Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

.............0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index..................................................... 447 xv ................Rhino 2...........................................................................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

the name stuck. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. To explore the related topics. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears.rhino3d. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office.com Web site www. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.Rhino 2. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description.rhino3d. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. 17 . A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. and Find. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. see the Rhino Command List. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. under the topic Help.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www.rhino3d. Help Access Rhino's Help file. Index. and by the time the product was in beta testing. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work.com/support/faq.

and Right view. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. Shift. Ortho pane on the status bar. drag with the right mouse button. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys.Rhino 2. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. click the Planar pane on the status bar. In parallel views like the default Top. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. F8. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Front. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O.

Snap pane on the status bar. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . PageUp. Rotate mouse wheel. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. PageDown. Rotate mouse wheel.

Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 . Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

Rhino 2. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . See Options dialog box. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.Rhino 2. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. 26 . the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.

At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. enter the starting point for the line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.and y-coordinates.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.0 and press Enter. then click Single Line.10 in the construction plane coordinates. then click Single Line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Note If you enter only x. With w prefix you can type world coordinates.0.6.10 and press Enter.y.3 and press Enter. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates.Rhino 2. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. type r2.0. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type w12.z and press Enter. the point will lie on the world x. y and z coordinates to place points. type coordinates in the format: rx. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. type coordinates in the format: wx. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. with r prefix relative coordinates. Note If you enter only x. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. click Line.and y-coordinates.10 in the world coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.y plane. type 12.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. type w0. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. then click Single Line. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.z and press Enter.6. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the point will lie on the construction plane. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.6.6.10 and press Enter. type coordinates in the format: x.0 and press Enter. 27 .y. type 0. click Line.

0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. click Free-form. Click the left mouse button to select the point. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. A white tracking line will display. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.axis) and press Enter. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane.Rhino 2. enter the starting point for the line. indicating the new location of the selection set. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. type r4<45 and press Enter. enter the starting point for the line. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type 4<45 and press Enter. At the Next point of curve. click Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Interpolate Points. click Line. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. click a point in the perspective viewport. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line. 28 . For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.axis) and press Enter. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. click another point in the perspective viewport. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. then click Single Line.

This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. release Ctrl.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. press Ctrl. From the Curves menu. Place the first line point. but only if the point can be truly 3. was when you pressed Tab. Specifying 3. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. then click Single Line. Release Ctrl. type NoElev. negative numbers are below. and click again. Continue with picking locations. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Change viewports. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. Or press Tab twice.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. After starting elevator mode.D. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. You can start elevator mode in another location. Drag the mouse out.D points using 2. 29 . click Line. Press Tab. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point.Rhino 2. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. then press Ctrl and click. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane.

Your line will pass through the end of the curve. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. type a distance and press Enter. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. Or. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. Turn on end object snap. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . click Line. Click to place the point. then click Single Line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. the marker snaps to the curve end.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. enter the starting point for the line. From the Curves menu. type <60. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated.

The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. Click to place the point. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. click Line. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. Or. type 10. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. From the Curves menu. Click to place the point. then click Single Line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. enter the starting point for the line. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. you can turn them on. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter.Rhino 2. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs.

you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. the surfaces cannot be merged. 32 . You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. so those are the things that need to be merged. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points.Rhino 2. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . this will become more clear. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way.

and arrow length are multiplied by this number.Rhino 2. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. Text height The text height in Rhino units. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. extension line offset distance. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. extension line extension. The text height. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. 33 .

Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. 34 .Rhino 2. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units.

The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. these settings are used. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. when not zero. This setting is scale independent. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. This setting is scale independent.Rhino 2. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. When the Refine check box is selected. Document Properties dialog box. whenever you start a new model without a template. is from 1 to 100. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Notes tab Add notes to your model. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. but should shade and render relatively fast. and higher polygon count. Custom Set the custom options.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. more accurate meshes. 35 . but may take very long to shade and render. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. type information you want to save with the model. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Document Properties dialog box. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value.

This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Document Properties dialog box. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Refine is selected. This option is scale dependent. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. By default. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. When the Refine check box is selected. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. more accurate meshes. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. When the Refine check box is selected. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Setting Max dist. Max edge length.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. Jagged seams is not selected. In practice. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. By default. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Max dist. and higher polygon count. By default. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. and lower polygon count. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. The default values is 16. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Simple planes is not selected. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. 36 . This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Min edge length. After initial meshing. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. edge to Srf options. When the Refine check box is selected. less accurate meshes. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. and Max dist.

This makes the image appear smoother. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. but also slows down rendering. In practice. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. use bigger shadow offset. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. In general. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. if the shadows are turned on. use smaller shadow offset. With small objects. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves.Rhino 2. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. Background Sets the color of the render background. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. None No shadows. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. In Rhino. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. 37 . None Each pixel is sampled once. With large objects. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels.

0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. When you change from one units to another.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. or Feet & Inches. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. Mils 1. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2cm 1. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2m 1. For example. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. In those commands.2km 1. Select Decimal. Document Properties dialog box.2mic 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry.2c 1. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . Example types and forms are: Microns 1.2mm 1. the relative tolerance is used instead. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. trimming surfaces.Rhino 2.2(") 1-1/2" 1.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. You can mix fractional and decimal input.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands. Fractional.

Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. You can specify which viewport is maximized. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. or Extents of the selected objects.01 to 0.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. and place a named viewport on top. set multiple templates. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. Use defined and named views. 39 . You can create new viewports. Rhino 2.Rhino 2. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. Zoom Window. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. In general. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. Extents. and use predefined viewport configurations.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. rename viewports. Close the viewport.01 millimeters.001. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. step through the viewports.

the current object and its designation in the list highlight. from the View menu. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. Edit Grid properties. Crossing. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. When you make a Crossing selection. When you make a Window selection. from the View menu. When the selection menu pops up. 40 . click Set View > Plan. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Edit viewport properties. To select additional objects. Select objects General Click an object to select it. To remove an object from a selection set. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. click Zoom Extents All. To bring all your objects into view.

Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.x 3D models (. When object is highlighted. you'd get one line.x files into Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. For instance if you have a plane.0.x file from Rhino 2. In the File name box. and you picked an edge as a curve. but if you picked it as a boundary. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . To cancel the selection process: Click None. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. no 2.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. Copy. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve.0 If you save as a 1. Click another object. click Export or Save As. select Rhino 1. Sweep1. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. type a filename. Saving 1.0 If you load a 1.x file into Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move.0.x file. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude).3dm). Import and export file types Rhino 1.x files from Rhino 2. press Enter or the spacebar. Sweep2).Rhino 2.

For version 3. click Import/Merge. They are not converted to NURBS. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. In the File name box. Click Open. from the File menu. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. In the Save as type box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. 2. or MAX 2. 42 . 2.0. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. click Open. MAX 2. If so.Rhino 2. select 3D Studio. In the File name box. In the Open dialog box. from the File menu. click Save As. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. Or.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. in the Files of type. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters.0 use IGES to transfer files. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. type a name for the 3DS file. If no object name is defined. select 3D Studio. click Export Selected. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added.5. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name.2. type a name for the 3DS file. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter.2. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Save. When building morph targets.0. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided.

MAX does not export NURBS curves.Rhino 2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.dli. and RhinoMax20imp. click Import.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.5 File menu.rhino3d. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. In the MAX2. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model.dli. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. select Rhino 3D Models. RhinoMax25imp. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. Only Spline objects get exported.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp.5 File Import dialog box. use 3DS file format.5.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. (3dmimp.dli. Now mesh your curved surfaces. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino. This happens because the MAX2. or 3D Studio R4.dli into your "3dsmax2.3dm. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves.5. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. are imported in several pieces. export to a DWG.dli. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. 3DS MAX version 2. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.dli from the directories in your MAX2. This happens because MAX2. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2.dli.0 Command Reference File formats In general. From the MAX2. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. RhinoMax2imp. Attempt trimming? 43 .5\plugins\" directory. RhinoMax20imp.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. The Rhino web site at http://www. or RhinoMax25imp. Open 3D Studio MAX2. RhinoMax2imp.5 plug-ins path. Select the 3DM file to import.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. from the Files of type box.

3DS MAX version 2. Given the information we have. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. click Import.dli or RhinoMax2imp. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2.5 as a single surface. To closely examine and edit MAX2.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Select the 3DM file to import. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. select Rhino 3D Models. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything.5 or 3DS DOS. The Rhino web site at http://www.0 Command Reference If you answer yes.Rhino 2.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. Click the MAX2.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 NURBS object.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. Be patient.5 module called "ACISMAX2. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Curve.dli and RhinoMax2imp. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. from the Files of type box. Using developers tools. click the Sub-Object button. NURBS curves: 44 . attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. In general. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. 3D Studio MAX 2. Surface. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. CurveCV. If you answer "no.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. (3dmimp. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. From the MAX2 File menu. Open 3D Studio MAX2.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory.0.rhino3d. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. If MAX crashes. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette.

CurveCV. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. From the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported.habware. Some surfaces. 45 .2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. If there is no Rhino object name. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected.rhino3d. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. 3D Studio MAX 3. Click the Sub-Object button. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). Curve. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. Open 3D Studio MAX. from the Files of type box. In the File Import dialog box. Clear the Weld control.Rhino 2.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. Surface. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported.1. select Rhino 3D Models. From the File menu.at/duck3. On December 10 1997. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. obj+number is used as a name.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. click Import. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Select a MAX2 NURBS object.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. click Mesh. are imported in several pieces. Select the 3DM file to import. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name.

but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves.5 ACIS Version: 1. but import in as bodies. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. It does not fix geometry problems. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. Or. click Export Selected.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. In the Save as type box. select the options for the export.and v-direction vectors. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. At the Select object prompt. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. In Rhino. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. Click Save. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. select ACIS SAT.0 ACIS Version: 3. type a name for the file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. All of the version types export curves. click Save As. from the File menu. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 ACIS Version: 2. Using ACIS Version 5. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.Rhino 2. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. select the curves and explode them. In the File name box.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1.0 is currently not suggested. To change these into splines.

Rhino 2. Click Open. select a scale option. click Import/Merge. type a name for the AI file. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. under Scale. from the File menu. In the AI Import Options dialog box.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. Or. In the File name box.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. click Open. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. select Adobe Illustrator. In the Files of type box.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. 47 .5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4.0 ACIS Version: 4.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.

click Export Selected. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. from the File menu. In the Open dialog box. select Adobe Illustrator. not text. type a name for the AG file. Or. from the File menu. From the File menu. click Import/Merge. Make the viewport you want to export from active. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Click Save. type a name for the AG file. from the Files of type box.Rhino 2. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. From the File menu.1 units from the original curve. type a name for the AI file.0 files.0 > 8. click Save As. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. In the File name box. Click Open. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. click Save As. under Scale. Under some circumstances. select AG. In the Save as type box. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. click a scale option. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. In the AI Export Options dialog box. curves need to be refit before exporting. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily.5.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . Rhino only reads curve geometry. from the File menu. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. In some situations. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. Or. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page.ini. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. click Open. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. In the File name box. In the File name box. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. Or. select AG. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9.

but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. In the File name box. from the File menu. from the File menu. From the File menu. select AutoCAD DWG. Or. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Open. Click Save. click Export Selected. select the options for DXF export. OLE objects. select the options for DWG export. AutoCAD line types are ignored. They are not converted to NURBS. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. In the File name box. select AutoCAD DXF. select AutoCAD DWG. In the Save as type box. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. click Export Selected. type a name for the DWG file. type a name for the DXF file. or anything in paperspace. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. Or. click Save As. In the Files of type box. Or. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. In the Files of type box. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. click Import/Merge. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select AutoCAD DXF. Or. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. In the Save as type box. click Open.Rhino 2. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. from the File menu. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. Click Open. rays. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. XREF's are imported. Click Open. In the File name box. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. type a name for the DWG file. click Save As. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. click Import/Merge. type a name for the DXF file. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. from the File menu. regions. In the File name box. From the File menu. Object properties. Click Save. Rhino will not import images.

Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. and line entities. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. curves are approximated with polylines. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. 3-D curves are never simplified. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. circle. arc. AutoCAD line types are ignored. regions. or circle. 50 . You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. rays. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes.Rhino 2. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. but do not properly read polyface meshes. or anything in paperspace. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. arcs. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. export curves as splines. 2-D curves are simplified. you can export either polyline or spline entities. Rhino will not import images. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. This means if the curve is just one line. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. They are not converted to NURBS. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. or circle. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. use RAW instead. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. OLE objects. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. arc. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. circles.

Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. circle. type a name for the file. Click Save. If the simplify tolerance is too small. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. arcs. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . lines. or ellipse. In the File name box. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. ellipses. it will be exported as such.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. and ellipses as NURBS curves. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. From the File menu. line. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. This setting uses current model units. circle. but increase the number of polyline segments. it is exported as a simple entity. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. If the simplify tolerance is too large. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. line. The larger this number.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. arc. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. and line entities. or later DWG/DXF. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. click Export Selected. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. arcs. select Object Properties (. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. Use simple entities Circles. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. For silhouette lines. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. ellipse. not the file header. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases.csv). They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file.

C). Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. You can give each shape the name you would like here. object name. Rhino produces one component for each shape. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names.0. object render color and selected mass properties. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. 52 . 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. When exporting curves as polylines. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. If you have previously selected a centerline. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. Each component will have the same name as the shape.0. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. This setting determines how the station lines are created. The larger this number.S) or only half (.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Rhino must approximate each polyline.Rhino 2. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. layer color. All component origin shift is considered 0. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline.

In the Open dialog box. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. Object names will be used when exporting the . If the same name is used for multiple objects. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. click Save As. type a name for the LWO file. The LWO file is limited to 65. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. or Windage (sail). type a name for the UDO file. click Save As. Click Save. Or. Note Object names are supported. select Lightwave. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Containment. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select Moray UDO. click Export Selected.000 polygon limitation. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. 53 . select Lightwave.lwo file instead of a generic name. In the File name box. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. from the File menu. from the Files of type box. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave.535 points for the entire file. Or. In the File name box. from the File menu. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. click Open. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. Moray automatically numbers the objects. Click Save. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a name for the LWO file. which does not have the 65. from the File menu. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Each component will initially be a member of this part. click Import/Merge. In the Save as type box. Or. Click Open. In the Save as type box. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. They are not converted to NURBS. click Export Selected.Rhino 2.

and curves Solid Edge 6. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. click Save As. only closed solids will be imported.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. type a name for the file. click User Defined. and colors.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. Or. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. To import the object into Moray. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces.com/moray/. click Export Selected.UDO file and a . In the Save as type box.INC file.stmuc. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. In the File name box. If the file contains open surfaces. they will be ignored with no warning. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters.0 will not read in open surfaces. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. select the target application for the export. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges.Rhino 2. 54 . the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. from the File menu. When you export to UDO. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. Rhino creates a . Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. they display a blank window. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor." Solution The model probably exported just fine. Click Save. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. from Create menu. select Parasolid X_T.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. surfaces. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. surfaces. Planes are important primitives. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.

Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann.rendering. Click Save. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. Or. ISBN: 1558606181. In the File name box. select RenderMan. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout.graphics. 55 . Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. Addison-Wesley Pub Co.rhino3d.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.bmrt. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. click Export Selected. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. ISBN: 0201508680.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp.rhino3d. In the Save as type box. click Save As. type a name for the RIB file. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. however. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. from the File menu.Rhino 2. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T.

A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. The transparency color is the color of the object. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. Use Properties to set the object names. however." Two windows will open. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. Set up your scene with materials and lights. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. and highlight. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file.org. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. click Save As.povray. 56 .rib reboot your computer.1. click the big blue "R.rendribrc.org. type a name for the POV file. transparency. In the File name box. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. from the File menu.povray. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. The intensity is always set to 1. Click Save. Or. select POV-Ray Mesh. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Rhino writes the surface. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. To cancel the rendering process. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. click Export Selected. To test render the scene. Export to RIB file format supports render background color." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). and opacity statement for each object. color.

type a name for the RAW file. In the File name box. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. click Import/Merge. click Export Selected. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. from the Files of type box. transparency. select Raw Triangles. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. Click Save.inc and lights. click Save As. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. but object colors are. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. from the File menu.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. select Raw Triangles. click Open. or into one large POV file. In the File name box. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. Textures are not exported. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. In the Save as type box. They are not converted to NURBS. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. Set up your scene with materials and lights. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials.Rhino 2. Click Open. Or. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. 57 . This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. and highlight. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. Or. type a name for the RTF file. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. from the File menu. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). In the Open dialog box." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color.

0762mm.Rhino 2. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. from the File menu. and use ExplodeMesh. click Import/Merge. The slices will be evenly spaced. click Import/Merge. type a name for the SLC file. Consequently. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. click Save As. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. click Save As. select SLC. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. The greater the number of polygons. 58 . Or. from the File menu. In the File name box. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select STEP.0508mm and 0. In the Save as type box. Import it back into Rhino. Click Save. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. From the File menu. Or. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. click Open. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. In the File name box.0381mm. click Export Selected. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0.0127mm. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. In the Save as type box.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. 0. In the File name box. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select STEP. Click Save. Or. Click Open. 0. 0. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal.0254mm. (For example. Or. click Export Selected. In the Open dialog box. click Open. type a name for the STEP file. from the Files of type box. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. type a name for the STEP file. use DXF instead. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. from the File menu. Export it in RAW format. from the File menu. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain.

Rhino 2. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. but doesn't glue the edges together. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. Click Open. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. Instead. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. type a name for the STL file. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. In the Save as type box. click Save As. select STL. then they have the same idea of up. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. click Polygon Mesh. From the Tools menu. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. then Weld (angle=180). Or. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. to get JCAD to work. In the File name box. that is. from the Files of type box. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. if two triangles share an edge. click Export Selected. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. If a mesh point is highlighted. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. Use JoinMesh. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. then click Join.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. from the File menu. to control STL accuracy. click Polygon Mesh. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. 59 . Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Click Save. then click Weld. In the File name box. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. type a name for the STL file.ini file to look like this. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag.) Select the new mesh object. click Polygon Mesh. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. They are not converted to NURBS. From the Tools menu. From the Tools menu. then click Unify Normals. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. For example. select STL.

This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or. views. select VDA. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. symbols. Texture assignments are currently not exported. type a name for the WRL file. In the Save as type box. Click Save. Click Save. from the File menu. from the Files of type box. It does not support assembly and feature information. In the File name box.y plane.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. type a name for the VDA file.D geometry and topology information. Render color. In the File name box. select VRML. click Save As. etc. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. In the File name box. from the File menu.axis toward the x. Or. type a name for the VDA file. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. click Import/Merge. Rhino now 60 . In the Open dialog box. Click Open.Rhino 2. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. shine. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. click Save As. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. select VDA. It does not support representation of drawing information. From the File menu. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Open. click Export Selected. Or.

To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. Render Mesh tab. Or.0. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Click Save. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. Click Save.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero.Rhino 2. Or.com/software/mtx2html. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. you should try 2. click Export Selected." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. select Windows Metafile. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. and if so. click Export Selected.viewpoint. In general. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines.) Outside of Rhino. from the File menu. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. type a name for the file. click Save As. From the File menu. 61 . In the File name box. In the File name box.exe. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. (The MTS file contains the actual data. but will make the WRL file much larger. click Save As. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. select Viewpoint Technologies Export.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. In the Save as type box. You can download it from http://developer.pdf.0 and 2. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. In the Save as type box. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export.0. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. try 1.viewpoint. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. type a name for the WMF file. This can be tricky. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black.0 first. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. from the File menu.

Detailed options Author.x is created. and click Save. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. Sender's product ID. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. type a name for the DXF file.3ds A file yourfile. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. From the File menu. from the IGES type box. in the Save as type box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. 62 . Organization. enter a name for the file. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. 1 2 In the File name box. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. This means various settings have different values for each product. select IGES. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. select an IGES type. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. In the File name box. Click Save. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. click Export Selected. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files.

2 or 5. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance.ini. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. To create an IGES import log. the IGES file will be empty.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.Rhino 2. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. When Rhino 2. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. To import trimming curves as curve objects. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command.ini. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units.

Lines that begin with semi-colon (. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". Spaces and tabs are ignored. A flavor is terminated by a blank line. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 .IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. A layer to level function is available in Rhino.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. 1. This file can contain multiple flavors. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping..ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers.) are ignored. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history. 3. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. but this is not required. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window. an IGES level number is automatically selected.Rhino 2. .. you need to do a bit of sleuthing." For example. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. When Rhino reads an IGES file. To see if this is the case. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name.). 2. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: .Delicious" = 13 "Apple .txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0.

accepting only entities marked as geometry. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.Rhino 2. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. set the options for the IGES type. regardless of type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. If one of the Annotation(). If you do something like: open alpha.igs normally. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. Other(). If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta.igs open gamma. Definition(). If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. click New. click Close.igs and gamma. you will get it. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. or Logical/Positional(). Rhino reads alpha. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need.igs. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read.igs. 65 . then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry.

If the max degree is set to five. and maximum degree five. IGES 184 entities. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. and click Delete. and MacOS style line endings. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots.2 and 5. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. click Close. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. Unix. or IGES circles. 66 .Rhino 2. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. from the IGES type list box. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. maximum degree three. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. select an IGES type. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. this number should be one. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. arcs. IGES arcs. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. The number must be bigger than zero. If the max degree is set to three. and MacOS uses CR. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. set the options for the IGES type. The difference is 5.3 using four digits. and click Edit.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. Unix uses LF. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In most cases.2 stores years using two digits and 5. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. set the options for the IGES type. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS.3. select an IGES type. and click Copy Type. from the IGES type list box. click Close. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines.

when possible. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. click Save As. select Wavefront OBJ. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. In the File name box. If the max degree is set to five.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. click Export Selected. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.Rhino 2. Curves are not exported. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If the max degree is set to three. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. select the options for OBJ export. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. type a name for the OBJ file. Try to load both files into your product. Click Save. In the Save as type box. when possible. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. Or. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. when possible. 67 . 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. try the following test. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. If you get better results with one export type. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128.rhino3d.com/rhino so we can document this file format. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. maximum degree three. from the File menu. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. and maximum degree five.

Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. Export layer names should be cleared. The . LF (Unix) Line feed only. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias.ini file.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. Options Skip Don't export meshes. Export layer names Exports layer names. CR (Mac OS) Return only. MS-DOS) Return + line feed.Rhino 2.mtl file contains one material definition per object. Export material definitions Creates an . To export to MAX. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.mtl file with the same name as the .obj file.obj file. There are also references to these materials added to the . Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. If is far from 100% satisfactory. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. By default. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. 68 . mesh export is disabled. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Export object names Exports object names. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines.

it is recommended that you save your work first. After a large IGES import.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. For the fastest import. and set the display to wireframe. it is recommended that you save your work. select the surface. click Export Selected. Or. All data that is not grouped. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. In the Save as type box. and Customize > Preferences.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . select the trim curve. To distinguish between separate entities.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. select Alias V8. and then restart MAX. select IGES. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As. make it independent.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. Note When merging an IGES file.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. select 3D Studio MAX 3. In this case. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. from the File menu. In the File name box. try using OBJ format instead. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. In the File name box.Rhino 2. select IGES. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. From the IGES Type box. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. and flip the trim.x.

From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.Rhino 2. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. type a filename. In the File name box. select AUTOFORM. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . select Ashlar Vellum. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select AutoShip. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select Breault Research's ASAP.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 71 . In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. In the File name box. type a filename. select IGES. type a filename. select CADCEUS. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. In the File name box.

0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. In the File name box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select CamSoft. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. select CATIA. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select IGES.Rhino 2. select IGES.

select Cosmos/M. even those that are trivially trimmed. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. In the File name box. select IGES. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. click Export or Save As. Surfaces and Solids. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 .Rhino 2. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.

select IGES. select IGES. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. 74 . select IGES. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select FastShip. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select Cosmos/M.

click Export or Save As. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. select IronCAD. select FastSURF.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Integrity Ware.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.Rhino 2. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select Mastercam. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. select LUSAS. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

type a filename. from the File menu. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select ME30. select IGES. select IGES. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select Maya. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Surfaces and Solids.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Or. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. 77 . click Export Selected.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. set IGES Version to either 5. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. click Edit options.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. click Geometry.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 78 . check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. To get the best results. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. In the Save as type box. select Mechanical Desktop. You may set these options as you see fit. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. Version 5. click Start and Global. (The MDT defaults work fine. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . click Structure. Version 5. click Export or Save As. and click OK.opt. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces.2 or 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. type a filename. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK.IGESOUT dialog box. select IGES. click DE Mappings. select Microstation. in the Description box. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. Surfaces and Solids.3. To save these settings. In the File name box. type a filename.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. From the IGES Type box. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. In the File name box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. In the Save as type box.

From the IGES Type box. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.Rhino 2. In the File name box. select NASA GridTool. If you add the following section to your Rhino.1. type a filename. select IGES. In the File name box. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select Multisurf. In the Save as type box. the current version of Multisurf is 3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.ini file.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 79 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Multisurf 3.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. click Export or Save As.1 using an IGES file.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. select IGES. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. From the IGES Type box.

0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select NuGraf. From the IGES Type box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select OptiCAD. type a filename.Rhino 2. select IGES. In the File name box.

Note With Pro/E version 20. when exporting to IGES. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. In the Save as type box. somewhere around 0.pro file or save them as rhino. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E.Rhino 2. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. click Export or Save As. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . From the IGES Type box. If you set your tolerances right. use these settings in the Pro/E config.001 to 0.01 units.pro file then read it in before exporting. select IGES. In the File name box. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry. use the "All Parts" option.0001 will produce good results.

Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Surfaces and Solids. Things like fillets and drafts . even those that are trivially trimmed. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. The more trims you have.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.Rhino 2. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. If the curves are planar. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. there are now two types. 82 . Surface replace is another good tool to use. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. then. When modeling in Rhino.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface.

Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . a surface. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. type a filename. click Export or Save As. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. select SDRC's I-DEAS. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. There is no geometry information in it. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. you will not get back what you sent. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. In the File name box. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. and a solid.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them.

then click IGES. DXF. In the Save As dialog box.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage.7sp1 and 3. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the IGES Export Options dialog box.phoenixtools. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. 3.okino.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3. Run iges2soft. for SI versions 3.com Plugin download link page: www. In the IGES Export dialog box. Check out their web site for more information: www. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.phoenixtools. from the IGES Type box. Softimage can also import 3DS. Open Softimage. 2 84 . Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.com.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. select Softimage.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. select IGES.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.Rhino 2.phoenixtools. click Save As. Type a filename and click Save.8: ftp://ftp. select Softimage. From the File menu. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. SGI and x86 (Intel). This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.igs MyDSCFile.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs.txt contains command line option information. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 1. All three have their own problems and benefits. from the Save as type box.

In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select Solid Edge. From the IGES Type box. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . select IGES. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. type a filename. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. type a filename. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. In the File name box.0 Points=116 86 . The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. To export models to Rhino. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. In the Save as type box. type a filename. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0.0001 before building the geometry. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. select SolidWorks.001 or 0. From the IGES Type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Surfaces and Solids.

type a filename. click Export or Save As. SUM 4. Nothing replaces experience. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. by nature. which works on both edges and faces. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. ribs. select IGES. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. then shelling is likely to fail. In the Save as type box. try to model with smooth. shelling. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. is tangent. and investigate alternative approaches. Generally. select SURFCAM.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. In the Save as type box. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. etc. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. for SolidWorks.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0.Rhino 2. In the File name box. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. Shelling..0001. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. Also. select SUM4. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. 87 . to test feasibility. leaving features such as fillets.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. which within human perception.

In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 . From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX. In the Save as type box. select IGES. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.

click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Unigraphics. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the File name box.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select TekSoft.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.

2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the File name box. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Surfaces and Solids. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. click Export or Save As. select Yamaha ESPRi.Rhino 2. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. 90 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. If context-sensitive menu is on. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. type values in the Hue.Rhino 2. Saturation. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. type RGB values in the Red. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. Edit the Rhino. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. In addition. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. and Blue boxes. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. The same limitation does not apply to render color. Green. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. actions related to objects appear in the menu. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu.ini file. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. and Value boxes. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. 91 .0 Command Reference If an object is selected. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. For maximum speed. Context-sensitive menu indicator. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. or drag to manipulate the view. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. If no object is selected. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. select a color. The first item is always to repeat the last command.ini file to add or change menu items.txt in the Rhino install directory. from the Named Colors list. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no.

Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. and Knot object snaps can persist.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. Only Near. Near. if End. End. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. When an object snap is active.Rhino 2. or can be activated for one pick only. right-click the Lock checkbox. Midpoint. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. Quad. For example. To clear all persistent object snaps. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. the appropriate object snap displays. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. After the pick. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. All object snaps behave similarly. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. Near. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. To display the Osnap dialog box. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. When activated. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Intersection. click Osnap. 92 . press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. End. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. Point. Tan. Center. As you pass your cursor over an object. and Point will not work for that pick. If object snaps are locked. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. Perp. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. on the status bar.

Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .

Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. Intersection. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. 94 . Valid options are NoSnap. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. Click to enter the endpoint. End. then click End. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. Midpoint. The marker jumps to the endpoint. all others will be cleared. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. OrientOnSrf. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. InsertKnot. with no spaces. it turns off all persistent object snaps. Tan. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. and Knot. Perp. separated by commas. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. Point. for example in ExtractIsoparm. Center. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. This command is useful for command files. or just suspends them for one pick. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. from the Tools menu. Near. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. If a command is active. Quad. Only these object snaps will be set. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used.Rhino 2.

On the status bar. Move the cursor near a point. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. click Object Snap. and the "corners" of surfaces. In the Osnap dialog box. click Mid. Click to enter a point on the curve. 95 . click Point. Near object snap Snap near a curve. On the status bar. click Object Snap. The marker moves along the curve. Click to enter the midpoint. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. from the Tools menu. On the status bar. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Near. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click the Osnap pane. then click Point.Rhino 2. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Move the cursor near a curve. The marker jumps to its midpoint. from the Tools menu. then click Near. The marker jumps to it. Click to enter the point. the seam point on closed curves.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. click End. from the Tools menu. then click Mid. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box.

Click to enter the point of intersection. click Int. tangent to the curve. then click Center. then click Intersection. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. then click Perpendicular To. On the status bar. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. click Object Snap. Click to enter one of these points. then click Tangent To. On the status bar. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. click the Osnap pane. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Click to enter the center point. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Move the cursor along a curve. perpendicular to the curve. click Cen. from the Tools menu. from the Tools menu. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. Move the cursor near an intersection. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter one of these points. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor along a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. 96 . click Object Snap. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. click Perp. In the Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to it. The marker jumps to its center point. Move the cursor near a curve.

Rhino 2. From object snap Snap from a point. Move the cursor near a curve. On the status bar. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. from the Tools menu. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. with From. distance constraint. and relative coordinate entry. In the Osnap dialog box. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. Click to enter one of these points. click the Osnap pane. 3 Example 97 . Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. from the Tools menu. Click to enter the knot point. click Tan. arc or ellipse. Move the cursor along a circle. then click Knot. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. without entering that point for the original command. At the Choose a base point prompt. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. You can set this point. angle constraint. click Quad. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. click Object Snap. Set your constraints relative to the base point. type Knot. or similar surface edges. without picking it. click the Osnap pane. then click From. pick a point. then click Quadrant. You can use another object snap to pick this point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. and finally choose the point for the original command. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Similarly. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point.

type 2 and press Enter. then click Perpendicular From. click Object Snap. At the Choose a point prompt. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. snap to the end of the line. you can use simple snaps. 98 . select the curve. Mid. Int. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click From. End. from the Tools menu. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. Cen. At the Click near the curve prompt. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. Point. and Quad. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. Near. Note When selecting points during this sequence. select the curve. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. for greater precision.Rhino 2. from the Tools menu. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. from the Tools menu. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. At the Choose a base point prompt. then click Tangent From. The cursor moves only along the curve.

Along object snap Track along a line. in the Object Snap toolbar. and Quad) for greater precision. Mid. from the Tools menu. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. Cen. you can use simple snaps (End. At the Start of tracking line prompt. Near.Rhino 2. At the Start of base line prompt. Cen. The marker moves only along the line. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Near. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. Int. Note When selecting points during this sequence. select a first point to specify the tracking line. Point. 99 . and Quad) for greater precision. The marker moves only along the line. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. then click Along Line. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. and Quad) for greater precision. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Cen. select a second point. Mid. At the Choose a point prompt. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter a point on the line.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Int. At the End of base line prompt. Int. At the End of tracking line prompt. type AlongParallel. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. select a second point. click Object Snap. you can use simple snaps (End. The marker tracks along the tangent line. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Or. Point. Near. you can use simple snaps (End. Point. right-click the Along toolbar button. Mid. Click to enter a point on the line. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points.

Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. you can use simple snaps. then click On Surface. from the Tools menu. and the cursor is over an object snap point. End. Intersection. Point. When Osnap projection is on. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. Note When selecting a point on the surface. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. and Knot. The marker moves only along the surface. Near. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. 100 . This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. click Object Snap. select the surface. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. By default. Click to enter a point on the surface. for greater precision. It constrains the marker to a selected curve.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. but works on curves. select Project to CPlane. Center. it is off. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. Mid. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. At the Click near the surface prompt.

101 . Information Technical information about the command displays. and the other positive integers.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. Object Properties. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. The valid values are -1. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. or just the knot isoparms. 0. and RenderMan RIB. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. One isoparm on knot-free spans. go to the Options dialog box. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. General tab. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. Isoparms at surface knot locations. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on.Rhino 2. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. and OBJ file export. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. 1. 2. POV-Ray.

Color Sets the color of the light. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. this tab displays the properties for that light type. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties.Rhino 2. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. Turns light on or off. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. From top left to bottom right.0 Command Reference Object Properties. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. To change the material assignment of the layer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. finish. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Light tab Edit light object properties. texture. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. you can set the color. using a plug-in library. Material tab Edit object material properties. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. transparency. 102 .

0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. To change the color of the wireframe display. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.Rhino 2. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. or a polygon mesh. 103 . Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Text tab Edit text properties. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Clear this option to remove the texture map. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. polysurface. Unlike more advanced renderers. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Object Properties. Clear this option to remove the bump map. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. From top left to bottom right. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white.

25 inches. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). When you place annotation text. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. set Annotation Scale factor to 4.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing.Rhino 2. Example If your units are inches. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. 104 . Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Command string Command alias definitions. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. The two sizes update each other. Options dialog box. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

105

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

107

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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Render Mesh tab. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering.Rhino 2. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. On the Shade tab. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Also. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. this shading mode may be much faster. For highest quality results. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. click Use OpenGL. click Options. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Choose between the quick render preview. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. highlights. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. spotlighting. shadows. from the smooth geometry. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. The next time you shade the same model.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. Rhino takes that time to calculate. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. and the color-andshadows Render. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. you will see improved performance. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. and a backdrop image. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. 114 .

In some situations. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. the patterns may probably disappear. from the smooth geometry. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves.0 or 1. Render tab. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. of the view in the active viewport. which might appear in waves. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time.Rhino 2. When you draw the plane. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. Jagged spotlight edges and self.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. so it won't be deformed.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. Rhino Render tab. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. The next time you render the same model. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Also. you will see improved performance. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. Self.5. Render Mesh tab. 115 . The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model.

you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. The scale of the objects is very large. Correct shadow. Self-shadowing artifacts.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. That will usually solve the problem.shadowing effects. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If you increase it too much. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. Sometimes the conversion 116 .Rhino 2. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. If the problems still persist. If you’re getting self. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. Change the size of the light.

please read section the next section. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. To update Windows NT drivers. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. Start Rhino. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. On Status of layer. Off Status of layer. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. Even if you got the card last week. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. and since the polygons are flat. Otherwise.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. For example. contact Rhino Technical Support.Rhino 2. Or you can organize your parts a different way. This helps you organize your model. Windows 95. they look jagged. if you were working on a human figure. change the color of the wire frame. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. and download the latest drivers. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures.microsoft. you may not have the current drivers. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer.com/windows/downloads/winntw.asp. Name Layer name. you can turn them all off at once.dll and Glu32. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. 117 . available from Microsoft at www. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. To set the column width. When objects are on a layer. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. If this does not fix the problem. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. select them all with one selection. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. To update your OpenGL drivers.

Rhino 2. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. You can snap to objects on this layer. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. finish. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. To change the color of the wireframe display. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. 118 . Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Unlike more advanced renderers. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. texture. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. transparency.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. polysurface. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. or a polygon mesh. you can set the color. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application.

but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. select the name on the list. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. In the Layer dialog box. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. Clear this option to remove the bump map. You can select all layers. select a set of layers. You cannot create new layers with these names. and Invert the selection. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. type a new name and press Enter. If you don't remember the layer names. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. In the Edit Layers dialog box. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. click New. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. 119 . Clear this option to remove the texture map.Rhino 2. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them.

select a color for the layer. select all the displayed layers and delete. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. When a model has a large number of layers. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. click the color column of the layer you want to change. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. Click Delete. click a filter option.Rhino 2. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. from the list select the layers you want to delete. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . In the Edit Layers dialog box.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. In the Show box. use the Empty Layers filter. To delete empty layers. In the Select Color dialog box. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.

A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. off. set the desired filter options. or locked. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box." are on or locked. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). click Filtered Layers.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1.Rhino 2.

The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. then use a ruled surface. The rail curve directs the surface along it. Sweep1. Sweeps. 122 . If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Lofts. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. The surface is smooth.Rhino 2. If you are after a tent-like. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. then the surface created by loft will. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. If you are after a flag-like surface. stair-like. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. generally. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. try adding a few more cross sections. Think of each curve you select in Loft. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. then try Loft. If this doesn't help. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. then use the one closest to the top of the list. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. or accordion bellows-like surface. Rules. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves.

123 . If you have a several of closed curves.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. the surface will twist. use a Sweep2.Rhino 2. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. while keeping the other end fixed.

124 . or no curves. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. several. For a given radius. For each of these four ways.Rhino 2. and thus the fillet. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. the intersection of the offsets can have one. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. there are four ways to fillet. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius.

FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. for this choice of sides. 125 .0 Command Reference As mentioned.Rhino 2. These pieces can be grouped into connected components. there may be several fillet pieces.

126 . Because of this. If yes. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. then the surfaces are left intact. If no. If split. No. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. When Extend = yes. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. and split.Rhino 2. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. yes. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. When that is the case.

Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. and a fillet will exist.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. If two surfaces are tangent. their offsets may intersect. then no fillets will be created. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. 127 .

Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. no fillet will be created. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. except cross-sections are lines.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. Otherwise. rather than arcs. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces.Rhino 2. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. 128 .

Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. joining A to C. Once we have a curve on the surface. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Often.0 Command Reference In general. In this case. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. but it may not fit. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. The result will have a hole at the corner. 129 . it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. then the result to B will work. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. it is projected. B and C. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. If one is a polysurface. The picking order can make the difference. on an open surface or polysurface. Objects have overlapping surface areas. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. it doesn't. If both are single surfaces. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. When joining A. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. do not pick A and B first. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. In this case. Additionally. However. If you do. no corner patch will be attempted. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. Do each surface individually. a spherical patch will be made. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen.Rhino 2. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up.

or visa versa. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. For success using the Booleans. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. This point is also called a singularity. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. not mesh objects. the operation can fail. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane.Rhino 2. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. You can also move control points to the same location. 130 .

click From Objects. In this example. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. The objects will Union. In this example.Rhino 2. In this example. and then click Intersection. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. Depending on the order the objects are selected. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. the Intersect command may give different results. select the second object. the two boxes are just touching along one side. In this example. At the Select object for intersection prompt. but Difference. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. At the Select object to intersect prompt. select one object. and Intersection do not work. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. 131 . there are three possible intersection curves. we chose the cone first.

In our simple example. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces.Rhino 2. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. you would expect to get all three curves. so we will Explode it. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. however. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. To get all the possible curves. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. this may not happen. If your objects are very complex. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. if your objects are polysurfaces. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. Therefore. but for the same reason the Boolean failed.

From the Solid menu. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. select the cone. At the Select object to split prompt. select the two faces of the box as shown below. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. Explode the cone.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. click Split. At the Select cutting objects prompt. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt.Rhino 2. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. 133 . Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. click Extract Surface. Delete the small wedge of the cone.

In this case. There is no intersection. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). and is achieved by flipping the normals. intersection. click Trim. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. difference.Rhino 2. The intersection involves isolated points. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. A – B = A intersect ~B. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. union. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. go through the same code. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. 134 . select the two curves. From the Edit menu. So. Use the Join command to join all the parts together.

ini file. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Surfaces overlap. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. clear the checkbox for the toolbar.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. cylinders. etc. 135 . the outside is the side to which the normals point. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Double-click Rhino. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. To understand the results. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. Exit Rhino.Rhino 2. find the folder where Rhino is installed. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar.ini to open it for editing. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. planes. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar.ini. Edit the Rhino. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. select the check box for the toolbar. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. Find the setting you want to change. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.ini and restart Rhino. To edit the Rhino. In Windows Explorer.

enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout.ini file. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. until the preview frame of it changes shape. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. The title bar appears on the toolbar. loses its title bar. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. and is docked. The toolbar moves to a new position. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. This is a setting in the Rhino.Rhino 2. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. The toolbar reshapes. 136 . select the toolbar. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. it has no title bar. click Properties. The title bar appears. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Or. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. and click Properties. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. type the new name. The toolbar appears or hides. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. which can be on or off the Rhino window. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar.

and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. and click New Toolbar. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. select the toolbar. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. Press and hold Ctrl.Rhino 2. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. select the toolbars to import. and from the Toolbar menu. which has the white triangle in the corner. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Click Open. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. click Import. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. and drop in the desired position. and from the Toolbar menu. click New. Or. select the toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. Click Import. right-click the toolbar name in the list.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. right-click the toolbar name in the list. 3 137 . Hold down a mouse button for a moment. select the toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. right-click the toolbar name in the list. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. Or. it will distort the bitmap icon. click Delete. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. and click Delete Toolbar. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and click Import Toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. click Properties. and click Properties. Or. select the toolbar. Or. The linked toolbar appears. Release the mouse button. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Or.

Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. The toolbar appears. 138 . Press and hold Shift.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. The toolbar is floating. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. Press and hold Ctrl. or to a different position in the same toolbar. it will distort the bitmap icon. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. clear Float to Top. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. and click the right mouse button. In this case. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. select Float to Top to make the link button float. Or. Move the cursor over a link button.Rhino 2. Release the mouse button. The linked toolbar vanishes. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. The buttons rearrange.

and the bitmap icon. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Press F2 to view the command history. and click the right mouse button. You can clear the image. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. and click the right mouse button. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. Press and hold Shift.Rhino 2. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Press and hold Shift. click Add Button. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. and from the Toolbar menu. capture a portion of the screen. draw with the paint tools. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. for example: Zoom In | Out. 139 . Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. type text in the ToolTip box. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Press and hold Shift. and click Add Button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Click Close. type text in the ToolTip box. In the Delete Button dialog box. If you don't know what to enter. select the toolbar. Or. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. You can change the ToolTip. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. right-click the toolbar name in the list. click OK. Release the left mouse button. the left and right mouse buttons commands. A blank button is added to the toolbar. Use this area to edit your bitmap.

Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. from the Edit menu. click Undo. from the Edit menu. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. To undo a mistake.Rhino 2. click Edit Bitmap. and click the right mouse button. right. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Press and hold Shift. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. 140 . Click the pencil tool. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. Or. then OK.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Press and hold Shift. Note You can shift the image left. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. A square replaces the cursor. click Edit Bitmap. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Press and hold Shift. click Edit Bitmap. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. click Edit Bitmap. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. click Clear. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. up. Press and hold Shift. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. Or. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. from the Edit menu. click Grab. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. the button is blank. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair.

Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. from a text file. select a bitmap file. click Export Bitmap.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. click Import Bitmap.4 -4.4 13. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. from the File menu. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.-4 8. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. command aliases. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. type a bitmap file name.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box.Rhino 2. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. 141 . shortcut keys. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. Click Save. which stops the creation of point objects. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. Click Open. Press and hold Shift. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4.0 5. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. click Edit Bitmap. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. This script moves objects.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script.-3 1. from the File menu. The bitmap icon is saved to a file.1 4.

5. Automation servers. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. Microsoft JScript 5. browsing for files. The default is 1. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. If you don't know what to enter. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. From the Tools menu. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. variable names. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. portable.Rhino 2. click Commands. The default is 20. is a fast. layername2. Press F2 to view the command history. Options are 0=Interpolate. Mode is always 1. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. These scripting languages allow loops. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Divs is the samples per knotspan. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. 142 . Fit is the fitting method. queries. 1=Fit. the Web's only standard scripting language. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. and Java applets. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. then click Paste from Clipboard. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1.

143 . It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools .for instance. and Check doesn't check for those things. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino.microsoft. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. If you zoom in enough. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. If Rhino matches the large edges. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. The first one to try is the Check command. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. see: http://msdn. and join everything back together again. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. For more information on scripting.rvb. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. Another problem is having a tiny.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. Some bad model parts. you may find some of those microscopic edges. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. If a model passes Check. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. If your model doesn't pass Check. you have to explode the model. re-trim the surface. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. If your model doesn't pass Check. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. These damaged areas can cause problems. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. then it will list some specific problems. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. To fix broken edges.Rhino 2. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. then edit the trim curves. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. Rhino will let you do it. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. though. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged.

Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. To draw a non-G1 curve. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0.5 5.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs.4 10.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode.10 5. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. open up the kink by control point editing. Untrim or DetachTrim. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. Additionally. Thus. You will get this error message. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. If there are lots of tiny edges. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. This test does not check the geometry. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve.Rhino 2. Solution: Rebuild the curve. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree.0 5. Trim again. the Join command can get confused when that happens. and Join. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. 144 . Draw a Curve (Degree=3).0 5. FitCrv. Split the curve at the kink. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. simple edge-to-edge matching. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. you can Undo changing the degree.

You will get this error message. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. 145 . Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. Use this to install as a standalone node.Rhino 2. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Some operations. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Extrude it. You will get this error message. This option takes precedence over the /key option. but not right on top of each other. Solution: DetachTrim. Usually. Draw a Circle. and then control point edit the extrusion. The warning lets you know when this has happened. Rhino 2. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Edge direction. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. Join and Booleans in particular. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. but not right on top of each other. You can put control points very close to each other. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. fix curve and retrim. In short. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Solution: Rebuild the edge. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. Solution: Open up the stacked points.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. Internal control points are coincident. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can put control points very close to each other.

visit www. unlike standalone Rhino. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses.Rhino 2. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. it does not modify the shape of the surface. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup.rhino3d.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. This is an installation option.rhino3d.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2.0" as a workgroup node. When a node shuts down. Thus. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. For details on setting up a workgroup. the license is added back to the available license pool. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals.htm. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one.com/plug-ins. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino.com/plugins/developer. contact your network administrator.0 as a workgroup node. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. No special hardware is needed. 146 . Very little administration is required. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge.

Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. The 3. 2. the marker will snap to the snap point.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. 2. two 2. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or .D curves. 1. For example. If an object snap is on.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. 1/3. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. 3. 0.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. trim curves are ignored. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. then e_tol tells how close the 3. Cursor.90 degrees The range is from . one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. called the pedge. Rhino meshes all trim edges.D edge is to the surface. 0. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. When using elevator mode. the cursor turns into a crosshair.90 degrees to 90 degrees. the draft angle is 0.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex.D edge. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. 1. and tolerance values for each of the curves. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. called the edge. 3. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. When the initial mesh grid is made. 8/3. which also approximates the intersection. 147 . Each 2.D curve (the one you see). and pe_tol tells how close the 3. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0.D curve. Marker. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. After the initial grid is made. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol.

isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. When you have a finished solid. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. However. when you have a single surface. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. Solid objects do not have naked edges. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. etc. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. flat constant on the other). blue on one side. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. 148 . If you hold it at the ends. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it).Rhino 2. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes.) with a polynomial definition. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. or reflective metal on one side. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. or a polysurface. the stiffness of the rope. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. The other side is the inside. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. Imagine a rope. red on the other.

but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Snap pane. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. 149 . this is called a "quilt. In some other 3-D programs. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. and solids. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. It is a mathematical way of defining curves.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. it is also a solid. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection.Rhino 2. Ortho pane. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. surfaces.

and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. no objects are selected. v. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. Surfaces have three directions.direction is indicated by the green arrow. U. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. u. v. You can display the u.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. units. The u. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. When no command is active. The u. Esc clears the command prompt. there will be no holes in the mesh. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. Esc deselects all objects. Esc turns off the points. grid size. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino.Rhino 2. If objects are selected and no command is active. You can save your own templates to base future models on. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. 150 . This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. and normal.direction is indicated by the red arrow. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. and the v. If a mesh is generated from a solid. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. A rectangular surface with the u. and tolerances.

Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. 3View Three-viewport layout. 151 . Second corner of polygon. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. You can shade and render the wireframe view. Press Enter for triangle prompt. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. 4View Four-viewport layout. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. and Third corner of polygon prompts. Or.Rhino 2. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon.

The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection.Rhino 2. Start the AddNextU command. Select a point on the surface. 152 . Start the AddNextV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.

The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected 153 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. Start the AddPrevU command.

Rhino 2. select an object to add to a group. 1 At the Select objects prompt. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. prompt select the group or enter a group name. Select a point on the surface. 154 . Use the Group command to group objects together. Start the AddPrevV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. 2 At the Select groups.

pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. 1 2 Select the objects. AlignProfiles Align two curves. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. or World Right. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. At the Select curve to change prompt. The curves must be planar. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. 155 . At the Base point on CPlane prompt. World Front. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan.Rhino 2. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust.

Rhino 2. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. End of first line prompt. 156 . pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. Start of second line prompt. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. select a point that defines the start of an angle line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on.

Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text.Rhino 2. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder.0000 degrees. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. select the surface on which to apply the curves. select the surface to apply the mesh. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. and fitted onto the selected surface.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. If the surface is trimmed. 157 . At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt.

enter the start point of the arc. ApplyMesh guarantees that. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. enter the center of the arc's radius. enter the end point of the arc. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. If you use the Mirror transformation. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. Start. enter the angle for the arc. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. At the End point or angle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. 158 .0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. Then. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. so if you Mirror something. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. enter the center of the arc's radius. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. If making morph targets. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first.Rhino 2. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. But that swaps u and v on the surface. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. one of which has been squished around in some way. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. For example. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. Generally. Arc Draw an arc. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. Or. although if you understand the process and work at it. At the Start of arc prompt. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. mesh the most complex surface first. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. you can make such morphs. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure.

You can enter the number of control points. enter the start of the arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. enter the end point of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. enter a point on the arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. Arc from three points 159 . a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. At the End of arc prompt.Rhino 2. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. At the Point on arc prompt.

Arc from start point. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. enter a radius value. and radius. Tangent.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. end point. At the Choose arc prompt. enter the start point. At the Radius prompt. end point. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. At the End of arc prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. At the Direction prompt. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. select the first curve. enter the start point. 160 . move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. enter the end point. End. If the radius value is too small. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. At the Radius prompt. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. select the second curve. enter the radius of the arc. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the end point. End. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. At the End of arc prompt.

AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.7e-006. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.0). second moments.014). and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. product moments.4601236. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).1e-006.1.0.8545412.1. 161 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. If you cannot see the entire report.34 (+/. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. First moments.1. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.0 (+/.

Different disciplines and textbooks use different. if you select a box polysurface.88675135 (+/.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.5. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command. Area First Moments: 162 . with a surface or open polysurface. and sometimes contradictory.10.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 3. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.Rhino 2. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. For example.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate.1e-009) Rz: 6.73300329 (+/.0.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/. As an example.73205081 (+/.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/. Area = 60 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.36650165 (+/.0 is shown below. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.0 and 6. In order to get the particular moment you need. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.1e-009) Ry: 3.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.0) zx: 0 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-009.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-009.46410162 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.77350269 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 1.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.0 (+/.

In particular. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. and area product moments. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. area first moments. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. the area. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. In terms of integrals. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. area second moments. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. In terms of integrals. The relationship between the area first moments. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis.

