. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line.Rhino 2. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. At the End of line prompt. enter the start of the base line. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. At the End of base line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. enter the end of the line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. At the Start of line prompt. 282 . enter the start of the line.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. enter the start of the base line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt.

Rhino 2. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. At the End of line prompt. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. and parallel to the current construction plane. 283 . At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the end of the line. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. pick the end of the line. At the Pivot angle prompt. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. type an angle and press Enter. enter the end of the base line. At the Select object prompts. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve.

press Enter. enter the start of the first line segment. When you are finished drawing lines.Rhino 2. enter pick endpoints for segments. At the End of line prompts. select the first curve near the start of the desired line.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. 284 . Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt.

enter the end of the line.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.Rhino 2. 285 . LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. At the End of line prompt.

0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. 286 . Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line.

LineV Draw a vertical line. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. At the End of line prompt. enter the second endpoint. or enter a length and press Enter. BothSides option selected 287 . Line vertical to construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.

Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. the code interpreted and run immediately. See the PluginManager command.rhino3d.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user.Rhino 2. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. If the script file just contains script expressions. from www. or press Enter to accept the default. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. 288 . Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. enter an integer.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. select one object.com/plug-ins. on the Options dialog box. Close Closes the dialog box. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Load Loads a selected script file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. You can download plug-ins.

Lock Lock objects. Preview. pick on a seam point marker.Rhino 2. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.g. At the Location of seam point prompt. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer.0 Beta\Scripts). LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction..exe is located (e. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. press Enter..g.0 Beta). Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. and move it along the closed curve. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. In the install folder (e. In the Loft Options dialog box. You can snap to locked objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. adjust options.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script.0 Beta\System). pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. select the objects you want to lock.g. In the scripts folder (e. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. Select open curves near the same ends. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. The unlocked objects lock. Note You cannot select locked objects. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. 289 .. In the folder where Rhino. When you are done adjusting the connections.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.Rhino 2. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. 291 . use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. reversing the direction of the curve. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

You must use at least three curves to activate this option. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.Rhino 2. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. 292 . Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. This is also known as a ruled surface.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Units tab before lofting. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Available when you have selected three shape curves.

Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. and some steel ship hulls. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. you may get unexpected results. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. or wrinkle. You may get no surface or a partial surface. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. Surfaces can be created in other ways. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. If the surface is not linear in one direction. the surface is not developable. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. cones. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. These are called ruling lines. too. If the curves have kinks. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). 293 . Preview Click to preview the loft.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position.Rhino 2. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. tear.

They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. thereby smoothing the surface. 294 .D surface. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable.Rhino 2. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. You just have to be careful. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface.

But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf).0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. though. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. expand the plates. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. 295 . you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. aluminum).D models. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing.Rhino 2. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models.y-plane. select the layout and object visibility options. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3.

0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. If two surfaces pass through each other. they may not appear on the correct layer. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown.D view. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. 296 . Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view.Rhino 2. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name.D drawings from mesh objects. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. There is no way to avoid this. Note This command does not create 2. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports).

select a curve to make periodic. Then use control point editing on both curves. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. 297 . make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. At the Select curve to match . Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. Close the dialog box. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. Match Match two curves. This command tries to fix those surfaces. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. To get a feel for what the command does. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. If the curve was open. it is closed. Sometimes. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt.pick near end prompt. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt.Rhino 2. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. select the first curve at the end that will move. At the Choose an object prompt. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. If a joined curve is made periodic. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Other closed curves.

Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. 298 . Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity.Rhino 2. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch.

If you edit this curve with control points. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified.Rhino 2. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. 299 . Merge Only available with the Curvature option. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. The curves are merged together after the match.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity.

reversing the direction of the curve. 300 .Rhino 2. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. select the edge of the target surface. In the Match Surface dialog box. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). This surface must be an untrimmed surface. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity).select near edge prompt. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces.select near edge prompt. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. choose the type of match. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . If the target surface is also untrimmed. At the Select target surface . select the edge of the surface to match.

Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. If necessary. 301 . the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to.Rhino 2. Generally. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked.

302 . Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. percent. in degrees. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge.Rhino 2. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. in units.

Rhino 2. If it isn't. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. but it will still be a valid trim. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. 303 . MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. it will stay roundish. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. it can twist the surface near the edge. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. If you need to match to part of an edge. especially if tight tolerances are specified. This is sometimes useful. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. If refinement is interrupted. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. If it is roundish. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning.knot spacing to curvature vector. If refinement is specified. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. In these cases. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction.) In usable terms. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. it may be useful to preview without refinement. If the surface being changed is trimmed. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. Something like position = 0. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. This is the hardest condition to meet.2. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. That may be several seconds. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. but you will get something. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. but if the conditions are wrong. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. especially if the surface is being changed a lot.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt.1 ) prompt. Note The edges must be naked. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. Maximize Maximize Rhino. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. double click the viewport title bar. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. and the prompt repeats. Or.Rhino 2. select an adjacent edge. select the second surface. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. 304 . and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. then click Maximize. Or. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. then click Restore. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. must share an endpoint. select the first surface to merge. if possible. must belong to the same surface. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. double click the viewport title bar. Right click the viewport title bar. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0.

This makes the surface behave better for control point editing. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero. Smooth The surface will be smooth.notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .Rhino 2.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. End view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces.

Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. mirroring it. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. This is useful for modeling half of an object. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. Once you have trimmed surfaces. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). editable surface. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. The default is 1 (full smoothing).notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. The resulting surface can be edited.Rhino 2. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. with finer or coarser mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. In some ways.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. you have to approach things differently. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. A mesh can be preview and then created. Generally. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. For closed surfaces. 306 . Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons.

Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. and higher polygon count. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Zero means no minimum. more accurate meshes. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Scale independent. after initial meshing. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. which is the default. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. and higher polygon count. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. 307 . Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. and lower polygon count. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Default is 0. No refinement results in faster meshing. Jagged seams is not selected.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface.Rhino 2. and adjustment for trim boundaries. By default. less accurate meshes. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. By default. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. When this Refine is checked. The default is zero. more accurate meshes. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Scale independent. When the Refine is checked. Setting Max dist. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Zero means no limit. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. edge to Srf options. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Simple planes is not selected. Limits the size of the polygon edges. Scale independent. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Scale-dependent. In practice. Max dist. which is the default. When the Refine is checked. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box.

choose a diagonal corner. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. 308 . If a length was entered. choose a radius. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. or type in a width and press Enter. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. At the Height prompt. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. choose a center point for the base. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. choose the cone's point. choose a width by picking. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box.Rhino 2. choose a corner of the box. or type in a height and press Enter. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. Or type in a length and press Enter. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt. not editable. at the Width prompt. choose a height. At the End of cone prompt.

0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. At the Height prompt. joined from a base and top circular meshes. choose a center point for the base. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. joined from a base circular mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. choose a height. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives.Rhino 2. and a open cone-shaped mesh. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. choose a radius. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base.

Rhino 2. Or type in a length and press Enter. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. 310 . select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. At the Other corner or length prompt. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. at the Width prompt. or type in a width and press Enter. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. choose a corner of the plane. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. If a length was entered.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. choose a the diagonal corner. choose a width by picking. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.

MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. At the Radius prompt. choose a radius. choose a center point. 311 . Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.

Rhino 2. Move Move objects. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. 312 . Press delete to delete the original. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Minimize Minimize Rhino. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. Mirror Mirror objects. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. The original is left selected. As you move the cursor. choose a point to move the objects from. Note Mirror makes a copy. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Select the objects.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. choose a point on the mirror plane.

3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. At the Choose offset point prompt. you can type corner1. During the command. Along control polygon The u.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. corner3. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. choose a location for objects. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. y-. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction.Rhino 2. or z-direction. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. To move objects small amounts. corner2. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. pick a new location for the base point. Modeling Aids tab. At the Point to move to prompt. and n. type V and press Enter.0 Command Reference Or.sliders to move the selected control points. to move the objects vertically. pick a base point. 313 . Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. Slider scale affects this mode. MoveUVN Use u-. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. v-.

rename or delete unwanted named views. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. 314 . Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane.Rhino 2. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. NamedView Edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. All points to edit have to be selected. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. All points to edit have to be selected. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time.

The surface will be created. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. The default is the system tolerance. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. you can turn the automatic sorter off. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. the best guess is made at the surface. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge.0 Command Reference Select the curves. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Edge Matching After the command is done. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. If a curve and surface edge overlap. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves.Rhino 2. 315 . Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. the surface will have four edges. The default is the system tolerance x 10. be sure to select the surface edge. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. If you want to select the curves individually. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge.

Tangent. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Select from Loose. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Position.Rhino 2. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge.

Rhino 2. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. units. layers. 318 . For example. drag a window for a new viewport. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. NewViewport Create a new viewport. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. grid settings. New Create a new model.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. Use New to open the template you want to change. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. viewport layout. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. select a template to base your model file on. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt.Rhino 2. and tolerances.

Start the NextV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. The next control point in the u-direction is selected. Start the NextU command. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. 319 .

0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active.Rhino 2. pick a point for the end of the line. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. or enter a length and press Enter. At the Point on surface prompt. choose a point on the surface. 320 . Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. At the Length of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. select a surface. The marker is constrained to the surface.

To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . type information you want to save with the model. Offset Offset a curve. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. copy. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. it will be open next time the model is opened. Line normal to a surface. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model.

sphere. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. Negative values offset the other way. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. select a curve or edge. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside.Rhino 2. When a plane. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. the resulting surface is exact. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. A surface and its offset 322 . undo and use the negative of the distance you just used.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Otherwise. cylinder. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Note For best results. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. or cone is offset. torus. click on one side the curve.

they are also unlocked.Rhino 2. An arrow indicates the offset direction.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. In the File name box. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. All other layers will be turned off. select Rhino 3D Models. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. File. Note Rhino supports several file types. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. When you turn the layers back on. select the layer to turn on. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. not the trim edges. Open Open an existing model. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Click Open. they are not converted to NURBS objects. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. type a filename. so the fact that they are locked is lost. 323 .

click Open. type s and press Enter. In the Open Workspace dialog box. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. from the File menu. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. but objects remain the same size. type c and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. to orient copies of the objects. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. Scale If Scale=No. pick a target point for the first reference point.Rhino 2. The objects are moved. select a workspace file. the screen position of each toolbar. The prompt will change to Scale=No. pick a target point for the second reference point. whether it is floating or docked. Or. and the number of columns when floating. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. or some of them may be hidden. Options Opens the Options dialog box. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. 324 . the buttons in them. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. and whether it is hidden or showing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen.

to orient copies of the objects. type c and press Enter. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. The two triplet of points define two planes. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. select objects and press Enter. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. select the surface. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. with the other two reference points. pick a point that. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. 325 . At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. Or. The three points are not interchangeable. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges.Rhino 2. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. If the curve does not start on the edge. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space.

Rhino 2. As you move the cursor over the surface. The Mirror option toggles between them.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. 326 . Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical.and v-directions. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. There are four possible orientations on the surface. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction.

If you pick this point in different views. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. click a point on the curve to move the object. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. you will get different end results. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. select a base point on the object. Shift Note The Ortho command. are all toggles. At the Base point prompt. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. select the curve you want to align the object to.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. The cursor tracks along the curve. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. 327 . and the F8 key. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve.

and Toggle. the packed texture coordinates are created. Packed textures. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. At the Ortho Angle prompt. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. Polysurface made of four surfaces. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. type the new angle and press Enter. The default angle is 90 degrees. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. The default angle is 90 degrees. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. When Ortho is on. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. 328 .Rhino 2. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Off. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. If more than one object is selected. When polysurfaces are meshed. Note When Ortho is on. Modeling Aids tab.

Note This command is most useful in command scripts. PanDown Pan the view down. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. Front. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 329 . Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures.Rhino 2. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Pan Pan the view. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. use the Pan command. PanRight Pan the view right. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. use the Pan command. PanLeft Pan the view left. Plan parallel views like the default Top.

enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. show a direction for the parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt.Rhino 2. Focus. 330 . To pan with the mouse or keyboard. enter a point for an end of the parabola. click Parabola. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. enter a point for an end of the parabola. Direction. use the Pan command. Focus From the Curve menu. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. and then click Focus. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. and then click Vertex. click Parabola. This is the "open" direction. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. From the Curve menu.

At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. 331 .Rhino 2. End.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. Uncapped paraboloid. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. 4 Vertex and focus. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Focus and direction. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid.

Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard.Rhino 2. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.0 Command Reference End. it is created when the object is pasted. Uncapped paraboloid. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. 332 . Object properties and location are restored with the object. they are pasted into your model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. If the layer does not exist. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. When you Paste objects into Rhino.

you may need a starting surface. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). and edges to base the patch on. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. 333 . but with proper configuration. Even for a relatively flat patch. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. To make a highly curved surface. curves. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Note This command can be very useful. use a starting surface with a similar shape. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. These don't have to be connected. In the Patch Options dialog box. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Minimum of 8 points per curve. it will be very close to reasonable input. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. select the point objects. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. adjust options. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. select curves that form a closed shape. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. but it also can produce some unexpected results.Rhino 2. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. For a trimmed patch. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane.

ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). you must edit your Rhino. aliases. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. 334 . it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. 2 The wallpaper image. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. Perspective Set to perspective view. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. Pause is a built in command option. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. and type PerspectiveMatch.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension.Rhino 2.

The first point on the model. 335 . Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. The first point on the image. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. All points picked on the image. 4 All points picked on the model.Rhino 2.

Sloppy picking gives you garbage. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. etc. This aids in accurate image point picking. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. In particular. select a bitmap file to use. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. Note The image must be a true perspective image. Make the image view large. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . changed the viewport settings. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. At the Length of picture frame prompt. Pick carefully. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Pipe Draw a pipe. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. If possible. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking.Rhino 2. you have modified your model. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane.

At the Starting radius prompt. If the pipe objects are capped. At the Second end radius prompt. For an open curve. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. if the curve is closed. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Or. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. and the closed pipe is created. At the Starting radius prompt. 337 . select a curve. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. Thick The pipe has two walls. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box.Rhino 2. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. select a bitmap file. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. At the Second corner or length prompt. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. enter the radius for the pipe. At the First end radius prompt. At the First corner prompt. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. type T and press Enter. At the Starting radius prompt. select a curve. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. at the End radius prompt. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. At the Second start radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. Click Open.

In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. remove it. Background bitmaps are a construction aid.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. BMP. You can move the background bitmap. By default the Top. PCX. At the New target location <X. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. align it (move and scale in one operation). You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. Placing a second deletes the first. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. To place a backdrop behind your model. In PARALLEL viewports.Y. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. Front.Y. and temporarily hide it. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there.Rhino 2. and JPG. enter the camera point. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG.Z> prompt. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). scale it. 338 . 3-D Digitizing. see Place a bitmap backdrop. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera.Z> prompt. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. TGA. enter the target point. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps.

Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. then click Control Points. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. regardless of where the previous point was picked.Y. In PERSPECTIVE views. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. 339 . PlaceTarget Place the target location. 3-D Digitizing. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Planar Toggle planar mode. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. click Free-form.Z> prompt. enter the target point. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. Without Planar on. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. From the Curve menu. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking.Rhino 2. In PARALLEL viewports. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. In PERSPECTIVE views. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Toolbar: Menu Set View. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

349 . select a mesh object. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. press Enter. enter additional vertices for the polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. To end the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts.Rhino 2. start the polyline. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. At the Next point of polyline prompts. making a closed polyline. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. enter the start point of the polyline. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. To end the polyline. press Enter. enter additional vertices for the polyline. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt.

PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. 350 . Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex.Rhino 2. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. making a closed polyline.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface. 351 . The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Start the PrevV command. Select a point on the surface. Start the PrevU command.Rhino 2.

it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. the contents are printed on top of each other. If you fit the image to the page. If viewports overlap. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. print scale. print to a file. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. and number of copies. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. No viewport edge is printed.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. 352 . and each viewport is printed in its area. the central part of the view is printed. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports.Rhino 2. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. the objects outside the viewport are printed. The part that does not fit is not printed. color. Always.

if they don't fit on the page. hide them.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. Print. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Light objects do not print. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. (Actually. Then. Curve projected to a surface 353 . Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. If you want to print at some other scale. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. If the objects don't fit. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. It will crop objects that are visible. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. and same orientation. PrintSetup Set up your printer. as the paper you're printing on. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. too. not printing from perspective viewports. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. The curves are projected onto the surfaces.

however. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. lines. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves.Rhino 2. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 .0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. and free-form curves work well. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Basic shapes like ellipses. choose to keep or delete the input objects. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. curves. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. surfaces. and polysurfaces. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. set the projection type for the viewport. This command works on points. Project will never work correctly for this. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. circles. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. Properties Edit object properties.

you cannot turn on polysurface control points. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. STL Tools. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. STL Tools. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Main. To control point edit a polysurface. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. Point Editing. surfaces. Organic. Organic. Point Editing. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. Both commands ask for the viewport name. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. Use curve commands to draw the curve. select a curve to measure. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. use the fewest control point possible. select the surface to pull the curves back to. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder.0000. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. When drawing the curves. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 .Rhino 2. Then. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts.

and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. rail curve. In this case. in addition to being revolved. select a rail curve. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve.Rhino 2. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. select a profile curve. the result looks exactly the same both ways. Profile curve. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about.

9. 358 . you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename.4.1.5.4.8. If the rail curve is closed.9.0 23.0 23.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.9 Enter etc…. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. If you leave off the filename. select the file to read. The file contents are copied into the command line.1. ! Interpcrv 23. If you read in a particular file often.2.1.0. You can then select a file from the list. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.txt Click the button to read the file. use the Enter command.7. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.0 27. readcommandfile myfile. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.1 26. a file dialog box appears. Note When building command files.4.5.2.8.5. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.1.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.Rhino 2.

To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. the highest number of control points is shown. click OK. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. but a more accurate fit. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. 359 . Degree Sets the degree for the new curves.Rhino 2. If more than one curve is selected. leaving only the rebuilt curves. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. When you are satisfied with the results. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. use the FitCrv command.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file.

The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces.Rhino 2. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Joined and exploded polysurface. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. draw two planes several units apart. in the Point Count boxes.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. in the Degree box. select an object. To see what it does. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. Edges are pulled away from the surface. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges.

enter the length of the rectangle. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. You will be prompted for the width. At the Other corner or length prompt. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. choose a corner for the rectangle. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature.an v-directions. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. Or.Rhino 2. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. 361 . Delete Input Deletes the original surface. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature.

Or. select the center point of the rectangle. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. enter the width of the rectangle.Rhino 2. select a corner point. enter the length of the rectangle. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. 362 . Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. At the Width prompt. You will be prompted for the width. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. At the Corner or length prompt. At the End of edge prompt. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. enter the end of the same edge.

At the Height of rectangle prompt. At the End of edge prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. 363 .

click Preview. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. General tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. To see the results of the reduction. 364 .Rhino 2. set the polygon count. This makes this command scriptable. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo.

At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. avoid clearing meshes. 365 .Rhino 2. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. to remap copies of the objects. Or. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. type c and press Enter. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. which may be undesirable in some cases. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. After RefreshShade. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. To reduce the size of the model file. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. For one thing.

366 .0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2.

RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. At the Click knot to remove prompt. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. which is equal to the degree. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. select a curve. Use the Group command to group objects together. In particular. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. select a surface. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport.Rhino 2. 367 . select objects. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. and Blend commands. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. At the Select knotline to remove. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Sweep2.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction.

It has a single menu: File. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. Render tab. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. and render again. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. When on. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. expanded to fill the page. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. increase the size of the viewport. Render tab. 368 . Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. the current working folder. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer.

zoom. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Basically. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Toolbar: Render 369 . Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. When on. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. or bump mapping.Rhino 2. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. Does not show shadows. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects.

directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22.length for both is about 22 units.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. the x. 370 . In this example.and v.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. the texture is not distorted. Example You have two surfaces side by side. At the New U begin domain prompt. including the domain unless you apply textures. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture.Rhino 2. let's call them lefty and righty. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. (In this example. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. The x. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. set the new limits of the u. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. However. First you must set the u. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. The y.and vdomains for the surface.length of righty is about 11. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. it is distorted. and similar prompts.

In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. or to restore only the view. select the construction plane to restore. Or. Right click the title of a viewport. select the named view to restore. select one or more curves. then click the name of the view to restore. Revolve Revolve a curve. choose a point on the revolution axis.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. RestoreView Restore a named view. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. 371 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. then click Set View. Use the NamedView command to edit named views.

The marker tracks on the curve. select a surface that is not a polysurface. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. If you choose Deformable.Rhino 2. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. select a curve. In the Revolve Options dialog box. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. select a surface that is not a polysurface. defining the revolution axis. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. click Exact or Deformable. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. choose a second point. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. 372 . enter the number of control points. Enter the Start angle and End angle. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt.

At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or a point to rotate from. choose an end angle. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Or. type C and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. Type 0 to use the default tolerance.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. you must edit your Rhino.Rhino 2. choose a point to rotate the objects around. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. choose a start angle. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. to rotate copies of the objects. 373 . If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. or a point to rotate to. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Right Set to world right view.

the following prompt appears.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. choose a second point on the rotation axis. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. choose a point on the rotation axis. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera.Rhino 2. to rotate copies of the objects. etc. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. 374 . or choose a point to rotate from. type in an angle. type c and press Enter. Or. At the End of rotate axis prompt. If you entered a point to rotate from.

At the Angle or first reference point prompt. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. etc. At the End of rotation axis prompt. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the Second reference point prompt. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. place the construction plane. Or. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. pick a point. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. etc. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis.Rhino 2. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. etc. 375 . Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. etc. enter the start of the rotation axis. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis.

At the Name of program to run prompt. 376 . RotateUp Rotate the view up. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Press the arrow keys. use the RotateView command.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateView Rotate the view. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Run Run another application from Rhino. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateRight Rotate the view right. type the name and path of the file to run.

Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Cancel Closes the dialog box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. you can use RunScript command. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. 377 . Otherwise. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Note Rhino supports several file types. Push Pin When the button is depressed.Rhino 2. Click Save. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. This image displays when you select the file in the Open.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Language Specifies the language of the code. type a filename. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. See the PluginManager command. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. File. Save Save your model. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Save.

Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Save. type a filename. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Files tab.Rhino 2. You can set up grid settings. Click Save. In the File name box. select Rhino 2 3D Models. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. or SaveAs dialog boxes. and tolerances and save them in a template. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Note Rhino supports several file types. layers. units. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. viewport layout. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. type a filename. You can also save default geometry with the template. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Click Save.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. 378 . Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

enter an object name. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. This command is "transparent. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. etc.Rhino 2. Note You can use wild cards (*." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. ?. SelNone Deselect all objects. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent.) to select multiple objects. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. SelPolyline Select all polylines. 388 . all objects with no name are selected.

direction based on previously selected control points. 389 . SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelPt Select all point objects." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set.Rhino 2. Start the SelU command." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Note SelLast clears the current selection set.

and v. A surface with control points selected 390 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. The control points on the surface display. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface.Rhino 2. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. select the surface. Press Enter to finish selecting rows.direction. At the Select row of points prompt.

0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.Rhino 2. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. v-direction. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Start the SelV command.direction based on previously selected control points. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. or both directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface.

see Troubleshooting OpenGL.Rhino 2. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. from www. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.com/plug-ins. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. You can download plug-ins.rhino3d. 392 . The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. ShadeAll. This is not the same as restoring a named view. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. Note Type w to start a window selection. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. FlatShade. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. and FlatShadeAll. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. Shade tab.

Lets you name or rename a group. select the layer to set current. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. In the Edit Layers dialog box.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID.0 to 255) Transparency (0. 393 . SetLayer Set the current layer.0 to 1. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. The Undo command will work. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box.Rhino 2. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. select an object on the layer you want to be current. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt.

0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. double-click the viewport title bar. and OBJ material/shader export. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes.0 to 1. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. and RenderMan RIB. POV-Ray. If the object name has already been used. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name.0 to 255) Transparency (0. If no object name is defined. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. POV. Or. Object names are exported to IGES. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Note The object material can be used by RIB. 394 . use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. 3DS. To set names for a group of objects. Moray UDO. Or.Rhino 2. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Rhino uses a generic name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. This is not the same as restoring a named view.

In the Set Points dialog box. SetPt Set control point location.Rhino 2. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. At the Ortho is Off. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. To set names for individual objects. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. check the coordinates you want to set. enter one of the options. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. For example. and RenderMan RIB. Select the objects. At the Planar is On. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. 395 . use the SetObjectName command. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. Starting number Sets the starting number. POV-Ray. Object names are not used in Rhino. enter one of the options. if you selected ten unnamed objects. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects.

CPlane or camera changes during scripts. etc. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. At the Grid snap is Off. enter the viewport width in pixels. 396 . SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. You still see interactive drawing of curves. At the Viewport height prompt. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. enter the viewport height in pixels.

Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. select the working directory. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. and no antialiasing. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. the OpenGL shade options will be available. and a special background color appears. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. with no shadows. click Options.Rhino 2. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. Subsequent renderings may be faster. If OpenGL is turned on. The grid and axes are not shown. Shade Shade a viewport. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Pan. zoom. this shading mode may be faster. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. It may not be very quick the first time.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. monochrome. On the Shade tab set the options. Note Be patient on the first shade.

Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. and a special background color appears. click Use OpenGL. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. click Use OpenGL. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint.Rhino 2. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. and no antialiasing. The grid and axes are not shown. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL is turned on. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. zoom. 398 . It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). Pan. For more information. this shading mode may be much faster. On the Shade tab. click Options. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. the OpenGL shade options will be available.com/software/optimizer/. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. then Rhino will use it. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. If you use OpenGL Shade. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.org/ and www. The grid. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. monochrome. Be patient on the first Shade. It may not be very quick the first time. Subsequent renderings will be faster. see www. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. The objects in current viewport are shaded. On the Shade tab. object highlighting. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory.sgi. with no shadows. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL.opengl. axes. click Options. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. isoparms. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2. you can click on a shaded object to select it. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. 399 . points. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. select the objects to shear. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. You do not have to select an isoparm. If there are several objects behind each other in the view.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. The click cannot be near curves. Shear Shear objects. or annotation or the object will be selected.

ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. Show Show hidden objects.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. If you exit the model and reopen it. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. select objects and press Enter. Visibility. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. If your object has broken edges. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. The edge is highlighted. pick the base point for the shear. The base point does not move with the shear.Rhino 2. At the Reference point prompt. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. 400 .

ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. The edges highlight. Status bar: Osnap 401 . use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Edge Tools. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. terminate the command. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. At the Press Enter when done prompt. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. press Enter to terminate the command. If you cannot see the naked edges. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze.Rhino 2. Camera icon.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. Sometimes. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display.

the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Original trimmed surface. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. At the Select objects to show prompt. You will see no visible change in the surface.Rhino 2. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. To fix this. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. select the objects you want to show.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. Organic. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . When textures are applied to surfaces.

Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). only backwards. If you look at a doughnut from the side. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves.Rhino 2. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. For example. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. the silhouette is two circles. 403 . Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. the silhouette looks like an oval. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves.

form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. a polyline appears along your path. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Or. drag the mouse. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. Release the mouse button. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.Rhino 2. Sketch Sketch a curve. 404 . type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. The curve closes immediately and the command ends.

Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. type C. At the Click and drag to sketch. The marker is constrained to the surface.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. drag a curve. Or. drag a curve. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve.Rhino 2.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. press Enter. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. select the surface to sketch on. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. Sketch on surface 405 . Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface.

00. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. select the curves. The larger the number. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. then click Control Points On. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. adjust the Smooth factor. The selected control points will move slightly. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. The selected entities will appear to melt.2. The default is 0. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. From the Transform menu. From the Edit menu. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. Smooth Smooth objects. In the Smooth dialog box.Rhino 2. click Smooth. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. Smooth works on mesh objects. 406 . click Point Editing. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. meshes. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. smoothing the curve or surface. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed.01 and 1. too.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.

Note This is different from the grid size. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. choose a center point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose a point for the radius. A sphere is single closed surface. Note When Snap is on. When Snap is off.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. At the Radius prompt. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. Grid tab. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark.Rhino 2. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. or enter a distance and press Enter. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. 408 . Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. SnapSize Set snap size. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. Sphere Draw a sphere. Modeling Aids tab. it is grayed out.

At the Third point on sphere prompt. A sphere is a single closed surface. At the End of diameter prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. choose the third circumference point. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. choose the second circumference point. At the Second point on sphere prompt. 409 . A sphere is a single closed surface. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the first circumference point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose an endpoint for the diameter. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.Rhino 2. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

At the Radius prompt.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. If you select Reverse twist. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. select Turns or Pitch.Rhino 2. enter the end of the spiral axis. 410 . Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. This is the line the spiral will wind around. enter the start of the spiral axis. If you select Turns. enter the number of turns for the spiral. enter the radius for the spiral. At the End of axis prompt. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. If you select Pitch.

Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. and points. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. select the objects to split.Rhino 2. the polysurfaces are ignored. At the Select cutting objects prompt. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. select the curve to split. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. 411 . select the cutting objects. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. type p and press Enter. The marker moves along the curve. surfaces. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes.

Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. or b. surfaces and polysurfaces. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. 412 .Rhino 2. The edge is split into two edges. to access option directly. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Options control the direction of the split. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. At the Point to split edge prompt. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. select a point.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. v. select points at which to split the surface. Front. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. the marker is constrained to the edge. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Type u. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. and Right view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. At the Split point prompts. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. Select a surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter.press Enter when done prompt.

then Split. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. and then deleting the extra isoparms.and v-directions of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. 413 . SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally.

hotspot angle. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. At the Degree in V prompt. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. pick a target point for the spotlight. light the scene less. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. and position. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. The spot light icon does not render or shade. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does.it stays the same. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . like gray. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. Darker colors. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. The shape of the cone affects the lighting.Rhino 2. At the End of cone prompt. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. not the range of the light. Or. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. set the radius of the spotlight. enter a u-direction degree for the surface.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. beam angle. pick a location for the spotlight. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. length. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light.

At the Point prompts. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. 415 . choose the first corner. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. press Enter to create a triangular surface. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points.Rhino 2. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. choose the third corner. enter points until all the control points have been entered. enter points until all the points have been entered. Or. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the fourth corner. choose the second corner. At the Second corner of surface prompt. At the Third corner of surface prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. At the Number of points in a column prompt. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface.

2.2.2. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.0 0. select a surface that is not a polysurface.5.33.5.33.5.5 0. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.and v-directions of a surface.0 -4.33.-2.-2.10 -4. copy it.5 4.5.0 -4. When off.-2. 416 .-5. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.2.0 0.Rhino 2.5. The marker is constrained to the curve.33.5.5 -4. click in the other viewport to swap.0 4. select the following text. the surface is created but not point objects.33.33.-5.5 -4.-2.33. pick a point for the new start point.-2.5.33. and run the CommandPaste command.10 -4. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.5 4.2.5.33. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.-5.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.5. KeepPoints When on.5.5.10 4.5.33.10 0. select a curve. At the Start of curve prompt. pick a point for the new end point. SwapUV Swap a the u.10 4.5.0 4.5.5 0.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.33. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.2.-2.33.5. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points. At the End of curve prompt.

select the single rail curve for sweeping. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. adjust options. the shape will twist with the surface edge. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep.Rhino 2. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. the new surface should also be tangent. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 417 . continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. reversing the direction of the curve. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. If the shapes are tangent to the surface.

(The original curves are not modified. adjust options. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. At the Select cross-section curves prompts.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. The swept surface is created. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. With closed rail curves. the cross section curves need to be compatible. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. If you don't use Smooth. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. If you use the Smooth option. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. reversing the direction of the curve. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Preview Click to preview the surface. Note To create a single surface. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition.Rhino 2. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. 418 .

Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.Rhino 2. 419 . use the Maintain height option. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default.

and continues to the ends of the rails. Preview Click to preview the surface. To create a single surface. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. one of two possible surfaces appears. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. but want to control where the sweep ends. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. If you use the Rebuild option. your surface may pull away from your profile curves.Rhino 2. (The original curves are not modified. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. If you don't use Rebuild. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. If you get the wrong surface. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency.) With closed rail curves. the cross-section curves need to be compatible.

pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. 421 . Taper Taper objects. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. At the End of taper axis prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into.Rhino 2. At the Start of taper axis prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object.

second Radius prompt. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. You can't taper a polysurface . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a center point for the base. End of cone prompt. 422 . Taper moves the control points of objects. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. choose a radius for the base of the cone. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly.only control points. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. TCone Draw a truncated cone. and meshes. curves. you will only taper that part of the object. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. surfaces. Radius prompt.Rhino 2. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone.

Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. surfaces. or solids. 2000. The two sizes update each other. enter the start position for the text. It will not show in a perspective view. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. or solids based on TrueType fonts. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Example If your units are inches.25 inches. and XP.Rhino 2. When you place annotation text. set the options. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. in the form of curves. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Type the text. 423 . and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. In the Edit Text dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. surfaces.

select Solid. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. Under Create. specify the height of the text characters. select a font. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Text height box. select Surfaces. In the Text box. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. select a style. In the Font Style box. specify the height of the text characters. select a style. The text appears in the Sample window. The text appears in the Sample window. type text characters to make into surfaces. In the Text height box. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. in the Font box. Under Create. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. type text characters to make into solids. In the Font Style box. In the Text box. select a font.Rhino 2. in the Font box.

create new toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. The workspace holds the toolbars. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. and whether it is hidden or showing. the screen position of each toolbar. 425 . Top Set to world top view. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. adjust the size of buttons. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. the buttons in them. import toolbars from a different workspace file. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. add new buttons to toolbars. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars.Rhino 2.

The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. click the parts of objects to trim away. At the Radius prompt. you must edit your Rhino. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. press Enter. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. When you are finished selecting objects.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt.Rhino 2. When you are finished trimming. press Enter. select objects you want to trim other objects with. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. 426 . choose a center point. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. At the Second radius prompt. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve.

choose a radius for the tube wall size. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. 427 . choose a radius for the second tube wall size. imaginary extensions of the line are used. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. At the first Radius prompt. or use Split. use trim several times.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. choose a center point for the tube's base. Tube Draw a tube. To trim a surface with more than one curve. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. and Right view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. Front. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. surfaces and polysurfaces. At the second Radius prompt. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view.Rhino 2.

Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. Press Esc to stop the turntable.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Twist Twist objects. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter.Rhino 2. and Render Preview. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Shade. 428 . Turntable Continuously rotate your view. Note The view rotates about the target point. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands.

General tab. or transform commands. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. viewports. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt.only control points. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. curves. Or. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. or construction planes. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. You can't twist a polysurface . If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. the following prompt appears. Twist moves the control points of objects.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. type c and press Enter. Undo Undo the last command. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. The opposite to undo is Redo. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. choose a second point on the axis. 429 .Rhino 2. and meshes. surfaces. type in an angle. edit. If you entered a point to rotate from. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. At the End of twist axis prompt. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. to twist copies of the objects. choose a point on the twist axis. you will only twist that part of the object. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly.

Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. their normals are flipped.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. This makes this command scriptable. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh.Rhino 2. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Render your mesh. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. For example. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. If some of the faces that should render disappear. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. 430 . Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group.

UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. explode it. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. 3DFace object. Once the normals are correct. If you see inside the mesh. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. All polygons have a face normal direction. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. normals point the wrong way. re-join the meshes. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. For example. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects.Rhino 2. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. select the objects you want to unlock. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. the packed texture coordinates are created. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. In general. UnLock Unlock locked objects. Export in desired format. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. If more than one object is selected. The 431 . When polysurfaces are meshed. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. Use UnifyMeshNormals. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed.

Rhino 2. If the surface is developable. Polysurface made of four surfaces.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. Packed textures. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. 432 . Unpacked textures. select a surface or curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt.

Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. it may be geometrically developable. tori. This is not like folding out a box. an information message is printed at the command line. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. you can remove the trim curves. In Rhino. an information message is printed at the command line. 433 . and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. removing any attached geometry. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. but not meet that requirement. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. a developable surface has to be single span linear. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. Curves on a surface can also be developed. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. Surfaces such as spheres. Surface Tools.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. This command may take some time. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)).

Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim joined polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim removes the trimming curve. Trimmed surface. 434 . Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.

0001). Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. Appearance tab.0. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. you can change the lens length of the camera.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. 436 . Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates.3921 (+/. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt.Rhino 2. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm.

9553974. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.2e-007.Rhino 2.7e-007). At the Point on edge prompts. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii.1. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. If an edge point was picked. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. second moments. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.3. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. enter a radius for this point.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. product moments. choose a point on the edge.4649522 (+/. enter or drag a radius. select a surface or part of a polysurface. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.-4e016. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. 437 .6. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. select a surface or part of a polysurface.7e-007. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.6. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt. At the End radius <x> prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. First moments. At the Start radius prompt. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2.

use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve.Rhino 2. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. 438 .0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. It does not change when you zoom. pan. In other cases. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. Weight Edit control point weight. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. or rotate your view. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box.

the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. and file export for stereolithography. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. see the SetPt command. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. we can use weld with an angle of 40. In our case. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. To get this to happen. At the Angle tolerance prompt. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth.Rhino 2. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. No points in the blue mesh are welded. they are replaced by a single mesh point. To perform a similar operation with control points. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. texture mapping on mesh objects. 439 . the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. When shaded. If we want a smooth roof. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects.

they always get welded. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. Weld does not report the results on the command line. 3D Studio MAX).1) and top right (1. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. See Importing and exporting STL files.1). Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. Use JoinMesh. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job.0). you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. top left is (0.Rhino 2. 440 . The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. It does not physically fuse the vertices. Welding in MAX is different. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. Thus. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. then Weld (angle=180). Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. they must be joined before welding is effective. the bottom right is (1.

Rhino 2. The wireframe of the objects. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. select a curve. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode.0 Command Reference What Display object information. the grid. World axes icon on 441 . At the Select object prompt. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. object highlighting. axes. or polysurface. surface.

Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. and color. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. set the stripe direction. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. on the Shade tab. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms.Rhino 2. WorldYAxisIcon=. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. where white is the closest to your eye. In the Zebra Options dialog box. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. and black is the farthest away. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. size. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer.ini file set the color for the icon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . 442 . When objects are rendered in Rhino.

and curvature between the surfaces match. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. this means the position. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. 443 . curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. the surfaces touch. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. These meshes can be large. curvature.Rhino 2. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. Position. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. curvature. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. MatchSrf. tangency. and other important properties. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Tangent matches. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.

under Zebra and EMap. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. select More reliable. in the Options dialog box. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. If you have a wheel mouse.Rhino 2. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. When Faster is selected. 444 . When More reliable is selected. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. on the Shade tab. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. but will always work.

ZoomNext Redo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in.

Note In a perspective view. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. ZoomWindow Zoom window. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. drag a window to zoom. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. ZoomX Change the zoom factor.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. type a zoom factor and press Enter. pick a point for the center of the view. At the Zoom factor prompt. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. This is particularly useful in perspective views. 446 .

profile curves. arrow. DWG file exchange. MAX 2. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 27. 123. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 426 angle: constraint. 324 3Rectangle command. 133. MAX 3. 28. 5. 28. 5. 10. 140 angle:.0. add notes to the model. 140. options.0 IGES. 24 AddNextU command. 33. 32 AGLib file exchange. export. 135 ACIS file export. 142. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 5. 5. 149 Array command. 29. 203. import. from the last point. 151. 5. 229. sketch curve with. 5. 323 3-D digitizing:. 143 Arc3Pts command. measure between two lines. extend to a point. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 333. 149 ArrayPolar command. end and radius. 30 add object to selection. 139 All command. 251. 141 ApplyCurves command. command aliases. 215. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. disconnect. 139 AlignTrace command. 150. 221. around a pole. 141 ApplyCrv command. on a surface. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. polar. end and direction. 140 Along object snap. 307. 151 ArrayCrv command. 251. 205. 265. 123 2Circle command. 368. 125 array: along a curve. 144 arc:.0 Command Reference Index !. MAX 1. 76. 149. 5. 5. 312 Angle command. 137 AddPrevV command. 198. 206.Rhino 2. 255. 136 AddNextV command. 150. dot. shortcuts. 138 adjust end bulge. 197. 88. 28. 148 Array toolbar. 251. 340. 144 ArcTTR command. 152 AnnotateDot command. 33. 152. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 34. 5. 33. 143 3Box command. 5. 330. 2.0 OBJ. 144 Area command. 210. 322. 139. 195. 5. 10. 330 3-D digitizing: about. MAX 3. 5. 141 arc: extend by. 150. 141 ApplyMesh command. 221. circular. 5. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 152. 146 arguments at the command line. 251. 136 AddPrevU command. 393 34View command. 231. 152. 239. 231. create planar sections. 140. tangent to two curves. 5. 140 Align command. 149. 5. 28. 143. 144 Arc command. 3. 407. 232 Arc3Pt command. 205. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 5. 149 ArrayCurve command. 127. 29. 255. export options. 151 arrow annotation object. 88 align: background bitmap. 187. 152 ASAP file exchange. 148. 135 3DM file exchange. 205. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 144. 215. 5. 162. 3DS file format. 205. 5. 230. 206. 148. 5. 180. 151 array:. DXF file exchange. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 305. 203. 207. from start. 138 AddToGroup command. 2. 5. 5. initialize. 232. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 145 AreaCentroid command. 139 Align3D command. to copy while dragging. 168. with FaroArm. 53 aliases. 169 3CPlane command. 144. 145 AreaMoments command. 144 ArcSER command. set spacing between points. 144. 62 447 . 298. 35. set ortho. 29. 206. 245. 152 Arrow command. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 5. 170 2-D drawings from model. 5. 180. 55 Ascii STL tag. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 308 align:. 206. 361. 215 annotation. 27. 152 arrowhead on curve. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. set scale. 150. 255. 27. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 393 3View command. 150 ArraySrf command. 152. 281 AttachEnd command. 192. 82 Alt key. 143. 309 AlignProfiles command. 251. 205. 426 Analyze toolbar. DOS. 150. 14. 53. 212. 29 3DFace command. 412 Annotate toolbar. 279 2Sphere command. 204. 203. 346 3Sphere command. 152 AutoCAD. 163 3Circle command. calibrate. 312 AngleLine command. MAX 2. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 362 3Plane command. 230. with a MicroScribe. from three points. suspend autoclose. 305. 220. 207. 34. 207. 5. 135 4View command. 5. 149. dimension. 123 Arrowhead command. arrowhead on curve. 151. 140. 333. 204.2. 205. 143. 31 AG file exchange. VIZ. scale factor. 127. Release 12 export. 266 animate view. built into Rhino. 53. 152 Attach command. 385 analyze:. pause input. 142 Arc toolbar. 206. to suspend object snaps. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 143 ArcDir command. 151 ArraySurface command. 5. 281 Audit command. 82 AlongTan object snap. 207. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 204. 14. toolbar button function. 26. 135 3Arc command.5. 5. 5. rectangular. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. set up function key for click.

125. 133. 171. 124 C command. 338 buoyancy. troubleshooting. 180. 249. 245. 164 capture image for toolbar button. two surfaces. 322. 139. 160. 168 Check command. 160. 232 CATIA file exchange. 164. 169. remove. intersection. 392. 172. set construction plane x. 297. render meshes when saving file. floatation. place. 365. 170. 168. 384. 351. lock. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 321. 152 autosave:. 161 BooleanDifference command. 172. 171 circle:. 123. move. show. 153. 160 Bend command. height. 124. undo levels. 384 background bitmap:. 162. 139. 5. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 157. copy toolbar button. delete toolbar button. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 55 axis. 297. 250 button. 139. 154 Between object snap. layer. edit toolbar. 231 CArcPt command. 168. 366. 170. 24 circle: by diameter. 232 Clipboard. 124. 179. 161 Bottom command. 133. 124. from center. display grid. 179 BI command. hide background. 125. 5 bumpmap for rendering. backdrop for rendering. 161 buffer. 162 BoundingBox command. 180. as bitmap. 113. variable radius between surfaces. 367. area. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 323. 154 baseball-style seams. time control. place background. 162. scale background. from three points. 351. 172. difference. 102. 366. 171. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 297. 115. 133. 168 choose one object. 362 ClearMesh command. 123 Cap command. 160 bi-rail sweep. 124. toolbar button tooltip. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 39 Boolean. 250 Center object snap. 101. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 164 cap open planar ends. 322. 170. 166. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 153 back view. command. 162 box: from length. 170 Circle command. 365. 56 center: buoyancy. 156 blend:. 351. import button image. 165 change. to current layer. 5. 156. 198. remove background. 250. 133. to the Clipboard. 5. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 54 autosave: file location. 123. 349 ClearUndo command. radius. 249. 322. select. 90 Autosave command. 90. 320. toolbar layout. 172 built-in aliases. 161. 250 centroid. 122. 5. 90. 162. 5. 133 BU command. 161. 249. 320. with toolbar button. 85. 170 CircleTTR command. 157. 168. 171. set construction plane z. 124 capture viewport. 365. clear undo. 162 bottom view. 90. 153 background bitmap: align. 5. 421 BlendSrf command. the layer of an object. 297. 322 blend: curve. 368. 155 bitmap. 114. tangent to two curves. 162 Box toolbar. place. 168 Circle toolbar. 145 chamfer: two curves. 12. background. 171 clear. 39 BMP file format. 124. 425 Back command. 116. 351. 198. 122. 39 BMRT support. 316 448 . selection. 392. save button image to file. 5. 169 Circle3Pts command. 365. 168.0 file exchange.Rhino 2. edit button image. 363. clear button image. as 256-color bitmap. 199. 123. 384. 2. 167. 184. edit button icons. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 168 CheckInLicense command. 367. 163. 160. 13. 123. 163 Box3Pts command. 384. 402 Bisector command. 159. 123. 243. 158. 130. 351. 292 Box3Pt command. 90 ChangeDegree command. 184. 171. 166 ChangeLayer command. 322. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 118. 321. 124. 204 camera. 152. 154. 229. 321. 168. 139. 122. 56 cancel command. use. toolbar button image. ortho angle. 156. 172 CLine command. 316. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 163 B-spline. 409. convert NURBS curve to. 368 Baseball command. copy to. 292 Box command. 363. 170. render meshes. undo buffer. 139. 421 Blend command. capture button image. 369 C2View command. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. width. 365. 322. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 170 CircleTTT command. scale. 163 box:. 5. 249. 79 center:. 124. 157. tangent to three curves. 165 Chamfer command. 5. 163. 245. 249. polygon mesh. 366 CArc command. 165 ChamferSrf command. union. 153 BD command. 184. 425. 122. 168 check objects for errors. 164 chamfer:. 154. toggle world icon. move toolbar button. 164. 384 bad objects. 145. 250. 312. paste from.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. center of. object properties. 123. 167. 84 Bezier curve. hide. move background. 321. ellipsoid. show hidden background. 312. cut. surface. 169. toolbar. with Esc key. 123. sphere. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 321. 243. 123. settings. 169 CircleD command. 297. 171 Circle3Pt command. from three points. 166. 160 BooleanUnion command. 5. use for tracing. 338. align backgound. 101. surface degree. 5. snap size.

