Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .

.....Rhino 2..........0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index....................................................................... 447 xv .......................................................................

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. Index. under the topic Help. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file.com/support/faq. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. the name stuck. 17 .rhino3d. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. see the Rhino Command List. and by the time the product was in beta testing. and Find. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents.rhino3d. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. To explore the related topics. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window.Rhino 2. Help Access Rhino's Help file.rhino3d.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino.com Web site www.

click the Planar pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P.Rhino 2. In parallel views like the default Top. Front. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift. drag with the right mouse button. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Lens length displays on status bar. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Ortho pane on the status bar. F8. and Right view. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. PageDown. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Rotate mouse wheel. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Snap pane on the status bar. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. PageUp. Rotate mouse wheel.

Lens length displays on status bar. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .Rhino 2. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right.Rhino 2. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. See Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. 26 .0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.Rhino 2. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix.

and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. type coordinates in the format: rx. the point will lie on the world x. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. type r2.3 and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.z and press Enter.0 and press Enter. the point will lie on the construction plane. type coordinates in the format: x. type w0.and y-coordinates.y plane. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12. Note If you enter only x. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt.6. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin.6. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the world coordinates. then click Single Line. then click Single Line. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. type 12. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. then click Single Line. type coordinates in the format: wx. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. click Line. click Line.y.6.0.10 and press Enter.and y-coordinates.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x. with r prefix relative coordinates. type 0.10 in the construction plane coordinates. Note If you enter only x. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.y. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. type w12.10 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. enter the starting point for the line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.z and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. 27 . It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.6.0.0 and press Enter. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. y and z coordinates to place points. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates.

For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. then click Single Line. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. click Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.axis) and press Enter. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered.Rhino 2. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. enter the starting point for the line. type 4<45 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. Notice the location of the marker in the other views.axis) and press Enter. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. click a point in the perspective viewport. then click Single Line. click another point in the perspective viewport. A white tracking line will display. click Free-form. 28 . hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. then click Interpolate Points. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. Click the left mouse button to select the point. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. type r4<45 and press Enter. enter the starting point for the line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the Next point of curve. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. indicating the new location of the selection set.

type NoElev. Place the first line point. and click again. Specifying 3. Release Ctrl. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. then click Single Line. Drag the mouse out. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. press Ctrl. Change viewports. After starting elevator mode.D points using 2.Rhino 2. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. negative numbers are below. then press Ctrl and click. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. click Line. release Ctrl.D. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. Continue with picking locations. You can start elevator mode in another location. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. Press Tab. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. but only if the point can be truly 3. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Or press Tab twice. From the Curves menu. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. 29 . was when you pressed Tab. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode.

enter the starting point for the line. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . type <60. then click Single Line. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. From the Curves menu.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. click Line.Rhino 2. the marker snaps to the curve end. Or. Click to place the point. type a distance and press Enter. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. Turn on end object snap.

The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. From the Curves menu. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. type 10. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface.Rhino 2. click Line. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. Click to place the point. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. you can turn them on. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. then click Single Line. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. Click to place the point. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. Or. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. enter the starting point for the line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.

this will become more clear. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves.Rhino 2. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. the surfaces cannot be merged. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. 32 . If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. so those are the things that need to be merged.

extension line extension. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. 33 . The text height. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. Text height The text height in Rhino units. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. extension line offset distance.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text.Rhino 2.

regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. 34 . Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units.Rhino 2. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar.

World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. but should shade and render relatively fast. when not zero. is from 1 to 100. type information you want to save with the model. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. but may take very long to shade and render. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. and higher polygon count. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid.Rhino 2. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Custom Set the custom options. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. 35 . These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. more accurate meshes. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Document Properties dialog box. Document Properties dialog box. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. these settings are used. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. whenever you start a new model without a template. This setting is scale independent. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. When the Refine check box is selected. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. Notes tab Add notes to your model. This setting is scale independent.

When the Refine check box is selected. and Max dist.Rhino 2. Min edge length. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. The default values is 16. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. edge to Srf options. Setting Max dist.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale dependent. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Simple planes is not selected. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Max dist. and higher polygon count. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. Document Properties dialog box. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. more accurate meshes. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. Jagged seams is not selected. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. less accurate meshes. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. and lower polygon count. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. 36 . In practice. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. By default. By default. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Refine is selected. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. After initial meshing. Max edge length. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option.

37 . In practice.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. use smaller shadow offset. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. This makes the image appear smoother.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. With small objects. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. use bigger shadow offset. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. but also slows down rendering. None No shadows. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. In general. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects.Rhino 2. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. With large objects. if the shadows are turned on. Background Sets the color of the render background. In Rhino. None Each pixel is sampled once.

2mm 1. Select Decimal. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 .2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Mils 1.2km 1. When you change from one units to another.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Document Properties dialog box. You can mix fractional and decimal input. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. or Feet & Inches. Example types and forms are: Microns 1.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2centimeter(s) Meters 1.Rhino 2.2(") 1-1/2" 1. In those commands.2m 1.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2.2mic 1. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.2c 1. For example.2cm 1. the relative tolerance is used instead. Fractional. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter. trimming surfaces.

Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work.Rhino 2. You can create new viewports. or Extents of the selected objects. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. Zoom Window.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. You can specify which viewport is maximized.001. Close the viewport.01 millimeters. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. step through the viewports. rename viewports. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. Rhino 2. Use defined and named views. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. and place a named viewport on top. Extents. and use predefined viewport configurations. In general. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. set multiple templates. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. 39 . the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0.01 to 0. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection.

press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. from the View menu. Edit Grid properties. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. When the selection menu pops up. Crossing.Rhino 2. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. Edit viewport properties. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. When you make a Crossing selection. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. from the View menu. Select objects General Click an object to select it. To bring all your objects into view. To remove an object from a selection set. 40 . objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. click Set View > Plan. To select additional objects. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. When you make a Window selection. click Zoom Extents All.

no 2. Sweep2).0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list.0.Rhino 2.x files from Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. you'd get one line. Click another object. Saving 1. In the File name box.x file. In the Save as type box. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice.x file into Rhino 2.x files into Rhino 2. Import and export file types Rhino 1. To cancel the selection process: Click None. but if you picked it as a boundary.0. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object.3dm). There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. press Enter or the spacebar. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). type a filename.0 If you save as a 1. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. select Rhino 1. When object is highlighted. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . Copy.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.x file from Rhino 2.0 If you load a 1. and you picked an edge as a curve. For instance if you have a plane. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. Sweep1.x 3D models (. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve.

To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. If so. Click Open.0. In the File name box. Click Save. Or. In the Save as type box.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. from the File menu. MAX 2. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. If no object name is defined. click Import/Merge. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Export Selected. 42 . select 3D Studio. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. 2. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. When building morph targets. type a name for the 3DS file. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. In the File name box. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work.0 use IGES to transfer files. in the Files of type. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.2. from the File menu. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. For version 3.2. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. type a name for the 3DS file. click Open. select 3D Studio. click Save As.0. or MAX 2. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. Or.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.5. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties.Rhino 2. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. In the Open dialog box. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. 2. They are not converted to NURBS.

and RhinoMax20imp.rhino3d. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.dli into your "3dsmax2. or 3D Studio R4.dli. From the MAX2.5 File menu.3dm. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. use 3DS file format. are imported in several pieces.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. In the MAX2. from the Files of type box.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. This happens because the MAX2.dli. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. The Rhino web site at http://www. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. (3dmimp. Select the 3DM file to import. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2.5. select Rhino 3D Models. Now mesh your curved surfaces.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves.Rhino 2. RhinoMax25imp. Only Spline objects get exported. export to a DWG.0 Command Reference File formats In general.5 plug-ins path.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. or RhinoMax25imp.dli. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. Attempt trimming? 43 . To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. This happens because MAX2. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. RhinoMax2imp. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. MAX does not export NURBS curves. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model.5 File Import dialog box. 3DS MAX version 2.dli. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.5. click Import. RhinoMax20imp. Open 3D Studio MAX2.dli. RhinoMax2imp. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points.5\plugins\" directory.dli from the directories in your MAX2.

If MAX crashes. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. 3DS MAX version 2.5 as a single surface.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette.5 NURBS object. Be patient. 3D Studio MAX 2. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. NURBS curves: 44 . Open 3D Studio MAX2. click Import. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box.0.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. Surface. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. Curve. If you answer "no. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Using developers tools." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool).0 Command Reference If you answer yes.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.5 or 3DS DOS. In general. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box.dli or RhinoMax2imp. from the Files of type box.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. From the MAX2 File menu. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. CurveCV.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. (3dmimp. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces.dli and RhinoMax2imp. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. Click the MAX2.Rhino 2. To closely examine and edit MAX2.rhino3d.5 module called "ACISMAX2. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. click the Sub-Object button. Select the 3DM file to import. The Rhino web site at http://www. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Given the information we have. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. select Rhino 3D Models. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported.

It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Surface.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. select Rhino 3D Models. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. from the Files of type box. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. CurveCV. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. Clear the Weld control.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. In the File Import dialog box. Click the Sub-Object button. Curve. are imported in several pieces. Open 3D Studio MAX.1.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. If there is no Rhino object name. 3D Studio MAX 3. obj+number is used as a name.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www.2 or 3D Studio VIZ." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. click Import. On December 10 1997. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. From the File menu. Some surfaces.habware. click Mesh.Rhino 2. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Select the 3DM file to import.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1.rhino3d. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools.at/duck3. 45 . From the Tools menu.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name.

5 ACIS Version: 1. To change these into splines.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. but import in as bodies. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . type a name for the file. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. Or. Click Save. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Export Selected. click Save As. select ACIS SAT. All of the version types export curves. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. In the File name box. In Rhino. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products.0 ACIS Version: 2. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. At the Select object prompt.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. select the curves and explode them. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u.0 is currently not suggested. from the File menu. It does not fix geometry problems.0 ACIS Version: 3.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically.and v-direction vectors. select the options for the export. Using ACIS Version 5. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.