Or. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. The array directions are the x. At the Number in Z direction prompt. those distances are applied to the array directions. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. press Enter. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. Transform.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. type the y-interval and press Enter. 164 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. At the Number in Y direction prompt. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies.Rhino 2. At the Number in X direction prompt. type the x-interval.and y-intervals. to indicate the x. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete.

In the Array Along Curve dialog box. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. specify twist behavior. choose two points that define the z-interval. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. Or. At the Select path curve prompt. or the spacing distance along the curve. 165 . set the number of elements to array. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array.Rhino 2. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. type the z-interval and press Enter.

166 . At the Select the surface prompt. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. Enter a value of 1 or more. choose a center point for the array. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. At the Center of polar array prompt. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. At the Basepoint prompt.Rhino 2. Surface. curve on surface. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. You can continue to place objects. type an angle and press Enter. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. select objects to copy along the curve. select a curve on a surface. At the Angle to fill prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. Objects arrayed along line. type the number of copies and press Enter. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. and object to array. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects.

Array along a surface 167 . pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface.Rhino 2. type a number of objects.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. choose the surface to array along. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. If the surface is a trimmed surface. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. At the Select surface to array along prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. type a number of objects. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface.

the model's folder will be used as the default. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. If the Audit command detects a database error. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. otherwise you must select a folder. At the End of line prompt. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. See the PluginManager command. it prints a detailed description of the error. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. enter the end of the arrow. the path. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow.rhp Options set the resolution. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. 168 . This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export.Rhino 2. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. enter the start of the arrow.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. Back Set to world back view.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere.Rhino 2. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. Note By default. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. choose a center point. This sphere is two joined surfaces. General tab. At the Radius prompt. Files tab. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. automatic Autosave is turned off. 169 .ini. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. Files tab. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. By default.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. you must edit your Rhino.

place the point outside the object. Bend Bend objects. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose an endpoint.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. To bend the entire object. Bend 170 . choose the amount of bend. At the End of spine prompt. At the End of second axis prompt. choose an endpoint. At the End of third axis prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. To bend the entire object.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. choose an endpoint. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. place the point outside the object. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. choose a center point. choose the second endpoint of the line. At the Start of spine prompt. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter.

and meshes.Rhino 2. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt.only control points. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. You can't bend a polysurface . If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. enter the end of the angle to bisect. 171 . The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. you will only bend that part of the object. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Bend moves the control points of objects. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. enter the start of the angle to bisect. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. enter the start of the bisector line. curves. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. The remainder of the object is kept straight. or enter a length and press Enter. surfaces. At the End of angle to bisect prompt.

Rhino 2. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. 172 . select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity.

select a surface edge. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited.Rhino 2. and curvature. 173 . select adjacent edges. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. tangent direction. A blend curve that matches location. tangent direction. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. tangent direction. delete the arc. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. If a blend appears to tight or loose. If it is invoked after picking the first end. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. and curvature. The location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. tangent directions. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). If the curve will only be used in Rhino. If you are joining curves. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. tangent direction. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. and one of the curves is a blend curve. tangent direction. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. or press Enter. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. Note The location. it applies to both ends. The Blend command creates G2 blends. In either case. tangent direction. To do this. If you need a G1 blend. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. and curvature is called a G2 blend. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. it applies only to the second end. then you should probably use InsertKnot. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. At the Select first set of edges.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

the higher the degree. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. but adds control points between each knot span. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. If you raise the degree of a surface.Rhino 2. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. the greater the number of control points.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. it will no longer be periodic. click the new layer. 183 . It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. This gives you more control over the shape. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface.

Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. enter the center point. Note Delete or rebuild the object. 184 . This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. When the user gets back in the office. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. select one object. Select objects.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. Circle Draw a circle. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. Diagnostics. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. To check a license back in. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. enter the radius point. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. When users get back in the office. use the CheckInLicense command.

Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.Rhino 2. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . You can enter the number of control points. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.

CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves.Rhino 2. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. At the Third point on circle prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. select the second curve. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter a radius. select the first curve. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. enter a second point on the circumference. 186 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. At the Second point on circle prompt. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. You can enter the number of control points. Tangent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. enter a third point on the circumference. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter a point on the circumference. There may be multiple circles. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. delete the extras. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. enter the end of the diameter. At the End of diameter prompt. At the Radius prompt.

or are tangent to a second curve. select the first curve. select the third curve. 187 .Rhino 2. Note To reduce the size of the model file. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Point Select a point for input. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. select the second curve. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. delete the extras. At the Third tangent curve. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. There may be multiple circles.

enter a point. Point objects are not a part of any other object. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. To start one of those commands. pick it from the list. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. At the Base point for closest point prompt. 188 . Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. right click in the Rhino Command History window. CommandHistory View command history.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. Press F2 again to close the window. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. or in the Command area. Note To show the list of recently-used commands.Rhino 2. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. Note Point objects display as small squares. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command.

Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . it is pasted as a command script. Or. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do.Rhino 2. If there is text in the Clipboard. Without the command area. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Cone Draw a cone. Commands List all Rhino commands. look at the Command List in this help file. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. At the Radius prompt. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. choose a center point for the base. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. At the End of cone prompt. it is pasted.0 will replace this command if it is not nested.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. choose a radius.

Or. enter the middle point for the conic.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Conic 190 . This point partially defines the plane for the conic. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. enter the start point for the conic. Conic Draw a conic section curve. At the End of conic prompt. enter the end point for the conic. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Reference vertex prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.Rhino 2.

5. B.5. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. let T be the point where line(B. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. Curvature point or rho prompt.S) intersects chord(A. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. select a second curve. Second reference curve prompt. Point on first curve prompt. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. First reference curve prompt.0 and less than 0. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0.Rhino 2. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. If you work out the details.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. type T to select tangent curves. Point on second curve prompt. Parabolic Rho value of 0.5 and less than 1. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . select a curve.C). you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number.

Rhino 2. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt.5. Parabolic Rho value of 0.0 and 0.5 and 1. End control points are at the same location.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. so the w<1 case is elliptical. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. 192 . At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Or. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. enter the reference vertex for the conic. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter.5. At the End of conic prompt. enter the end point for the conic.

Rhino 2. curvature. Position. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. 193 . BlendSrf. and meshes for contour line creation. Blend. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. At the Contour plane base point prompt. Match. choose a base point. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). One of the contour planes will go through this point. polysurfaces. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same.

The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. the less dense the control polygon will display.Rhino 2. generated in both directions from the base point. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. enter the distance between contours and press Enter.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. At the Distance between contours prompt. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. At the Control polygon display density prompt. 194 . The higher this number is. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve.Rhino 2. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. select curves and press Enter. At the Angle tolerance prompt. use the ExtractWireframe command first. The original curves are removed. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. 195 . then convert the resulting curves to polylines. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. Edges can't be converted with this command. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. select an object to create polylines from. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt.

When you Paste objects into Rhino. snap spacing. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. If the layer does not exist. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. Or. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. 196 . it is created when the object is pasted. type I and press Enter. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Or. type v and press Enter. choose locations for copies. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. to move the copy vertically. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. to copy the object in the same place. At the Point to copy to prompts. choose a point to move the copy from. A single copy is made in the same place as the original.

Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. At the X axis direction prompt. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. At the CPlane elevation prompt. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. At the CPlane orientation prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. choose a point on the y-axis.Rhino 2. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. 197 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. choose the new origin. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. choose a point on the x-axis. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.

Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point.and yaxes to a new location. choose the new origin.Rhino 2. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Once your construction plane is positioned. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. 198 . If the construction plane does not go the direction you want.D location where it needs to be. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. in the dynamic preview. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. for example. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt.D. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. drag the construction plane's new x.

At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 199 . pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. select a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis.Rhino 2. choose a point on the x. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the x. At the Z axis direction prompt. choose a point on the z. At the X axis direction prompt. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. 200 . choose the new origin. At the X axis direction prompt.axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin. choose the new origin.axis. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.

cut openings in the unrolled surface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. Top view of profile curves 201 . At the Select planar curve prompt. Use UnrollSrf. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. select the first planar curve.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. select a surface.Rhino 2. select the second planar curve. the original surface must be developable. Crv2View Create a curve from two views.

Example For an example. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. Look in the index under "Curve. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane.Rhino 2. From 2 Views.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes." 202 .

pick on a seam point marker. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. and move it along the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. When you are done adjusting the connections. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval.Rhino 2. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. joining the ends of the overlap interval. At the Location of seam point prompt. 203 . press Enter. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. pick a new location for the seam point.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. For each overlap interval. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. They are connected with a line. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves.

Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. 204 .0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface.

Curves are drawn at the control polygons. The control point for the surface appear. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. select a surface. end the line for the cross section plane. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. that passes through the profile curves. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. At the End of cross-section line prompt.Rhino 2. pick near a control point.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. Press Enter to stop creating curves. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. with the control polygons. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. press Enter to end the command. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. At the Select point on the surface prompts. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . V or Both directions. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need.

0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. For best results.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. space the cross section curves relatively evenly. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point.

click to create the circle object. 2 207 . The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn.Rhino 2. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. Or. This does not automate finding the inflection points. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. select a curve. the curve is locally flat. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. press Esc to end the command without change. but it makes it possible to mark them manually.

Rhino 2. set the style and range. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. 208 . In the Curvature dialog box. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. Options Gaussian In the images below. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. curvature. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. and other important properties. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. For example. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature.

Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. 209 .Rhino 2. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. Blue areas should be safe.>100.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. In the case of an offset. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. (Planes.>1000) and the red close to infinity.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. In the case of the mill. Set the value for blue rather high (10. cylinders. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.

the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. This is known as signed curvature. both free and attached to objects. unlike a simple soap film. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. this may result in a rather uninformative image. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. As a starting point. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. and the direction. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. A soap bubble. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve.Rhino 2. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . At any point on a curve in the plane. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. then we establish a convention. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. If we care about this. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. the normal to the surface at that point. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. these values may not be appropriate. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. These meshes can be large. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. or to the right of the curve. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue.

which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. such as wire loops. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. even when other commands are started. u. This contrasts with a soap bubble. close the dialog box. Adjust the length. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves.Rhino 2. frequency. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. 211 . Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. Curvature graph on surface. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves.

Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. or tangent only. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change.Rhino 2. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. In other words. However. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. Degree 5 curve 212 . They are not curvature continuous. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.

Press F2 to show the Command History window. Gaussian curvature. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. If the graph changes smoothly. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. 3. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. As you move your cursor. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. minimum principal curvature. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line.D normal. that is. 3. At any point on a curve (except lines). Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. Curve Draw a curve by control points.D point. To better grasp this. negative when the circles point opposite ways. maximum principal curvature. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves.Rhino 2. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. pick a point on the surface. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). If isoparm display is turned off. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. To see the circle. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous.

To end the curve.Rhino 2. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. enter additional control points. At the Next point. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. and pick. When drawing a high degree curve. enter the start of the curve. At the Next point. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. Sharp When you make a closed curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. The curve closes. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. enter an additional control point. You must draw one more control point than the degree. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. press Enter. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 .

it is created when the object is pasted. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.0 (+/. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.8545412.34 (+/. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.4601236. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. second moments. select the box. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. select the box. select the box.014). area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0). select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. First moments.7e-006.1. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. If the layer does not exist. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. product moments.0. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1e-006.1. 4 215 .

select the box.Rhino 2. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. select the end point of a line that defines a plane. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. At the Start of cut plane prompt.3921 (+/. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box.0001). press Enter to stop making cut planes. select the first point of a line to define a plane. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the End of cut plane prompt. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. 216 .

volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1.8545412.0 (+/. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. product moments.0). The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. select the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Solid cylinder 217 . The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. choose a radius.4601236.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt.1. second moments. choose a point for the center of the top surface.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1e-006. At the End of cylinder prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. choose a center point for the base. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.7e-006. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder.Rhino 2. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. First moments. select the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt.

Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. Select the control points on the curve to delete. saved views. use New command instead.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. 218 .Rhino 2. To start a new model. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. and saved construction planes are not deleted. All objects in the model are deleted. Layers. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. Delete Delete selected objects. Press Delete. use the Erase command. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

axis.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. select the proper serial port and baud rate.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. select your digitizing arm. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. and the trim curve is created. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. use the arm to choose an x.axis in the real world. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Microscribe. You do not need to ensure that the y. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve.axis is perpendicular to the x. 219 . At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing.axis in the real world. Similar to Untrim . use the arm to choose a y. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Rhino will do it for you.Rhino 2. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. choose an origin in Rhino. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. select a boundary to detach. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. In the Baud Rate dialog box.

Thus. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. choose a y. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. 220 . Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. and is assigned to the F12 key. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. You can draw lines. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. recording reference points as you go. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Whatever the reason. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. circles.Rhino 2. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. and curves with the digitizer. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. choose an x. If it is more convenient. you can use the digitizer.axis in Rhino. arcs. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. or the object moves slightly. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. Digitize the third set of reference points. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. and y. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points.Rhino 2. use the arm to choose a y. If the digitizer or object moves. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt.axis on the table.axis on the table. Y. X. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. This is the reference polyline. Microscribe. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data.. and Y for the origin. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. click Digitize. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. From the Tools menu. From the Tools menu. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. use the arm to choose an x. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. x. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. click Digitize. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. or you need to close and restart Rhino. and O. Label each point O. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.axes. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. and then click Calibrate. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.

a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. At the Second point on plane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. enter 25. At the Start of axis prompt. Type C to create a closed curve. The planes are defined with a base point. a point is sampled. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. enter 2. enter a point on the base plane. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. 222 . and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. hold the pedal. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt.54. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. enter 0. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. As long as the pedal is depressed. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. enter a third point on the base plane.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. To digitize in meters.Rhino 2. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. Press Enter when you are finished. specify how you want to space the planes. enter the start of the section plane axis. To digitize in millimeters. At the Third point on plane prompt. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. and spacing.0254. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. direction. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. When you finish digitizing points on the object. type the scale factor for all digitized input. enter a second point on the base plane. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. To digitize in centimeters. You can space the planes at intervals. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point.4. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to.

At the Second dimension point prompt. 223 . Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. At the Place the dimension prompt. As long as the pedal is depressed. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. At the Select second line prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. pick a second line. enter the distance between sampled points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. a point is sampled. When you release the pedal. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a line. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. Rhino samples points. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt.

At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a point on the model to dimension to. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. At the Second dimension point prompt.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. At the Dimension line location prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension.Rhino 2. pick a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location.

225 . DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. At the First dimension point prompt.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. enter an angle for the dimension line. At the Place the dimension prompt. enter the second point of a reference angle. At the Second reference point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. Or the first point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. pick a curve.Rhino 2. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.

pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Curve direction 226 . red and green arrows show the u. Press Enter to terminate the display.Rhino 2.directions at the point.and v. Dir Show direction display. type F. At the Second dimension point prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. to change the direction. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. At the Dimension line location prompt.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. surface or polysurface. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. On surfaces. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Press Enter when done prompt. select a curve.

Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. VReverse. The location of the directional light does not matter. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. 227 . The directional light icon does not render or shade. If the textures don't apply in the right direction.and v.Rhino 2. pick a location for the directional light.order and direction. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. the UReverse. unless you apply textures. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction.

light the scene less. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. 228 . To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. When Object snaps are disabled.Rhino 2. Darker colors. pick a point. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. clear the Disable checkbox. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. like gray.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Distance Measure the distance between two points. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. right-click the Disable checkbox. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended.

The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. At the Length of segments prompt. 229 .0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. select curves and press Enter. select the curves to divide and press Enter. At the Number of segments prompt. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. type an integer number and press Enter. Note Point objects display as small squares. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Point objects are not a part of any other object. use the Split command. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. To split the curve at the points created by Divide.Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length.0000 units.

select a curve.Rhino 2. use the Split command. or polysurface to evaluate. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. If you want points to start at the other end.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. 230 . use the Dir command to flip the curve. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. surface. When a polysurface is picked. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength.

The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. You can check this with the Dir command. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. 231 . Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts.Rhino 2. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. enter the location of the dot. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. type the text to show in the dot. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. At the Location of dot prompt.

Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode. At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports.

type c (curve). To limit your selection to surfaces. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. select an object to duplicate. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. and press Enter. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves.Rhino 2. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. the surface will always sag more than the original. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. but it only makes points. then select the edge to duplicate. textblocks. Because of this. and solids. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. surfaces. and polysurfaces. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. Duplicate border curve 233 . DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. meshes. The object will be duplicated in place. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. edge. surfaces. dimensions. For example. type f (face). or bnd (boundary). Dup Duplicate an object. The Dup command only duplicates curves. It does not duplicate points. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. or lights.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes.

234 . select the third curve. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. select the second curve. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. select the first curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the edges of a surface.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. select the fourth curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. For many surface creation commands. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. press Enter to create a triangular surface.Rhino 2. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface.

select a dimension. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. For a surface from closed planar curves.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. EditDim Edit dimension text. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. You can use surface edges.Rhino 2. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . type new text.

236 . so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. set the options. In the Edit Text dialog box. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points.Rhino 2. They are not the same as knots. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. Type the new text. select a text block. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing.

Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).25 inches. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Example If your units are inches. enter the endpoint for the first axis. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points. At the End of first axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt.Rhino 2. When you place annotation text. The two sizes update each other. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. enter the center point. At the End of second axis prompt. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter the endpoint for the second axis.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. At the End of second axis prompt. 238 . enter a focus point. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. At the End of first axis prompt. enter the end of the second axis. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the second focus point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Draw an ellipse from focus points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. enter the end of the axis. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane.

choose an endpoint for the major axis. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 239 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. End of first axis prompt. enter the second focus point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. End of second axis prompt. choose a center point. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. or type a height and press Enter. choose an endpoint. enter a focus point. End of third axis prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid.

The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.Rhino 2. When you use the EMap command.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. 240 . and other important properties. These meshes can be large. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. curvature. In the Environment Map Options dialog box.

This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. 241 . When Faster is selected. in the Options dialog box. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. but will always work. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. on the Shade tab. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. When More reliable is selected. under Zebra and EMap. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. select More reliable.Rhino 2.

At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. In each case. drag point indicators. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. as with the Blend command. At the Start of region to edit. 242 . drag control points to edit the edge bulge. select a surface edge. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. you are moving control points of the curve. maintains the tangent direction. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. At the End of region to edit. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve.Rhino 2. One-point-per-end mode. No means there is one drag point.

so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. During EndBulgeSrf editing.1 2.1 2. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script. After editing.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. the script Circle 0. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does.0 Command Reference Surface before editing.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. aliases. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. For example. 243 .0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.Rhino 2.2 does the same thing as Circle 0.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way.

and the U. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). The Cartesian coordinates of the point. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. Exit Exit Rhino. Note Erase is the same as Delete. 244 .V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. A point object is created on the surface. Or use the C option to suppress creating points.z format. the untrimmed surface is used. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Note When a polysurface is picked. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. If the surface is trimmed.y. select a point. click points on the surface.Rhino 2. select the objects you want to erase. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. select the surface to evaluate. Press Enter when done prompt. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface.

Click Save. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. In the Files of type box. select the file type you want to use. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Use the Explode command. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. layer color.Rhino 2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. In the Files of type box.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. object name. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. In the File name box. type a filename. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Export Export selected objects to a file. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller.0 files. type a filename. 245 . select objects to explode. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. In the File name box. and selected mass properties. Rhino supports several file types. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. Click Save. object render color. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. This command is obsolete. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. File. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file.

ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. select objects to extend. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file.Rhino 2. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Or. In the Files of type box. enter a name for the text file. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. Press Enter when done prompts. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. select a boundary object to extend to. Click Save. type a filename. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Or. The extension is joined to the original curve. At the next Select boundary objects. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. 246 . In the File name box. select objects to extend and press Enter when done.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. Extend Extend a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. At the next Select object to extend prompts. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts.

type an angle for the arc. Note You can use any combination of curves. select a curve to extend. type a number for the radius and press Enter.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. At the Radius of arc prompt. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. At the End point or angle prompt. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Type=Line Makes a line extension. Or. Or. enter the end of the extension. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. surfaces. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. and solids as boundary edges. 247 .

Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. Select near the end of the curve to extend. use Extend a curve. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. use Extend a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. enter the endpoint of the extension. the extension will be joined to the original curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step.Rhino 2. select a curve to extend. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. At the End of arc prompt.

enter the endpoint for the line extension. select the curve to extend. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. if possible. Options Join If Join=Yes. type a distance to extend and press Enter. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. near the end you want to extend. select a curve to extend.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. Or. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. At the End of line or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. the extension will be joined to the original curve. 249 . select the surface with the desired extension boundaries.

ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge.Rhino 2. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. 250 . Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. or pick two points to specify the distance. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. This fixes the original. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. enter an amount to extend. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. The extension length is based on parameterization. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. Then the surface is extended on the end. depending on the shape of the object. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. Note With the linear extension.

use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. and Loft a surface through them.Rhino 2. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. In contrast to InsertKnot.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface.and v-directions of the surface. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. and isoparms display at the marker. If you need to place an object on a surface. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. v or both directions. surfaces. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . If you need curved cross sections. and polygon mesh objects. Extract several isoparms. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. use Project or Intersect. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. If you need angled cross sections along surface. choose a point. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces.

At the Extrusion distance prompt. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. drag the desired distance and pick. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. surfaces. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on.Rhino 2. or type a distance and press Enter. select surfaces and press Enter. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. The original surface is left intact. Toolbar: Menu: Main. 252 . Note ExtractPt works on curves. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. Solid Tools. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. the surface is copied.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. and polygon mesh objects. If you choose the Copy option. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt.

Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. then the extrusion is in that direction. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. The choices are Sharp. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 .Rhino 2. and Chamfer.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. Smooth. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. Round. Otherwise. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. This option does not appear for open curves. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces.

Rhino 2. draw two lines at right angles. or enter a distance and press Enter. select surfaces and press Enter. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. pick a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. choose the point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. To draw a deformable plane. select the curve. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. At the Point to extrude to prompt. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. 254 . select the path curve.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. select the curve to extrude. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. The default is vertical to the construction plane. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. At the Extrusion distance prompt. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. At the Select path curve prompt.

select the second curve near the end for the fillet. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. 255 . or accept the default and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. At the Tolerance prompt. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Fillet Fillet two curves. type J and press Enter. type the fillet radius and press Enter. type R and press Enter. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. enter a number. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. Join To change the Join option. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. select curves and press Enter. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Or.

If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. choose the first surface to fillet. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail.Rhino 2. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. choose the second surface to fillet. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt.

The curves are refitted. 257 . the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. In general. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. enter a tolerance. For scripting. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. If you have a dense string of points. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. select curves and press Enter.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport.Rhino 2. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. The original curves are unchanged. At the Fitting tolerance <0. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces.

object highlighting. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. axes. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. click Use OpenGL. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. The grid.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. Each face has a constant monochrome color. this shading mode may be much faster. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display.Rhino 2. Each face has a constant monochrome color. If OpenGL shading is turned on. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. On the Shade tab. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. 258 . FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid.

FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface.Rhino 2. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. click Use OpenGL. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. The objects looks exactly the same. If OpenGL shading is turned on. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. If Booleans give unexpected results. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. that define the outline of the flattened surface. but their directions are reversed. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. enter a number and press Enter. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. At the Increment size prompt. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. the OpenGL shade options will be available. click Options.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. On the Shade tab. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. 259 . The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. such as Union instead of Difference.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. this shading mode may be much faster. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. select curves. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped.

All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. Front Set to world front view. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Flow works on the control points of an object . At the New backbone curve .0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. select the new backbone curve to flow to. especially those with trimmed edges. You might want a line to be one of the backbones.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. At the Original backbone curve . This curve will be used as a new backbone. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. Instead of drawing a line before the command. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. Flow does not work on polysurfaces.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt.

you must edit your Rhino.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed.select near end prompt. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. Grid Toggle the display of the grid.select near end prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . 261 . Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. select the second curve near the coinciding end. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.Rhino 2. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. At the Second curve .

Group Place selected objects in a group. You can then apply commands to the entire group. select the curve or surface to edit. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.Rhino 2. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. GridSize Set the extents of the grid.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. A handlebar displays on the curve. 262 . Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit.

At the First corner prompt. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. 263 .0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. pick a point. In the Heightfield dialog box. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. At the Second corner or length prompt. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. A handlebar will display on the surface. Height The scale of the height of the surface. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. select the surface to edit. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. select a bitmap file. pick a point. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file.Rhino 2. or enter a length. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. adjust options. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap.

Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. This is the line the helix will wind around. If you select Pitch. At the Radius prompt. enter the number of turns for the helix. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the end of the helix axis. enter the start of the helix axis. At the End of axis prompt.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. select Turns or Pitch.Rhino 2. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. enter the radius for the helix. 264 . the helix will twist counterclockwise. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. If you select Reverse twist. If you select Turns.

0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. select the objects you want to hide. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. Organic. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Status bar: Osnap Or. If you exit the model and reopen it.Rhino 2. Visibility. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. close the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. 265 .

from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. the more concentrated the hotspot. ) prompt. The smaller the number. (This is a limitation of the command. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. The information displays in a separate window. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. not a statement of a physical principle. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. The longitudinal direction. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal).) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. the command does nothing.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. Longitude=X. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. enter a number between 0. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.axis.axis or the y. that is. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. The visible objects hide. 266 . and press Enter. Use 1.Rhino 2. Waterline Length Length at water line.0 and 1. only half of the model needs to be given. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight.