bend. rendering to Clipboard. render window to Clipboard. 5. 181 CPlaneFront command. 181. 138. 249. 173. plan view. 327 Cob command. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 88. 173 command names. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 75. 181 CPlaneNext command. turn off. 180. 422. 413 command aliases. 181 Copy command. old. 74. set display density. move through a point. turn on. move along Z. select next in u-direction. 173. 406. 202. 155. arguments. 173 CommandPrompt command. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 195 cone: cone. distance. AutoCAD. render. 398. for spotlight editing. create curve from. 11. move in u-. 178. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 114. 249. list. 177. 182. 336. 181. 245. undo. 362. history. 177 continuous shading. add next in v-direction to selection. wheel. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 172. construction plane coordinates. 173. 122. 126. toggle construction plane entry. 184. along line. 246. delete from a curve. options. toggle display. 179. 344. 406. 235. 245. 172. 154. assign to mouse buttons. 21. 303. 123. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 125. 303. 10. 11 coordinates. set to 3 points. 173. layer. weld. 174. 131 ControlPolygon command. 380. rotate. 115. holes in surfaces. display for a point. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. G1. 115. paste from clipboard. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 172. 5. 180. v-. make all have same orientation. project object snap to. import from 3DM file. 297. toggle world coordinate entry. 15. 182. 343. 413 CommandHistory command. 131 control points. 104. 164. objects to Clipboard. 172 cloud of points. 75 comma-delimited file export. 218 Contour command. 133. 136. display in clipboard or history. 125. set to z-axis. set weight. 84. 172 ClosePoint command. 178 control vertex. 183. render window. 5. 183. draw curve using. move all through a point. 75. 177. curve. select previous in u-direction. 179. 172 CommandPaste command. 133. 298. 335. 181. 405. perpendicular to curve. 234. 182. 119. 379. 245. 184. named construction plane. 246. highlight. 419 context menu. 5 command:. 183. copy settings of one to the all. 374. 327. move to coordinate location. 172 ClosestPt command. 419. 166. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 173 Commands command. 184. 173. set origin. project objects to. 173 commands: list of all. 5. set the number of thin gridlines. 184. 122. G2. 172. 14. 15 construction plane. 181. select row on surface. list all. 251 command area. set to next. 57 CPDash command. set to view. 11. objects. 228. View top of. add next in u-direction to selection. 179 Coons patch. next. 178 CPHighlight command. 126. 245. hide. 174. script. place point objects on. 359. 136. 119. 246. 181 CPlaneElevation command. set to previous. 245. 90. set to x-axis. set to object. 173. 182. save. 11. select row in vdirection. 178 control point definition. 345. 126. 88. 89. 297. 217 COff command. set distance between grid lines. 13. 339. 406 Cone command. set to vertical. 138. 176. read from file. 137. 14. 180. 246. 235. 84. set front. 419. 183. 172 Closest point to an object. 338. 422. toggle display of. 2. 2. 183. 5. 5 CPlaneObject command. 183. view back of. select previous in v-direction. add to surface. 250. 228. set top. 4. extract. 175. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. polygon mesh. 75. shortcut. angle. 398. toolbar button. 85. relative polar coordinates. G0. 136. 303. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. 88. add previous in u-direction to selection. 292. 182. 197. 339. 18. 173 COn command. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. 298. 234. 182 449 . 343. 323. 75 continuity. viewport. 166. view front of. 181. 75. 178. 5.0 Command Reference close. 11. 182. 5. and ndirections. 342. 155. show hidden. 182 CPlaneO. options. curve and surface. view right of. 184. 339. 88. 335. 181. display recently used. 140. 375. 173 cone:. 181 CopyClip command. 140. 342. 335. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 362. 131 command history. 180. 379. 173 commands:. toolbar. 419. 176. 181. 406 ConfigScript command. 125. 219 coordinate entry. 195 color. dialog box. previous. false. 104. 180 copy:. 131. turn grid on or off. 197. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command.Rhino 2. 88. polar coordinates. 323. truncated. 292. 419. 304. relative coordinates. view bottom of. 180. set normal to curve. 5. 379 control polygon. 373. 89. add previous in v-direction to selection. display axes. 10. settings of one construction plane to all. 202. select next in v-direction. 5. 131. coincident. 174 conic:. 359. 35 command: alias. 164. macro. 125. 386. 338. 419. set origin of all construction planes. 176 constraint. 183. 419. 5. 89. 177 contour curves. entering coordinates. 181 CPlane3Pts command. world coordinates. 11. coordinates. 10. view to all viewports. set right. 180. 11. 11 copy: command shortcut. 2 command line. 12. 176 ConicPerp command. set extents of. 11. 338. 173. 176 Conic command. 12. view left of. 373. Esc to cancel. 2. display. 137. taper. 123. 172 CloseViewport command. 12. 174. 114. 126 conic: curve. 90. 386. 375. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 75. 245.

cross sections through profiles. 141. 142. 248. arc tangent to two curves. 270. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 351. 298. helix. 200 450 . 177. 304. convert to polyline. 195. 236. 271. 4. 175. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 343. extrude straight. 184 CPlaneZ command. 281. 239. 271. 239. 185 CrvBox command. 190 cursor. 279. extend. surface from network. circle by diameter. selection. 326. 221. 230. 245 Curvature command. 395. display graph. 2. 213. 162 CurveEnd command. delete control points. arc from start. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 183 CPlaneToView command. circle from center. 281. 389. marker. 258. place point at start. 298. 218. sketch on polygon mesh. 185. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 142. 255. 333. 233. 281. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 236. 389 CurveStart command. 164. 168. 2. adjust end bulge. 187 CrvStart command. 139. 2 Ctrl+S. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 179. revolve. 232. 164. 183 CPlaneTop command. line vertical to construction plane. 2. 391. 195. 185. adjust seam point. analyze surface. 343. points. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 169. 144. 197. match ends. flatten section of. 189 CSec command. 369 crossing selection. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. curvature graph off. extrude to point. 144. 187. 226. 195. 232. 326. 394 CurveBlend command. 388. 143. 156. curvature graph. 3 crossing:. 388. 4. make periodic. arc. circle from three points. 4. 165. pull to surface. 184 CPlaneX command. 256. 183 CPlaneRight command. contour. 265. 235. rebuild. 333. 2. 238. raise degree. divide by number of segments. 387. 304 Ctrl+A. fillet. 369. 198 CutPlane command. fair. project onto surface. from control points. line. 197. 187. 270. 4 Ctrl+V. 267. 174. 90. 188. 131. add knots. 327. 339. 174. 169. 337. 394. 254. 254. 222. 189. 15. line normal to a surface. 180 Ctrl+N. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 369 Crv2View command. constrain along line. line tangent to two curves. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. extend by arc. 253. 334. 253. 305. 2. 268. from point cloud. constrain to ortho. 141. 241. 194. silhouette. 24. 307 Ctrl+P. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 265. 170. offset. 256. 14. 218. 269. 343. 340. 356. 304. simplify. 268. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 189 CSV export. spiral. toggle. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. extrude along path. 236. 195. 302 Ctrl+O. mean. 156. 367. 388. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 238. 258. circle tangent to two curves. 367. 238. 197 curve. 187 CurveSketch command. 185. 390. 281. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 157. parabola. 197 curve degree. 257. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 216. 187 CrvSeam command. 195. 267. 316 Ctrl+X. sketch on surface. 195. 232. extend by line. 24. 268. 197. 184 CPTog command. 256. single line. polyline. 389. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 162 CrvDeviation command. section. extend to surface boundary. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 15. 197. 213. 90. 339. 217. 198 Ctrl+Y. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 311. smooth. 156. 4. 168. 184 CPlaneView command. 369. 165. 2. 221. 189. 179. 226. periodic. 355. 231. 258. 191 curvature:. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 15. 177. 192. insert edit point. interpolate on surface. 241. 249. 226. 387 Curve toolbar. 131. 191. intersect two objects. 340. 334. measure between two curves. polyline through point objects. 139. arc from three points. 13. 236. 311. 337. select all. 156 CurveBox command. 230. 194. 3 Ctrl+C. 255. 248. 348 Ctrl+Z. 185 CRectangle command. 188. 305. graph on. 230. 235. 269 Curve command. radius. 133. ellipse. chamfer. extract wireframe from surface. 217. 143. 323. 268. 235. sketch. 339. 327. 170. 184 CPlaneV command. 189 crosshairs. 162. 337. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 305. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. apply to surface. 330. 3. 255. 165. constrain parallel to view plane. 187 CurveSeam command. bounding box. 389. 306. 156. 389. 4. from 2 views. 186. 187 CrvEnd command. 4. 217. duplicate edge of surface. 187 CurveOverlap command. 195. 248. 170. 202. 190 CullCP command. end. 189. place point at end. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 174. constrain to plane. 155. 255. 162. 257. 218. align in two views. convert to Beziers. 216. 233. refit. 155. 314. 305. duplicate border of surface. 323. point. 197. 387 curve:. blend. 239. 330. 239. line segments. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 4. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. direction. 178. Gaussian.Rhino 2. 231. 25. 239. 390. graph off. tracking line. 367. 179. crosshairs. bisector line. line perpendicular to two curves. 165. 387. 346 cross sections through profiles. 355. 195. conic. 24. extract isoparms from surface. 187. 351. 197. 2. measure radius. 234 CreatePCurves command. 191. 133. 144. 182 CPlanePrev command. 241. 169. from interpolated points. 194. extend by arc to a point. remove knots. 202. 314. 257. 196. 187. 177. 164. 387. tangent line. interpolate through polyline. 141.

298 DigPause command. 272 date. 203. layer. 384. 212 distance: constraint. 209. button image. diameter. rebuild. 210 Dir command. 205. toggle. control polygon. 202. 207. 218 duplicate. 202 Deselect All. 279. annotation text. select all objects. angle between lines. 209 DimRecenterText command.ini. 208 DimRadius command. with FaroArm. 410 cylinder: NURBS. sketch curve. 12. summary. 207 DimDiameter command. intialize. 132. 205 digitize. 212 disconnect digitizer. raise curve degree. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 10. 202 DeleteAll command. change. 209 DimRotated command. 108 Dup command. 330. 209. 206 DigSection command. 220. 384 edge: create curve from. 396 EdgeSrf command. 106. 425. objects. 217. 208. 201. 370. 196. 131 Ebroken command. 17. 213 DivideByLength command. Boolean. 207. render mesh settings. pause input. 370. toolbar button. 370.Rhino 2. 10. in Trim command. 124. 121. 410. 18. 33 DynamicShading command. split. grid. 208. 132. 215 Dot command. 214 domain: match. wallpaper. 216 Drape command. 34 DXF file exchange. 213. 91. 250. create 2-D curves. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. curve by number of segments. 204 DigClick command. 119. 344. control points. 288. horizontal. 123 451 . 207 DimAligned command. 206. Notes tab. 160 Dig command. radius.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 215 dot:. edge of surface. 330. 195. 135. 127. 15 Distance command. 213 dock a toolbar. 17. 144 direction. 2. reverse object direction. 213 divide:. 245. lines. 208 difference. 330. 344. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 372 Deselect command. border of surface. 416 developable surface definition. 260. 372 DetachTrim command. show. 251. 217 DupBorder command. 265. 217 DupEdge command. change degree of surface. 265. 22. 368. disconnect. 288. 293 Cylinder command. 204. 215 drafting. 165. 219. 251 Domain command. 215 draft angle. recenter text. 209 DimVertical command. 205 DigDisconnect command. 2. polylines. 385. 208. 251 dot: annotation. 19 document properties:. calibrate. planar section. 202. tolerances. surfaces. 168. 105. 395. 395. 207. 370 DWG file exchange. 216. 217 DrapePt command. 385. 205 DigScale command. aligned. 167. 210. 207. 212 distance display. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. object discription. 344. edit points. 209. grid axes. 277 diagnostics. 288. viewport properties. 279 Dragmode. toolbar. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 207. 127. display broken. 122. 165 Delcam file exchange. 3-D polygon mesh face. 422 Display command. 201 cylinder:. set spacing between points. 260. 104. in Split command. 218. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 220. command button. 205. 12. options. 217 drape surface. 135. 218. 206. 208. 211 DirectX file export. polygon mesh. shortcuts. set up function key for click. 3-D digitizing. 206. 168. 206 DigSketch command. 208 DimOptions command. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 218. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 212 display:. 205 displacement. 121. hydrostatic calculation. 123. 58 delete: all objects. 207 DimAngle command. vertical. 212 DisableOsnap command. 211. 196. 202 delete:. 219. persistent object snaps. 209. 178. 19 DocumentProperties command. 212. select all. 372 DeselectAll command. 338. 166. 385. 17. edit text. 166. 210. 22. 217. 210 DirArc command. naked edges. from last point. 239. options. 411. 243 DirectionalLight command. object. 272. 160. points at naked edges. 15 divide: curve by length. 217. 122 Delete command. 293 data structure for object. join two out of tolerance edges. 218. 384. 217 draw. 107. set scale. Render Mesh tab. broken edges. 15. 209. 88. 85. 260. Rhino. curve. 384 diameter dimension. 218 e_tol. 210. 213 Divide command. 396 edge:. 127. display curve or surface. 99 disable. 104. 203 develop a surface. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 210 Dimensions toolbar. naked. 384. 120 document properties: notes. 243. 197. units. 214 domain:. 385. 197. with MicroScribe. 19. 245. dimension text. 210 DimHorizontal command. 45 dirty looking rendering. 19. 22. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 203 DigCalibrate command. 212. 220. 206 DigSpacing command. 208 dimension. 19. toolbar button bitmap icons. 205. 202. 133. 250 display: bitmap window. 23. 23 distance:. 201. 123. isoparm density. 22 degree. merge. rotated. 219.

13. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 1 Faro command. 238 F1. Alias (OBJ). 12. 68. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 231. 224 erase objects. 54. 238. object properties to file. 288 Enaked command. 385 EnakedPt command. 229 export:. 57. surface. 131 FAQ. VRML. 2. 69. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 51. Microstation (IGES). 53. 233 ExtendByArc command. 26. OptiCAD (IGES). 221 EllipseD command. 229 explode:. 46. 235. 236 Extrude toolbar. by arc. surface into a solid. NuGraf (IGES). 13. 232 ExtendByLine command. 4 Fair command. 56. 224 EMerge command. 236. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 73. POVRay (POV). ACIS. control polygon. 229. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 227 environment map. DirectX. 93. CAD 3D SUM 4. Unigraphics (IGES). Viewpoint Technologies. 59. Solid Edge (IGES). 260 elevator mode. 40. 40. 61. 234. 343 ElmoSrf command. 234. FastSURF (IGES). 154 Ellipsoid command. 32. 35. 57. 60. 52. 41. 71. 44. AutoCAD (DXF). 233. raw triangles (RAW). Pro/E (IGES). 2. curve to surface boundary. 202. AUTOFORM (IGES). 35. SolidWorks (IGES). 74. Lightwave (LWO). Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 64. IronCAD (IGES). space and rightmouse click. 253.0 (OBJ). 54. 12 Enter:. 74 Export command. Maya (IGES). 228 exit Rhino. Solid Designer (IGES). 236. 30. 59. 3D Studio MAX 3. 64. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. FastShip (IGES). 231. 51. 236. Metastream. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command.0 (IGES). 236. wireframe curves from surface. 232. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 41. 35. Tebis IGES. 62. 41. 230. 236. 228 Excel. 42. 67. 133 EShow command. 222 EllipseEnds command. 233 ExtendSrf command. 72. NASA GridTool. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 37. curve. 63. 62. 44. AutoShip (IGES). 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 232. Applied Geometry (AG). export to. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 53. 61. 356 extrude:. Moray (UDO). 3. 239 fair curve. 56. 235 ExtractSrf command. 233. by line. 33. 46. 58. Catia (IGES). 234 Extend command. Alias (IGES). Plug-in). 233 extend:. 29. 220. arc to a point. 52. 220 EditText command. curve to point. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 31. 229 Explode command. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 46. 228 EvaluatePt command. 237. unable to run program renrib. curve along path. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 344 EMap command. 230 extend. 33. 3D Studio (3DS). GHS. 37. 63. Wavefront (OBJ). 70. 222 ellipse:. 228 EvaluateUV command. 70. 230. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 55. 231. Yamaha ESPRi. 42. SURFCAM (IGES). Softimage (IGES. 227. 396 EvaluatePoint command. 220 EJoin command. insert on curve. 236. 253. 229. 385 ESplit command. polygon mesh. SLA. 236 extrude: curve.0 (IGES). 420 EditDim command. 73. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 36. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 128. 30. 36. 221. 356. 64. ME30 (IGES). TekSoft IGES. 3D Studio MAX 3. 230. 238 Extrude command. Moldex DXF. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 10. 31. 92. 55. 229 export. 58 452 . 231. 235 ExtractPt command. 69. curve on surface. isoparms from surface. 47. 56. 223 elliptical conic curve. Commadelimited file. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 42. SAT file format. triangles.0 Command Reference edit points. 45. 61. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 53. 71. 53. 416 explode: NURBS objects. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 133 enter coordinates. 2. 78 EndBulge command. show. 68. 233. CADCEUS (IGES). 63. STL. 45. 58. 238. 220. LUSAS (IGES). 219 EditPtOn command. 31. 26. 71. 230. 45. 48. 73. Delcam (IGES). CamSoft (IGES). 123. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 133 Escape key. 330 End key. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 58. 29. from focus points. 63. 45. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 174 Elmo command. 72. 60. IGES. 37. 65. 45. 73.Rhino 2. Multisurf (IGES). 45. 35. 67. 232. options. 239 FastShip file exchange. mesh to IGES file. 127 Esc key. surface. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 119. 33. 92. 55. 59. 11. 69. 40 errors in model. 131. Cosmos/M (IGES). 32. 35. 223 ellipsoid:. command aliases. 226 endpoint object snap. curve by offset. 46. 123 edit:. 239 false color display. 238. 55. surface from polysurface. 30. 65. 4 F8. 228 error messages. 228 expand a surface. Mastercam (IGES). AutoCAD (DWG). 233 extract. PostScript. turn off. 221. CSV file. Integrity Ware (IGES). 232. 62. 231. 4 F9. 36. turn on. 4 F2. 60. 429 End object snap. 229 Exit command. 219. 58. 26. 222 Ellipse command. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 12 ELine command. 235. 45. 43. 124. 133. 230 Extend toolbar. 54.