In the Files of type box.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1. select Adobe Illustrator.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. 47 .Rhino 2.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. In the File name box. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. type a name for the AI file. click Open.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. click Import/Merge. Or. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. select a scale option.0 ACIS Version: 4. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4. under Scale. from the File menu. Click Open.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. In the AI Import Options dialog box.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1.

click Save As. type a name for the AG file. click Save As. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page.Rhino 2. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. type a name for the AG file. In some situations. In the File name box. Click Open. Or. Or.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. In the File name box. click Import/Merge.ini. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet.1 units from the original curve. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. Under some circumstances. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. click Open. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. From the File menu. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. In the Save as type box. Rhino only reads curve geometry. type a name for the AI file. from the File menu. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format.0 > 8. under Scale. curves need to be refit before exporting. Make the viewport you want to export from active. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. select Adobe Illustrator. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. In the File name box. click Export Selected. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. click a scale option. select AG. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. In the AI Export Options dialog box. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. In the Save as type box.5. from the Files of type box. From the File menu. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use.0 files. from the File menu. Or. not text. Click Save. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. In the Open dialog box. select AG. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. from the File menu. click Export Selected.

In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. In the Save as type box. Click Open. Click Save. Or. select AutoCAD DXF. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. AutoCAD line types are ignored. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. In the Files of type box. They are not converted to NURBS. from the File menu. click Save As. OLE objects. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Or. In the File name box. From the File menu. type a name for the DWG file. from the File menu. from the File menu. In the File name box. click Export Selected. XREF's are imported. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. click Import/Merge. In the File name box. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. type a name for the DXF file. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.Rhino 2. select the options for DWG export. Or. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. select AutoCAD DXF. type a name for the DWG file. select the options for DXF export. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. select AutoCAD DWG. In the Files of type box. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. click Open. from the File menu. regions. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. rays.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. click Open. click Save As. type a name for the DXF file. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. click Export Selected. From the File menu. click Import/Merge. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. or anything in paperspace. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Open. Click Save. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. select AutoCAD DWG. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. In the Save as type box. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. Rhino will not import images. Object properties. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . Or. In the File name box.

0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. use RAW instead. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles.Rhino 2. OLE objects. arc. or circle. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. rays. or circle. arcs. Rhino will not import images. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. or anything in paperspace. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. 3-D curves are never simplified. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. 50 . They are not converted to NURBS. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. arc. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. and line entities. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. export curves as splines. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. curves are approximated with polylines. circles. This means if the curve is just one line. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. but do not properly read polyface meshes. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. you can export either polyline or spline entities. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. 2-D curves are simplified. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. circle. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. regions. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces.

0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. ellipses. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. it is exported as a simple entity.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. line. ellipse. it will be exported as such. click Export Selected. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle.csv). The larger this number. and ellipses as NURBS curves. arc. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. Click Save. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. not the file header. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. type a name for the file. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. and line entities. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. line. lines. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. or ellipse. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. If the simplify tolerance is too small. In the File name box. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. arcs. If the simplify tolerance is too large. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. In the Save as type box. circle. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. or later DWG/DXF. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. select Object Properties (. Use simple entities Circles. For silhouette lines. circle. but increase the number of polyline segments. arcs. From the File menu. This setting uses current model units. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity.Rhino 2. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number.

Rhino must approximate each polyline. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. object render color and selected mass properties. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. Rhino produces one component for each shape. All component origin shift is considered 0. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. When exporting curves as polylines. object name.S) or only half (. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. The larger this number. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments.C). If you have previously selected a centerline. 52 .0. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. This setting determines how the station lines are created. layer color. You can give each shape the name you would like here. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. Each component will have the same name as the shape. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis.0. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat.Rhino 2.

53 .535 points for the entire file.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. from the File menu. In the Save as type box.000 polygon limitation. click Open. from the File menu. click Save As. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.lwo file instead of a generic name. Or. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Each component will initially be a member of this part.Rhino 2. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the File name box. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. Moray automatically numbers the objects. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. select Lightwave. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. The LWO file is limited to 65. click Export Selected. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Export Selected. Note Object names are supported. Object names will be used when exporting the . If the same name is used for multiple objects. from the Files of type box. Containment. Click Open. click Import/Merge. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. which does not have the 65. select Lightwave. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. Or. Click Save. Click Save. click Save As. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. select Moray UDO. type a name for the LWO file. In the Open dialog box. or Windage (sail). You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. In the File name box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Save as type box. They are not converted to NURBS. type a name for the LWO file. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. In the File name box. from the File menu. type a name for the UDO file.

Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive.Rhino 2.stmuc. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. from the File menu. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. and curves Solid Edge 6. 54 . If the file contains open surfaces.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. Planes are important primitives. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. To import the object into Moray. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. type a name for the file.0 will not read in open surfaces. select the target application for the export. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. click Save As. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. Click Save." Solution The model probably exported just fine. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. click User Defined. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. and colors. Rhino creates a . If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. surfaces. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. surfaces. When you export to UDO. click Export Selected. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges.UDO file and a . the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. Or. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges.INC file. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. In the File name box. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. they will be ignored with no warning.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. select Parasolid X_T.com/moray/. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. they display a blank window. only closed solids will be imported. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. In the Save as type box.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. from Create menu.

org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.rhino3d. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. In the File name box. however. ISBN: 1558606181. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. select RenderMan. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. click Export Selected.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. In the Save as type box. type a name for the RIB file. click Save As.graphics.Rhino 2. Click Save. ISBN: 0201508680.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.bmrt. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www.rhino3d. from the File menu. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. 55 . toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. Addison-Wesley Pub Co.rendering. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. Or. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp.

close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. color. Export to RIB file format supports render background color.org. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Use Properties to set the object names.povray. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Rhino writes the surface.povray. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino.1. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. To test render the scene. Set up your scene with materials and lights. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. transparency.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. click Save As. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. and opacity statement for each object." Two windows will open.Rhino 2. click Export Selected.rib reboot your computer. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. click the big blue "R. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. To cancel the rendering process. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light.rendribrc. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Or. 56 . Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. and highlight. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. The transparency color is the color of the object. select POV-Ray Mesh. In the Save as type box. type a name for the POV file. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. The intensity is always set to 1. however. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. Click Save. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino.org. from the File menu. In the File name box.

In the File name box. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. from the File menu.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. click Import/Merge.inc and lights. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Click Open. Or. 57 . from the File menu. click Save As. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. type a name for the RAW file. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. click Open. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. select Raw Triangles. or into one large POV file. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. but object colors are. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. from the Files of type box. In the Open dialog box. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. transparency. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Or. and highlight. In the File name box. type a name for the RTF file. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Click Save. select Raw Triangles. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. Textures are not exported. click Export Selected. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the Save as type box. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. They are not converted to NURBS. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials.Rhino 2.

from the File menu. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. 0. click Export Selected. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. from the File menu. type a name for the STEP file.0254mm. 0. select STEP. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. click Import/Merge. click Export Selected. from the File menu.0508mm and 0. Click Open. click Open. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. type a name for the SLC file. The greater the number of polygons. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt.0762mm. click Save As. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. Consequently. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. 58 . To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. select STEP. use DXF instead. Click Save.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. Export it in RAW format. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. select SLC. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu.0127mm. click Save As. In the Open dialog box. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. from the File menu. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. The slices will be evenly spaced. from the Files of type box. Import it back into Rhino. In the File name box. Or.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Import/Merge.0381mm. (For example. click Open. and use ExplodeMesh. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. Click Save. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. Or. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the File name box. 0. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. Or. type a name for the STEP file.

select STL. that is. In the File name box. click Export Selected. Click Open. then click Unify Normals. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. then they have the same idea of up. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. For example. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. In the File name box. from the File menu. They are not converted to NURBS. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. then click Join. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. From the Tools menu. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. then Weld (angle=180). Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. type a name for the STL file. to get JCAD to work. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. click Polygon Mesh. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. If a mesh point is highlighted. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. 59 . but doesn't glue the edges together. from the Files of type box. From the Tools menu.Rhino 2.) Select the new mesh object. From the Tools menu. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. click Polygon Mesh. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. Instead. change the [STL] section of the Rhino.ini file to look like this. Use JoinMesh. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. click Save As. Or. click Polygon Mesh. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. Click Save. then click Weld. In the Save as type box. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. to control STL accuracy. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. if two triangles share an edge. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. type a name for the STL file. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. select STL.

from the File menu.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. click Export Selected. symbols. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. type a name for the VDA file. etc. click Open. In the File name box. type a name for the WRL file. Or.D geometry and topology information.axis toward the x. select VDA. Click Save. Or. Click Save. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. from the File menu. Render color. views. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. It does not support representation of drawing information. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. type a name for the VDA file. from the Files of type box. select VDA. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. Texture assignments are currently not exported. shine. select VRML. click Import/Merge. click Export Selected. from the File menu.y plane. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the File name box. Click Open. From the File menu. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Rhino now 60 . Or. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. In the File name box. It does not support assembly and feature information.Rhino 2. In the Open dialog box. click Save As. click Save As.

Click Save.viewpoint. type a name for the WMF file.pdf. click Save As.0. In the Save as type box. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. from the File menu.0. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. from the File menu. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. click Export Selected. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. In the File name box. select Windows Metafile. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. try 1.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. In the Save as type box.0 first. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. Or. type a name for the file. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. click Save As. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. Render Mesh tab. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. (The MTS file contains the actual data. click Export Selected. Or. but will make the WRL file much larger. This can be tricky. In the WMF Export Options dialog box.exe.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. select Viewpoint Technologies Export.Rhino 2. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. From the File menu. You can download it from http://developer. 61 . This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. In the File name box. you should try 2. Click Save. and if so.) Outside of Rhino. In general. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file.0 and 2. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed.com/software/mtx2html. If it does not work with your VRML viewer." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.viewpoint. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines.