In the File name box. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. select curves. and STL Tools File menu. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. select Rhino 3D Models. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. type a filename. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. Import Import or merge objects from another file. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. Note Rhino supports many file types. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. File. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. 267 . If the imported file type does not support layers.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Click Open. The objects are reparameterized. the objects are placed on the current layer.Rhino 2. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. the command will fail.

enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. choose a start angle.3dm bg 32986. Scale Scales the objects. 268 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box. If you say yes. At the Scale factor <1.3dm tricky 1a. scale. or a point to rotate from.3dm hi 1. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.3dm bg 32985.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects.3dm tricky 1a 1.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. y. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then.3dm hi 2.0.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. select Rhino 3D Models.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. In the File name box. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. type a filename. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. Click Open. and rotate. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. it does. If you say no. and z-directions.3dm Untitled a 2147483647. etc. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. Press Enter to place the model at 0. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm tricky 1a 2. At the Rotation Angle <0.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi.Rhino 2.

choose points where you want to insert a kink. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. 269 . select the curve to insert edit points to. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. press Enter to end the command. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. select the curve to which you want to add a kink.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. After inserting kinks. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts.

pick points of the surface for new knots. select a surface. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. or Both.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts.Rhino 2. pick points on the curve for new knots. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. V. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. 270 .

enter an additional point.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. and pick. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. A straight line replaces part of the curve. Main. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. and the parts are joined. At the End of line prompt. At the Next point of curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. To end the curve. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. press Enter. The curve closes automatically. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. enter additional points. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. enter the start of the curve. 271 . and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free.Rhino 2. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. At the Start of line prompt.

Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. When you draw an interpolated curve. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. select a surface. and 11. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Sharp When you make a closed curve. The marker is constrained to the surface. 5. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. choose the first point of the curve. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. Valid degrees are 1. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). At the Start of curve prompt. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. 272 .form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. 7.Rhino 2. 3. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. 9. At the Next point on curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. choose an additional point.

Close Creates a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Object snaps End. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Cen.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. 273 . and Intersection work.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Near. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Knot.Rhino 2. Midpoint.

Non-polyline curves are rejected.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. select the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. To create surface and solid intersections. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Invert Invert the selection. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Intersect Intersect two objects. use the BooleanIntersection command. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects.

Invert also selects the polysurface.Rhino 2. Contrast this with the Invert command.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. which also selects other objects. select objects. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. Join Join objects. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. Points selected. 275 . When you are finished selecting objects to join. press Enter. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces.

so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. Using the Millimeter template. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment.015 units apart. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). Booleans. If not. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. or Patch. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. Booleans.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. BlendSrf. you can have some problems later on. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. and resetting the tolerance. doing a Join. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. use MergeSrf. NetworkSrf.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. depending on what you may do with the model. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface.Rhino 2. 276 . Do you want to join these edges?". it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. or Patch. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. then the second one gets moved. but are not coincident. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. BlendSrf. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. For the group joiner. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. If you use JoinEdge. If the edges are too far out of line. a 3. no join occurs. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. For simplicity. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. When two edges are joined. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. use MergeSrf. NetworkSrf. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join.

rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. use MergeSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. No mesh points are moved. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Booleans. The action performed is reported on the command line.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. or Patch. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. The picking order can make the difference.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. select curves. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. y. merged or deleted. This command does not work in all cases. BlendSrf. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. NetworkSrf. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. 277 . Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap.Rhino 2. If there are naked edges. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces.

Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. select the layers you want to lock. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Click the Lock option. but you cannot select them. 278 . Lasso Select points with a lasso.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. Start the Lasso command. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. press Enter to close the lasso. Select Points. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary.Rhino 2. See the PluginManager command. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer.

surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. Note For layer names with spaces.Layer Two.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. type the name of the layer to lock. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.Layer Three".Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. from the list. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Two. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Two.Layer Two. select the layers you want to turn off.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). Click the Off option.Layer Two. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. LayerOn Turn a layer on. type the name of the layer to turn on. In the Edit Layers dialog box. separate the layer names with commas: One. separate the layer names with commas: One. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces.Layer Three" 279 . type the name of the layer to turn off.Rhino 2. Click the On option. LayerOff Turn a layer off.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Two. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. from the list select layers you want to turn on. Note For layer names with spaces.Layer Three". separate the layer names with commas: One. unlike the Lock (object) command.

Left Set to world left view. This is the arrow end. pick the next point on the leader line. They will not show in the perspective view.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. you must edit your Rhino. At the Next point of leader. Press Enter to stop the command. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. pick the start of the leader. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. Press Enter when done prompt.Rhino 2. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. At the Next point of leader. pick additional points.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 .

polysurfaces. and can be used to create other curves. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. pick the end point for the line. circles. Line Draw a line. At the End of line prompt. and meshes. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. you can select any of these curve objects. select a curve or edge. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. pick the start point for the line. The line extends on both sides of the start point. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines.Rhino 2. including lines and polylines. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. ellipses. polylines. BothSides option selected 281 . Line. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. arcs. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments.

The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. At the End of base line prompt. At the End of line prompt. enter the end of the line. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. enter the second point. enter the start of the base line. enter the start of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. enter the start of the base line. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. At the Start of line prompt. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line.Rhino 2. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. 282 .0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments.

and parallel to the current construction plane.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. At the Pivot angle prompt. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. 283 . LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. pick the end of the line. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. enter the end of the base line. At the End of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. At the Select object prompts. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the end of the line. type an angle and press Enter.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. When you are finished drawing lines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. At the End of line prompts. enter the start of the first line segment. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. 284 . enter pick endpoints for segments. press Enter. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line.Rhino 2.

enter the end of the line. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. 285 .Rhino 2. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. select a point on a curve for the start of the line.

select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.Rhino 2. 286 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve.

Line vertical to construction plane.Rhino 2. enter the second endpoint. BothSides option selected 287 . Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. At the End of line prompt. LineV Draw a vertical line. or enter a length and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.

0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. 288 . RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. If the script file just contains script expressions.rhino3d. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. from www. You can download plug-ins. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.com/plug-ins. Close Closes the dialog box. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line.Rhino 2. or press Enter to accept the default. Load Loads a selected script file. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. enter an integer. the code interpreted and run immediately. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. on the Options dialog box. select one object.

LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked.0 Beta\System). Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. In the Loft Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts.Rhino 2. Preview. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.0 Beta\Scripts). Lock Lock objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2... When you are done adjusting the connections.exe is located (e.0 Beta). Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.g.g. pick on a seam point marker. Note You cannot select locked objects. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. 289 . select the objects you want to lock. Select open curves near the same ends. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead..0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt.g. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. You can snap to locked objects. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. In the folder where Rhino. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. In the install folder (e. The unlocked objects lock. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. adjust options. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. and move it along the closed curve. press Enter. In the scripts folder (e. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. At the Location of seam point prompt.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .

reversing the direction of the curve. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. 291 . Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2.

Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. This is also known as a ruled surface. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Units tab before lofting. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. 292 . Available when you have selected three shape curves. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting.

Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. and some steel ship hulls. or wrinkle. tear. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. These are called ruling lines. cones. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. You may get no surface or a partial surface. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface.Rhino 2. Preview Click to preview the loft. the surface is not developable. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. If the curves have kinks. too. If the surface is not linear in one direction. 293 . Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. you may get unexpected results. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them.

It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. You just have to be careful. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. 294 . It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. thereby smoothing the surface. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems.D surface.Rhino 2. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable.

aluminum). The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. 295 . I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3.D models.Rhino 2. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. select the layout and object visibility options. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view.y-plane. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. though. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). expand the plates. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout.

If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. There is no way to avoid this. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. 296 . If two surfaces pass through each other. Note This command does not create 2.D view.D drawings from mesh objects. they may not appear on the correct layer. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though.Rhino 2. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name.

If the curve was open. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. If a joined curve is made periodic. it is closed. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. Close the dialog box. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. At the Select curve to match . like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Then use control point editing on both curves. select a curve to make periodic. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic.pick near end prompt. Sometimes. Other closed curves. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. Match Match two curves. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. 297 . it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. At the Choose an object prompt. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. select the first curve at the end that will move. This command tries to fix those surfaces.Rhino 2. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. To get a feel for what the command does.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt.

This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. 298 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity.

MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another.Rhino 2. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. 299 . Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. The curves are merged together after the match. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. If you edit this curve with control points.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity.

Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. 300 . select the edge of the surface to match. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. In the Match Surface dialog box.select near edge prompt. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity).Rhino 2. choose the type of match. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . select the edge of the target surface. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). At the Select target surface . reversing the direction of the curve.select near edge prompt. If the target surface is also untrimmed.

It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. 301 .0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. If necessary. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end.Rhino 2. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. Generally. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to.

in degrees. percent. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. 302 . in units.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports.Rhino 2. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces.

If the surface being changed is trimmed. Something like position = 0. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. If refinement is interrupted. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate.) In usable terms. This is the hardest condition to meet. If refinement is specified. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. it can twist the surface near the edge. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. it will stay roundish. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. This is sometimes useful. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. If it isn't. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. but you will get something. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically.Rhino 2. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. it may be useful to preview without refinement. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. 303 . That may be several seconds. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. especially if tight tolerances are specified. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. If you need to match to part of an edge.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. In these cases. but it will still be a valid trim. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. but if the conditions are wrong. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface.2. If it is roundish. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge.knot spacing to curvature vector. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge.

Rhino 2. must share an endpoint. and the prompt repeats. Or. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. must belong to the same surface. double click the viewport title bar. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. 304 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. then click Maximize. Maximize Maximize Rhino. select the second surface. select the first surface to merge. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. Right click the viewport title bar. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. then click Restore. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Or. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. Note The edges must be naked. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. double click the viewport title bar. select an adjacent edge.1 ) prompt. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. if possible. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined.

notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces. End view of original surfaces .0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. Smooth The surface will be smooth. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.Rhino 2. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.

The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. editable surface. you have to approach things differently. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. A mesh can be preview and then created.Rhino 2. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. For closed surfaces. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. Once you have trimmed surfaces. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. mirroring it. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. In some ways. with finer or coarser mesh. The default is 1 (full smoothing). Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. Generally. 306 . This is useful for modeling half of an object. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. The resulting surface can be edited. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out.

Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. more accurate meshes. Setting Max dist. more accurate meshes. and higher polygon count. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex.Rhino 2. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. and adjustment for trim boundaries. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Simple planes is not selected. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. When this Refine is checked. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. 307 . Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Scale-dependent. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Default is 0. In practice. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Limits the size of the polygon edges. after initial meshing. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. When the Refine is checked. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. No refinement results in faster meshing. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Zero means no minimum. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. When the Refine is checked. Zero means no limit. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. edge to Srf options. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. and higher polygon count. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. which is the default. and lower polygon count. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. less accurate meshes. By default. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Scale independent. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. By default. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. which is the default. Scale independent. Max dist. The default is zero. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. Jagged seams is not selected. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Scale independent. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box.

to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. not editable. choose a height. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. 308 . choose the cone's point. If a length was entered. At the Height prompt. choose a diagonal corner. or type in a height and press Enter. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. or type in a width and press Enter. at the Width prompt. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. choose a corner of the box. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. At the Other corner or length prompt. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable.Rhino 2. Or type in a length and press Enter. At the End of cone prompt. choose a center point for the base. choose a radius. choose a width by picking. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options.

0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. choose a center point for the base. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. and a open cone-shaped mesh. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. joined from a base and top circular meshes. At the Height prompt. choose a radius. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.Rhino 2. joined from a base circular mesh. choose a height. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. Or type D to choose a diameter instead.

MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. Or type in a length and press Enter. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. choose a the diagonal corner. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Layers The number of mesh points in the height.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. choose a width by picking. At the Other corner or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. 310 . Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. or type in a width and press Enter. at the Width prompt. If a length was entered. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. choose a corner of the plane.

choose a radius. choose a center point. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. At the Radius prompt. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines.Rhino 2. 311 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.

Rhino 2. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Minimize Minimize Rhino. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. As you move the cursor. choose a point on the mirror plane. choose a point to move the objects from. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. 312 . The original is left selected. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. Select the objects. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Mirror Mirror objects.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Move Move objects. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Press delete to delete the original. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Note Mirror makes a copy.

N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. corner3.sliders to move the selected control points. pick a base point. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. MoveUVN Use u-. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. To move objects small amounts. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. you can type corner1. At the Point to move to prompt. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. y-. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. Along control polygon The u. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. corner2. v-. to move the objects vertically. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys.0 Command Reference Or. and n. choose a location for objects. Slider scale affects this mode.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. pick a new location for the base point. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. At the Choose offset point prompt.Rhino 2.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. type V and press Enter. or z-direction. During the command. Modeling Aids tab. 313 .

0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. All points to edit have to be selected. NamedView Edit named views. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes.Rhino 2. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. 314 . rename or delete unwanted construction planes. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. All points to edit have to be selected. rename or delete unwanted named views. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. 315 . Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. the surface will have four edges. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. be sure to select the surface edge. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. If a curve and surface edge overlap. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. the best guess is made at the surface. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves.Rhino 2. If you want to select the curves individually. The default is the system tolerance. you can turn the automatic sorter off.0 Command Reference Select the curves. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. The default is the system tolerance x 10. The surface will be created. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. Edge Matching After the command is done. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge.

Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Position. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Tangent. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes.Rhino 2. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Select from Loose.

This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. units. drag a window for a new viewport. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. and tolerances. grid settings. layers. select a template to base your model file on. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. Use New to open the template you want to change. Or enter options to create a viewport specification.Rhino 2. 318 . New Create a new model. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. For example. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. NewViewport Create a new viewport. viewport layout.

Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. The next control point in the u-direction is selected.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. Start the NextV command. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Start the NextU command. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 .

Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. select a surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. At the Length of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. choose a point on the surface.Rhino 2. or enter a length and press Enter. pick a point for the end of the line. 320 . Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. At the Point on surface prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface.

0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Line normal to a surface.Rhino 2. copy. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. type information you want to save with the model. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. it will be open next time the model is opened. Offset Offset a curve. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box.

You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside.Rhino 2. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. select a curve or edge. When a plane.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. or cone is offset. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. the resulting surface is exact. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. cylinder. click on one side the curve. sphere. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. A surface and its offset 322 . undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. Negative values offset the other way. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Otherwise. enter an offset distance and press Enter. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. torus. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Note For best results. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances.

If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. not the trim edges. Note Rhino supports several file types. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Type 0 to use the default tolerance.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. they are not converted to NURBS objects. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. All other layers will be turned off. they are also unlocked. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. In the File name box. 323 . select Rhino 3D Models. type a filename. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. File. When you turn the layers back on. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. select the layer to turn on. Click Open. so the fact that they are locked is lost. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. Open Open an existing model. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino.

from the File menu. to orient copies of the objects. click Open. the buttons in them. Scale If Scale=No. Options Opens the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. The prompt will change to Scale=No. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. or some of them may be hidden. whether it is floating or docked. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. but objects remain the same size. The objects are moved. type c and press Enter. the screen position of each toolbar.Rhino 2. type s and press Enter. Or. pick a target point for the first reference point. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. select a workspace file. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. and whether it is hidden or showing. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. In the Open Workspace dialog box. pick a target point for the second reference point. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. and the number of columns when floating. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. 324 .

0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. 325 . At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. The three points are not interchangeable. with the other two reference points. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. to orient copies of the objects. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. type c and press Enter. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. pick a point that. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. If the curve does not start on the edge. select the surface. The two triplet of points define two planes. Or. select objects and press Enter. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane.Rhino 2. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal.

Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). and an arrow indicates the normal direction. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. The Mirror option toggles between them. There are four possible orientations on the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.Rhino 2. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. 326 . As you move the cursor over the surface.and v-directions.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical.

you will get different end results. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. If you pick this point in different views. At the Base point prompt. clicking Ortho in the status bar. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. and the F8 key. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. The cursor tracks along the curve. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. are all toggles. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. click a point on the curve to move the object. select a base point on the object.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. Shift Note The Ortho command. select the curve you want to align the object to. 327 .Rhino 2. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object.

If more than one object is selected. At the Ortho Angle prompt. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. and Toggle. Modeling Aids tab. When polysurfaces are meshed. Packed textures. 328 . the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. the packed texture coordinates are created. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set.Rhino 2. The default angle is 90 degrees.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. Note When Ortho is on. type the new angle and press Enter. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. Polysurface made of four surfaces. The default angle is 90 degrees. When Ortho is on. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Off. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created.

use the Pan command.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. 329 . Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Front. PanRight Pan the view right. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. PanLeft Pan the view left. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. use the Pan command. PanDown Pan the view down. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Plan parallel views like the default Top. Pan Pan the view. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys.

To pan with the mouse or keyboard. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. Focus From the Curve menu. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. This is the "open" direction. and then click Focus. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Vertex. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. From the Curve menu. Focus. Direction.Rhino 2. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. show a direction for the parabola. click Parabola. This is the "open" direction. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. 330 . Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. click Parabola. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. enter a point for an end of the parabola.

4 Focus and direction. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction.Rhino 2. Uncapped paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 331 . enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Vertex and focus. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge. End.

they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. Object properties and location are restored with the object.0 Command Reference End. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. 332 . Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. they are pasted into your model. it is created when the object is pasted. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. When you Paste objects into Rhino. If the layer does not exist. Uncapped paraboloid.Rhino 2.

Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. curves. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. For a trimmed patch. adjust options. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. These don't have to be connected. but with proper configuration. 333 . you may need a starting surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. use a starting surface with a similar shape. and edges to base the patch on. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. select curves that form a closed shape. Minimum of 8 points per curve. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. but it also can produce some unexpected results. Note This command can be very useful. Even for a relatively flat patch. In the Patch Options dialog box. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch).0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. it will be very close to reasonable input. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe.Rhino 2. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. select the point objects. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. To make a highly curved surface. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it.

Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). Perspective Set to perspective view. and type PerspectiveMatch. you must edit your Rhino. aliases. 334 . 2 The wallpaper image. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. Pause is a built in command option. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt.

Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. The first point on the image. 4 All points picked on the model. 335 . Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. All points picked on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image.Rhino 2. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. The first point on the model.

The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. This aids in accurate image point picking. Pick carefully. etc. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. If possible. Make the image view large. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. Pipe Draw a pipe. changed the viewport settings. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. PictureFrame Create a picture frame.Rhino 2. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Note The image must be a true perspective image. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. select a bitmap file to use. In particular. At the Length of picture frame prompt. you have modified your model. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image.

click to place the first corner of the bitmap. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. At the Starting radius prompt. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. at the End radius prompt. 337 . enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. and the closed pipe is created. select a curve. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. if the curve is closed. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. At the Second end radius prompt. select a bitmap file. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. enter the radius for the pipe. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the First end radius prompt. At the Second start radius prompt. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. Click Open. At the First corner prompt. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. Or. At the Second corner or length prompt. type T and press Enter. If the pipe objects are capped. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. For an open curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box.Rhino 2. select a curve. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. At the Starting radius prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. At the Starting radius prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls.

see Place a bitmap backdrop. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. Front. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. 3-D Digitizing. Placing a second deletes the first. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. You can move the background bitmap.Y. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. By default the Top. and temporarily hide it.Z> prompt. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. scale it. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. In PARALLEL viewports. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. To place a backdrop behind your model. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. enter the camera point. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. enter the target point.Rhino 2. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. remove it. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection).Z> prompt.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. BMP. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. PCX. align it (move and scale in one operation). You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. 338 . and JPG.Y. TGA. At the New target location <X.

the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. regardless of where the previous point was picked. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. 339 . 3-D Digitizing.Z> prompt. Toolbar: Menu Set View. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. then click Control Points.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. click Free-form. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. Without Planar on. PlaceTarget Place the target location. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. enter the target point. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport.Y. In PERSPECTIVE views. then those objects are not visible on the screen. From the Curve menu. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. Planar Toggle planar mode. In PERSPECTIVE views. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.Rhino 2. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. In PARALLEL viewports. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. select a mesh object. To end the polyline. start the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. enter additional vertices for the polyline. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. making a closed polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. To end the polyline. enter the start point of the polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. press Enter. 349 . At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. press Enter. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. At the Next point of polyline prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. enter additional vertices for the polyline.

Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands.Rhino 2. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. 350 .0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. making a closed polyline. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline.

Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. 351 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Start the PrevU command. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Start the PrevV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.

it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. the objects outside the viewport are printed. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. print to a file. the contents are printed on top of each other. and each viewport is printed in its area. No viewport edge is printed. color. If viewports overlap. The part that does not fit is not printed. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page.Rhino 2. 352 . and number of copies. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. the central part of the view is printed. If you fit the image to the page. print scale. Always. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page.

If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. hide them. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. if they don't fit on the page. not printing from perspective viewports. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. PrintSetup Set up your printer. as the paper you're printing on. Print. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. and same orientation. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. Curve projected to a surface 353 . Light objects do not print. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. If the objects don't fit. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. If you want to print at some other scale. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Then. (Actually. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. too. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. It will crop objects that are visible.

Basic shapes like ellipses. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. Project will never work correctly for this. choose to keep or delete the input objects. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. however. surfaces. lines. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. Properties Edit object properties. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. set the projection type for the viewport. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. and polysurfaces. curves. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. and free-form curves work well. circles. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. This command works on points. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective.

Organic. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. Point Editing. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. To control point edit a polysurface. Point Editing.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. STL Tools. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. surfaces. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded.

Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. Use curve commands to draw the curve. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. Then. select the surface to pull the curves back to. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. use the fewest control point possible. When drawing the curves. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. select a curve to measure. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. Both commands ask for the viewport name.Rhino 2.0000. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.

At the Revolve axis origin prompt. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. select a rail curve. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. In this case. rail curve. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point.Rhino 2. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. the result looks exactly the same both ways. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. in addition to being revolved. select a profile curve. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. Profile curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt.

4. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.0. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.0 23. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.1 26. If the rail curve is closed.9.2.5. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. ! Interpcrv 23. a file dialog box appears. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis.txt Click the button to read the file.1 Enter Interpcrv 26. use the Enter command.1. select the file to read.8. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. If you read in a particular file often. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.4.1. Note When building command files. The file contents are copied into the command line.8. 358 .2. You can then select a file from the list. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.0 23.9 Enter etc….0 27. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box.5.7.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.5.1.1. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.4. If you leave off the filename. readcommandfile myfile.9.

Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. If more than one curve is selected. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves.Rhino 2. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. click OK. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. use the FitCrv command. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. 359 . Delete Input Deletes the original curves. When you are satisfied with the results. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. the highest number of control points is shown.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. but a more accurate fit. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. leaving only the rebuilt curves.

Edges are pulled away from the surface. Joined and exploded polysurface. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. in the Degree box. in the Point Count boxes. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. To see what it does. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. draw two planes several units apart. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts.Rhino 2. select an object. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions.

Degree Sets the degree of the surface.an v-directions.Rhino 2. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. You will be prompted for the width. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. 361 . At the Other corner or length prompt. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. choose a corner for the rectangle. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. enter the length of the rectangle.

Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Or. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. enter the width of the rectangle. At the Corner or length prompt. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections.Rhino 2. enter the length of the rectangle. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. At the Width prompt. select the center point of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. 362 . At the End of edge prompt.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. You will be prompted for the width. enter the end of the same edge. select a corner point.

363 . At the End of edge prompt. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. At the Height of rectangle prompt. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point.

364 . To see the results of the reduction. General tab. click Preview. This makes this command scriptable. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. set the polygon count.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo.

0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. For one thing. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. 365 . After RefreshShade. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. which may be undesirable in some cases.Rhino 2. To reduce the size of the model file. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. Or. to remap copies of the objects. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). avoid clearing meshes. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects.

0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .Rhino 2.

Use the Group command to group objects together. and Blend commands. 367 . RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. select objects. At the Click knot to remove prompt. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. select a surface.Rhino 2. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. Sweep2. At the Select knotline to remove. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. In particular. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. which is equal to the degree. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. select a curve.

If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels.Rhino 2. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. It has a single menu: File. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. Render tab. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. 368 . Render tab. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. expanded to fill the page. increase the size of the viewport. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. When on. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. the current working folder. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. and render again. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box.

Toolbar: Render 369 . It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports.Rhino 2. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. or bump mapping. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. Does not show shadows. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. Basically. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. zoom. When on. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior.

Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. The y. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. set the new limits of the u. including the domain unless you apply textures. it is distorted. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture.and vdomains for the surface. the texture is not distorted. and similar prompts. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. However. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf.length for both is about 22 units. First you must set the u. 370 .directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22.Rhino 2. let's call them lefty and righty.and v. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. At the New U begin domain prompt. The x. Example You have two surfaces side by side.length of righty is about 11. the x.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. In this example. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. (In this example.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports.

371 . RestoreView Restore a named view. select one or more curves. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. or to restore only the view. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Or.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. select the named view to restore. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Right click the title of a viewport. then click the name of the view to restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. then click Set View. select the construction plane to restore. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. choose a point on the revolution axis. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Revolve Revolve a curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes.

Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. click Exact or Deformable. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. Enter the Start angle and End angle. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. The marker tracks on the curve. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. select a curve. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. choose a second point. select a surface that is not a polysurface. defining the revolution axis. If you choose Deformable. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. In the Revolve Options dialog box. 372 . RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. Right Set to world right view. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. choose a point to rotate the objects around. or a point to rotate from. type C and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. choose an end angle. 373 . Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. choose a start angle. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. Or.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect.Rhino 2. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. you must edit your Rhino. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. or a point to rotate to. to rotate copies of the objects. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.

If you entered a point to rotate from. to rotate copies of the objects. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. At the End of rotate axis prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. choose a point on the rotation axis. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. Or. choose a second point on the rotation axis. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. type in an angle. type c and press Enter. 374 . the following prompt appears. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. pick a point. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Or. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. place the construction plane. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. 375 . At the End of rotation axis prompt. etc. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis.Rhino 2. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. etc. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. At the Second reference point prompt. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. etc. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down.

use the RotateView command. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. At the Name of program to run prompt. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. use the RotateView command. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateUp Rotate the view up. Run Run another application from Rhino. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.Rhino 2. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. type the name and path of the file to run.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. RotateView Rotate the view. 376 . RotateRight Rotate the view right. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Press the arrow keys. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

the dialog box will close when Run is selected. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. See the PluginManager command. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. or SaveAs dialog boxes. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. you can use RunScript command.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Cancel Closes the dialog box. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. select Rhino 2 3D Models. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Save. Note Rhino supports several file types. File. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. type a filename. In the File name box. Language Specifies the language of the code. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Click Save. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Push Pin When the button is depressed. 377 . Save Save your model.Rhino 2. Otherwise. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller.

layers. and tolerances and save them in a template. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. type a filename. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Save. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. In the File name box. viewport layout.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. 378 . SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. units. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Files tab. Note Rhino supports several file types. Click Save. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Click Save. select Rhino 2 3D Models. You can set up grid settings. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. You can also save default geometry with the template. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. type a filename. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file.Rhino 2. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

381

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. SelNone Deselect all objects." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. enter an object name. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. 388 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. ?. all objects with no name are selected. etc.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc.) to select multiple objects. SelPolyline Select all polylines. This command is "transparent. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. Note You can use wild cards (*.