273. 361. 348. 122. set the number of lines. shortcut. objects. 241 FlatShade1 command. AutoShip. 133. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 380 GridAxes command. 379. 49 IGES export:. 168. 249. edit points. 55. 46. 123. 72. toolbar. 130. center of. 2. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 244 front view. 65. 387 HSV color. 250. status bar panes. section of curve. 395. 390. 75 hue. definition. 52. 249 hide:. 245 GridOptions command. 46. 53. 134. 133. flyout toolbar. 407. 123. 1. 60. 133. objects. tolerance. seamless mesh. 119 Hide command. 68. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. NURBS. template. 134. 416. AUTOFORM. edit using. 220. 133. troubleshooting import problems. 362 FileProperties command. 46. 426. 48. 380 GridThick command. 172. 259. 131. 246 GridSize command. 131. 246 Group objects for selection. 396. swap hidden status. 273. 249. initial mesh grid. 131. IGES export type details. 135 grid: axes . 251 floating license. cursor. 133. 305. 386 HideAll command. 307. 122 font. 386. run application from inside Rhino. Alias|Wavefront. Ashlar Vellum. command area. 229. 246. 386. set the extents of. 386. 171. control point. 194. 380. 240 FilletEdge command. 338 history. 245 Grid command. technical support. 407 freeze: a layer. developable surface. 133. 262. types. 379 IGES file types. 133. 377 Group command. edit toolbar button. new. 240. 172 hold. 36 glossary terms. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 244 G0 continuity. 131. Esc key. 246 group. 273. 251. 255. 416. 362 File toolbar. 277. 81 Front command. 134. 192. bumpmap. unlock locked objects. save. 302. 59. 176 Gaussian curvature. 1 Help command. reduce size of model. 249 HidePt command. 69. 368. 74. 171. 415 Ghost command. 243 floatation. 378. 64. 124. 53. 339.turn on or off. 378. 249. 425. 249. 260. 245. periodic curve. 425 IGES: file exchange. 281 FlatShade command. 325 FitCrv command. isoparm. set distance between lines. 249 highlight in rendering. 62. 103 hidden objects. 246 handlebars. 250. curve. 244 Flowline command. 360. 134. naked edge. 255. 12. 246. edge of polysurface. 176 G1 continuity. 250. save as. 279. surface. 119. 249. 307. marker. 380. 12 Home key. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. text. 131. 75 Hydrostatics command. 246. normal. Unicode. 203. set snap size. 243 Flip command. 133. 239. 122. snap to. open. 246 HBarSrf command. 362 file:. 131. 361. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 3D Studio MAX 3. control points. 174 icon. 240 filter the layer display. 236. 248 help: display Help file. 245 grid:. 249 HidePoints command. 131. wireframe. 221 fonts. toolbar. 247 Helix command. 245 GridSections command. 385. 229. 339 HideOsnap command. 361. 235 FltE command. 330. 1. 417 ghost: a layer. 386. 302. 239. Osnap dialog box. 46. CADCEUS. 135. 46. 384. 70. 49. 212 frequently asked questions. 53. 18. 246. 54. 262. 251. 73. 250. 417 FlattenSrf command. unlock locked objects. Breault Research's ASAP. 176 G2 continuity. 240 FilletSrf command. 194 GCon command. 56.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 47. 133. 131. 242 flatten. keep last used on top. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 120. 214 fillet.0. 50. 246 Gridsnap command. 244 Flow command. polygon mesh export. 410. 415 Freeze command. 132. 246 Heightfield command. import. spacing. 130. two surfaces. name. 132. 453 . world axes. 57. 261. 250 hide: background bitmap. 307. show hidden control points. 429 Horizon command. 229. 104 fit a plane through points. 273 ghost:. 249 HideSwap command. 58. texture mapping coordinates. polysurface. 278. 273 freeze:.Rhino 2. 1 From object snap. 61. 2. 415 GHS file export. 413. command line. 360. 302. 249 HideCV command. units. 132. 130 Flow along a curve. 277. 245. 55. 55. axis lock. 2 hidden layer name. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 336. 325 FixCurveEnd command. Enter key. 249. 337. 250 HideToolbar command. tracking line. 246. objects. 46. 251. 50. 228. 240 Fillet command. 241 FitPlane command. simple controls. show selected. 119 HideTrace command. 377. 1 help:. text. 273. 123. turn on or off. 67. 71. periodic surface. 251. 55. 249 HidePts command. 119 HideToolbox command. 63. 131. 120. 220. 246 HBar command. 54. 5. panes. 132. 239 fillet:. 407. object names. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 262. 229. 54. false color. 262.

367 JPG file format.0 OBJ. 64. 283. Solid Designer. 263. 55. 68. ME30 IGES. stereolithography STL. SolidWorks IGES. 261 Lasso command. 251. 425. 255. Mechanical Desktop. 41. 3D Studio MAX 3. 363. 58. 254. 69. Ashlar Vellum IGES. SDRC's I-DEAS. 63. 65. 256 interpolate. change to current. 371. named views from a 3DM file. 58. 60. 74 Import command. aliases. 338. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 61. 377. 70. 102. 104. 78. 257 InterpPolyline command. 67. FastSURF IGES. Yamaha ESPRi. 33. 261 Join command. 254. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 48. 37. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 64. 254. 307. Mastercam. 46. 261 JoinSrf command. 69. 64. AutoShip IGES. one layer on. Microstation. 10. 260 JoinFaces command. 104. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 121. NASA GridTool IGES. 59. 132. SUM 4. 377 layer:. 253. 101. 65. 262. 260. 257. select objects by. 2. 104. AutoCAD DWG. 29. 33. 42. 61. 41. 37. 70. turn off. SURFCAM. 259 join:. 168. 103. Maya. 131 insert: edit point. translate IGES/Rhino. 258 Intersect command. 371. Solid Edge. 62. 254 InsertKnots command. 63. 69. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. angle from. 160 Invert command. Applied Geometry AG. Tebis. 377 LayerLock command. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 46. 90. 103. 73. 101. 73. 67. Pro/E. 70. 46 IGES:. 73. objects. 253 InsertKink command. 258 intersect:. 56. 283. 343. 160. 33. 71. 59. curve. 58. 71. match. insert in curve. 259. 168 license manager. 65. 46. 261 JoinEdge command. 103. 3D Studio MAX 3. snap to. set current. 55. 258 InvertPt command. 264 length: measure curve. 132. SolidWorks. 160. 59 isoparametric curve. 253 InsertKinks command. AutoCAD DXF. LUSAS IGES. 101 Layer pane. 53. Solid Edge IGES. insert on curve or surface. 46. 54. 14. SURFCAM IGES. 258 intersection. 132 isoparm. set material properties. toolbar from another layout. surface or polysurface. Cosmos/M IGES. 42. delete. 32. 264 leader:. 62. 57. 167. Integrity Ware IGES. 10. 59. 73. 322 JScript. 63. ME30. filter display. 263 leader: arrow. 167. 168. 104. 132. Unigraphics IGES. turn off by selecting an object. 62. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 42. 104. 101. 258 IntersectCrv command. 102. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 152. 126 kink. CATIA IGES. Unigraphics. CADCEUS IGES. 396. Solid Designer IGES. 160. new. 253. 64. TekSoft IGES. 31. kink in curve. 307.0. Tebis IGES. 91. 255. display density. NASA GridTool. curve on surface. 53. 54. 312. 63. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. surfaces. 72. 307. definition. 140. 72. 63. 260. set material. 69. 135. 103. 68. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 351. Cosmos/M. 167. 253. Microstation IGES. Multisurf. 261 JPG. 254 Insert command. 58. 140. 58. 72. 252 information. 52 import. dialog box. 103. 103. 59 InterpCrv command. management. 15 lathe. wireframe view. 60. 71. TekSoft. 81. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. Maya IGES. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 262 LayerOff command. 78. 63. Softimage. distance from. insert in surface. object snap. NuGraf IGES. 56. 31. IronCAD IGES. Softimage IGES. 64. 263 Layer command. 257 intersect: Boolean. arrowhead on curve. 73. 160. 168. 61. 15. 255. 140. OptiCAD. 425 ini file. Mastercam IGES. knot. split surface at. check out from workgroup license manager. 60. 32. CamSoft IGES. Delcam. 56. 262 last point. 58. 261 JoinMesh command. 366. 69. Adobe Illustrator AI. IGES. Lightwave LWO. purge empty. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 307. 253 knot. 253 InsertKnot command. select from list. 343.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 69. 71. 263. 61. 54. Alias IGES. 57. Multisurf IGES. 62. 251. triangles. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 41. 251 import:. 283. 63. 251 IncrementalSave command. 67. definition. 77. two objects. 355 layer: change color. match attributes. 264 Left command. 29. 10. 55. Raw triangles RAW. 253. 73. 66. 70. 251 Improve command. CAD 3D SUM 4. 133 Layer toolbar. FastShip IGES. 265 Length command. 57. 3D Studio 3DS. FastShip. 152 Leader command. 62. 55. 104. 59. 101. 119 initial mesh grid. OptiCAD IGES. 104. 74. 56. 168 454 . 60. 135 jagged shadows. remove from curve or surface. turn all layers on.0 IGES. FastSURF. 255 Int object snap. 99 JCAD STL export. 60. LUSAS. 56. 264 left view. 61. 130 license:. 256. 263 LayerOn command. 81. 132. Delcam IGES. Boolean. IronCAD. Integrity Ware. 256. 53. 85. 377. 263. 14.0 IGES. 26. rename.Rhino 2. 46. 26. 152. 71. 59. 121. 67. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 76. change for an object. 262 lasso selection. CATIA. 254. 259. 252 insert:. 312. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 68. display for object. Pro/E IGES. turn on. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. AUTOFORM IGES. 396. 265 length:. construction planes from 3DM file. 59. 71.

245. 285. 102. 283. 377 Maximize command. 259. 290. clear render mesh. texture. 287 Match command. 267. 265. 239. 212. radius. 395. 415. 273 lock: a layer. bump. 283 MatchSrf command. 371. 155. 229. 146.0 Command Reference Light tab. 155. 294. 228 Logout command. 333. 123. 23. 267. vertical to construction plane. 304. 273 Logoff command. 281. 288. 140. set viewport. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 288 MergeEdge command. 273 loft surface. 288 mesh: 3D face. snap to. 187. Rhino. 455 . 24 menu bar. 88. 145. 273. 279 Make2d4View command. 228. 91. 377 maximum curvature. select all. 288 Merge command. 41. 75. 228. 194 MaxViewport command. 270. 104. 281. area centroid. 74. 268. 37 M command. viewport. 337. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. geometric continuity. 156. 330. 125. 12. 266. 212. 420. 365. volume centroid. distance. run from toobar button. deviation between two curves. layer. 173. export to IGES file. 92. BMRT. 126. 290. 273. deviation of points and curves from a surface. volume moments. 101 manage:. breaking apart. 103 locked objects. 265 line:. from NURBS object. run from shortcut key. 255. convert each face to NURBS surface. 145. 140. 90 Main toolbar. 134 marker definition. 262. from four points. 363. 273 LockOsnap command. 358. 296. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 270 LineTT command. environment. 288. 378. 213. run from an alias. polyline. 396. 3DFace. reduce density. 331. 262. 273 lock:. 348. paste script from Clipboard. 334 LineTan command. 283. from closed polyline. 284 material: for rendering. 291. 345. 40. 256. 220. 334 merge: surface. axis. clear render mesh for all objects. 284 MatchLayer command. 334 Line4Pt command. 292. select naked edges. 417 Make2D command. 292. area moments. polyline through point objects. 348. 179. 212. 270. box. 270 LineV command. length. 130 manage layers. 334. plane. 261. 421 MeasurePoint command. 290. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 141. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 225. 270. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 212 LockSwap command. 212. area. pop up at cursor. decrease number of faces. 61 MDT IGES options. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. set for layer. segments. 135. 371. 130 map. 333. 288. directional. 270. 23. 294. 191. 135. options. 213 measure:. 267 LinePerp command. 39. 326. 329. 134. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 288 MergeSrf command. 288 maximize:. 60 LWO file exchange. 377. 265. swap status with unlocked objects. 338. 86 lights. perpendicular to curve. 334. 268. 293. 211. 288. unlock locked objects. cone. 145. explode. spotlight. 338. 281 match:. detailed options. set properties for layer. 268. 180. 221. 342. 415 locked layer name. run from external file. 210. 74. 173. 61 mean curvature. 273 Loft command. 37 line: at angle from line. join. 194. point. 271. 265. 269 LineTP command. 86 material:. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 338 mapping coordinates. 269. tangent to two curves. two adjacent edges of a surface. curve curvature. 304. 194 measure: angle. set for export. 236. persistent object snaps. 289. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 261. insert straight segment into curve. 265. 290. 371. run with middle mouse. 265. 288. 232. 266 Line4pts command. 293. clear at save time. 39. 296. cylinder. 245. 84. 349. 338. perpendicular to two curves. density for primitives. 281 manage: license. 271 List command. 371. 288 menu:. 212. 12. 123. 155. 328. 378 maximize: current viewport. 328. 145. 269. 255. 292. 148. objects. 229. 288 Maya file exchange. 268. 145. 131 mass properties. 304. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 420. 33. 105. 272 list data structure of an object. tangent to a curve. 268 Lines toolbar. 271 Line command. 224. 268. 251 merge:. create. 142. 288 Menu command. 272 LoadPlugin command. 62 menu: context. 192. 272 LoadScript command. 38 match: curve ends. 240. 333. 268 Lines command. 421 Measure command. 162. 211. 225. select all.Rhino 2. 269. toggle display. 171. 62 ME30 file exchange. 398. 340. 145. 377 Material properties. 267 LinePP command. 52. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 266 LineAngle command. 125. 88. 228 LooseLoft command. normal to a surface. bisector. 273 Lock command. 357. 340. 420. 267. volume. 338. 421. 161. 421 Mastercam file exchange. seamless. 224. 333. definition. 290. 92. 271. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 266. 84. 339. 191. apply to surface. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 273. 410. 286. 187. unlocked objects. 342. extend by. 296 macro. surface. 420. 141. layer attributes. 329. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 399. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 255. single line. 284. 266. 232. 266.