Click Save. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. from the IGES type box. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. and click Save. This means various settings have different values for each product. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. type a name for the DXF file. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. enter a name for the file.Rhino 2. In the File name box. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. Organization. 62 . in the Save as type box. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. Detailed options Author. click Export Selected. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds.3ds A file yourfile. 1 2 In the File name box.x is created. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. From the File menu. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. select IGES. Sender's product ID. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. select an IGES type. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section.

the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2.ini. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. When Rhino 2. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. To import trimming curves as curve objects.2 or 5. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. To create an IGES import log. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. the IGES file will be empty.Rhino 2. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.ini. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 .0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command.

) are ignored. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. Lines that begin with semi-colon (.Rhino 2.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. . it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . you need to do a bit of sleuthing. 3. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. This file can contain multiple flavors. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . A layer to level function is available in Rhino. A flavor is terminated by a blank line.). If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. Spaces and tabs are ignored." For example. 2. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. When Rhino reads an IGES file.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N"..0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history.. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. an IGES level number is automatically selected. 1. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. but this is not required. To see if this is the case. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping.

Other(). lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. click Close. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. regardless of type. click New. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read.igs. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. set the options for the IGES type. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read.igs open gamma. If one of the Annotation(). If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. accepting only entities marked as geometry. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. you will get it. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. or Logical/Positional().igs.Rhino 2. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. If you do something like: open alpha. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. Rhino reads alpha. Definition().igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile.igs and gamma. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero.igs normally. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. 65 .

maximum degree three. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If the max degree is set to three. select an IGES type. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. click Close. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. and MacOS style line endings. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. and MacOS uses CR. select an IGES type. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. Unix. set the options for the IGES type. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. this number should be one. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. and click Copy Type.2 stores years using two digits and 5. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. click Close.3. from the IGES type list box. In most cases. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. and maximum degree five. from the IGES type list box. or IGES circles. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. IGES arcs. The difference is 5.3 using four digits. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). arcs. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. If the max degree is set to five.Rhino 2. set the options for the IGES type. The number must be bigger than zero. and click Edit. and click Delete.2 and 5. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. IGES 184 entities. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. 66 . Unix uses LF.

Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). click Save As. try the following test. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. click Export Selected. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box.Rhino 2. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). when possible. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If the max degree is set to five. In the File name box. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. when possible. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. select the options for OBJ export. maximum degree three. Curves are not exported. Or. Click Save. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. 67 . rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. type a name for the OBJ file. If the max degree is set to three. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing.rhino3d. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. select Wavefront OBJ.com/rhino so we can document this file format. from the File menu. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. when possible. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. and maximum degree five. Try to load both files into your product. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). In the Save as type box. If you get better results with one export type. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. the surface is split so each half has just one pole.

Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. Export layer names should be cleared. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. The . Export object names Exports object names. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. There are also references to these materials added to the . Export material definitions Creates an . End of line character CRLF (Windows. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. To export to MAX. CR (Mac OS) Return only. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. By default. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet.mtl file contains one material definition per object. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. mesh export is disabled. the trimming curves are NURBS curves.obj file.obj file. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. LF (Unix) Line feed only. Export layer names Exports layer names. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Options Skip Don't export meshes. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. If is far from 100% satisfactory. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. 68 .Rhino 2.mtl file with the same name as the .ini file.

make it independent. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. from the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. and flip the trim. Note When merging an IGES file. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. try using OBJ format instead. select the trim curve. type a filename. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. select IGES. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. select the surface.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. and then restart MAX. All data that is not grouped. select Alias V8.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. it is recommended that you save your work first. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. Or. In the File name box. click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In this case. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. In the File name box. and Customize > Preferences.x. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. After a large IGES import. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . it is recommended that you save your work.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. To distinguish between separate entities. and resides in the same level will import to the same object.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select IGES. For the fastest import. select 3D Studio MAX 3. From the IGES Type box. and set the display to wireframe.

0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. select Ashlar Vellum. In the File name box.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. select AUTOFORM. type a filename. select IGES. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

select IGES.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CADCEUS. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. select AutoShip. type a filename. select Breault Research's ASAP.Rhino 2. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. 71 . In the File name box. click Export or Save As.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.

type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . select IGES. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select CamSoft.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select CATIA. In the Save as type box. select IGES.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. select Cosmos/M. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. even those that are trivially trimmed. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Surfaces and Solids. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y.

click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. select FastShip. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. select IGES. select Cosmos/M. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In the Save as type box. 74 .Rhino 2. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

select FastSURF. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 .Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IronCAD. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Integrity Ware. select IGES. In the Save as type box.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the File name box. select IGES.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. click Export or Save As. type a filename.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. In the Save as type box.

In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. select Mastercam.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select LUSAS. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select IGES.

From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. In the Save as type box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. select IGES. click Export Selected. select Maya.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select ME30. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 77 .0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. Surfaces and Solids. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. type a filename. from the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.Rhino 2. Or. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.

opt. select IGES. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. Version 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. type a filename. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. in the Description box. click Export or Save As. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. select Microstation. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. (The MDT defaults work fine. select IGES.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. Surfaces and Solids.3. In the File name box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. and click OK. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. click Start and Global.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. click Structure. You may set these options as you see fit. To get the best results. select Mechanical Desktop. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. In the File name box. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers.2 or 5. click DE Mappings.IGESOUT dialog box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Edit options. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. set IGES Version to either 5. 78 .) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. To save these settings. From the IGES Type box. click Geometry. Version 5. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options.

type a filename. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. If you add the following section to your Rhino. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. select Multisurf.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. In the File name box. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box.1 using an IGES file. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims.Rhino 2. select NASA GridTool. click Export or Save As.ini file. click Export or Save As.000000 79 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. Multisurf 3. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.1. the current version of Multisurf is 3. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation.

Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. select NuGraf. type a filename. select OptiCAD. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. select IGES. select IGES. In the File name box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

Rhino 2. use these settings in the Pro/E config. select IGES.01 units.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. Note With Pro/E version 20. somewhere around 0. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.0001 will produce good results. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. If you set your tolerances right. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. use the "All Parts" option.pro file or save them as rhino. when exporting to IGES.pro file then read it in before exporting. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.001 to 0.

The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. When modeling in Rhino. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. even those that are trivially trimmed. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. If the curves are planar. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. there are now two types. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. The more trims you have.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. 82 . Surface replace is another good tool to use. Things like fillets and drafts . then.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. Surfaces and Solids.Rhino 2. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations.

Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. and a solid. a surface. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. click Export or Save As. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E .2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the File name box.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. select IGES. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E.Rhino 2. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. type a filename.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. In the Save as type box. you will not get back what you sent. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. From the IGES Type box. select SDRC's I-DEAS. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. There is no geometry information in it.

All three have their own problems and benefits. 2 84 . In the IGES Export Options dialog box. SGI and x86 (Intel).7sp1 and 3. from the IGES Type box. Open Softimage. In the Save As dialog box.phoenixtools.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.com Plugin download link page: www. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.txt contains command line option information.igs MyDSCFile.phoenixtools. then click IGES. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage.com.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export. Run iges2soft. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. select IGES. In the IGES Export dialog box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. for SI versions 3. 1. from the Save as type box. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files. click Save As.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. DXF.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. Type a filename and click Save. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. 3. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. select Softimage. Check out their web site for more information: www.okino.phoenixtools.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. From the File menu. select Softimage. Softimage can also import 3DS.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.Rhino 2.8: ftp://ftp.

In the Save as type box. type a filename. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. In the Save as type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. click Export or Save As. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. In the File name box. select IGES. In the File name box. select Solid Edge.

The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.001 or 0. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces.Rhino 2. Surfaces and Solids. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.0 Points=116 86 . select IGES. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select SolidWorks. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. To export models to Rhino. From the IGES Type box. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. type a filename.0001 before building the geometry. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Experiment with different settings for optimal results. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.

over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 87 . leaving features such as fillets.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. SUM 4. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select IGES. which works on both edges and faces. type a filename. to test feasibility. From the IGES Type box. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature.. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. Also. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. select SUM4. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. etc. ribs. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. Nothing replaces experience. Generally. In the Save as type box. which within human perception. click Export or Save As. Shelling. is tangent. select SURFCAM. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. and investigate alternative approaches. then shelling is likely to fail. select IGES. shelling. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. by nature. In the File name box.0001. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. try to model with smooth. for SolidWorks.Rhino 2.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the File name box. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2.

click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the File name box. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select TekSoft. select IGES. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. select IGES.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select Unigraphics.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . type a filename. From the IGES Type box.

Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.Rhino 2. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. type a filename. select Yamaha ESPRi. Surfaces and Solids. In the File name box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. 90 . click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.

Context-sensitive menu indicator. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. For maximum speed. The first item is always to repeat the last command. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. select a color. type RGB values in the Red. type values in the Hue. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. The same limitation does not apply to render color. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value.ini file. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. or drag to manipulate the view.txt in the Rhino install directory. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no.ini file to add or change menu items. actions related to objects appear in the menu. 91 . Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. If no object is selected. Saturation. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. If context-sensitive menu is on. and Blue boxes. and Value boxes. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. Edit the Rhino. from the Named Colors list. Green. In addition.

When activated. if End. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. or can be activated for one pick only. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. To display the Osnap dialog box. Perp. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. For example. Point. To clear all persistent object snaps. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. the appropriate object snap displays. Only Near. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. As you pass your cursor over an object. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. click Osnap. right-click the Lock checkbox. on the status bar. Near. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. All object snaps behave similarly. Quad. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Center. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. 92 . Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. After the pick. Intersection. End.Rhino 2. Near. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. End. and Point will not work for that pick. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. If object snaps are locked. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. When an object snap is active. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. and Knot object snaps can persist. Tan. Midpoint.

Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.Rhino 2. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box.