SelSrf Select all single surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. 389 .0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.Rhino 2.direction based on previously selected control points. SelPt Select all point objects. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. Start the SelU command. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent.

The control points on the surface display.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. select the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.and v. At the Select row of points prompt. Press Enter to finish selecting rows.direction. A surface with control points selected 390 . Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select.Rhino 2.

direction based on previously selected control points.Rhino 2. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . v-direction.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Start the SelV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. or both directions. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction.

This is not the same as restoring a named view. Note Type w to start a window selection. 392 . which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.Rhino 2. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. Shade tab. ShadeAll. and FlatShadeAll. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade.rhino3d. from www. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card.com/plug-ins. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. You can download plug-ins. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. FlatShade. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid.

Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. Lets you name or rename a group. SetLayer Set the current layer. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. select the layer to set current. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name.0 to 1. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. 393 . select an object on the layer you want to be current. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt.Rhino 2. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. The Undo command will work.

which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Moray UDO. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. 394 . 3DS. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize.0 to 255) Transparency (0. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. and RenderMan RIB. This is not the same as restoring a named view.Rhino 2. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. and OBJ material/shader export. If no object name is defined. POV-Ray. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. double-click the viewport title bar. Or. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Object names are exported to IGES. POV.0 to 1. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. Or. Note The object material can be used by RIB. If the object name has already been used. To set names for a group of objects. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. Rhino uses a generic name.

Object names are not used in Rhino. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". enter one of the options. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. At the Ortho is Off. SetPt Set control point location. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. check the coordinates you want to set. POV-Ray. if you selected ten unnamed objects. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. Starting number Sets the starting number. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. At the Planar is On. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. use the SetObjectName command. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. 395 . This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. For example. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. and RenderMan RIB. In the Set Points dialog box. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt.Rhino 2. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. To set names for individual objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. Select the objects. enter one of the options. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix.

enter the viewport width in pixels. You still see interactive drawing of curves. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. At the Viewport height prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. enter the viewport height in pixels. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. 396 . etc.Rhino 2. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. At the Grid snap is Off.

this shading mode may be faster. Shade Shade a viewport. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. Note Be patient on the first shade. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . and a special background color appears. and no antialiasing. If OpenGL is turned on. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. with no shadows. select the working directory. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory.Rhino 2. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. It may not be very quick the first time. Pan. The grid and axes are not shown.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. On the Shade tab set the options. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. monochrome. zoom. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. Subsequent renderings may be faster. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. click Options.

The objects in current viewport are shaded.org/ and www. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. click Options. and a special background color appears. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. axes. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. For more information.opengl. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.sgi. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. monochrome. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. It may not be very quick the first time. and no antialiasing. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. On the Shade tab. Pan. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. with no shadows. zoom. click Use OpenGL. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. click Use OpenGL. On the Shade tab. If you use OpenGL Shade. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. The grid and axes are not shown. The grid. Subsequent renderings will be faster. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. If OpenGL is turned on. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. 398 . see www. click Options. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. then Rhino will use it.com/software/optimizer/. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API).Rhino 2. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. the OpenGL shade options will be available. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Be patient on the first Shade. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. object highlighting. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. this shading mode may be much faster.

Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. you can click on a shaded object to select it. select the objects to shear. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. points. or annotation or the object will be selected. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. isoparms.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports.Rhino 2. The click cannot be near curves. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Shear Shear objects. You do not have to select an isoparm. 399 . Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade.

0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. The edge is highlighted. The base point does not move with the shear. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line.Rhino 2. If you exit the model and reopen it. 400 . It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. At the Reference point prompt. pick the base point for the shear. Visibility. If your object has broken edges. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Show Show hidden objects. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. select objects and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. If you cannot see the naked edges. The edges highlight. Sometimes. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. terminate the command. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Status bar: Osnap 401 . At the Press Enter when done prompt. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. Camera icon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display.Rhino 2. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. Edge Tools. press Enter to terminate the command. At the Press Enter when done prompt.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box.

Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. Original trimmed surface. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. When textures are applied to surfaces. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. At the Select objects to show prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Organic. select the objects you want to show. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . You will see no visible change in the surface. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. To fix this.

Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. For example. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. the silhouette looks like an oval. If you look at a doughnut from the side. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. only backwards. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Then the remaining control points are thrown away. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects.Rhino 2. 403 .0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. the silhouette is two circles. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view.

Rhino 2. drag the mouse. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Sketch Sketch a curve. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Or. Release the mouse button.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. 404 . Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. a polyline appears along your path.

Sketch on surface 405 . drag a curve. Or. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. select the surface to sketch on. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. type C. At the Click and drag to sketch. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. drag a curve. press Enter. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. The marker is constrained to the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.

click Point Editing. meshes.Rhino 2.00. select the curves. The larger the number. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. then click Control Points On. The selected control points will move slightly. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. smoothing the curve or surface. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. 406 . losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. too. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. From the Edit menu. In the Smooth dialog box. click Smooth. The default is 0. Smooth works on mesh objects. From the Transform menu. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. The selected entities will appear to melt. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. adjust the Smooth factor. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments.01 and 1.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. Smooth Smooth objects.2.

0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode. Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .Rhino 2.

SnapSize Set snap size. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. 408 . Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. or enter a distance and press Enter. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same.Rhino 2. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. At the Radius prompt. it is grayed out. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a point for the radius. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. When Snap is off. Note When Snap is on. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. Note This is different from the grid size. A sphere is single closed surface. Modeling Aids tab. Sphere Draw a sphere. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Grid tab. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. choose a center point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. A sphere is a single closed surface. 409 . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the first circumference point. choose an endpoint for the diameter. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the third circumference point. At the Third point on sphere prompt.Rhino 2. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. At the Second point on sphere prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. At the End of diameter prompt. choose the second circumference point. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt.

enter the start of the spiral axis. If you select Turns.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. This is the line the spiral will wind around. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. select Turns or Pitch. If you select Pitch. At the End of axis prompt. 410 . enter the radius for the spiral. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. At the Radius prompt. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. enter the end of the spiral axis. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. If you select Reverse twist. enter the number of turns for the spiral.Rhino 2.

Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. select the cutting objects. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. the polysurfaces are ignored. At the Select cutting objects prompt. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. and points.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. press Enter. surfaces. select the curve to split. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. type p and press Enter. The marker moves along the curve. 411 . select the objects to split.

412 . to access option directly.Rhino 2. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. The edge is split into two edges. At the Point to split edge prompt. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. select points at which to split the surface. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Type u. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. or b. At the Split point prompts.press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. v. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. and Right view. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. the marker is constrained to the edge. Front. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. surfaces and polysurfaces. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. Options control the direction of the split. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. select a point. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. Select a surface.

0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports.and v-directions of the surface. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. then Split. 413 .Rhino 2. and then deleting the extra isoparms. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. The spot light icon does not render or shade. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. set the radius of the spotlight. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. Or. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. beam angle. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 .Rhino 2. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Darker colors. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. like gray. At the Degree in V prompt. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. length. pick a target point for the spotlight.it stays the same. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. pick a location for the spotlight. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. light the scene less. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. and position. At the End of cone prompt. hotspot angle.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. not the range of the light. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. At the Second corner of surface prompt. choose the second corner. At the Third corner of surface prompt. 415 .Rhino 2. enter points until all the points have been entered. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. choose the third corner. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. enter points until all the control points have been entered. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the fourth corner. choose the first corner. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. At the Point prompts. press Enter to create a triangular surface. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. Or. At the Number of points in a column prompt.

5.5 -4. pick a point for the new start point. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. select the following text.10 -4.33.-2.0 0.2.5 0.0 -4. At the End of curve prompt.5. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.10 -4.33. SwapView Swap views of two viewports. SwapUV Swap a the u. pick a point for the new end point.5.33.-5.5. At the Start of curve prompt.Rhino 2.5. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points.33.0 -4.2.33.10 0.33. the surface is created but not point objects.5.and v-directions of a surface. select a surface that is not a polysurface.5. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command. and run the CommandPaste command.33.-2.2.-5.33.-2.5.5.-2.33.0 4. When off.2.5 4.2.0 4. KeepPoints When on. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.-5.33.-2.5.10 4.5 4.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar. copy it.5. click in the other viewport to swap. select a curve.0 0.5.5.33.10 4. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform. The marker is constrained to the curve.5.2.5 -4. 416 .33.5. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.-2.5 0. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.

417 . Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. reversing the direction of the curve. the shape will twist with the surface edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. the new surface should also be tangent. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.Rhino 2. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. select the single rail curve for sweeping.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. adjust options. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep.

Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. the cross section curves need to be compatible.Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. If you use the Smooth option. 418 . Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. The swept surface is created. (The original curves are not modified. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. adjust options. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. With closed rail curves. Preview Click to preview the surface. Note To create a single surface. If you don't use Smooth. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.

Rhino 2. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. use the Maintain height option. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. 419 . Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.

and continues to the ends of the rails. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. (The original curves are not modified. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. one of two possible surfaces appears. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves.) With closed rail curves. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. but want to control where the sweep ends. Preview Click to preview the surface.Rhino 2. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. If you don't use Rebuild. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If you get the wrong surface.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. To create a single surface. If you use the Rebuild option. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep.

or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. At the Start of taper axis prompt.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. At the End of taper axis prompt. Taper Taper objects. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. 421 .

Taper moves the control points of objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. You can't taper a polysurface .0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane.Rhino 2. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. curves. you will only taper that part of the object. End of cone prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. and meshes. 422 . Radius prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. second Radius prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. TCone Draw a truncated cone.only control points. choose a radius for the base of the cone. surfaces. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. choose a center point for the base.

It will not show in a perspective view. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. enter the start position for the text. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. Type the text. 423 . This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. in the form of curves. Scaled size The size you want the text to print.Rhino 2. set the options. When you place annotation text. Example If your units are inches. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. surfaces.25 inches. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. The two sizes update each other. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. In the Edit Text dialog box. surfaces. 2000. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. or solids. or solids based on TrueType fonts. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. and XP.

type text characters to make into surfaces. specify the height of the text characters. In the Text box.Rhino 2. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. In the Text box. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. In the Font Style box. In the Text height box. The text appears in the Sample window.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. select a font. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Font Style box. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. in the Font box. select Solid. In the Text height box. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. The text appears in the Sample window. type text characters to make into solids. Under Create. select Surfaces. select a style. select a font. select a style. in the Font box. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. Under Create. specify the height of the text characters.

Title Toggle the display of the title bar. adjust the size of buttons. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. create new toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. The workspace holds the toolbars.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 425 . ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. the screen position of each toolbar. Top Set to world top view. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. the buttons in them. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. and whether it is hidden or showing. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. TiltRight Tilt the view right. import toolbars from a different workspace file. add new buttons to toolbars.

At the Second radius prompt. you must edit your Rhino. select objects you want to trim other objects with. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. press Enter. press Enter. At the Radius prompt. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. choose a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. When you are finished trimming. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. 426 . When you are finished selecting objects.Rhino 2. click the parts of objects to trim away.

choose a radius for the second tube wall size. Front. choose a radius for the tube wall size. surfaces and polysurfaces. To trim a surface with more than one curve. Tube Draw a tube. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. use trim several times. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. or use Split. and Right view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. At the second Radius prompt. choose a center point for the tube's base. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. At the first Radius prompt. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. imaginary extensions of the line are used. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. 427 . This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. and Render Preview. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Twist Twist objects. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Shade. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. Note The view rotates about the target point.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Press Esc to stop the turntable. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane.Rhino 2. 428 . Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces.

edit. Twist moves the control points of objects. Undo Undo the last command. viewports. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. 429 . choose the second point to define the rotation angle. and meshes. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. The opposite to undo is Redo. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. choose a second point on the axis. Or. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. or construction planes. choose a point on the twist axis. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. At the End of twist axis prompt. You can't twist a polysurface .Rhino 2. If you entered a point to rotate from. General tab. type in an angle. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. to twist copies of the objects. you will only twist that part of the object. the following prompt appears. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. surfaces. curves. type c and press Enter. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. or transform commands.only control points.

all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. their normals are flipped. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. This makes this command scriptable. If some of the faces that should render disappear.Rhino 2. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. For example. 430 . if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Render your mesh. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group.

Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. If more than one object is selected. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. When polysurfaces are meshed. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out.Rhino 2. explode it. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. 3DFace object. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. All polygons have a face normal direction. If you see inside the mesh. The 431 . the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. Export in desired format. Once the normals are correct. re-join the meshes. select the objects you want to unlock. normals point the wrong way. For example. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. Use UnifyMeshNormals. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. UnLock Unlock locked objects.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. In general. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. the packed texture coordinates are created. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule.

Unpacked textures. If the surface is developable. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state.Rhino 2. Packed textures. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. select a surface or curves. 432 . a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. Polysurface made of four surfaces.

433 . you can remove the trim curves. a developable surface has to be single span linear. tori.Rhino 2. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Surfaces such as spheres. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. an information message is printed at the command line. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. This command may take some time. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. This is not like folding out a box. it may be geometrically developable. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. In Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Main. an information message is printed at the command line. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. but not meet that requirement. removing any attached geometry. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. Curves on a surface can also be developed. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. Surface Tools. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable.

Untrim removes the trimming curve. Trimmed surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. 434 . Untrim joined polysurfaces.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 .

3921 (+/. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. 436 . you can change the lens length of the camera. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap.0001). Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera.0. Appearance tab. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection.Rhino 2.

-4e016.4649522 (+/. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.2e-007. enter or drag a radius. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. If an edge point was picked. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. select a surface or part of a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. First moments. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. select a surface or part of a polysurface.9553974. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. second moments.6.1. enter a radius for this point. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. 437 . volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.3. At the End radius <x> prompt. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. At the Start radius prompt. At the Point on edge prompts. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. product moments.6. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.7e-007). choose a point on the edge. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt.Rhino 2. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt.7e-007.

Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. In other cases. pan. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. or rotate your view. Weight Edit control point weight. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. It does not change when you zoom.Rhino 2. 438 .

and file export for stereolithography. see the SetPt command. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. texture mapping on mesh objects. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. In our case. To perform a similar operation with control points. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. At the Angle tolerance prompt. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. they are replaced by a single mesh point. 439 .0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. When shaded. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. To get this to happen. No points in the blue mesh are welded. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. we can use weld with an angle of 40. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. If we want a smooth roof.

Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. they must be joined before welding is effective. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes.1). The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. Welding in MAX is different. Thus. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. the bottom right is (1. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino.0). Weld does not report the results on the command line. then Weld (angle=180).1) and top right (1. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. Use JoinMesh. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. See Importing and exporting STL files. 440 . To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. It does not physically fuse the vertices. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. they always get welded. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. top left is (0. 3D Studio MAX). You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines.

axes. World axes icon on 441 . The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. or polysurface. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport.0 Command Reference What Display object information. The wireframe of the objects. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. At the Select object prompt. select a curve. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. the grid.Rhino 2. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. object highlighting. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. surface.

the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. When objects are rendered in Rhino. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. on the Shade tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. 442 . There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. and color.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. set the stripe direction. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. WorldYAxisIcon=. In the Zebra Options dialog box. where white is the closest to your eye.ini file set the color for the icon. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms.Rhino 2. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. size. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. and black is the farthest away.

The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. curvature. curvature. Tangent matches. Position. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. MatchSrf. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. tangency. These meshes can be large. the surfaces touch. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. 443 .0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. and other important properties. and curvature between the surfaces match. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces.Rhino 2. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. this means the position. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface.

Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. in the Options dialog box. If you have a wheel mouse. When Faster is selected. under Zebra and EMap. 444 . but will always work. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. When More reliable is selected. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. select More reliable. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. on the Shade tab.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab.

ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. Note In a perspective view. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. This is particularly useful in perspective views. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. 446 . especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. type a zoom factor and press Enter. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. At the Zoom factor prompt. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. drag a window to zoom. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. pick a point for the center of the view.Rhino 2. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. ZoomWindow Zoom window.

set ortho. 5. 192. 5. 5. 162. 76. 149 ArrayPolar command. 53 aliases. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 141 ApplyCurves command. 426 Analyze toolbar. 27. 28. 206. 5. VIZ. circular. calibrate. options. tangent to two curves. 151 arrow annotation object. 35. 231. 140. 203. 152 arrowhead on curve. 141 ApplyCrv command. 149. 31 AG file exchange. 140. 5. 53. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 152 Arrow command. 5. 139 All command. 203. extend to a point. end and direction. 207. 385 analyze:. 152 ASAP file exchange. on a surface. 205. 5. 150. 143. from three points. 123. 144 ArcTTR command. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 10. 230. 152 AutoCAD. 393 3View command. 305. 207. 148 Array toolbar. 251. 205. 197. 149 ArrayCurve command. 221. 210. 368. 212. 298. 144. 140 angle:. 144 Arc command. 362 3Plane command. 3. dot. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 28. 34. built into Rhino. 135 3DM file exchange. to copy while dragging. 5. 215. 82 Alt key. 152 Attach command. 135 4View command. 5. rectangular. 412 Annotate toolbar. 5. 5. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 3DS file format. 205. 407. 33. 29.0 Command Reference Index !. 10. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. with a MicroScribe. 312 Angle command.0 OBJ. 281 Audit command. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 5. 144 arc:. DOS. from the last point. 187. 125 array: along a curve. 251. 207. create planar sections. 312 AngleLine command. 145 AreaMoments command. 393 34View command. 180. 82 AlongTan object snap. 151 ArrayCrv command. scale factor. 207.Rhino 2. 206. 142. 152. 143 Arc3Pts command. 230. import. 5. 239. 298 3D Studio file exchange. arrowhead on curve. measure between two lines. 220. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 5. 152. 33. 168. 251. 324 3Rectangle command. 145 AreaCentroid command. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 215 annotation. 135 3Arc command. 204. 146 arguments at the command line. 255.0. 139 AlignTrace command. 143. 88 align: background bitmap. suspend autoclose. 163 3Circle command. end and radius.0 IGES. dimension. 251. 138 AddToGroup command. 140 Along object snap. MAX 2. 143. 150. 152 AnnotateDot command. export options. 2. 198. 136 AddNextV command. 206. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 34. 340. 141 arc: extend by. 127. 151 ArraySurface command. 255. set scale. 26. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 144 ArcSER command. 24 AddNextU command. 221. 205. 14. 229. 141 ApplyMesh command. shortcuts. 5. MAX 1. 55 Ascii STL tag. 323 3-D digitizing:. 127. arrow. 150. 266 animate view. 136 AddPrevU command. MAX 2. pause input. 123 Arrowhead command. 143 3Box command. 28. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 27. 215. 426 angle: constraint. around a pole. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 5. 205. 307. 53. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 231. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 251. 232. DXF file exchange. 149. 88. 151. 309 AlignProfiles command. 5. command aliases. 142 Arc toolbar. 151. 346 3Sphere command. 135 ACIS file export. 281 AttachEnd command. 149 Array command. 330 3-D digitizing: about.5. 133. 308 align:. 206. 150 ArraySrf command. 5. 255. 138 adjust end bulge. 28. 333. MAX 3. 5. 144. 32 AGLib file exchange. 62 447 . 14. 170 2-D drawings from model. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. export. 151 array:. to suspend object snaps. 148. 140 Align command. 322. with FaroArm. 204. 139. 29. 123 2Circle command. 195. 33. 333. disconnect. initialize. 148. 30 add object to selection. 152. 5. 27. 149. 279 2Sphere command. 232 Arc3Pt command. 5. DWG file exchange. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 150. 330. add notes to the model. 245. MAX 3. 265. 143 ArcDir command. 206. set spacing between points. 180. 137 AddPrevV command. sketch curve with. 5. from start. 205. 2. 140. 152. 5. set up function key for click. 150. 5. 5. 204. 361. polar. 144 Area command. 5. 139 Align3D command. 29 3DFace command. 203. 305. 169 3CPlane command. 5.2. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. toolbar button function. Release 12 export. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. profile curves. 29. 5. 144.

164 cap open planar ends. 338 buoyancy. 79 center:. 122. 5. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 161 BooleanDifference command. snap size. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 351. sphere. 139. 249. 250 centroid. 168. 133 BU command. toolbar button image. 5. with Esc key. 297. edit toolbar. 167. 366. 161 Bottom command. 5. 156 blend:. 5. 153 BD command. 316. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. remove background. 168 Circle toolbar. 180. 171 Circle3Pt command. 166. 172. 124 C command. 245. 184. 322. place. 161 buffer. 116. align backgound. 168 CheckInLicense command. 369 C2View command. 101. 153. 39 BMRT support. 162. 163 box:. 171 circle:. 171. 162. from center. 316 448 . 172 CLine command. 5. 160 Bend command. 204 camera. time control. 160. tangent to two curves. as bitmap. 421 Blend command. 54 autosave: file location. 363. 179 BI command. 338. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 164. 24 circle: by diameter. 425 Back command. 115. 171. 123. 5. delete toolbar button. 163 B-spline. 367. 90. capture button image. 249. 166. set construction plane z. 160. 365. 170 CircleTTR command. 56 center: buoyancy. 243. 322. 158. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 292 Box3Pt command. union. 39 BMP file format. 171 clear. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 421 BlendSrf command. backdrop for rendering. 312. 12. show. 160 BooleanIntersection command. with toolbar button. 321. 123. 171. 145 chamfer: two curves. 365. 168. 351. 39 Boolean. 162 BoundingBox command. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 159. 321. 297. remove. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. show hidden background. 124. 322 CamSoft file exchange. ortho angle. 170 CircleTTT command. 123 Cap command. import button image. 184. 153 background bitmap: align. move toolbar button. paste from. 154 Between object snap. 165 ChamferSrf command. 133. toggle world icon. 124. render meshes when saving file. scale background. 169. 154. select. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 170.0 file exchange. 123. 384 bad objects. hide background. 154. from three points. 162 bottom view. 152. intersection. 172. 184. 161. 249. difference. polygon mesh. 172 built-in aliases. 13. from three points. 164. two surfaces. width. place. 402 Bisector command. 297. save button image to file. 367. 409. 160. 168. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 124. 250. surface. 245. 169 Circle3Pts command. 168 Check command. 124. 133. hide. 365. 122. clear undo. 85. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 366. 249. convert NURBS curve to. 139. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. cut. use for tracing. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 321. 168 check objects for errors. center of. 322 blend: curve. 101. 5. 312. lock. 392. 5. 155 bitmap. 292 Box command. undo buffer. background. 102. 199. 123. move. 368. 90. toolbar button tooltip. place background. selection. 114. 5. 250 button. 179. 123. 168. 125. 169 CircleD command. 139. 384 background bitmap:. radius. 124 capture viewport. clear button image. 5. 180. 229. 168. use. 170. 162 box: from length. 384. 363. display grid. 321. 165 Chamfer command. 152 AutoShip file exchange. ellipsoid. 122. edit button image. area. undo levels. the layer of an object. edit button icons. 425. 2. surface degree. 323. toolbar layout. 243. 170. 198. 322. 157. copy toolbar button. 124. 113. 162. 163. 322. 84 Bezier curve. object properties. height. 160 BooleanUnion command. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 5. to the Clipboard. 145. 162 Box toolbar. 122. 320.Rhino 2. 125. 351. toolbar. 232 CATIA file exchange. 384. 163. 157. troubleshooting. 198. 362 ClearMesh command. 56 cancel command. 250. 55 axis. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. settings. 232 Clipboard. floatation. 250 Center object snap. set construction plane x. 384. as 256-color bitmap. 297. 130. 133. command. 139. 165 change. scale. layer. 156. render meshes. 167. 351. 152 autosave:. 172. 320. 160 bi-rail sweep. 124. 90. 365. 322. 365. 168 choose one object. variable radius between surfaces. 170 Circle command. 249. to current layer. 90 Autosave command. tangent to three curves. 123. 161. 153 back view. 231 CArcPt command. 90 ChangeDegree command. 351. 171. 166 ChangeLayer command. 297. 154 baseball-style seams. 366 CArc command. 349 ClearUndo command. 123. 392. 163 Box3Pts command. 118. move background. 139. 321. 156. 169. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 124. 368 Baseball command. 157. 123.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 164 chamfer:. 133. 170. copy to.

assign to mouse buttons. 176 constraint. 88. 10. select previous in v-direction. 181 CPlaneNext command. 140. 74. 345. 173. list. 249. 173. 136. holes in surfaces. 155. coincident. 122. coordinates. 292. 138.0 Command Reference close. 177 contour curves. 172 Closest point to an object. 173 commands:. 11. set weight. next. save. 342. turn off. 183. set to vertical.Rhino 2. 172. move all through a point. 327 Cob command. render window. 85. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. 182. 11 copy: command shortcut. select next in u-direction. relative polar coordinates. 5. 374. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 177 continuous shading. 11. 343. 245. 181 CopyClip command. 181. 164. relative coordinates. display for a point. 13. 246. objects. display recently used. 174. 173. 172. 88. 5 CPlaneObject command. 181 CPlaneElevation command. truncated. turn grid on or off. 182 CPlaneO. 175. 219 coordinate entry. taper. add to surface. 246. 181 Copy command. 298. view right of. set to object. move in u-. 11. layer. polygon mesh. toggle display of. rendering to Clipboard. 359. draw curve using. 176 ConicPerp command. 90. 11 coordinates. 405. 154. macro. 179. Esc to cancel. 172. view to all viewports. 5. 182 449 . 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 181. 2. 174 conic:. for spotlight editing. 298. 137. 131. 245. 419. 176. 419. set extents of. 218 Contour command. 181. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. 5. 234. render. script. 398. 122. 362. set display density. 245. 180. 342. 176. set to x-axis. previous. shortcut. add next in v-direction to selection. 123. 5. 89. move to coordinate location. 15. 180. 343. 178. 183. 84. 166. 155. 419. 75 comma-delimited file export. 413 CommandHistory command. 234. AutoCAD. 235. 303. 173. 115. wheel. 375. 89. set distance between grid lines. 386. 419. 323. 183. 2. render window to Clipboard. 75. 125. select previous in u-direction. 246. 172 cloud of points. add next in u-direction to selection. polar coordinates. 178 control vertex. 178 CPHighlight command. 75. 202. 172 ClosePoint command. 10. 338. display in clipboard or history. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. set origin of all construction planes. set normal to curve. 57 CPDash command. 133. 181 CPlaneFront command. G2. 182. 89. 125. 181. 359. 75. 195 color. toolbar button. 5. 303. add previous in v-direction to selection. 173. set front. view back of. v-. 136. 406. set to view. 12. 125. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 197. 338. G1. 183. 115. make all have same orientation. 183. 182. 119. dialog box. place point objects on. 173. 137. 180. settings of one construction plane to all. entering coordinates. and ndirections. 373. 172 CloseViewport command. options. 344. 183. 338. 126 conic: curve. 12. 133. 131 ControlPolygon command. 11. 174. 245. 2. 184. 304. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 335. 228. 90. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 380. 5. 172 CommandPaste command. world coordinates. 297. 419 context menu. weld. 179. 114. toggle display. 21. display axes. 406 ConfigScript command. 182. set to 3 points. 184. highlight. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 245. 178. 125. 15 construction plane. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 335. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 339. angle. select next in v-direction. 14. 297. named construction plane. select row in vdirection. false. delete from a curve. set to next. 11. 138. 379. 406. curve. 88. 183. 184. 166. 419. 176 Conic command. 104. 181. 5. 172 ClosestPt command. 184. 386. 10. turn on. 339. 180. 249. 406 Cone command. 362. move along Z. 422. import from 3DM file. perpendicular to curve. 184. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 88. 75. arguments. read from file. 180. undo. display. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 323. 75 continuity. 335. distance. project objects to. set to z-axis. View top of. 131. 172. extract. 379. 181. 173 command names. 174. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. add previous in u-direction to selection. 35 command: alias. 379 control polygon. bend. toolbar. 126. 84. 195 cone: cone. 114. 4. set to previous. 164. viewport. 246. 18. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 202. project object snap to. 419. set the number of thin gridlines. 177. 2 command line. 11. rotate. 173. paste from clipboard. curve and surface. 177. 413 command aliases. 245. 217 COff command. 123. plan view. 178 control point definition. 182. 5. 14. set origin. 75. 131 command history. view front of. 140. options. show hidden. 180. move through a point. 104. toggle construction plane entry. 251 command area. 126. list all. 126. 292. 180 copy:. 182. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. select row on surface. 197. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 11. 173 CommandPrompt command. along line. 173 COn command. 327. set right. history. 5 command:. 5. 336. 173 Commands command. copy settings of one to the all. 179 Coons patch. 12. 5. 88. 422. G0. toggle world coordinate entry. 173 cone:. 173 commands: list of all. hide. old. 250. 303. objects to Clipboard. 119. create curve from. 235. 373. 375. set top. 398. view bottom of. 339. construction plane coordinates. 228. 181. view left of. 136. 131 control points.