171. 2. 52. 294. 81. 118 Normal command. layer. hide toolbar. 212. 234. 338 OBJ file exchange. 117. 384. set persistent. 84. draw line. 371. 293 MeshPlane command. 123. v-. 3. 387. 92. 296 minimum curvature. 121. 90 Midpoint object snap. 379. 385 name. 79. 302 next. 206. 297. 46 moments. 298 NamedViews command. 414 NoSnap command. 132. project to construction plane. tangent from curve. objects. edit. 2. surface display. 81. 229 Microstation file exchange. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 133. parting line. 298. 306. 297 MoveTrace command. 355 NamedCPlane command. 141. 296 modeling aids. toggle persistent. set for single object. 212. 2. parameterization. 311 OBJ export properties. 92. 304 node. 79 minimize: Rhino. multiple objects. 349. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. toolbar. 385. 78. 302. surface control points in u-. improve. 308. 343. 297. 304 normal:. an object. 212. 338. 212 object snap:. perpendicular to a curve. 298. 249. 409. 243. 84. 290 Mesh toolbar. 355. 249. 305. 132. reverse direction. export to OBJ. 194 Mirror command. lock. 80. 251. viewport. 307 Offset command. 305. 114. 83. 78. show. 132 O command. 306 OffsetSrf command. 148. 303 NextU command. 140. 343. 80. to move objects. 135. 297. 33. 2. 140. 145. 296. 80. 298 NamedView command. 296 Minimize command. 92. 79. 363. 123. objects to new construction plane. 362. on surface. 305 N-sided patch. 363 name:. restore. 62 middle mouse button function. 37 morph target. 79. 120. 84. 378. ortho viewport active. 80. 41. 4. 338. 384. 63 Near object snap. 292 MeshCone command. 298. 378. 113. 303. 298 new: file. save named construction plane. 132. 317 nudge. 93. unlock. 79. 243. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 309. 293 MeshDensity command. display. 83. end. scale and rotate. 64 NURBS. 84. 378 object properties. 84. 423. 79. 421 Moray UDO file export. 297. 122. 302. 343. viewport to top. 302. 415 object names. snap to a curve. 302 new:. 229. 84. 423 MeshBox command. 311. a view. 378. 304. 309. 215. and n-directions. 103. 425. quadrant. 63 naked edge. 251. 355. options. 37 object: description. 133. 338. 296 Metastream file export. 303 NextViewport command. 82. export to. between two points. center. 303 NextV command. save. viewport. 362 named view. 81. 82. surface. 385. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 425 offset: curve. knot. 424 Mesh command. 297 Mscribe command. 362. 385. 141. 115. 35. 113. 295 MeshToNurb command. 251. 91. perspective viewport active. 122 Move command. 296. 215. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 409 object:. view. unify normals. 90 move: background bitmap. 293. 414. 295. pull direction. disable. 134. 79.0 Command Reference sphere. 3. point. 302 New command. export to file. 298. 377. set mesh the same. 12. 103. 78 Notes command. construction planes through a point. 35 object snap: along. 243. 312 mold. 132. 305 offset:. move control points. midpoint. 323 Microsoft Excel. weld. 229. surface. 423 mesh:. show toolbar. 415. 292. 292. 297 MoveUVN command. 183. 204. 414. 294 MeshPolyline command. export to RIB. 79. options. 295. 297. 30. 205. 414. 294 MeshSphere command. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 243 456 . reparameterize. 366 normal: definition. 311. 296 move:. 294. remove flipped. 12. off construction plane. 305 notes in Rhino file. 80. toolbar button. 309. 379. wheel function. group. 85. toolbar. 303. 306. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 363. 135. 290. 251. 229. set for multiple objects. 120. export to IGES. 290. show hidden. 304. intersection. read from file. 322. 304 NextViewportToTop command. near. set properties. restore. 387. 183. 302 NewViewport command. construction point through point. 261. 304. 141 mouse. 385. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 83. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 349. 82. 82. 296 minimize:. 296. toolbar button. 348. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. turn off. definition. 203. 292 MeshCylinder command. 298. 30. read from file. 147.Rhino 2. 338. 372 non-uniform scale. 90. 379. tangent to a curve. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 121. definition. 308. 379 Named Colors list. 78. 146. 343. from. scale and rotate on surface. 377. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 414. 296. 78. 12 None command. object to align with curve. 261. 81. 297. 132. 79 NetworkSrf command. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 216 Moldex command. 4. 355. 80. 293. 362. 338. 82. viewport active. perpendicular from a curve. 75 named construction planes. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 304. 348. 81. 131 NoElev option. 295. 296 mirror objects. 92.

27. object snap radius. 325 Plane3Pt command. 313 Panes. 96 options:. 205 pause for user input in script. load. 326. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 325 Plane command. 68 PNG file format. 246. 88. turn on or off. Modeling Aids tab. isoparm density. place at start of curve. set. 339 point: control. 88. 220. 249. background bitmap. ortho angle. 363. Keyboard tab. 88. 133. 92. 290 Organic toolbar. no-repeat commands. 312 PageDown key. 312 Osnap: pane. autosave. 92. 119. grid of. 312. 258. make surface non-periodic. file locations. startup commands. snap increment. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 426 OpenGL:. 172. control polygon appearance. 323 Pa. shade. camera and target location. 422 Point filters. 318. General tab. 272. 312. Planar. 2. 88. 88. 316. trim options. surface. 320 place. saved toolbar layout. toggle. 322. make curve periodic.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 338. 330. 2. options. 90. 376. 314 parabolic curve. 92. 84 open: file. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 218. 96. 90. about. 4. 78 Osnap:. 119 Open command. 133 OrthoAngle command. 311. 133. 330. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 2. select method. 311 Orient3Pt command. 4. 322. 96. 206. 3DS MAX 1. 90.5. 262. 325 plug-ins. select all. 130. 314 Parabola command. create curve from. 311. 94. 330 457 . 88. 5. 200. 92. 79 point objects. 307 open:. by three points. 101. 367 POff command. 27. set. 254. 318 Perspective command. View tab. 379. 325.Rhino 2. 327. 309. place at end of curve. 272. 90. 94. 96. 190. 324 plane: cut through objects. change interface appearance. 325 PlaneV command. pan distance. 308 orient objects. 133 Perp object snap. 313. 323 planar mode. 314 parabola. up. 2. 308 Orient command. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 90. set angle. 281. 133. 133. 94. undo number. 131 periodic. 339 POffSelected command. toggle. 379. 318. Shade tab. 313 PanUp command. 5. trackball motion. 96. Appearance tab. 325. 133. 290. 314 PanDown command. 323 Plan command. 90. redraw speed. 318 PConic command. 3DS MAX 2. 386. 324. 323 Planar command. 174 parameterization. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. use for shade. 311 ortho mode. 92. toggle. options. 64 options: aliases. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. Snap. 3DS MAX 2. options. 176 PCX file format. 322. 93. 323. 313. make surface periodic.2. 92. 317 pause digitizer input. 253. 29. 324 Plane toolbar. 187. 133. 281. shortcuts. 130. 90. 307 OnSrf object snap. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 330. place multiple. 96. 374. 311 Ortho command. 326. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 133. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 311. 351. 2 Patch command. 90. 375. toolbar. press shift to toggle. from three points.set. 68. to curve. 130. 94. 90. 307. 373. lock to axis. 101. 328. Osnap. 29. 329. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. 366. 68 PictureFrame command. 96. 90. 94. developers. 373 Point toolbar. 28. 322 PlaceTarget command. 281. place one. 131 pedge. 80 Perpendicular line. 98 Options command. 92. 314 Pan command. 323 planar section. 96. 82 PerpLine command. 309. 366. 94. 327 Point command. 379. 290. on a surface. 200. 92. 318 perspective view. 387 paste. 253. 92. 40 perspective angle . 12. 2 Pan: down. right. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 323. 92. 97. 98. Files tab. 324 Plane3Pts command. Layer. 325. 316. 339. 425 Orient. 98. 325 Pline command. 2. 28. 313 PanRight command. 131. middle mouse button function. 313 Pan:. 373. 92. curve. detailed polygon mesh. polygon mesh.0. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. view. 325 plane:. 307 OneLayerOn command. manager. 326. 133. 379 Ortho pane. 329. 313. troublshooting. 213. 96. fit through points. 92. 2 PackTextures command. Softimage. 133. 321. 133 PanLeft command. 326 Point object snap. Ortho. 95. digitize. 2. 363. 321. 133 P command. 38 parting line. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 367 pe_tol. 313. 188 point cloud. 320 Pipe command. 307. 309. 339. 133. click ortho pane to toggle. 308. 308 OpenWS command. left. 200. 84 OneLayerOff command. 90. shortcuts. 92. 351. shortcut keys. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 2. 333 PluginManager command. 206 PlanarSrf command. 281. 96. target location. 88. 267 PerpFrom object snap. nudge increment. Aliases tab. 92. 308 Options dialog box. 224. on surface from UV coordinates. objects from the clipboard. 133 Osnap command. 324. 376. 90.

10. 138. render using OpenGL shade. 259. 378. 190. 361. select connected. set normals the same. 331 Polygon command. from NURBS object. 345 Rebuild command. 382 QRenderAll command. knot. export to file. 343. 343 rebuild: curve. invert selection. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. draw on mesh. 340 RailRev command. measure. 19. 295. inscribed. 85. 334 PopupToolbar command. 339 PointTest command. select next in v-direction. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 87 properties:. 337. hide back. 121. 138. 338. 223 PolarSphere command. 188 PointCloudSection command. 135. 187. show edit and control. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 372. image of model. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. notes. 19. 338 ProjectOsnap command. edit points. 229. 2 PrevU command. 87. density for primitives. 335. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 262. 337 Pro/E file exchange. select all. 260. 353 previous viewport. 179. material. apply to surface. 344 RebuildEdges command. 337 ProjCP command. 12. 339. select naked edges. 413 Points command. 332 PolygonEdge command. 333. 86 Properties Text tab. 137. 292. create from control points. 254. clear render mesh for all objects. sphere. 343 ReadCommandFile command. explode. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 41 read. 329 PointLight command. 64. 81 QueryDomain command. 382 Quad object snap. 328 polar array. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 334 PostScript file export. 290. 343 rebuild:. 367. 190. add next in v-direction to selection. select object to turn off. 90 458 . 423 Polygon toolbar. 339. 338. 334. 340 rail revolve. viewport. 340 RailRevolve command. 123 Proj command. 12. 290. 36. 331 polygon mesh. 136. 257. 141. 339 PtOffSelected command. 340 Radius command. 85 Properties Material tab. 423. hide edit and control. join. 330 PointsOff command. 131. select all. 331. 209. 41 POV-Ray file export. 335 PrevViewport command. 68 POn command. 35. 294. Polytrans Softimage translation. 229.Rhino 2. 50 Quit command. 202. 179. box. 371. 328 PointGrid command. 330 points:. named views from a 3DM file. 290. from edge. 414. absolute. 292. 121. toolbar. 257. 332 polygon:. 344. select next in u-direction. 64. 339 PopupMenu command. 141. named construction planes from file. draw. 294. show control. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 293. 344 recent commands list display. 228 quinitics. 40. 235. 295. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 340 QRender command. 229. 235. 294. add previous in u-direction to selection. 19. 368. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 209. 361. 333. 12. 135. 381 QRender1 command. 339 Pull command. 330 PointsFromUV command. interpolate curve through. 420. 202. 229. 336. 386. 333 polyline:. 262. 220. 353. 303. 338 project: curve to surface. objects to construction plane. 333. join. 379 preview. 338 Projection command. surface. 137. 344 RebuildSrf command. 339 purge empty layers. 335. 86. render mesh. 296. 337 Print command. 259. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. options. 291. 343. 343. 171. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 136. 334 polysurface. 368. 68. 261. 259. object. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 343. 18. 424. 150 polar coordinates. 412. 293. to Clipboard. 339 PointsOn command.0 Command Reference point:. 197. 339 PtOn command. cylinder. 220. 136. from closed polyline. 339. 335 PrevV command. 337 project:. 293. cone. 327 PointDeviation command. 366. 254. 3D face. 296. select previous in v-direction. render. 331. 21. select with lasso. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 349. viewport layout from file. 414. 372. 10. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 366 PrintSetup command. 171. select previous in u-direction. 372 Polytrans. 35. twist. 425. 40 POV Materials toolbar. relative. 332. through point objects. 335. 420 Properties command. 86. 334 Polyline command. 349. to file. 337. grid. weld. control points. convert each face to NURBS surface. 249. 17. 261. 336 print. 331. 343. 228 radius: dimension. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 19. 259. 292. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. clear render mesh. 303. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 197. 339 pull curve to surface. add previous in v-direction to selection. display information about an object. 65 program toolbar functions. 338. 386. 303. 425 PtOff command. delete control on curve. explode. 371. 338 properties. 344. 338 Project command. plane. 249. document. 340 radius:. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. coordinate points.

121 render: BMRT. Rhino from being minimized. 172. 356 RGB color. 352. place lights. create background image. save image in render window. 25. 360 RotateLeft command. 181. 183. 5. 355 RevU command. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 347 rectangular array. 412 Rotate3D command. 2. 360 Rule command. objects in 3D space. 2. 252. 346. 4. 360. 352 render plug-in application: options. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. trim curve from surface. 360. curves. 24. autosave. 349 RemapCPlane command.0. Front construction plane. 382. 325 RectCen command. 3. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 355. 353. 2. left. 30 save: as small file. from three points. 338. 273 ruled surface. 24. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. object from selection. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 346 RectangleV command. 357 rotate view. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 351 RemoveKnots command. 2. named construction plane. 351. 288.0 Command Reference Rect command. surface using rail curve. 125. view continuously. 338. 348. 308. 171. 360 RotateUp command. 96. 39. transparency. 338 Render command. 348 refit a curve. button image to file. 75 Rhino 1. up. 347 redo: last undone command.0 file exchange. copy to Clipboard. 230. 429 RedoMultiple command. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 353. objects. 352 RenderCrv command. 359 RotateCPlane command. 4. command aliases. 357 right-click menu. 181. 425 render:. 355. 353. 3. clearing render meshes. 429 Redo command. close render window. 349 relative coordinates. corner. 353 RenderPreview command. 352. right. 94 RIB file export. 120 restore: current viewport size. 1 RhinoScript options. 381. 351 RemoveTrace command. 360 RunScript command. 3. 181. 362. length and width. 338 Ribbon command. 39. 362. 360. 119 Rhinoceros. through three points. 5. 25 Rhino web page. a surface. 320. 309. 2 redo:. 340 Revolve command. 1. 355 revolved surface. 359. named view. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 4. 358. 357. 398. 320. Top construction plane. 360 rotate:. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 39. why the name. 346. 459 . 391 SAT file export. 345. textures. 360 Run command. image in the render window. named construction plane. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 359 RotateDown command. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 324. 354. 355 RestoreView command. 338. 126. mesh settings. 353. edges. Rhino 1. 361. preview using OpenGL shade. 2. 324. 356 RevV command. 103. 171. layer. 10.ini. 4. 308. 171. 345 Rect3Pt command. 4. 357. 352 rename. view change. 288. 19. 2. 363. 324. 346 RectangleCen command. 351. 352. 152. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 40. 358 RotateCamera command. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 351 RemoveKnot command. 96. 398. 133 right view. 3. background bitmap. 355 restore:. 181. 338. 183 Restore command. 309. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 30. vertical to construction plane. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 2.Rhino 2. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. down. 360 RotateRight command. 39. 355. 120. 241 RefreshShade command. 360 RotateView command. 19. bumpmaps. options. move and scale. curve knots. 20 render problems. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 363. toolbar. 99 Render toolbar. 378. 355. 348 ReduceMesh command. 346. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 360. clear render mesh for all objects. an object. 347 rectangle:. 3. 340. sequentially numbered versions of model. 354. 356 Right command. 120. 90 reshape a toolbar. 363. 358. 359 RotateCameraUp command. edges of polygon meshes. 348. 203. 309. 348 Redo command shortcut. 361 S command. highlight. 357 right mouse button. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 203. ii roll out a surface. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 251. 351. shine. 353 RenderEdges command. materials. 363. 338. 353. 148 rectangular surface. 416 rotate: construction plane. scale and move on surface. 30. 355 revolve:. 412 Rotate command. 359. 325. 346. 4. 346 rectangle: center. 352. 103. 346 RectV command. 338. 379 RenderOptions command. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 363. 354 repeat command exclude list. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 349 remove. 398 RenderAGEdges command. wallpaper. 353 RenderCurves command. 1 Rhino. 172. 354 reparameterize. file. 3. vertical. 363. 355 Rev command. file to a different file name or file type. named view. 347 Rectangle command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 338.