94 . then click End. with no spaces. Center. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. Quad. all others will be cleared. from the Tools menu. or just suspends them for one pick. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Tan. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. and Knot. InsertKnot.Rhino 2. for example in ExtractIsoparm. click Object Snap. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. Only these object snaps will be set. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. Valid options are NoSnap. Point. Near. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. End. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. Midpoint. Click to enter the endpoint. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Intersection. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. This command is useful for command files. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. The marker jumps to the endpoint. it turns off all persistent object snaps. If a command is active. Perp. separated by commas. OrientOnSrf.

click the Osnap pane. click the Osnap pane. On the status bar. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. On the status bar. and the "corners" of surfaces. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click Near. In the Osnap dialog box. Click to enter the point. click Object Snap.Rhino 2. The marker moves along the curve. click Object Snap.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. The marker jumps to it. Click to enter a point on the curve. Near object snap Snap near a curve. Move the cursor near a point. from the Tools menu. click End. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. the seam point on closed curves. On the status bar. then click Point. 95 . Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Click to enter the midpoint. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker jumps to its midpoint. Move the cursor near a curve. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. click Mid. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Near. click Point. then click Mid.

Move the cursor along a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. 96 . from the Tools menu. click Int. Click to enter one of these points. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click the Osnap pane.Rhino 2. The marker jumps to its center point. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. from the Tools menu. click Perp. Move the cursor near a curve. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. Click to enter the point of intersection. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. then click Perpendicular To. click Object Snap. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Move the cursor near an intersection. Click to enter the center point. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. then click Center. Move the cursor along a curve. click Object Snap. tangent to the curve. perpendicular to the curve. click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to it.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Intersection. Click to enter one of these points. click Object Snap. On the status bar. then click Tangent To. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Cen. On the status bar.

click Tan. then click Quadrant. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. Set your constraints relative to the base point. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. without entering that point for the original command. click the Osnap pane. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. and relative coordinate entry. without picking it. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. angle constraint. and finally choose the point for the original command. 3 Example 97 . from the Tools menu. distance constraint. click Quad. with From. You can set this point. Similarly. You can use another object snap to pick this point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. At the Choose a base point prompt. Click to enter the knot point. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. type Knot. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor along a circle. Move the cursor near a curve. from the Tools menu. From object snap Snap from a point. On the status bar. then click Knot. click Object Snap. Click to enter one of these points. arc or ellipse. pick a point. then click From. or similar surface edges. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point.

At the Choose a point prompt. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. and Quad. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Int. At the Click near the curve prompt. click Object Snap. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. 98 . select the curve. from the Tools menu. then click Tangent From. snap to the end of the line. Near. At the Click near the curve prompt. select the curve. you can use simple snaps. Mid. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. At the Choose a base point prompt. Point. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. then click Perpendicular From. from the Tools menu. for greater precision. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. Cen. click Object Snap. End. then click From. Note When selecting points during this sequence. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. type 2 and press Enter. The cursor moves only along the curve.

The marker tracks along the tangent line. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Cen. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. you can use simple snaps (End. then click Along Line. right-click the Along toolbar button. Int. Mid. Near. Near. At the End of tracking line prompt. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. Point. and Quad) for greater precision. from the Tools menu. select a second point. Click to enter a point on the line. you can use simple snaps (End. 99 . Point. Int. select a first point to specify the tracking line. Mid. and Quad) for greater precision. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Along object snap Track along a line. Or. At the Choose a point prompt. Near. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. and Quad) for greater precision. Mid.Rhino 2. At the Start of base line prompt. click Object Snap. Note When selecting points during this sequence. The marker moves only along the line. At the Start of tracking line prompt. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Cen. select a second point. Point. type AlongParallel. At the End of base line prompt. The marker moves only along the line. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. in the Object Snap toolbar. Cen. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter a point on the line. you can use simple snaps (End. Int. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points.

Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. you can use simple snaps. then click On Surface. When Osnap projection is on. select the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. Note When selecting a point on the surface. Mid. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. Center. Point. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. End. Near. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. and Knot. At the Click near the surface prompt. from the Tools menu. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. click Object Snap. it is off. Click to enter a point on the surface. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. Intersection.Rhino 2. and the cursor is over an object snap point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. The marker moves only along the surface. 100 . This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. but works on curves. select Project to CPlane. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. for greater precision. By default.

or just the knot isoparms. 1. The valid values are -1. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. and OBJ file export. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. go to the Options dialog box. 0. One isoparm on knot-free spans. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. and the other positive integers. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. Isoparms at surface knot locations. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. General tab. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects.Rhino 2. POV-Ray. Object Properties. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. 2. and RenderMan RIB. 101 . You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. Information Technical information about the command displays.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display.

this tab displays the properties for that light type. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Light tab Edit light object properties. using a plug-in library.Rhino 2. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. Color Sets the color of the light. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. you can set the color. From top left to bottom right. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Material tab Edit object material properties. transparency. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. 102 . Turns light on or off. finish. texture. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object.0 Command Reference Object Properties. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. To change the material assignment of the layer.

From top left to bottom right. Clear this option to remove the texture map.Rhino 2. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. To change the color of the wireframe display. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Unlike more advanced renderers. Text tab Edit text properties. Object Properties. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. polysurface. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. 103 . Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Clear this option to remove the bump map. or a polygon mesh.