197 curve. 195. 245 Curvature command. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 142. extract wireframe from surface. conic. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 265. 191. 334. 144. 143. sketch on polygon mesh. 184 CPTog command. contour. arc tangent to two curves. 4. 168. 187 CrvStart command. 221. 198 Ctrl+Y. 391. 202. 327. 236. 213. 197. interpolate through polyline. constrain along line. 25. 369 Crv2View command. 268. place point at end. 248. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 217. 165. 4 Ctrl+V. 162 CurveEnd command. convert to Beziers. 281. 367. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 177. 389. constrain to plane. 253. 3. point. 187 CurveSketch command. 218. 24. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 195. 180 Ctrl+N. arc from three points. 235. 184 CPlaneZ command. circle by diameter. 340. 197 curve degree. duplicate edge of surface. 185 CRectangle command. 232. 351. 304 Ctrl+A. 230. section. 355. ellipse. 388. extrude straight. 333. 144. 298. display graph. 156. 185. Gaussian. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 183 CPlaneTop command. 339. from interpolated points. 131. 187 CrvSeam command. 233. line perpendicular to two curves. 189 crosshairs. 369 crossing selection. 234 CreatePCurves command. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 185. 169. 156. 187. 195. 131. 314. 187 CurveOverlap command. 248. 177. 255. extend by line. polyline through point objects. 170. fillet. 258. 257. 327. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 15. 198 CutPlane command. surface from network. 144. 170. 239. 258. 314. 13. 2. 389. 231. extend. 279. 197. adjust end bulge. 241. circle from three points. make periodic. points. 387 Curve toolbar. pull to surface. 194. 133. 191 curvature:. 336 Ctrl + Tab. toggle. 257. 177. single line. 348 Ctrl+Z. measure radius. 235. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. 398 CreateUVCrv command. cross sections through profiles. raise degree. 268. 388. 255. 190 CullCP command. 183 CPlaneToObject command. mean. adjust seam point. curvature graph. tracking line. marker. 187. 213. 230. 367. 241. 175. 413 CullControlPolygon command. extrude to point. interpolate on surface. 232. extract isoparms from surface. 188. 394. 4. line tangent to two curves. 226. 304. duplicate border of surface. 184 CPlaneView command. project onto surface. 133. from control points. 326. 218. curvature graph off. 4. 337. line. from 2 views. 156. 367. 388. 236. 256. 298. 390.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 256. 196. periodic. 189. 369. 90. 216. 346 cross sections through profiles. 343. 179. 231. 254. 187. 389. 217. place point at start. 195. 164. convert to polyline. 197. 183 CPlaneToView command. 395. 249. 230. 156 CurveBox command. 165. 311. 333. 270. rebuild. parabola. 239. delete control points. line normal to a surface. analyze surface. 174. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 194. 253. simplify. 169. bounding box. 15. 387. 238. 316 Ctrl+X. 387 curve:. graph on. 337. 189 CSec command. 2. 305. 162. 323. 257. 305. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 343. 2. 187 CurveSeam command. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 139. 232. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. 226. circle tangent to two curves. 194. 323. spiral. 389. 157. 311. direction. 2. 390. 2. arc. 222.Rhino 2. 90. 265. 221. 218. 182 CPlanePrev command. 4. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 156. 169. from point cloud. 142. constrain to ortho. 258. 174. 195. 189. 355. radius. 281. graph off. blend. 241. 184 CPlaneV command. 340. intersect two objects. 267. 281. offset. match ends. 168. 2. 337. 190 cursor. 178. 216. 164. extend to surface boundary. chamfer. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 2 Ctrl+S. 351. flatten section of. 268. 185 CrvBox command. 394 CurveBlend command. crosshairs. sketch on surface. insert edit point. 304. fair. 254. polyline. 239. 15. divide by number of segments. 306. helix. 170. 192. remove knots. 269. refit. 197. 164. measure between two curves. 267. 189. apply to surface. silhouette. 141. 162. 307 Ctrl+P. tangent line. 139. 330. 4. 356. 248. 369. 339. bisector line. 165. 281. 238. 334. 3 crossing:. 14. end. 195. 197. 162 CrvDeviation command. 236. 143. 187. 2. 141. 387. constrain parallel to view plane. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 197. 24. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. arc from start. 226. 239. 236. 3 Ctrl+C. 179. 302 Ctrl+O. 269 Curve command. selection. 191. 255. 233. smooth. 235. extend by arc. 389 CurveStart command. align in two views. 174. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. add knots. 202. 387. 4. extend by arc to a point. 270. 188. revolve. 183 CPlaneRight command. 187 CrvEnd command. 155. 184 CPlaneX command. 189 CSV export. 195. 195. 255. line vertical to construction plane. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. line segments. 238. 305. 217. 4. select all. extrude along path. 330. 179. 271. 155. 256. 268. 200 450 . 305. circle from center. 271. 239. 343. 24. 186. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 165. 185. 141. sketch. 339. 326.

217. edit text. 209. 217. 212 distance display. 135. 121. 370. 23 distance:. 210 DirArc command. 132. 2. 251 dot: annotation. 265. 217. summary. reverse object direction. curve by number of segments. 410 cylinder: NURBS. polygon mesh. 133. 206 DigSection command. options. 207. change degree of surface. Boolean. 330. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 425. 212 disconnect digitizer. grid axes. grid. 216. 127. layer. merge. 288. 218. 202. viewport properties. 410. 220. 220. 372 Deselect command. 19 document properties:. 205. 207 DimDiameter command. 88. 211 DirectX file export. 22. 119. 208 difference. lines. 416 developable surface definition. rebuild. polylines. 205. control polygon. 165 Delcam file exchange. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. set scale. 207. 104. 210 Dimensions toolbar. raise curve degree. create 2-D curves. 202 DeleteAll command. 12. 106. display broken. 218 duplicate. Rhino. toolbar button. with FaroArm. 385. 239. 19. 344. 205 DigScale command. 220. 131 Ebroken command. dimension text. hydrostatic calculation. 213 divide:. broken edges. annotation text. 218. 22 degree. Notes tab. 422 Display command. 214 domain: match. 215 draft angle. 22. 208. 12. 15. 91. set spacing between points. 207. 210. 10. 251. toggle. 260. 212. 160. 219. 245. 217 DupEdge command. in Split command. disconnect. 279 Dragmode. 251 Domain command. border of surface. 250 display: bitmap window. shortcuts. 293 Cylinder command. angle between lines. Render Mesh tab. 207. 385. 298 DigPause command. 212 display:. 344. 206. select all objects. horizontal. units. 197. aligned. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. diameter. 207 DimAligned command. 218 e_tol. 213 dock a toolbar. 160 Dig command. select all. 203 DigCalibrate command. 123. 120 document properties: notes. 211. 372 DeselectAll command. render mesh settings. points at naked edges. 201. in Trim command. 208. 34 DXF file exchange. 209. display curve or surface. 213 DivideByLength command. 15 Distance command. 202 delete:. from last point. 219. 411. 167. 395. 205 DigDisconnect command. 205. 217 DrapePt command. 209 DimRecenterText command. 396 EdgeSrf command. 19 DocumentProperties command. 135. with MicroScribe. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 205 digitize. 203 develop a surface. 213. 206. toolbar. 166. 10. 208 DimOptions command. 58 delete: all objects. 85. 207. 196. 217 drape surface. 395. radius. 384 edge: create curve from. 204. 210. pause input. options. naked. curve. 23. 219. 210 Dir command. 203. 208 DimRadius command. 209. vertical. intialize. 132. join two out of tolerance edges. 212 distance: constraint. split. 209 DimRotated command. 210 DimHorizontal command. isoparm density. 212 DisableOsnap command. 195. 201. 384. 178. 209 DimVertical command. 3-D digitizing. 17. 288. 15 divide: curve by length. 202. 205 displacement. 214 domain:. wallpaper. 2. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 208. 196. 17. surfaces. 330. objects. edge of surface. 344. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 202 Deselect All. 385. 107. persistent object snaps. 19. 201 cylinder:. 293 data structure for object. show. button image. 104. 3-D polygon mesh face. tolerances. 218.Rhino 2. 17. 243. 384 diameter dimension. 197. object discription. 45 dirty looking rendering. object. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 206. rotated. 206 DigSketch command. 208. 207 DimAngle command. 272. 165. 208 dimension. command button. 217 DupBorder command. 209. 250. edit points. 245. 368. 18. 123 451 . 215 dot:.ini. 370.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 288. set up function key for click. 209. 19. 99 disable. 202. 121. 384. 108 Dup command. recenter text. 105. 385. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 124. 206 DigSpacing command. 215 Dot command. 216 Drape command. naked edges. 168. 260. 127. planar section. 144 direction. calibrate. control points. change. 218. 265. 279. 384. 277 diagnostics. 338. 217 draw. toolbar button bitmap icons. 204 DigClick command. 272 date. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. sketch curve. 122 Delete command. 210. 370. 370 DWG file exchange. 123. 260. 213 Divide command. 243 DirectionalLight command. 127. 22. 330. 168. 372 DetachTrim command. 122. 166. 215 drafting. 212. 33 DynamicShading command. 396 edge:.

31. 234. 385 EnakedPt command. 48. 26. Pro/E (IGES). 40. 222 EllipseEnds command. 234 Extend command. 46. 233. command aliases. raw triangles (RAW). 60. 71. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 416 explode: NURBS objects. Plug-in). 231. 233 ExtendSrf command. 37. CAD 3D SUM 4. 123. 53. 236. ME30 (IGES). 73. 220 EditText command. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 12 ELine command. 232 ExtendByLine command. 57. unable to run program renrib. ACIS. 238. 228 EvaluatePt command. curve to point. 343 ElmoSrf command. 43. 69. 62. 429 End object snap. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). insert on curve. 42. surface. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 221. 31. 236 Extrude toolbar. 59. 56. 33. PostScript. 133 EShow command. Moray (UDO). FastShip (IGES). Catia (IGES). curve by offset. 56. turn on. Solid Edge (IGES). 2. 35. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. Cosmos/M (IGES). 61. 235. SLA. 356 extrude:. 92. surface into a solid. 235. 230 extend. 35. 253. Alias (OBJ). 385 ESplit command. 44. 239 fair curve. 35. 12 Enter:. 233. polygon mesh. 231. 54. 230. 55. 46. Multisurf (IGES). 46. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 71. 221. 230. 234. 36. Moldex DXF. 229 Explode command. 131.0 (IGES). 228 expand a surface. 220. 41. 233 ExtendByArc command. 67. Metastream. 133 Escape key. 13. OptiCAD (IGES). 37. Lightwave (LWO). 58. 230. curve to surface boundary. CADCEUS (IGES). 70. 71. 55. 60. VRML. 3D Studio MAX 3. 51. Softimage (IGES. 223 ellipsoid:. Alias (IGES). 237. 30. 123 edit:. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 59. 221 EllipseD command. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 52. 226 endpoint object snap. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. DirectX. 68. 45. 227 environment map. 238. 58. 45. 65. triangles. 229 export. 35. 236. Integrity Ware (IGES). SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 73. 45. curve on surface. FastSURF (IGES). 29. 330 End key. 133 enter coordinates. 224 EMerge command. 58. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 10. Commadelimited file. 70. 229. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. AutoShip (IGES). LUSAS (IGES). 236. 230 Extend toolbar. 220 EJoin command. 223 elliptical conic curve. 41. 68. 63. 53. 52. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 32. 36. 63. 229 export:. 233 extract. 2. Applied Geometry (AG). Wavefront (OBJ). curve along path. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 53. POVRay (POV). Viewpoint Technologies. wireframe curves from surface. by line. Yamaha ESPRi. 228 Excel. 32. 232. 45. IGES.Rhino 2. SolidWorks (IGES). 64. SAT file format. 228 error messages. 57. 236. 229 Exit command. 33. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 3 Enter: command for scripts.0 Command Reference edit points. 64. GHS. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 124. 3. 31. 29. 12. 227. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 26. 236. STL. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. turn off. 228 EvaluateUV command. 4 F8. 233 extend:. AutoCAD (DWG). 59. 54. 37. 231. 54. Unigraphics (IGES). 232. AUTOFORM (IGES). 236. 72. 344 EMap command. 74. 64. 238 F1. 65. 61. 62. 228 exit Rhino. control polygon. 42. Tebis IGES. 229. CamSoft (IGES). from focus points. 174 Elmo command. 231. by arc. 63. 396 EvaluatePoint command. NASA GridTool. 58. curve. 131 FAQ. 55. 4 F9. 222 Ellipse command.0 (IGES). 78 EndBulge command. object properties to file. 41. 236 extrude: curve. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 119. 67. 4 Fair command. 45. 235 ExtractSrf command. 40. 219. 26. 62. Maya (IGES). 55. TekSoft IGES. 92. 73. 4 F2. arc to a point. 253. 231. 56. options.0 (OBJ). 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 232. Microstation (IGES). 30. 74 Export command. export to. show. 239 FastShip file exchange. 63. 154 Ellipsoid command. 235 ExtractPt command. 60. 45. 238. 239 false color display. 45. 51. 3D Studio (3DS). 232. 133. 30. SURFCAM (IGES). 219 EditPtOn command. 127 Esc key. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). Windows Metafiles (WMF). CSV file. 42. 1 Faro command. 69. 36. 420 EditDim command. 128. 93. 58 452 . 73. 202. 356. 229 explode:. 222 ellipse:. 69. 260 elevator mode. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 61. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 2. 40 errors in model. 44. 47. Solid Designer (IGES). 220. 46. Mastercam (IGES). NuGraf (IGES). 35. space and rightmouse click. 224 erase objects. 288 Enaked command. 53. 72. 230. surface. 3D Studio MAX 3. 13. 233. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). surface from polysurface. isoparms from surface. 33. 238 Extrude command. IronCAD (IGES). 11. AutoCAD (DXF). Delcam (IGES). mesh to IGES file.

249. 305. 416. 2 hidden layer name. 176 G1 continuity. 176 Gaussian curvature. 425 IGES: file exchange. 132. 386. 249. Unicode. 380 GridAxes command. 339 HideOsnap command. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 307. objects. 194 GCon command. 49 IGES export:. 171. 251 floating license. troubleshooting import problems. 243 Flip command. edit points. edge of polysurface. section of curve. center of. name. Alias|Wavefront. command line. wireframe. 378. 55. 71. 338 history. 75 hue. 192. 249 HidePt command. 249 HidePoints command. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 63. 246. 348. 247 Helix command. 120. template. 236. 120. 135 grid: axes . reduce size of model. 133. 250 hide: background bitmap. 124. developable surface. 132. 429 Horizon command. 3D Studio MAX 3. 53. 277. 240 FilletSrf command. show selected. 53.0. 245 grid:. types. show hidden control points. toolbar. flyout toolbar. 246. 48. 250. 130. edit toolbar button. 407.Rhino 2. 54. 46. 244 G0 continuity. surface. 246. Esc key. 246. 61. 174 icon. 246 Group objects for selection. 251. simple controls. 415 Freeze command. 339. 46. 360. 246 HBarSrf command. 131. 386. 220. 380. 62. 386. 415 Ghost command. 361. set the extents of. 241 FlatShade1 command. 279. 212 frequently asked questions. 229. 104 fit a plane through points. 249 HideCV command. 273. periodic curve. 407. object names. 172. 244 Flow command. 242 flatten. 246 Heightfield command. units. 55. 131. 221 fonts. 2. world axes. 55. 240 filter the layer display. 235 FltE command. 52. import. tracking line. 245 Grid command. 426. 58. 72. 255. 278. 131. isoparm. 130. 251. axis lock. AutoShip.turn on or off. 133. 249. 362 file:. cursor. panes. 133. set the number of lines. 103 hidden objects. set snap size. 59. toolbar. 119 HideTrace command. 307. 416. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 362 FileProperties command. 273. 251. 246 handlebars. 133. save as. normal. 277. 337. marker. 119 HideToolbox command. unlock locked objects. 46. 1 help:. periodic surface. run application from inside Rhino. 1. 68. 123. 46. 246. 65. technical support. 425. 119. 386. CADCEUS. 1 Help command. objects. shortcut. polysurface. 380. 417 ghost: a layer. 12 Home key. 50. 228. 249. 390. 387 HSV color. 133. 273 ghost:. 12. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 131. open.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 407 freeze: a layer. 307. 273 freeze:. 249. 229. 123. 249 hide:. 36 glossary terms. 245. 176 G2 continuity. 243 floatation. 239 fillet:. 122. tolerance. snap to. 250. 168. 194. 239. 239. 325 FitCrv command. 251. 249 HideSwap command. 172 hold. 379. Ashlar Vellum. 131. 131. 214 fillet. false color. 134. 249 highlight in rendering. 131. 123. polygon mesh export. 396. 250. 261. 361. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 361. 132. 133. 220. 2. 281 FlatShade command. 255. definition. 133. 55. 203. new. 132. 302. 245 GridSections command. 249. 244 Flowline command. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 330. spacing. 302. 229. 410. 54. text. 417 FlattenSrf command. 385. 380 GridThick command. 415 GHS file export. 246 Gridsnap command. 54. 134. 133. keep last used on top. command area. 67. AUTOFORM. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 240. 362 File toolbar. 56. 75 Hydrostatics command. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 69. Osnap dialog box. edit using. 273. two surfaces. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 74. 245. 377. objects. 241 FitPlane command. 246 group. 134. bumpmap. initial mesh grid. 73. 130 Flow along a curve. turn on or off. 1. 453 . 131. 18. 336. 70. curve. 244 front view. 240 Fillet command. status bar panes. 413. 133. 262. 246 HBar command. 240 FilletEdge command. 260. 386 HideAll command. 229. 302. text. 249 HidePts command. IGES export type details. 122 font. 395. 64. 259. 378. Enter key. 57. texture mapping coordinates. 5. save. 49. 46. 250. 60. 122. 262. 1 From object snap. 119 Hide command. set distance between lines. 46. 262. 245 GridOptions command. 53. 379 IGES file types. 360. 246 GridSize command. 273. 250 HideToolbar command. 50. 131. 262. 248 help: display Help file. Breault Research's ASAP. swap hidden status. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 377 Group command. 134. 135. 384. naked edge. 81 Front command. 47. control point. seamless mesh. 171. 368. control points. NURBS. unlock locked objects.

select from list.0 IGES. Solid Edge. 69. Maya IGES. 119 initial mesh grid. 63. 260 JoinFaces command. 67. distance from. 57. 167. 104. Alias IGES. 260. 56. Multisurf IGES. 256 interpolate. object snap. 258 InvertPt command. 54. 60. 59 isoparametric curve. 261 JoinEdge command. 363. 283. 63. 259. 264 leader:. 260. 63. set material properties. 254. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 81. 377. 81. 58. Cosmos/M IGES. 102. Pro/E. 104. 254. 263 Layer command. 101. 70. 140. 104. 73. IronCAD. 66. 29. FastSURF IGES. 59. Microstation IGES. 135. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 71. CATIA. 59. IGES. 67. Softimage IGES. 63. snap to. 261 JoinSrf command. 338. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. Multisurf. change for an object. curve. Softimage. SURFCAM IGES. 69. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. turn off. wireframe view. match attributes. Tebis. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 64. 31. 91. 253. 262 last point. 160. AutoCAD DWG. 61. 312. 15 lathe. 71. 307. Yamaha ESPRi. 355 layer: change color. 135 jagged shadows. toolbar from another layout. 69. 258 intersect:. 253. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. CAD 3D SUM 4. 41. 103. 132. 62. Solid Edge IGES. objects. 396. knot. Unigraphics IGES. 264 length: measure curve. Delcam. 253. definition. 32. 253 knot. 55. insert in curve. 68. check out from workgroup license manager. 254. definition. 265 length:. angle from. 56. 264 left view. 263. 65. 85. 104. 261 Lasso command. 126 kink. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 133 Layer toolbar. 351. ME30. 132. 63. 72. 265 Length command. Solid Designer IGES. 258 IntersectCrv command. 59. 2. 55. 32. 14. 258 intersection. 72. split surface at. Maya. construction planes from 3DM file. 46. 425 ini file. 152. 254 InsertKnots command. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. stereolithography STL. 71. 62. 377. 60. aliases. IronCAD IGES. 253 InsertKnot command. 59. CATIA IGES. named views from a 3DM file.Rhino 2. 255. AutoCAD DXF. 168 license manager. TekSoft IGES. 251 import:. 121. 103. 70. 343. 65. 262 lasso selection. 68. 73. 140. 160. display for object. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 73. AUTOFORM IGES. 255. 57.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 64. 58. 58. 168. 367 JPG file format. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 255 Int object snap. FastShip. 322 JScript. 33. 132 isoparm. 64. 71. 71. 259 IronCAD file exchange. turn on. 131 insert: edit point. 251 Improve command. translate IGES/Rhino. two objects. 253. Applied Geometry AG. OptiCAD IGES. 65. Mechanical Desktop. 78. TekSoft.0.0 OBJ. 377 layer:. 62. 168. 72. 63. 46. 307. 74 Import command. 67. 90. 29. 31. 253 InsertKinks command. 33. 251 IncrementalSave command. 58. one layer on. 62. 168. 307. 26. 68. 46. turn off by selecting an object. 56. 61. 54. 259 join:. 26. 366. Adobe Illustrator AI. 61. 46. 262. 62. SURFCAM.0 IGES. arrowhead on curve. 54. delete. 42. Delcam IGES. 152. 263 leader: arrow. 103. 58. 69. 261 JPG. 48. set material. 102. purge empty. 252 insert:. 262 LayerOff command. 14. 42. 132. 74. 60. 52 import. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 64. 10. display density. NuGraf IGES. 69. 425. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 61. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. SolidWorks IGES. 263. 104. 10. 263 LayerOn command. 10. 101. 283. Solid Designer. 41. 33. 99 JCAD STL export. 103. 261 Join command. triangles. 3D Studio MAX 3. 101 Layer pane. 101. 37. 103. LUSAS IGES. 257 InterpPolyline command. 255. 3D Studio 3DS. 283. FastShip IGES. 254 Insert command. 103. 104. 46. 371. 53. 168 454 . AutoShip IGES. 377 LayerLock command. 42. 57. change to current. Integrity Ware IGES. 307. 78. management. 70. 104. 263. 130 license:. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. rename. Pro/E IGES. 55. 371. Tebis IGES. 257 intersect: Boolean. 56. CADCEUS IGES. new. kink in curve. FastSURF. turn all layers on. 132. 251. 256. 251. LUSAS. 59. Lightwave LWO. 259. remove from curve or surface. 396. SDRC's I-DEAS. curve on surface. 258 Intersect command. Mastercam. Mastercam IGES. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 3D Studio MAX 3. 264 Left command. 76. 261 JoinMesh command. set current. 160. SolidWorks. 69. Boolean. Cosmos/M. 167. Unigraphics. 55. 60. 253 InsertKink command. 15. filter display. select objects by. 167. 71. surfaces. 41. 257. 160. 254. Microstation. 37. CamSoft IGES. Integrity Ware. 140. 256. 60. Raw triangles RAW. NASA GridTool. 59 InterpCrv command. 73. 46 IGES:. 73. 160 Invert command. 64. ME30 IGES. 63. 343. 101. 312. NASA GridTool IGES. 252 information. OptiCAD. match. dialog box. 59. 61. 53. 121. SUM 4. insert in surface. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 70. 77. 53. 67. 56. 152 Leader command. insert on curve or surface. surface or polysurface. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 73. 58.