303. 103. 230. construction plane to view. maximized viewport by name. 374. 373. 259. 182. 129 scripting tools. 152. bad objects. dimensions. 366. rotate and move on surface. 373 SelUV command. 370 SelID command. 372 SelPolylines command. digitizing scale. 373. 369. 363 SaveAs command. 90. construction plane to zaxis. row of control points in udirection. 373. control polygon display density. 367 section curves. 371 SelMesh command. 364. 373 SelSrfs command. 258. objects by layer number. with crossing window. to file in 256 colors. 335. 375. 182. 460 . 25. 367. spotlights. 373 SelSurface command. 370 SelDups command. 370. 365 screen capture. 50. rows and columns of control points on surface. curves. surfaces. 362 SaveCPlane command. toolbar layout. 362. meshes. construction plane origins to a point. 137. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 371. 371. next control point in u-direction. 383. 206. with a window. 184. 376. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. row of control points on surface in v-direction. next control point in v-direction. 339. layers from list. 373. 367 screen:. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 364. 373 SelPt command. 370 SelLayer command. 308. 50. 354. 365. 246. 181. polylines. 258. 375 Select toolbar. 363. VBScript. 126. deselect all objects. 373 SelPts command. 366. 379. 364. to file. 354. 366 scale:. 366 Scale1D command. 335. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 126 scripting:. 362 save:. objects instead of control points. 365. 136. 24. 335. 370. 372 SelSolids command. 262. 377. 25. 368 SelConnected command. by layer. 246. 372 SelSrf command. points objects. 303. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 415. 369 SelCurves command. 368. 24. in shaded viewport. 364 Scale2D command. 363 SaveWS command. 288. 371. 371 SelLights command. 369 SelCrv command. 367. construction plane to object. 51. 376 set: active viewport by name. 181. objects to shade. polysurfaces. 368 SelCrossing command. 363 Save command. 367 SelAll command. objects non-uniformly. 368 SelectConnected command. 371 SelName command. objects by name. current layer. 371. 262. with mouse method. 24 SelectLayer command. 372 SelPrev command. 309. 367. 246. 181. 364 Scale toolbar. 138. by object ID. 67 Sect command. 138. 369 SelDim command. 372 SelNone command. 374 SelV command. 137. 258. 172. construction plane to next used. 125. objects uniformly. 363 scale: background bitmap. 373. 184. invert. 137. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 372. construction plane origin. template. 103. distance between grid lines. 373 select:. 365. 369. 383. construction plane vertical. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. add next control point in v-direction. 370 selection menu. 362. 370 SelDup command. 335. coordinates of points. 361 save template. to Clipboard. duplicate objects. 364. previous control point in udirection. 376. 373 SelSurfaces command. 368. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. extents of grid. 262. 366 ScaleTrace command. 372 SelGroup command. 363 SaveWSAs command. 374. add previous control point in u-direction. front construction plane. move and rotate. 368. toolbar layout as different name. 374. objects in two dimensions. 372 SelPoint command. 375. 136. 365 ScaleNU command. 136. subparts of objects. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 368 SelectID command. 262. 367. 126. 303. 372. lasso. 415 SelectBadObjects command. objects in one direction. objects. 2. 365. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 252. 184. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 369. 371. 368. 369 SelCurve command. 372. 136. 366. 370 SelLast command. 182. IGES. 370. 125. 370. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 372 SelPolysrfs command. construction plane with 3 points. 368 SelColor command. 25. 371 SelMeshes command. 372. objects for render preview. 309 Scale command. 363. 373 SelPolyline command. 373 SelU command. objects to unlock. 363 SaveSmall command. 90 Select Color dialog box. 367 Section command. 366. 308. 372 SelPolysrf command. 369. 361. 383. 178. 75 Select Points toolbar. connected points. 372. 376. previous control point in vdirection. JScript. 183. 303. construction plane to x axis. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 183. 373 SelSolid command. 309. 259. 366. 377. all objects. add previous control point in v-direction. 184. 363 SaveView command. 371. 339. construction plane to previously used. 367 SelBadObjects command. 371 SelLight command. 375 SelWindow command. 371 SelLayerNumber command.0 Command Reference shortcut. 371 SelectName command.Rhino 2. 138. 372. 369 SelCrvs command. 370. invert point selection.

handlebars. 383 shadow. scripting tools. 298. 81. built-in aliases. 220. 184. 183. 181. 385. top construction plane. 384. 76. 379 SetPt command. project object snaps to construction plane. to surface isoparm. flat in one viewport. 206. 242. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. shortcuts. 339. 98. 5 Shift+PageUp. flat with grid. 383 shear objects. 318. right construction plane. x-axis. 298. 120. 383. to the intersection of two curves. 84. 382. 383. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 184. 79. 153. midway between two points. 382. 390 snap: along a line. 242. 379 SetPts command. 386 ShowPt command. 381. 80. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 23. 218. z-axis. 386. toolbar. 220 ShowGrid command. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 241. 250 SetLayer command. 241. 2. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 273 SLA export. 318. 383 ShadeSelected command. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 80. to construction plane. hidden objects. continuous in perspective view. 84. 392. 74. control points. spotlight hotspot. pane. 261. with grid. 183. 382. 184. to a surface. 391. 241. 78 461 . 380. 382. along a line tangent to a curve. 318 SetPlanar command. Right. to the midpoint of a curve. 379. 81. 184. 357. 184. 76. 246. 183. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 387 silhouette curves. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 386. 337. 140. 385 ShowOsnap command. 400 ShowTitle command. broken edges. 4 Shift+PageDown. 338 shortcuts. Osnap toolbar. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 264. in all viewports. 5 shine in rendering. 425 Shade1 command. 384 show:. 181. 183. 384 ShowCamera command. 318. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. display context menu. edit points. 384. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 183. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 218. 2. toggle object snaps. hidden control points. 182. 383 ShadeOptions command. 426 Show command. on surface. 2. 119. 212. 206. 386 ShowSelected command. 218. to an object. 337. 376. 382 ShadeAll command. 409 set:. 339. 92. 376 SetGridSnap command. 376. 250. 119. OpenGL. to previously used. 133. flat in all viewports. selected hidden objects. 77. vertical. 383 ShadedViewport command. 3. 2. 343. 246. 78. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 178. 380 SetGroupName command. to the end of a curve. 94. 2. curve with digitizer. perpendicular to a curve. 82. by function. bitmap in a separate window. 119 ShowTrace command. 389 Sketch command. 390 smooth curve or surface. Top. 94. printer. 182. 381 shade:. naked edges. from a point. options. 96. 388. 409 ShowToolbar command. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 382 shaded display. 5. 92. 322. 119 ShowToolbox command. 79. 381. 386 ShowPts command. 3 Points.Rhino 2. to a knot. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. near a curve. 80. with wireframe. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 245 ShowMenu command. selected objects in all viewports. 425 Shade command. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 363. 83. 94. 183. object. 380 Settings command. 381 shade: continuous. 383 Shift key. 376. 242. 84. 385 ShowGrev command. 389 skinning. 78. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. perspective angle. 377. 261. 95. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 184. 323. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 378 SetObjectName command. 426 ShowAll command. by key. 78. 379 SetRedrawOff command. with no smoothing on mesh. 21 Shear command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 379 SetOrtho command. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 359. 212. 362 Set View toolbar. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 162. 5. 42 SLC file exchange. continuous shaded mode. 355. 207 SetSnap command. 81. 183. 78. selected objects. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 125. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 386. 388 sketch:. 242. 98. 387 sketch: curve. turn off object snaps. 385. 42 Smooth command. 182. 94. 385. 377 SetHotspot command. 183. 79. viewports. 339 ShowEdges command. 181. 2. 206. working directory. 384. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 385. onto a curve. 246. curve on polygon mesh. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 409. change size. 182. 92. 376 SetGLShade command. to the view. 385 ShowPoints command. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. options. 183. 244.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 355. 386 Silhouette command. tangent to a curve. 383. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 384. to the center of a circle. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 82. 220. keys. to a point object. to next used. 181. 250. edges of surface or polysurface. 381 set construction plane. 23. 389. 125 show: background bitmap. z-buffer. 84. toggle OpenGL mode. grid. 79. 388. 173 ShowCV command.

190. 200. export object properties to. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. pipe. 413. turn on or off. 428. 189 SrfMatch command. 395 split:. 251. 307. 84. 202. make nonperiodic. 399. mean curvature. select all. 409. 284. 393 SphereD command. draw curve through control points. 426 STL: ascii tag. 163. 421. 392. 306. match. 399. 84 snap:. from curve network. 396. 171. 374 SrfCvCrv command. extrude into solid. loft. 233. 398. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 165. 398. polygon mesh. 411 SolidWorks. 399 SrfPts command. 190. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. cone. X_T file export. 288. 105 surface normal. 302. 317. 76. 317. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 80. 78. 10. 35. 295 Sphere command. 234. 410. IGES file exchange. 385. 287. 416. 223. 223. 162. 361. 161. reparameterize. extract from polysurface. cylinder. from three points. viewport horizontally. 290. merge. box. 381. 288. 79. 173. extrude curve along path. rebuild. 281. from grid of control points. 261. 309 SrfBlend command. 19. 391. 92. 249. 42 Stereograms. 223. 2. 396. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 324. 313. from heightfield bitmap. one object with another. 104. 391 snap mode. 284. 247. 320. 397 SplitViewVertical command. ellipsoid. 395. 395. 279. reverse direction. 250. 103. 247. surface at isoparms. 380. 82. 344. tolerance. 273. 316. 157. 277. 157. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 426. 201. 237. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 243. viewport vertically. 395. 38. 391. for rendering. 393 Sphere2Pt. 173. 10. 238. plane vertical to construction plane. 399 SrfPt command. 160. sweep along path. 70. 132. 42 StopScript command. 240. 233. 166. 242. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 251. 133. 288. 218.0 Command Reference Snap command. 411. 3. comma-delimited file export. from 3 or 4 points. 201. 84 Softimage file exchange. 83. 386. truncated cone. 325. 5. 398. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 247. 182. 158. 429. 288. 400. 392. 35. 340. 238. extend. 399. 90. 133. plane from three points. Boolean union. file exchange. 398 SrfCV command. 398. torus. 278. toggle. 324. 238. 249. 163. 88. 325. 361. 133. 401. 286. 410. 42. 399 SrfSum command. 238. 393. 38 Solid toolbar. 334 spacebar. 400 STEP file exchange. 273. 398. 344. hotspot. 285. 401. 180. 273. trim. 298. 250. 161. 70. 402. create fillet between. 417. make periodic. center. 289. 400 SubCurve command. 69 Solid Edge. hide backfacing control points. 238. 126 Stretch command. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 380. 284 SrfMerge command. chamfer. 118. Booleans. 164. 236. 216. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. extrude. 218. 113. 15. 240. panes. 324. 189. 417. 393 Spiral command. 392. 380 snap to locked objects. sweep two rails. 16. select all. 330. 360. 69. 229. 15. 4. 2. 154. 344. 354. 101. 217. 192. 320. 355. 328. split. 423 STL:. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 409 SnapSize command. 133. 164. periodic. 340. 133 sphere. 407. 321. 241. 38 SortPoints command. 160. 366. 160. 216. 393 sphere:. 307. developable. from 3 or 4 curves. 396 SplitSrf command. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 396. unroll. 229 SrfAlign command. 398 spreadsheet. 377. 386. 115. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 159. 281. 416. minimum radius of curvature. 417 surface:. 372. create. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 416. 385. Boolean intersection. skin. 364 SubCrv command. untrim. 236. 275. 92. revolved. 238. 393 Sphere2Pts. 192 Surface menu. patch. 371. 394 spline. extrude curve to point. 306. shortcuts. 262. 317. 372. 38. 198. 426 surface analysis:. 81. 203. 114. 397 SplitEdge command. 367. 393. 410. 163. 392 SnapToLocked command. 373. 228. 391. 356. 399 SrfPoints command. rule. 236. 373. 162. 236. 306. 417. 426 462 . maximum radius of curvature. 192. 153. 320. 273. 42. 153. 165. 392. 414. cap planar ends. 324. 372. develop. 263. 397 Split command. 402. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 298. 295. 160. 132. select all. from grid of points. 236. 396. 406. 281. 339. 224. tube. 276. 398 spotlight:. 94. 233. 238 Standard toolbar. 273. 399. 216. 166. 200. toolbar. 133. 317. 1. 173. 218. display. 68 Softimage plug-in. 189. 243 Surface toolbar. 354. 348. 421. 201. 406. 392 Sphere toolbar. 192. 161. 22 support. plane. 324. 135. cutting plane. 240 solid:. 401. 406. 69. 160 summary information. box from three points. change degree. 430 startup commands. 157. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 36. 281. 162. X_T file export. 114. 2. 153. 90 status bar. blend. 355.Rhino 2. turn on or off. 243. 392. baseball sphere. create variable radius fillet between. 277. 382. 240. 298. 400 StatusBar command. 229. 255 split: edge of a surface. by diameter. 229. 307. 164. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 398. 371 Spotlight command. 166. 338. 192. IGES file exchange. 352. 284. drape. 277. from planar curves. 165. 392. 96. 397. 395. offset. 384.

crosshairs on and off. 409. left. 367. 409. 14 Tan object snap. 39. 351. 177. 229. 245. 153. 221. 124. 413. 267. 402 Sxtrd command. 120. 409. 143. 379. 263. 248. 140. 122. 344. 323. 395. Analyze. 82 tangent line. 363. 409 title bar. 222. 194. 391. 320. menu bar. 303. 400 SwapView command. 388. 120. 3-D Digitizing. Ellipse. 249. ortho mode. title bar on or off. 330. 216. 384. 156. 135. 189. 168. 375. 404 TAB key. properties. 241. 209. 265. 232. 236 SynchronizeViews command. float icon to top of cascade. 428. 123. two rails. edit 2-dimensional. 390. 123. 120. angle. 308. 361. 192. 154. 400. 217. 221. 295. 134. Edge Tools. 259. new toolbar. 311. Extend. 151. 381. 51. 71 Swap. 305. 120. 385. 205. 120. 232. 165. 173. 209. 241. definition. 243. 322. 235. 83. 257. rendering of edges. move toolbar. 245.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 121. 205. 352. 391. 13. 395. 161. 387. 121. 82. 409. 162. 223. 388. 124. 308. 264. 198. 338 texture for rendering. 401. surface u and v. 271. 409 toolbar layout. 121. 238. 379. 121. 362. viewports. 94. 397. 195. 420. 398. 262. 125 Toolbar command. file location. 152. 39. 311. 156. Curve Tools. 218. tear off flyout. 121. 419. 425. 171. 356. 152. 190. 179. 400. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 120. control polygon display. Box. 340. 302. 323. 124. 417. 293. 220. 78. pop up with middle mouse. BMRT Materials. 385. 149. 145. save button image to file. 269 TanLine command. 248. 407 TextObject command. 234. 409. 124. 206. edit annotation. 360. Circle. 125. 332. 222. 355. 140. 201. 119. 260. 236. 323. 121. 340. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 318. 292. 136. 420. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 408. 120 tolerance. 393. 401. scaled size. 80 TanFrom object snap. 297. 420. 200. 410. 351. 189. 121. 164. control polygon highlight. 164. 185. grid axes on or off. 103. 166. 317. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 353. 239. new button. 165. 169. 270. 157. 258. 197. copy button. 429. 207. 403. 90. 230. 185. 139. 390. 124. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 246. 400 SwapUV command. 242. clear the bitmap image. 306. 192. 364. 150. 392. 180. 226. 160. perspective view on and off. 323. 377. delete button. 283. 404 Sweep1 command. 220. display of title bar. 370. 338. 134 TGA file format. 22 toolbar buttons. 367 Thaw command. reshape toolbar. 170. 197. 215. create cascading toolbar. 143. 251. 273. 168. 347. 187. 281. 401 Sweep2 command. change name. 179. Array. 122. import from another layout. 51. save. 409. 307. 422. cascade. 296. 101. 384. 415 tilt view. 230. 178. 40. 365. 339. display of viewport title. 244. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 84. rendering of curves. 379. change. 215. 281. 342. toolbar on and off. 272. 401. 163. 181. 463 . 407 Texture command. 425 Toggle34View command. 352. 92. 400. 389. 216. 183. 255. 174. 96. 124. toggle toolbar on and off. 122. 210. 15. show toolbar. 124. move button. 322. dock. 119. 177. 253. 322. 137. 198. 363. BMRT Lights toolbar. 220. 362. 174. 173. 235. 372. right. 420. 321. 368. 236. 407. 123 Toolbars. 185. 220. 385. 335. close. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 203. 425. 134. 73 template. 148. 162. 407. unlink flyout. 407. 288. 144. 406. 346. 142. 412. 171. 409 TogglePerspective command. copy. 121. 298. 172. 50. 22. 149. 421. Annotate. CPlane View. 187. 400 sweep. status bar on or off. 326. 343. 249. 368. 233. 365. 308. 138. 155. 409 toggle. 409 TiltLeft command. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. Arc. 208. save. 120. 399. 409 TiltRight command. 409. capture icon. 357. 135. 125. 5. 309. 396. delete toolbar. 212. 123. 218. 297. 144. hide flyout. 90. 124. planar mode.Rhino 2. 269 Taper command. set viewport. 304. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 204. 239. 90. 288. 215. 414. relative. along path. 348. capture button image. 168. 353. open. save. 210. save layout as different name. 284. 142. 231. 279. 272. 409. edit bitmap icon. Diagnostics. 182. 338. 15. 187. new file. 323. 178. 420. 148. 384. snap mode. 256. grid on and off. 3-D Digitize. 409. 22. 255. 167. 363. 325. 122. 400. 1. 302. 343. 382. float toolbar. 245. 266. 373. Curve From Object. 387. 386. display viewport. 363. 19. 162. 402. 407. 316. 374. 216. 88. 369. 230. 371. 122. 387. programming. 120. 362 text: annotation dot. 122. 366. viewport title. 206. 409. 268. 122. 139. 231. 123. 260. 120. 123. 245. 151. 419. 323 TCone command. change button size. 221. 288. 407. 330. 125. 411. 217. 334. 81. 294. 212. 119. display of menu bar. 23. Dimensions. 404. 407. surfaces. edit button image. 121. 349. 122. 72 technical support. 256. 224. 104. move. 330. 122. 426. 337. planar curves. 392. clear button image. 402. 195. Curve. 353. ortho. Background Bitmap. display of command prompt. display of status bar. 420 Title command. 279. IGES export. 389. 337. 415. 135. 333. 288. 226. import button image. 90. 359. 258. 339. scripting. 321. persistent object snaps. 290. 245. 120. 141. 366. 170. model size. 123. 213. 379. 208. 90. world axes on or off. 405 target. 207. 367. 344. display program. 330. 358. 169. 336. 331. 408 Text command. 223. 368. solids. 79. 328. 173. 338. 345. 119. rename toolbar. 184. 352. 240. 204. 324. 255. 168. 416. 405. 39. 247. 125. 203. edit. 394. 400. 257. 423. 228. 120. 430. 210. 311. 407 text:. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 409. hide toolbar. 141. 254. 305. open toolbar. 163. 363. 119. dragging based on view plane. 265. 150. 261. 396. 179. 221. 313. 288. 269. 215. 353. 302. 383. 80.

381. 307. 410. along a line perpendicular to a curve. redo. 343. 242. 180. 393. Booleans. shortcuts. 140. 361. 249. 371. 295. 345. 245. 346. 190. 408. IGES export file types. 414 unfold a surface. 398. 168. 365. 357. 82. 309. 138. 348. 203. 351. 180. 263. Fillets and chamfers. status bar. 41. 357. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 229. 152. trimmed surfaces. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. File. 338. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 96. 240. 307. 414. 203. 270. 236. 80. 395. 415. Point Editing. 220. 233. 372. 353. 414. 214. 2. 236. 263. 309. 140. 288. 410. Tools. 229. Mirror command. 153. 386. 219. 201. 357. 410 trim:. 304. 82. 386 Unicode fonts. 322. 83. 203. 391. Scale command. 198. 203. 339. 409. 414 Ungroup objects. options. ScaleNU command. title bar. 397. 288. 318. 101. 88. 363. 399. status bar. 334. 249. 362. 162. 253. 135. IGES export type details. Rectangle. 366. 399. 412 transform:. 355. Set View. 96. 90. 406. 412 U command. 165. 330. 423. 390. 415 units systems. 362. 296. 366. 298. 335. Mass Properties. Rotate3D command. 149. command line. 73 union. 404. 330. 361. 2 Torus command. RemapCPlane command. Solid. 19. 365. Twist command. 405. 224. Transform. 218. 309. 331. 322. autosave. 271. Scale1D command. Organic. 386 troubleshooting. 368. 262. 182. 161. 141. 409. along a line tangent to a curve. 375. 19. 374. 135. layer. 416 UnGhost command. 2. 173. Select Points. 50. 148. view change. 134. 266. 377. 154. 382. Render. 309. 172. 412 transparency in rendering. Orient3Pt command. 149. 296. 150. 348. 363. 348. 229. 185 u-direction definition. 296. 203. 148. 412. 429 UndoMultiple command. 259. 19. 348. Copy command. 317. 363. 275. 223. 92 Trim command. 382. 368. 414 UnhidePoints command. 410. 361. 262. 172. 364. 302. 409. 303. 390. 172. 339. 162. 366. 395. 258. 307. 296. 245. 364. 355. 216. 94. Surface 2. Select. 430. 241. 375. Surface Analysis. Lines. 228. 194. layer. 409. 236. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 384. 338. Taper command. 123 464 . 204. 259. 337. 406 Tube command. 90. 251. 247. Object Snap. 328. 206. 236. 137. 424. 150. 364. 349. ProjectToCPlane command. 336. 261. Flow command. 262. 161. 254. 321 track. menu bar. 425 turn on. 401. 339. 240. 409. Polygon. ArrayCrv command. Viewport Layout. 412 Twist command. 183. 190. Layer. 307. 184. 407. 261. 90. 244. 374. 173. Mesh. 366. 249. 429. 323. 180. 367. 413. 331. 202. 268. Main. 308. Sphere. 108. 351. 392. 229. 413 u-direction: move control points. 347. 92. 244. Set CPlane. 229. 385. Rotate command. definition. 352. 420. 377. ArrayPolar command. 277. 153. 238.Rhino 2. 292. 269. 2. control points. 339. 154. 88. 161. 262. 297 u-direction curves. Smooth command. control points on selected objects. 200. autosave. 90. Scale2D command. 78. 409 Top command. 148. 243. 160. 245. 244. 92. 256. Shear command. 349. 358. 103. 102. 365. 412. 321. 384. 344. 356 u-direction:. 313. 288. 251. in text. 425. 384. 325. 218. 425. 365. 345. 220. 208. 398. 133. 173. 173. 338. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 182. 396. 50. set. 180. 426 Turntable command. 140. 409 Tools toolbar. 356. grid axes. 263. Surface Tools. 425. 192. 309. 413. 409. 339. 417. 308. 302. 243. Scale. 386. 333. 372. grid axes. 321. 324. 48. 162. 84. 338. 400. 49. 148. 229. 370. 386. 348. 263. 427. 304. shortcut. 357. 249. 103. 148. 92. 412 Transform toolbar. 332. 365. 339. 15 Units command. 330. 228. 414 UndoSelected command. 173. 154. STL Tools. 161 unit systems. 359. 213. menu bar. 221. 104. 317. 145. 135. Extrude. 298. Surface. 171. 48. 164. 290. 409. 83. 420. 396. 281. 251. 263. 357. 180. 383. 356. 99. 405. 355. OpenGL. 166. world axes. 373. world axes. rendering. 155. 373. 171. 339. 409. 288. SetPt command. 142. 381. 379. 306. pop up at cursor. 265. 82. 298. 290. 153. along a line. 94. 296. 425. Boolean. 96. 342. 142. 131 transform: Array command. 316. 402. 403. 203. 422. 367. 379. 245. 318. 358. 249. 261. 423. OrientPerpToCrv command. 105. 339. 239. 390. 343. 273. 82 tracking line. 413. 283. 326. 416. command. 212. 324. 358. 307. 379. OrientOnSrf command. 157. 288. 383. 360. layers. 236. 405. title bar. 386. grid. 83. 152. 400. control points. 180. 173. 205. 358. 101. 16. Solid Tools. 134. 300. POV Materials. 386. 41. 399. 294. 308. 136. 181. 263. 352. Standard. 81. 323. 390. 369. 330. 244. 151. 364. 244. 268. 373. 409.0 Command Reference 233. 94. 400. 349. 379. 260. 208. 90. 386. 167. 88. 267. 296. 409 top view. 284. 1. 413. 415 Ungroup command. 113. 311. 273. Bend command. 311. 172. 245. 428. shrink to trim boundary. 305. 258. Move command. 288. 342. 51. 417. 245. 246. 234. 293. 255. 262. 264. 15 truncated cone. 429. grid. 333. 410 TraceBitmap command. 415 Toolbox command. Plane. 153. 338. 311. 413 undo:. 151. 173. 411 turn off. ArraySrf command. Visibility. Orient command. 299. 154. 339. 108. 92. 339. Microscribe. 358. 2. 101. 238. Geometry Fix. 365. 276. 417. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. command line. 100. reverse. 383. 392. 338. 154. 349. 357. 307. 348. 337. Point. 326. 253. 261. 203 trimmed surfaces. POV Lights. 400. 210. 16. 383. 104. 429 Undo command. 240. 179. all layers. 349. 311. 425. 398. 308. 342. 2. 79. 405. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 341. 140. 334. 174. 338. IGES. 421.

425 ViewportProperties command. 357. 429. 397. rotate left. with mouse. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. synchronize. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 313. 409. 51 weight: edit control point. top view. set perspective view. 96. set all to match. 404. 423. 168 465 . 45 wireframe: extract as curves. read from file. 419. 23. shade. zoom window. 400. 322. zoom extents in one viewport. 415 Visibility toolbar. 11 user input in script. 244. 397. 244. 336. 343. new. 304. 423 weld:. 162. 153. 416 UnrollSrf command. 313. 429. 343. 162. target. 415 UnLock command. zoom extents. bottom view. 415 UnPackTextures command. 386. rectangle. 420. 288. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. properties. 264. 347 view: back view. 212. 409. 400. 405. set back view. 190. 420. display. 356 v-direction:. 360. 377. 379. wireframe viewport. pan left.Rhino 2. 415 visibility:. front view. camera. zoom in and out by a percentage. 428 Windows Clipboard. 181. 384. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 298. 249. rotate. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 313. 249. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 314. 416 UpDeg command. 419. 355. 302. construction plane left. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 422 water level. zoom out. 135. 422 weight:. 90 window selection. 135. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. copy to all. 417 Untrim command. layout. set left view. 313. edit named. 3 window:. construction plane right. next perspective active. 135. 25. right view. 126 Vline command. 181. 323. 302. 336. split horizontal. pan down. 313. create new. 415 UnLockSelected command. 153. 45 viewport: bring to top. control point. 360. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 383. 297 v-direction curves. 357. 428. set to shaded display. 338. 323. 360. 421 VRectangle command. 249. rotate right. 425 WireShade1 command. 132. 198. 273. 322. 412. 322. 363. 96. 422 Weight command. 357. 325 Vrbf command. 409. 318. 318. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 325. 419. 419. 323. 43 v-direction: move control points. 153. 24. check out license. 420 ViewportTitle command. 184 VDA file exchange. 153. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 384. next ortho active. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. pan. 409. unlock objects. plane. read named from file. 273. 415. zoom in. 264. selected objects. 190. 412. zoom extents selected. 244. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 250 water plane area. 360. 376. left view. rotate up. 430 viewport:. 131 vertical. 425 wireframe:. 379 Weld command. hide back. 420. 1 window: select. 338 wireframe display. 318. set viewport. 172. 347. 273. line. 421 VolumeMoments command. 347 VRML file export. 384. redraw speed.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 357. restore named. 288. 376 Wallpaper command. 425. 132. 24. 360. 318. 429 viewport layout:. 190. 304. 264. plan view. 430. 318. 336. zoom. 429. 224. 415 Visual Basic script. set active by name. close. 420 viewport title menu. 400. 54 vertex. next active. zoom window. 430. maximize viewport. 134. 298. construction plane back. 303. 420 views. 409. 421 VRBSrf command. 271 Volume command. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 428. 404 visibility: control points. 430 view:. 185 v-direction definition. 134 VBscript. 430. set maximized by name. 400 viewport properties. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 264. control points. zoom all to the same scale. 135 WireframeViewport command. 23. place target. zoom extents in all viewports. 376. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 302. split vertical. menu. 377. 425 WMF file export. 343. 386. move next to top. place camera and target. 288. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 23. object snaps. perspective view. 250 What command. 420. 288. continuously rotate. 420. 421 VPlane command. zoom window and set a target point. set bottom view. 236. set density. 135. 314. reverse. 321. show control points. 360. 185. 2. 250. 322. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 429. 24. 249. 302. 271. 303. 397. 404. 419. maximize. 165 UpDegSrf command. 163. tilt right. 302. swap viewports. 430. save named. 429. 417 unwrap a surface. 425. 304. tilt left. 288. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 430. 44 W command. 271. 162. set right view. swap. 429. 429. 90. 45 workgroup: check in license. 419. construction plane front. print. 376. 423 wetted surface area. 325. create from surface. 416 untrim a surface. 397. pan right. three viewports. 126 VCPlane command. 172. 430. lock objects. 244. 386. 168. 383. 131. 355. 135. 383. 323. 304. 363. 343. 343. pan up. isoparm. 415 unlock:. set to wireframe display. 409. 420 VolumeCentroid command. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. object. make previous active. 163. set top view. rotate down. 415 unroll a surface. 162. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. set front view. construction plane bottom.

window and set a new target point. 96. 428. 217 ZBufferPts command. 430 zoom window. 2. in and out by a percentage. 428. toggle display. 430. 168.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 11 WorldAxes command. 233 XtndF command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 430 ZP command. extents in all viewports. 4. 168 workgroup:. 425 world coordinates. 430. check in license. extents in one viewport. 3 zoom:. 430 ZoomX command. 430 466 . 3. 389 ZBufferSrf command.Rhino 2. 430. 430 ZoomTarget command. 3. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. save. 4. 44 X_T file export. 429 ZoomMouse command. 2. 429 ZoomIn command. 38 XtndB command. 430 ZBuffer command. 2. 429 ZS command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 308. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 233 Xtra command. 381 workspace. 429 ZoomOut command. open. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. save as different name. 429. options. 430. 429. 130 zoom: dynamic. 168 working directory. 363. 308. 428 ZoomNext command. 429. in. 428 Zoo. 363 world axes. 363. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 74 Z command. 425 WRL file export. 2. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 428 ZoomExtents command. 429 Zebra command. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 130. 5. 425. 429 ZoomP command. out. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 428. 217 ZBufferPt command. 428. 429. 429 ZoomPrev command. 430 ZSA command. set colors. window. 430 ZoomWindow command. 96. check out license. 168. 429 ZEA command. 97. previous view. 426 ZM command. 425. 429. 430 Zoom command. 216 ZE command.

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