262. 378. create. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 268. 304. 125. 288 MergeSrf command. 232. 180. snap to. 288. surface. detailed options. explode. 123. 340. 333. 92. 377. 266. 292. 281 manage: license. 239. radius. convert each face to NURBS surface. 273 lock: a layer. swap status with unlocked objects. 293. 41. vertical to construction plane. 270 LineV command. 52. box. set properties for layer. 266. from four points. 265. reduce density. 155. 349. tangent to two curves. 266. 194. export to IGES file. 272 LoadPlugin command. 284. 288 Merge command. unlock locked objects. 145. layer attributes. 267. 123. 225. 102. bisector. 377 Maximize command. 141. 304. 145. 75. 145. 288 Maya file exchange. 357. 211. 333. 285. 74. set viewport. 140. 267 LinePerp command. 90 Main toolbar. 74. 232. 271. from NURBS object. 229. deviation of points and curves from a surface. 269. 265. 212. 328. 268. 145. join. run from shortcut key. 338. density for primitives. 273 Logoff command. 326. Rhino. 220. 212 LockSwap command. 130 manage layers. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 262. set for export. 288 mesh: 3D face. 33. 221. 62 menu: context. persistent object snaps. 279 Make2d4View command. 101 manage:. clear at save time. 267. length. layer. apply to surface. 340. 377 Material properties. 268. 271. 334 LineTan command. breaking apart. 191. extend by. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 420. environment.0 Command Reference Light tab. 288. 265. 228. 39. 256. 337. 37 M command. 224. 333. 240. 296. polyline. 289. objects. 194 measure: angle. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 145. 187. 334 Line4Pt command. area. point. 212. 338. 271 Line command. 270 LineTT command. 229. 84. 125. select naked edges. 105. 161. 236. 179. 272 list data structure of an object. 333. 273. perpendicular to curve. 266 Line4pts command. directional. 293. viewport. 148. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 288 menu:. options. 212. 268. 266. 210. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. insert straight segment into curve. 23. 126. 296 macro. 334. 348. 348. 171. 146. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 91. 61 MDT IGES options. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 342. perpendicular to two curves. 86 material:. 365. 155. segments. 271 List command. 455 . 268 Lines command. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 331. 142. 378 maximize: current viewport. 270. select all. texture. 38 match: curve ends. 88. 140. 290. 192. plane. 255. run from an alias. volume. 284 MatchLayer command. 270. BMRT. 156. 228 LooseLoft command. 288. 421 MeasurePoint command. 88. 290. 3DFace. 396. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 267. 37 line: at angle from line. 173. clear render mesh. 62 ME30 file exchange. 40. 225. polyline through point objects. 187. geometric continuity. area moments. 265 line:. 421. 294. 12. 283. decrease number of faces. 417 Make2D command. 338. 269. 420. 371. 255. 329. curve curvature. 255. 104. 39. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 290. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 358. 338. 371. 268. 251 merge:. axis. 12. 103 locked objects. 245. clear render mesh for all objects. 420. tangent to a curve. spotlight. 415 locked layer name. 92. 268 Lines toolbar. 261. 288 Menu command. 288 MergeEdge command. normal to a surface. 135. 294. 224. 86 lights. 420. 399. 60 LWO file exchange. 329. 270. 281. 23. 130 map. 131 mass properties. 213 measure:. 270. 288. 267 LinePP command. 291. volume centroid. from closed polyline. 377 maximum curvature. 290. 281 match:. 272 LoadScript command. 265. pop up at cursor. 283 MatchSrf command. 273 lock:. 304. run from external file. 338 mapping coordinates. 286. 290. 273 Lock command. 292. 273 loft surface. 371. paste script from Clipboard. toggle display. 415. deviation between two curves. 421 Measure command. 173. 371. 211.Rhino 2. definition. 213. 273 Loft command. cone. 410. 228. 61 mean curvature. cylinder. 134 marker definition. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 84. distance. seamless. 334. 259. 281. 141. 228 Logout command. 269 LineTP command. select all. 191. 24 menu bar. 261. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 334 merge: surface. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 296. 212. single line. 273 LockOsnap command. 287 Match command. 194 MaxViewport command. unlocked objects. set for layer. 273. 145. 328. 212. 342. 265. 288. 245. 269. volume moments. 134. 266 LineAngle command. 283. area centroid. 330. bump. run with middle mouse. two adjacent edges of a surface. 339. run from toobar button. 273. 162. 284 material: for rendering. 363. 135. 155. 395. 292. 398. 345. 288 maximize:.

308. 296. 355. 78. 2. 362. 387. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 251. intersection. 75 named construction planes. 79. 80. and n-directions. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 133. 338. 80. 261.Rhino 2. 63 Near object snap. 79. to move objects. 294. 414 NoSnap command. remove flipped. wheel function. 302 new:. 379 Named Colors list. 355. 424 Mesh command. 297 MoveTrace command. 306 OffsetSrf command. 290. objects to new construction plane. 302 New command. 295. 311. 46 moments. show hidden. 343. 294 MeshPolyline command. 132. 215. edit. 363 name:. 303 NextU command. 409. 131 NoElev option. 78. 79. 82. 212. 249. 290 Mesh toolbar. 203. an object. multiple objects. 12. 423 mesh:. 37 object: description. 292 MeshCylinder command. 81. 64 NURBS. turn off. 305 offset:. definition. 306. 93. 91. parting line. export to RIB. 298. 298 NamedViews command. 423. display. 362 named view. 229 Microstation file exchange. 117. toolbar button. 296 mirror objects. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 304. 212 object snap:. 30. 205. knot. 297. 147. 355 NamedCPlane command. 148. 80. 372 non-uniform scale. 4. 82. 140. 312 mold. 121. 377. 81. options. 295 MeshToNurb command. 81. restore. view. 415 object names. lock. end. 4. 79. 295. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 90. construction planes through a point. 251. 296 minimize:. 103. 302. 296. scale and rotate. 379. 141. 78. 122 Move command.0 Command Reference sphere. perpendicular from a curve. 338 OBJ file exchange. 92. 304 node. 41. 293 MeshDensity command. 303. reverse direction. 80. 305. 2. midpoint. 297 MoveUVN command. 297. tangent to a curve. set for single object. center. 298 NamedView command. snap to a curve. 385. 243 456 . 78 Notes command. 82. 79. 79 NetworkSrf command. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 425. 132. save. 132. 135. 141. definition. 82. 423 MeshBox command. 79. 302 NewViewport command. 82. 115. 120. 63 naked edge. 251. 171. surface. 3. 304. 234. 229. from. 145. 113. 216 Moldex command. 349. 425 offset: curve. 249. 366 normal: definition. 79 minimize: Rhino. 92. 387. show toolbar. 309. pull direction. 229. 132. 30. 52. 308. 103. 12. 204. v-. 84. 385. set for multiple objects. 309. between two points. toolbar button. 302. viewport. 290. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 296 move:. 305 notes in Rhino file. 84. 414. 298. 385. 378 object properties. read from file. 378. 414. 92. 385 name. 303 NextV command. 194 Mirror command. 84. group. 298. 296 modeling aids. 79. 298 Microscribe toolbar. perspective viewport active. surface. 349. 121. 384. 295. toolbar. 132 O command. 2. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 304 normal:. 81. 296 minimum curvature. 243. 303. 229. 305 N-sided patch. 385. 135. 378. a view. viewport to top. parameterization. surface control points in u-. ortho viewport active. 421 Moray UDO file export. 134. 81. 355. 296. 140. 306. 305. 362. 297. 83. surface display. 414. 338. read from file. 343. 293. 296 Minimize command. 309. 62 middle mouse button function. draw line. 343. export to file. 90 Midpoint object snap. 379. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. disable. 90 move: background bitmap. 378. 298. 298 new: file. point. off construction plane. 379. 35. 123. 323 Microsoft Excel. object to align with curve. 293. 141 mouse. 302 next. toggle persistent. 304 NextViewportToTop command. export to IGES. 322. 122. show. 292. 33. construction point through point. 78. 303 NextViewport command. 292 MeshCone command. 296 Metastream file export. 183. 297. layer. 311. 37 morph target. 84. 114. 212. 293 MeshPlane command. on surface. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. unlock. 120. 133. 297. 409 object:. set mesh the same. 371. 3. objects. 304. 83. 348. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 363. unify normals. set properties. 83. hide toolbar. 343. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 348. improve. 296. 362. 215. 92. 183. tangent from curve. 80. project to construction plane. 307 Offset command. set persistent. 132. near. weld. 302. 304. move control points. 243. 251. viewport. 338. 85. 377. 297 Mscribe command. 297. export to. toolbar. 84. save named construction plane. 311 OBJ export properties. 123. 317 nudge. 338. 206. 338. 212. 146. 118 Normal command. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 414. 80. export to OBJ. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 292. 294. 35 object snap: along. 363. reparameterize. 298. 113. restore. 294 MeshSphere command. 12 None command. perpendicular to a curve. options. 415. 243. quadrant. 261. scale and rotate on surface. 2. 384. 84. viewport active.

90. 88. on a surface. 38 parting line. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 187. 308 OpenWS command. Layer. 426 OpenGL:. 329. 190. 40 perspective angle . 133 PanLeft command. 133. 130. camera and target location. 322 PlaceTarget command. 27. 95. 92. 94. 68 PNG file format. 133. 84 open: file. 324 plane: cut through objects. use for shade. view. trackball motion. 323. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. Softimage. 313. to curve. 101. undo number. 96. 333 PluginManager command. 326. Snap. 307 open:. 316. isoparm density. 253. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 224. 3DS MAX 1. 323. set angle. 313. 96. Aliases tab. 327. from three points. 281. 90. click ortho pane to toggle. View tab. 88. 68 PictureFrame command. press shift to toggle. 119 Open command. make curve periodic. 330. 119. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 323 planar mode. 307 OnSrf object snap.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. trim options. place multiple. 325. control polygon appearance. 290. 12. Planar. 307. 92. 309. 316. object snap radius. 64 options: aliases. 308 orient objects. 308. 379. 425 Orient. fit through points.0. 339. 92. 375. create curve from. set. options. redraw speed. 325. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 28. lock to axis. 317 pause digitizer input. 88. 200. toggle. 98. 200. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 308 Options dialog box. Appearance tab. 326. 325 Pline command. 339. 314 parabola. 339 POffSelected command. 313 Pan:. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. toolbar. 386. 93. 351. 246. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 96. 88. 324 Plane3Pts command. right. 133 Perp object snap. 101. 314 parabolic curve. 94. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 309. 330 457 . 68. 2. 206. 3DS MAX 2. 324 Plane toolbar. 366. 98. 311 Ortho command. 324. 318. 98 Options command. middle mouse button function. 322. 133 Osnap command. digitize. 90. 318 PConic command. 373 Point toolbar. make surface non-periodic. 133. 321. 92. curve. 327 Point command.2. 200. options. 311. 4. 309. 176 PCX file format. 325. 90. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 96. 307 OneLayerOn command. 311 ortho mode. 94. 311 Orient3Pt command. on surface from UV coordinates. 2. snap increment. make surface periodic. 351. toggle. shortcuts. 90. no-repeat commands. 88. 2. by three points. manager. 94. shade. 254. 313 Panes. ortho angle. 94. 133 P command. 92. Files tab. 312. 92. 314 PanDown command. 90. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 131 periodic. 133. 2. 281. 88. 80 Perpendicular line. 29. 290 Organic toolbar. 96. 133. grid of. 325 plug-ins. 324. 92. 130. 92. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. 379. 367 pe_tol. 90. 387 paste. 79 point objects. 133. 376. shortcuts. 308 Orient command. 325 Plane command. 96 options:. 172. autosave. 92. 328. 2. 96. change interface appearance. 92. 220. 339 point: control. troublshooting. 314 Pan command. 318 perspective view. 5. 88. 308 OpenGL: toggle. toggle. 373. load. 323 Plan command. General tab. 376. 97. 318 Perspective command. 92. 312. Osnap. Shade tab. developers. 422 Point filters. 281. 213. 174 parameterization. target location. 2 Pan: down.set. 320 Pipe command. 131. 94. 92. 82 PerpLine command. shortcut keys. background bitmap. 366. about. Keyboard tab. 90. 379 Ortho pane. left. 323 planar section. set. 2. 313 PanUp command. 318. 379. 78 Osnap:. 2 PackTextures command. 325 Plane3Pt command. 323 Pa. 206 PlanarSrf command. 92. 330. select method. 320 place. 314 Parabola command. 312 PageDown key. 307. 133 OrthoAngle command. 92. startup commands. 218. 96. select all. turn on or off. 133. 90. 313.Rhino 2. 326 Point object snap. 29. objects from the clipboard. 4. file locations. surface. 249. 272. 325 PlaneV command. 205 pause for user input in script. 290. 313 PanRight command. 2 Patch command. 373. 321. 253. 258. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 363. 96. 90. place one. 133. 262. 90. place at start of curve. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 188 point cloud. 312 Osnap: pane. 133. 5. 131 pedge. saved toolbar layout. 322. 325 plane:. 374. 338.5. up. 330. 3DS MAX 2. detailed polygon mesh. 84 OneLayerOff command. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 313. Modeling Aids tab. 329. 27. 2. nudge increment. 367 POff command. 322. 323 Planar command. 133. 363. place at end of curve. options. 272. 311. 311. 326. 28. 90. 130. pan distance. 281. polygon mesh. 96. Ortho.

338. hide edit and control. 179. 296. 292. relative. 12. 254. 259. 368. 65 program toolbar functions. 188 PointCloudSection command. 10. 138. 296. 90 458 . 294. 135. 136. 336. 3D face. 229. 334 PostScript file export. 335 PrevV command. 228 radius: dimension. create from control points. 340 QRender command. 339 PtOffSelected command. twist. 293. 337. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 332 PolygonEdge command. 35. 131. 361. 209. knot. 413 Points command. 333. 259. 223 PolarSphere command. 330 PointsFromUV command. 228 quinitics. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 214 QueryUVPoint command. Polytrans Softimage translation. join. 85 Properties Material tab. 332 polygon:. 339 PtOn command. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 328 polar array. 339 Pull command. notes. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 335. 330 PointsOff command. 343. 343. 123 Proj command. 339 pull curve to surface. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 343 rebuild:. 344 RebuildEdges command. 202. 386. 337. density for primitives. 331. 425. 423. 303. 344. 424. 171. 367. 371. 235. 254. 259. interpolate curve through. draw. explode. 262. 136. convert each face to NURBS surface. 209. 187. 294. 345 Rebuild command. 64. render. show edit and control. 141.Rhino 2. 338. 290. select connected. weld. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 197. 340 Radius command. add next in v-direction to selection. 339. 220. 19. cylinder. 293. sphere. 290. invert selection. 412. 333. 171. 372. 81 QueryDomain command. select all. 249. options. delete control on curve. 339 PopupMenu command. 292. from edge. 259. 249. 372 Polytrans. 136. 235. 371. 338. 337 project:. named views from a 3DM file. 12. viewport layout from file. 339 purge empty layers. 68 POn command. clear render mesh. 327 PointDeviation command. 19. 361. 343. 17. 138. 339 PointTest command. 378. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 36. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 19. 50 Quit command. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 40. 332. 64. 86. select all. select previous in u-direction. 197. 331. 229. 344 RebuildSrf command. add previous in v-direction to selection. viewport. edit points. 343 rebuild: curve. 135. clear render mesh for all objects. 353. control points. 292. 260. surface. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 386. 190. 335. from closed polyline. 420. join. 338 project: curve to surface. 35. 349. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 382 QRenderAll command. select naked edges. 334 Polyline command. cone. 334. select previous in v-direction. select with lasso. to file. 261. render mesh. 329 PointLight command. 333. 121. objects to construction plane. 331 Polygon command. 87 properties:. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. grid. inscribed. 137. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 229. 338 properties. to Clipboard. select object to turn off. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 41 POV-Ray file export. 121. 337 Print command. 336 print. 340 rail revolve. 295. 229. 338 ProjectOsnap command. export to file. coordinate points. 340 RailRevolve command. 303. 19. show control. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 340 RailRev command. 344 recent commands list display. 340 radius:. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 366 PrintSetup command. through point objects. 334 polysurface. 414. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. select next in v-direction. 220. box. 420 Properties command. toolbar. 141. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 291. 334 PopupToolbar command. 10. 261. 21. 368. 202. add previous in u-direction to selection. image of model. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. set normals the same. 86 Properties Text tab. 85. 190. 293. 18. 338 Projection command. 331. 372. absolute. 337 ProjCP command. 257. 335 PrevViewport command. 353 previous viewport. select next in u-direction. hide back. 425 PtOff command. 423 Polygon toolbar. 179. 137. 414. 349. 150 polar coordinates. 87. display information about an object. material. 41 read. 343. 294. 382 Quad object snap. 338 Project command. 339 PointsOn command. 257. document. 343. object. 330 points:. measure. 379 preview. 12. 2 PrevU command. 295. 262. from NURBS object. 68. apply to surface. explode. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 339. 335. 381 QRender1 command. 328 PointGrid command.0 Command Reference point:. 333 polyline:. 344. 303. render using OpenGL shade. 366. 290. plane. 339. draw on mesh. 86. 331 polygon mesh. named construction planes from file. 104 PushViewportToBack command.

objects in 3D space. 355 Rev command. autosave. clearing render meshes. 4. 347 Rectangle command.Rhino 2. 2. 351. 96. 273 ruled surface. bumpmaps. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. toolbar. 3. 357 right mouse button. textures. 4. 24. command aliases. 2. 346. image in the render window. 4. 125. 363. 181. 398. 171. 338 Ribbon command. 360. 353 RenderPreview command. 363. copy to Clipboard. 338. 309. 230. 355. 360 rotate:. ii roll out a surface. highlight. 121 render: BMRT. 39. 416 rotate: construction plane. 325 RectCen command. 360 Run command. 355 restore:. 120 restore: current viewport size. 4. 346. 181. 360 RotateView command. 181. 338. left. 412 Rotate3D command. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 2. 346 RectangleV command. vertical to construction plane. 183 Restore command. shine. 351 RemoveTrace command. 171. 355 RevU command. 353. 391 SAT file export. 19. 346. 308. 354 reparameterize. 361. surface using rail curve. 359 RotateCameraRight command. object from selection. 324. 357 rotate view. 346. 351 RemoveKnot command. 25. 338 Render command. 356 RGB color. 429 Redo command. 338. place lights. 356 RevV command. 351. 338. named view. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 347 rectangular array.ini. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 354. 172. 348. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 1. 30 save: as small file. 348 Redo command shortcut. 30. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 40. materials. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 338. 358. 252. 10. 340. 359. wallpaper. 3. 363. 363. 172.0. 324. 94 RIB file export. 353 RenderCurves command. 351. 348 refit a curve. 203. from three points. 348. 360. 309. 309. 355 revolve: surface from curve. named view. 20 render problems. 120. 19. 320. 338. 3. layer. 119 Rhinoceros. 359 RotateCPlane command. 320. 358 RotateCamera command. 348 ReduceMesh command. 359. 360 Rule command. 30. 398 RenderAGEdges command. a surface. 325. 382. 5. 358 RotateCameraDown command. edges of polygon meshes. 353 RenderEdges command. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 357. 349 relative coordinates. 4. 183. 103. 363. 355. 126. view change. 25 Rhino web page. 347 rectangle:. 349 RemapCPlane command. 361 S command.0 Command Reference Rect command. 5. Front construction plane. 355 revolved surface. an object. 360 RotateRight command. 352. transparency. 148 rectangular surface. 354 repeat command exclude list. 360 RotateLeft command. 345. 2. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 288. 2. save image in render window. 352. corner. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. button image to file. 24. 39. 96. 39. 360 RotateUp command. 90 reshape a toolbar. 133 right view. background bitmap. 459 . 360. through three points. 349 remove. 251. 181. 103. 354. why the name. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 3. 425 render:. 357 right-click menu. down. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 171. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 352. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 99 Render toolbar. 2. 152. 351 RemoveKnots command. 288. scale and move on surface. 378. options. 360 RunScript command. 241 RefreshShade command. move and scale. curves. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 2. view continuously. 3. 353. 346 RectV command. named construction plane. 356 Right command. 355. 359 RotateDown command. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 352 rename. 379 RenderOptions command. Rhino from being minimized. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 381. 346 RectangleCen command. 1 Rhino. 398. 308. curve knots. create background image. length and width. Rhino 1. 347 redo: last undone command. file. clear render mesh for all objects. right. 39. 324. preview using OpenGL shade. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 345 Rect3Pt command. 360. 355. mesh settings. 363. named construction plane. Top construction plane. close render window. 429 RedoMultiple command. 355 RestoreView command. up. 4. 412 Rotate command. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 362. 120. trim curve from surface. 1 RhinoScript options. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 2 redo:. vertical. 352 render plug-in application: options.0 file exchange. 75 Rhino 1. 203. 340 Revolve command. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 353. 357. 358. 346 rectangle: center. objects. 352. 353. edges. 3. sequentially numbered versions of model. 352 RenderCrv command. 355 revolve:. 362. file to a different file name or file type. 353. 338.

371 SelMesh command. VBScript. 367 section curves. 363. 363 SaveAs command. 366. 371. 25. objects non-uniformly. 362. 362 SaveCPlane command. 259. 372 SelNone command. 368. current layer. 460 . 184.0 Command Reference shortcut. 372 SelPoint command. 370. 373 SelSurface command. construction plane with 3 points. 258. toolbar layout. 371. 370 SelDups command. 370. 376 set: active viewport by name. front construction plane. 75 Select Points toolbar. 372 SelSrf command. 129 scripting tools. 375. 363 SaveSmall command. 362 save:. construction plane vertical. 376. 366. 335. 138. in shaded viewport. 90 Select Color dialog box. 373 SelPt command. construction plane to x axis. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. previous control point in vdirection. 372. invert. 369 SelCrvs command. maximized viewport by name. 309. meshes. 383. 24. 363. 183. 373 SelPts command. 363 SaveWSAs command. 354. 288. 372. to file. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. construction plane origins to a point. 415. template. 383. 374. 377. move and rotate. 367. surfaces. connected points. 365. 369 SelCurves command. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 373. 367. duplicate objects. rows and columns of control points on surface. 366. 372. 367 Section command. 308. 365 screen capture. 371. 262. 206. 103. 138. dimensions.Rhino 2. objects for render preview. all objects. by layer. 365. 370 SelLast command. 50. with crossing window. next control point in u-direction. 363 SaveWS command. 361. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. by object ID. 182. 368 SelCrossing command. 172. 136. 371 SelLights command. 354. 365. 51. 369 SelDim command. construction plane origin. 368. 365 ScaleNU command. 369. 366 Scale1D command. 377. objects by layer number. 364 Scale toolbar. to Clipboard. 246. 309. 364. 373 select:. 24. objects in one direction. 335. add previous control point in v-direction. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 152. 364. 368 SelectConnected command. curves. coordinates of points. 303. 262. points objects. 369 SelCrv command. 366 ScaleTrace command. 25. 379. 375 Select toolbar. 136. 184. 372 SelPrev command. 182. toolbar layout as different name. distance between grid lines. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 368. 259. 184. 258. 372 SelGroup command. 67 Sect command. 373 SelSolid command. 178. 335. 376. 370 SelLayer command. 376. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 370. 370 SelDup command. 50. 370 selection menu. 137. 372. next control point in v-direction. 308. 371 SelName command. 364. 303. 184. 126 scripting:. 364. 125. 246. 367 SelAll command. 367 screen:. 339. with a window. 374. 367 SelBadObjects command. add previous control point in u-direction. construction plane to object. 183. 372 SelPolylines command. 24 SelectLayer command. 366. 181. 303. 371 SelectName command. 339. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 383. 2. 373. 374 SelV command. deselect all objects. invert point selection. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 126. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. objects in two dimensions. 366. 372. 90. 374. 373 SelU command. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 262. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 367. to file in 256 colors. 370 SelID command. 371 SelMeshes command. 371 SelLight command. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 303. 368. 252. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 373 SelPolyline command. digitizing scale. bad objects. objects to shade. 375. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. rotate and move on surface. 372 SelPolysrf command. 136. subparts of objects. layers from list. 373 SelSrfs command. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. construction plane to zaxis. polylines. 138. 363 SaveView command. 362. 181. 373. 126. 369. construction plane to previously used. 182. 375 SelWindow command. with mouse method. 371. 369. 258. 368 SelectID command. objects instead of control points. previous control point in udirection. control polygon display density. 137. add next control point in v-direction. 369. 361 save template. polysurfaces. 262. 230. construction plane to next used. 371. 369 SelCurve command. objects. objects uniformly. row of control points in udirection. 370. objects by name. 103. objects to unlock. 368 SelConnected command. 335. 373. 372 SelSolids command. 368 SelColor command. 365. 309 Scale command. 366 scale:. 370. 373. 372. construction plane to view. IGES. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 363 scale: background bitmap. 136. 373 SelSurfaces command. 181. 25. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 367. 137. 125. lasso. spotlights. 371. JScript. 246. extents of grid. 363 Save command. 373 SelUV command. 364 Scale2D command.

387 silhouette curves. 5. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 384 ShowCamera command. 183. 377. 5 shine in rendering. 2. control points. Top. 23. 376 SetGridSnap command. 92. 383. selected objects. right construction plane. 355. 386. 425 Shade command. 343. 381. 250. 246. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. options. 388. 355. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 298. 385. top construction plane. 206. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. perpendicular to a curve. 77. to a knot. 318. 383 ShadedViewport command. viewports. 376 SetGLShade command. along a line tangent to a curve. 212. 385. project object snaps to construction plane. 94. 220. toolbar. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 2. 383 shadow. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 389 skinning. 359. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. in all viewports. 84. 21 Shear command. 242. 250 SetLayer command. 391. 241. 3. 383 Shift key. 79. from a point. 80. 385 ShowPoints command. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 42 SLC file exchange. 76. 206. 388. 385. 382 ShadeAll command. 246. 390 snap: along a line. 380 SetGroupName command. Osnap toolbar. 120. 392. 379. 386 ShowSelected command. 84. 386 Silhouette command. 318 SetPlanar command. 125. to next used. scripting tools. 377 SetHotspot command. 386 ShowPt command. 264. built-in aliases. hidden objects. 2. OpenGL. 409. 183. flat in all viewports. 339. 242. flat with grid. hidden control points. z-buffer. 384. continuous shaded mode. 381. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 382. 382. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 173 ShowCV command. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 2. 261. 218. 318. to the end of a curve. 80. 383. 184. 98. 363. 362 Set View toolbar. 153. to construction plane. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. display context menu. 409 set:. 389 SketchOnSrf command. printer. 92. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 96. 206. 181. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 381 shade:. 378 SetObjectName command. 23. to the midpoint of a curve. 377 SetLayerToObject command. with wireframe. 183. by key. 386. 79. 380. 78 461 . 78. selected hidden objects. 2. x-axis. broken edges. 383. 78. 98. 42 Smooth command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. 386 ShowPts command. 184. 318. to surface isoparm. tangent to a curve. to a point object. 82. 3 Points. shortcuts. 323. to the view. 273 SLA export. 182. 376. 381 shade: continuous. 220 ShowGrid command. 337. 125 show: background bitmap. 119. 79. 183. 181. 246. 182. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 389. z-axis. toggle OpenGL mode. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 376. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 78. 322. 84. 83. 384. 245 ShowMenu command. 140. to the intersection of two curves. 119. 218. 383 ShadeSelected command. keys. handlebars. 81. spotlight hotspot. 5 Shift+PageUp. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. with grid. 207 SetSnap command. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. toggle object snaps. 339. 162. perspective angle. 184. 183. 426 ShowAll command. turn off object snaps. 338 shortcuts. 244. 133. 241. with no smoothing on mesh. 184. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 220. to previously used. 119 ShowToolbox command. 386.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 119 ShowTrace command. 82. 79. 81. 84. 426 Show command. 242. 183. to an object. 384 show:. options. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 298. 383 ShadeOptions command. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. grid. 181. 382 shaded display. 218. 78. naked edges. midway between two points. 94. vertical. 261. 178. 94. 5. 182. 242. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 379 SetPts command. flat in one viewport. Right. 390 smooth curve or surface. 379 SetOrtho command. 95. 4 Shift+PageDown. 384. 383 shear objects. continuous in perspective view. 380 Settings command. 339 ShowEdges command. pane. near a curve.Rhino 2. edit points. 337. 92. 2. selected objects in all viewports. 389 Sketch command. 382. 241. edges of surface or polysurface. 74. onto a curve. to the center of a circle. 212. 184. 183. to a surface. 181. 183. on surface. working directory. object. 385 ShowGrev command. 381 set construction plane. 183. 76. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 425 Shade1 command. 409 ShowToolbar command. 400 ShowTitle command. 357. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. bitmap in a separate window. 81. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 94. curve with digitizer. 184. 376. by function. 80. 388 sketch:. 385. 182. 384. 387 sketch: curve. 250. 385 ShowOsnap command. 379 SetPt command. 382. curve on polygon mesh. 389 SketchOnMesh command. change size.

279. 354. from heightfield bitmap. by diameter. 298. 224. viewport vertically. 249. 236. 325. shortcuts. 81. 399 SrfPts command. 317. 243 Surface toolbar. 233. 391. 164. 284. 92. cutting plane. pipe. periodic. 400 SubCurve command. extrude. 162. 173. 92. 397 spotlight: control point editing. one object with another. 157. 307. turn on or off. 80. develop. 307. reverse direction. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 393 Sphere2Pt. 240 solid:. 38. 402. chamfer. 38. 401. 162. 409 SnapSize command. 273. 126 Stretch command. 88. 398. 284 SrfMerge command. 223. 394 spline. 243. 284. 133. 371 Spotlight command. 35. 69. 386. 325. 399. 348. 189. 163. surface at isoparms. 386. 392. 402. cap planar ends. select all. 417. 398. 352. 160. Boolean intersection. 395. 281. 200. 391. 398. 380 snap to locked objects. 15. 234. mean curvature. 393. 161. 238. create. 340. 277. from planar curves. plane from three points. 173. blend. 372. 133. 392 SnapToLocked command. 160 summary information. 401. 153. 202. 10. 115. 90 status bar. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 163. 406. 162. 330. 295. 356. 289. 395. polygon mesh. 302. from grid of control points. 165. 421. 164. 392. 96. 114. 361. 393 Sphere2Pts. 384. 426 462 . 22 support. 10. 36. 400 STEP file exchange. 281. 158. 171. 410. 237. 397 SplitEdge command. 263. 218. 190. 249. skin. 118. 223. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 273. patch. 324. 135. 406. Boolean union. 398. untrim. 392. 165. hide backfacing control points. create variable radius fillet between. 198. 380. panes. 426. draw curve through control points. 406. 160. 180. toolbar. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 103. 157. 360. 324. 423 STL:. 190. 399 SrfPoints command. 238. from three points. 69 Solid Edge. 42 Stereograms. plane. 400. offset. 233. 398 SrfCV command. 397. 373. 396. 307. 321. torus. 238. 2. 421.0 Command Reference Snap command. 371. 78. 317. 217. 398. 416. 90.Rhino 2. 275. 240. 366. 76. 133. extrude curve along path. 324. 238. 229. 83. 240. from 3 or 4 curves. 192. 4. maximum radius of curvature. IGES file exchange. X_T file export. 203. 223. 416. cone. 216. 372. 161. 395 split:. hotspot. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 361. 385. 393. rebuild. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. rule. 273. 290. extrude curve to point. 229. 79. from 3 or 4 points. 417. 153. revolved. 364 SubCrv command. 309 SrfBlend command. from curve network. 192. 218. 242. 201. 101. 395. 160. 288. tube. 173. 247. 410. 247. 286. trim. 397 Split command. 413. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 391 snap mode. 165. 42 StopScript command. 429. 334 spacebar. 400 StatusBar command. 417. 396. 392 Sphere toolbar. 38 Solid toolbar. 84. ellipsoid. 160. select all. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 354. 410. 399. 200. 133 sphere. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. extend. 317. 70. 236. 409. 298. 105 surface normal. 251. 287. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 397 SplitViewVertical command. box. 233. 277. 396. 1. 391. 238 Standard toolbar. 398 spotlight:. for rendering. 132. 380. 240. unroll. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 417 surface:. 166. 241. 189 SrfMatch command. 340. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 201. loft. 416. 306. sweep along path. baseball sphere. 133. 392. 68 Softimage plug-in. from grid of points. minimum radius of curvature. display. make nonperiodic. 367. split. 382. select all. 377. 414. 133. 94. 393 Spiral command. 426 STL: ascii tag. 16. 324. 298. 316. 372. 2. 281. 398. 339. cylinder. 84 snap:. turn on or off. 229. 317. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 154. plane vertical to construction plane. extrude into solid. 411. X_T file export. IGES file exchange. 273. 344. 5. 261. 277. 35. toggle. 192. 189. 159. 399. 216. 411 SolidWorks. Booleans. 381. 113. 163. 398 spreadsheet. 426 surface analysis:. 393 SphereD command. 250. 373. change degree. 15. merge. 262. 3. 288. 166. reparameterize. 285. viewport horizontally. box from three points. 306. 281. 338. 157. 399 SrfSum command. 104. 320. 392. 38 SortPoints command. comma-delimited file export. 401. 192. developable. 396 SplitSrf command. 182. 306. 238. 164. 255 split: edge of a surface. 236. 42. 320. 42. 43 STL Tools toolbar. center. 313. 250. 192 Surface menu. 284. 344. 395. 385. 166. sweep two rails. 236. 276. make periodic. 355. 70. 82. 328. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 399. 288. tolerance. 392. 355. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 278. 288. 428. 251. 161. 430 startup commands. 216. extract from polysurface. 228. export object properties to. 295 Sphere command. truncated cone. file exchange. 218. 247. 229 SrfAlign command. 153. 132. 324. 407. 344. 114. 238. 201. create fillet between. 393 sphere:. 320. 2. match. 396. 243. 69. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 84 Softimage file exchange. drape. 236. 19. 399 SrfPt command. 273.

222. 244. 220. 203. 344. 173. 207. 124. 343. 3-D Digitize. model size. 306. rendering of edges. 164. 425. 260. 398. menu bar. 371. 123. 407. 255. 190. 313. 221. open toolbar. 318. 206. 179. 389. 210. ortho mode. 344. 220. 162. right. 409 toggle. 323. 241. save layout as different name. 160. Annotate. 198. 121. 330. 281. 321. 362. status bar on or off. 119. 409 TiltRight command. 257. 407. 120. 90. 119. 265. save. 409. change button size. 165. 407. 243. 400 sweep. 121. 332. 426. 226. CPlane View. 267. Diagnostics. along path. show toolbar. 195. 339. 241. 303. 279. 231. 123. move. 207. 197. viewports. 205. 401. 122. 162. 375. 124. 397. delete toolbar. 187. 168. 294. 189. 172. 420. 323. 419. 143. 134 TGA file format. Box. 120. 351. 387. 122. 353. 400 SwapView command. 139. edit button image. 382. float toolbar. 384. 323. 384. edit annotation. snap mode. 404 TAB key. 218. 379. 15. 162. 239. 170. planar mode. 297. 157. 143. 206. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 293. display of command prompt. 215. 408 Text command. 213. Edge Tools. 166. 142. 355. 229. 120. 94. 174. 311. edit 2-dimensional. 156. 264. 125 Toolbar command. 82 tangent line. 1. 363. Extend. reshape toolbar. 122. 145. 204. 195. 249. 174. persistent object snaps. 412. 365. 222. 22. 353. display program. 394. hide flyout. control polygon display. 400. 400. 210. world axes on or off. 401. 288. 368. 367 Thaw command. 420. 144. 272. 343. 272. 409. delete button. Dimensions. dock. 270. 15. 170. 323. 308. 362 text: annotation dot. 221. 365. 335. 171. 217. 121. 120 tolerance. 298. 101. 249. 409. 325. change. 330. 184. 338. 251. Circle. IGES export. 345. BMRT Lights toolbar. 197. 247. 338 texture mapping coordinates. display viewport. 236. save button image to file. 368. 396. 409. 134. 179. 123. 223. 340. 357. 204. 407 text:. 137. move toolbar. 5. grid on and off. 284. 161. 185. tear off flyout. 295. Background Bitmap. 155. 463 . 245. 425 Toggle34View command. 347. 80. 39. 331. control polygon highlight. 420. 83. 3-D Digitizing. 103. 361. 395. 381. crosshairs on and off. 173. copy. grid axes on or off. 339. 152. 288. 383. 253. 400. 169. 122. 406. 119. 154. 209. 221. 238. file location. 352. 123. 200. 73 template. float icon to top of cascade. 194. 139. 351. 169. 81. 79. 389. programming. new file. 171. 288. 232. 153. 374. 122. 316. 245. 90. 359. 226. 413. 409 TogglePerspective command. 144. save. 373. 309. ortho. 328. 121. 393. 164. dragging based on view plane. 261. 142. rendering of curves. 136. 388. 187. cascade. 404.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 39. 233. 231. viewport title. 338. 407. 399. 305. edit bitmap icon. 409 title bar. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. BMRT Materials. 185. 302. 124. 352. 151. 163. 138. 402. 78. 88. 415. 421. 215. 220. pop up with middle mouse. 123. Curve From Object. 288. 342. title bar on or off. move button. 210. 407. 122. 256. 296. 177. 401 Sweep2 command. 182. clear the bitmap image. 141. import from another layout. 50. 230. 148. 311. 120. 168. 407. 392. 167. 385. 140. 51. 387. 409. 180. display of status bar. hide toolbar. 150. 404 Sweep1 command. display of title bar. 248. 366. 338 texture for rendering. 283. 121. 409. 333. 198. 163. 201. import button image. 178. 122. 232. 120. 273. angle. 348. 409. 288. 149. 269. 14 Tan object snap. 125. 322. 416. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 216. display of viewport title. 122. 269 TanLine command. 379. 141. 405. 255.Rhino 2. Analyze. 216. 402 Sxtrd command. 429. 192. 255. 23. 215. 120. 120. 392. 297. Curve. 183. two rails. 22 toolbar buttons. 245. 390. 409 toolbar layout. 368. 370. 187. set viewport. 363. 372. 420. 279. 330. 407 TextObject command. 340. display of menu bar. 123 Toolbars. 379. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 358. 430. surfaces. 305. 40. 385. 338. 366. 151. 362. 235. 353. 409. 140. 120. unlink flyout. 308. 124. 120. 423. 409. 135. 124. 135. create cascading toolbar. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 401. 165. 323 TCone command. close. 410. 208. 387. 181. clear button image. 236. 125. change name. scaled size. 189. 124. 256. 234. 119. 395. planar curves. 320. 224. 337. definition. 125. solids. 408. 260. new button. 248. 90. 173. 216. 420 Title command. 149. 388. 322. 22. 96. 104. 134. 363. properties. Array. 292. new toolbar. 419. 228. 415 tilt view. 230. surface u and v. capture icon. 82. 212. 391. 271. 221. 281. 266. 391. 121. 80 TanFrom object snap. 386. 364. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 322. 148. 396. 185. 265. 337. 242. 245. 258. 203. 257. 356. 290. 409. 400. Ellipse. open. capture button image. 258. 268. 400. 420. 209. 120. 121. 400 SwapUV command. 125. 411. 307. 245. 239. 363. 269 Taper command. 259. 230. 353. 51. 308. 428. 323. 215. 405 target. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 84. 321. 246. toggle toolbar on and off. Curve Tools. 124. Arc. 121. 120. 317. 152. left. 367. 156. 121. 384. 390. 414. 379. 403. 218. 178. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 409. 92. toolbar on and off. 407 Texture command. 119. 302. 302. 90. 324. 349. 19. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 417. relative. 205. 168. 235. 409 TiltLeft command. 346. 304. 71 Swap. 425. 90. 122. 385. 360. 39. save. 192. 240. 402. 363. copy button. 367. 330. 217. 220. 223. 13. 352. 254. 179. 123. 263. 262. 336. 422. 208. 377. edit. 150. 124. rename toolbar. 168. perspective view on and off. 334. scripting. 369. 135. 212. 177. 326. 311. 72 technical support.

Polygon. 348. 151. 220. 331. 92. 364. 271. 348. 293. 49. 425 turn on. 366. 339. 135. all layers. 352. 308. 254. 409 Top command. 381. 313. 342. 103. 417. 148. 357. 336. 317. 244. 288. 296. 15 Units command. 364. 407. 379. grid. 50. 244. 123 464 . 244. 171. 261. 244. 296. 172. along a line. 321 track. 296. 229. 381. 100. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 198. along a line perpendicular to a curve. Bend command. 203. 384. 298. Surface 2. Surface Tools. Set CPlane. Orient3Pt command. grid axes. 149. 412. menu bar. 41. 216. 399. 360. 148. File. 134. 154. 51. 80. 155. 203. 256. 83. 430. Viewport Layout. 99. 219. 406 Tube command. 295. 214. 292. 357. 92. 398. 206. 308. 339. 236. 390. 412 Twist command. 204. 236. 229. 365. 357. 338. 330. 185 u-direction definition. 145. 358. 245. 288. 309. world axes. 415 units systems. 325. 153. 239. 140. 258. reverse. Object Snap. 409. Scale1D command. 173. 249. 151. 161 unit systems. 302. 386. Fillets and chamfers. 162. 180. 131 transform: Array command. 342. RemapCPlane command. Microscribe. 317. 90. 245. Organic. Taper command. POV Materials. 101. 307. Surface. 255. 342. 353. 296. 262. 298. 362. 373. 246. 172. 386. 92. 238. 363. 148. 19. 88. 161. 386 Unicode fonts. 357. 172. Move command. 152. 296. 16. 229. 275. 245. 168. 160. ArrayCrv command. 356. 429. 50. Render. 363. 296. Extrude. layer. 173. ProjectToCPlane command. 260. 413. 337. 359. 379. Visibility. Mirror command. Tools. 249. 167. 307. Flow command. 94. 154. 154. 233. 1. 236. 240. Surface Analysis. Point Editing. control points on selected objects. 201. 372. 425. 420. 79. command line. 203 trimmed surfaces. 180. 263. 304. Mesh. 366. 153. 288. 426 Turntable command. 133. 409. 154. 324. 413. 142. 338. 414. 386. 347. 263. 333. OpenGL. 294. 245. 410. 422. 405. 82. 263. 259. 413 u-direction: move control points. 417. 94. 245. 377. 425. 409. 355. 363. 171. STL Tools. 113. 429 UndoMultiple command. 161. 179. 348. 265. 212. 84. 365. 152. 161. 263. 96. 358. title bar. ArraySrf command. 409. 377. command. 425. 365. 83. 384. 390. 328. Scale2D command. 375. shortcut. Main. 303. Select. 364. 190. ScaleNU command. Rotate3D command. 308. 228. 413. 88. 358. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. shortcuts. 339. 366. 229. 82. 135. 288. 157. 138. 412. 220. 349. 311. 172. world axes. Scale command. 247. 48. 41. 135. 349. grid. 240. 261. 251. 379. 398. ArrayPolar command. OrientPerpToCrv command. 420. 140. 383. 243. 205. 424. 330. 150. 382. 190. 105. 96. 238. 288. 339. 427. 82 tracking line. 409. 403. set. 356 u-direction:. 321. 162. 368. 361. POV Lights. 409 top view. 373. 234. 270. 101. grid axes. 355. 203. 386. 262. 361. 311. 228. 264. 338. 341. 338. 405. 425. 393. 73 union. Plane. 2. 262. 153. 208. 369. Lines. pop up at cursor. 141. 383. 90. 406. 357. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 338. 332. 90. 249. 263. 355. OrientOnSrf command. 349. 373. 397. Geometry Fix. 309. 108. 411 turn off. 300. 136. 415 Ungroup command. 333. 261. autosave. 339. 309. autosave. 208. Scale. redo. view change. 218. 173. 223. 96. 92 Trim command. Twist command. 203. 166. 164. 386. 410 TraceBitmap command. definition. 385. 137. 322. 180. 297 u-direction curves. 412 Transform toolbar. 307. 416. 173. 318. options. 277. 213. 391. 345. Sphere. 348. 410. Mass Properties. 382. 343. 400. 405. 15 truncated cone. 2. 140. 392. 395. 365. 104. 302. 408. Shear command. 412 transform:. 384. 421. 374. IGES export type details. 236. 262. 290. 321.Rhino 2. 351. 83. 367. 370. 182. 326. 326. 148. 371. 323. 357. 390. 409. 358. 90. 330. 409 Tools toolbar. Transform. 251. 307. 251. 396. 309. 308. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 240. 244. 428. 202. 414 UndoSelected command. 276. 399. 78. 173. 174. layers. 173. 395. 101. 362. 344. 349. trimmed surfaces. 19. 148. 330. 334. 194. 261. 402. 306. Layer. 423. 425. 307. 410. Select Points. 338. 368. 268. 304. Boolean. Solid. 162. 423. status bar. 413 undo:. 273. 346. 2. 290. 180. 273. 150. 229. 374. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 372. 90. 180. 305. 236. 108. 16. 180. 409. 284. 429. 103. 283. 331. 318. 383. 269. menu bar. 404. 253. 415. 343. 218. Set View. 398. Rotate command. 339. rendering. 375. 414 UnhidePoints command. 365. 182. 241. 316. 267. in text. 104. 351. Solid Tools. 392. Booleans. 153. 361. 324. 92. 400. Rectangle. 268. IGES export file types. 134. 48. 365. 386. 409. 399. shrink to trim boundary. 242. 349. 203. 334. IGES. 288. 417. 379. 142. 262. 335. 81. 258. 337. 322. 243. title bar. 405. 339. 299. 348. 102. 173. 2. 413. 356. 366. 400. Smooth command. 311. 181. 245. 249. 390. 149. 339. Point. 416 UnGhost command. Copy command. 412 U command. SetPt command. control points. 412 transparency in rendering. 2 Torus command. 253. 165. 2. 414 unfold a surface. 263. layer. 367. 339. Orient command. status bar. 307. 414. 358. 309. 400. 396. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. command line. 82. 184. 409.0 Command Reference 233. Standard. 415 Toolbox command. 154. 323. 281. 339. 298. 192. along a line tangent to a curve. 224. 183. 266. control points. 88. 429 Undo command. 383. 386 troubleshooting. 338. 348. 311. 259. 410 trim:. 140. 345. 229. 94. 414 Ungroup objects. 203. 352. 221. 19. 364. 200. 249. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 401. 210.

plan view. 314. 244. 416 UnrollSrf command. 318. 420 viewport title menu. 336. set density. 397. construction plane front. 134 VBscript. 420. 420 views. 386. 126 Vline command. 54 vertex. 271. 404. zoom window. 302. 400. move next to top. 383. 302. 416 untrim a surface. 313. 313. synchronize. control points. 430. 314. 384. 323. 322. 162. 423 wetted surface area. 429. reverse. 313. 419. 135. 90. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 356 v-direction:. pan up. front view. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 425 WMF file export. 430. next ortho active. 409. 273. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. perspective view. 303. 379. 212. 2. 429 viewport layout:. zoom all to the same scale. 429. redraw speed. copy to all. 383. 423 weld:. 198. 264. 343. 422 weight:. pan right. 135. split horizontal. 322. 412. 185 v-direction definition. construction plane right. 325. 347. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 415 Visual Basic script. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 1 window: select. 304. line. 376. create from surface. 400 viewport properties. 429. 428. 304. set left view. maximize viewport. 297 v-direction curves. 288. 163. construction plane back. tilt left. 415. 323. split vertical. 271. 322. top view. 163. 415 Visibility toolbar. rotate left. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 419. 135.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 336. unlock objects. 397. 135. set all to match. 135 WireframeViewport command. 132. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 419. 420. 273. 376. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. construction plane bottom. 397. 384. make previous active. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 24. 43 v-direction: move control points. 429. set top view. 126 VCPlane command. control point. rotate down. 343. 153. 90 window selection. 425. 288. zoom extents in all viewports. 11 user input in script. 51 weight: edit control point. place camera and target. 249. 131. 343. 181. 377. rectangle. 250 water plane area. 355. rotate up. 357. 421 VRBSrf command. 355. 363. 430. print. set to wireframe display. 430 view:. continuously rotate. 376 Wallpaper command. 420. 190. 168 465 . 45 workgroup: check in license. 23. isoparm. 44 W command. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 131 vertical. 96. 304. 336. 415 visibility:. 417 Untrim command. 409. 360. 360. zoom extents in one viewport. set viewport. 302. 360. 288. show control points. wireframe viewport. object snaps. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 425. 376. 363. 430 viewport:. 271 Volume command. set right view. swap viewports. read from file. 338. 421 VolumeMoments command. 421 VRectangle command. 303. set to shaded display. 264. 325. 135. 419. 264. target. zoom in. 417 unwrap a surface.Rhino 2. 190. 357. 298. create new. 184 VDA file exchange. 415 UnLock command. swap. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 377. set perspective view. bottom view. 288. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 153. 400. restore named. 415 UnLockSelected command. 323. 96. 360. 236. 409. tilt right. set active by name. 318. 172. rotate. 409. 190. 425 wireframe:. 264. 360. set maximized by name. 384. 250 What command. 302. right view. 419. zoom in and out by a percentage. set back view. object. zoom window and set a target point. 318. zoom window. 23. hide back. 24. zoom. 313. 3 window:. 420. 416 UpDeg command. 323. 250. 318. 347 VRML file export. with mouse. 298. selected objects. left view. set front view. shade. 304. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. set bottom view. 318. properties. 412. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. zoom out. display. 386. next perspective active. 132. 422 water level. 343. 428. 360. 313. three viewports. 425 ViewportProperties command. 273. 430. 23. layout. 288. 224. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. pan down. 429. 409. 421 VPlane command. maximize. 420. lock objects. read named from file. zoom extents selected. 383. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 322. 162. camera. 153. next active. 302. pan. 181. 249. 24. plane. 400. 338 wireframe display. 419. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 165 UpDegSrf command. pan left. 429. 386. 162. 405. 422 Weight command. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 420 ViewportTitle command. 153. 25. 404 visibility: control points. save named. 430. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. menu. check out license. 244. 134. 357. rotate right. 347 view: back view. 429. 45 viewport: bring to top. 321. 425 WireShade1 command. 343. 415 unroll a surface. 379 Weld command. 397. 409. new. 325 Vrbf command. 244. 185. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 357. construction plane left. 172. zoom extents. close. 423. 430. 415 UnPackTextures command. 428 Windows Clipboard. 404. 415 unlock:. 244. 168. 249. 249. 162. edit named. place target.

130 zoom: dynamic. 429. 363 world axes. 430. 430 Zoom command. 5. 96. 429 ZEA command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. save as different name. 425. options. 428. out. 3. 429. 429 ZoomMouse command. 430. 429 ZoomIn command. 429 Zebra command. 428. 130. 425. 426 ZM command. 430 zoom window. 38 XtndB command. 217 ZBufferPt command. 430. window and set a new target point. 308. 381 workspace. 429 ZoomOut command. 2. 4. 429. in. 3. check in license. 430 466 . 233 XtndF command. 429 ZS command. 428 ZoomNext command. 2. 363.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 97. extents in all viewports. 428 ZoomExtents command. 428. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 428. 429. 168. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 74 Z command. 430 ZSA command. 2. 430 ZP command. 430. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 308. 425 WRL file export. open. check out license. 429. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 217 ZBufferPts command. 429 ZoomP command. 44 X_T file export. toggle display. 168. set colors. 3 zoom:. 430 ZoomWindow command. 430 ZoomTarget command.Rhino 2. 4. 425 world coordinates. extents in one viewport. 428 Zoo. 363. 2. 429 ZoomPrev command. 430 ZoomX command. 233 Xtra command. in and out by a percentage. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 430 ZBuffer command. 168 workgroup:. window. save. 429 ZoomSelected command. extents of selected objects in one viewport. previous view. 96. 11 WorldAxes command. 168 working directory. 216 ZE command.

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