Example If your units are inches. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. Command string Command alias definitions.25 inches. The two sizes update each other. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Options dialog box. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts.Rhino 2. When you place annotation text. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. 104 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. 114 . Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.Rhino 2. and a backdrop image. highlights. On the Shade tab. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. shadows. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. and the color-andshadows Render. from the smooth geometry. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. The next time you shade the same model. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. For highest quality results. Also. click Options. this shading mode may be much faster. Rhino takes that time to calculate. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Choose between the quick render preview. spotlighting. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. click Use OpenGL.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. Render Mesh tab. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. you will see improved performance. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time.

so it won't be deformed. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. you will see improved performance. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Render tab. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. Render Mesh tab. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. 115 . We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. from the smooth geometry. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. the patterns may probably disappear. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. In some situations. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. of the view in the active viewport. When you draw the plane.5.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Also.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. The next time you render the same model. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. Jagged spotlight edges and self. which might appear in waves. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering.0 or 1. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. Rhino Render tab.Rhino 2. Self.

shadowing effects. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. The scale of the objects is very large. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. If you’re getting self.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Correct shadow. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If the problems still persist. Sometimes the conversion 116 . Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. If you increase it too much. Change the size of the light. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth.Rhino 2. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. Self-shadowing artifacts. That will usually solve the problem. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow.

contact Rhino Technical Support.com/windows/downloads/winntw. To update Windows NT drivers. they look jagged. On Status of layer.asp. If this does not fix the problem. This helps you organize your model. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. if you were working on a human figure. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. Windows 95. and download the latest drivers. Name Layer name. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. change the color of the wire frame. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. 117 .dll and Glu32. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. For example. you can turn them all off at once. Off Status of layer. please read section the next section.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). Or you can organize your parts a different way. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Even if you got the card last week. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. Otherwise. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. and since the polygons are flat. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. available from Microsoft at www. you may not have the current drivers. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. When objects are on a layer. Start Rhino. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column.microsoft. To update your OpenGL drivers. To set the column width. select them all with one selection. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons.

Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. To change the color of the wireframe display. polysurface. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. you can set the color. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. 118 . This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. transparency. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command.Rhino 2. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. You can snap to objects on this layer. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. or a polygon mesh.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. texture. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. finish. Unlike more advanced renderers. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer.

Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. Clear this option to remove the texture map. 119 . The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. In the Layer dialog box. type a new name and press Enter. select the name on the list.Rhino 2. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. You can select all layers. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. In the Edit Layers dialog box. If you don't remember the layer names. and Invert the selection. Clear this option to remove the bump map. You cannot create new layers with these names. select a set of layers. click New. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box.

Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . select a color for the layer. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. Click Delete. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. click a filter option.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. In the Select Color dialog box. click the color column of the layer you want to change. use the Empty Layers filter. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. In the Edit Layers dialog box. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. select all the displayed layers and delete. from the list select the layers you want to delete.Rhino 2. In the Show box. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. To delete empty layers. When a model has a large number of layers.

and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word)." are on or locked.Rhino 2. or locked. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. type a string of characters to match the layer name to.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. click Filtered Layers. set the desired filter options. off. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box.

Rules. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. Sweeps. 122 . If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. then use the one closest to the top of the list. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. Lofts. then use a ruled surface. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. Think of each curve you select in Loft. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. stair-like. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. If you are after a tent-like.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. The surface is smooth. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. try adding a few more cross sections. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. The rail curve directs the surface along it. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes.Rhino 2. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. Sweep1. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. If you are after a flag-like surface. then the surface created by loft will. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. generally. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. then try Loft. or accordion bellows-like surface. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. If this doesn't help. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered.

Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. the surface will twist. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. 123 . The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. If surfaces are twisted with open curves.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. while keeping the other end fixed. If you have a several of closed curves. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. use a Sweep2. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface.Rhino 2.

there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. For each of these four ways. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. and thus the fillet. 124 . or no curves.Rhino 2. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. the intersection of the offsets can have one. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. several. there are four ways to fillet. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. For a given radius.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count.

0 Command Reference As mentioned. there may be several fillet pieces. These pieces can be grouped into connected components.Rhino 2. for this choice of sides. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. 125 .

If no.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. Because of this. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. If yes. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. then the surfaces are left intact. When Extend = yes. When that is the case.Rhino 2. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. 126 . If split. yes. No. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. and split.

0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. then no fillets will be created. and a fillet will exist. If two surfaces are tangent. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. 127 .Rhino 2. their offsets may intersect. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails.

except cross-sections are lines. rather than arcs.Rhino 2. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. no fillet will be created.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. 128 . or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. Otherwise. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface.

0 Command Reference In general. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. then the result to B will work. If both are single surfaces. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. it doesn't. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. Often. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. on an open surface or polysurface. B and C. 129 . Additionally. In this case. it is projected. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. but it may not fit. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. However. In this case. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. The picking order can make the difference. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. joining A to C. Do each surface individually. no corner patch will be attempted. If you do. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. a spherical patch will be made. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. When joining A. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. Once we have a curve on the surface. Objects have overlapping surface areas. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. If one is a polysurface. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A.Rhino 2. The result will have a hole at the corner. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. do not pick A and B first. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm.

this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. You can also move control points to the same location. the operation can fail. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. 130 . the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. not mesh objects. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location.Rhino 2. For success using the Booleans. This point is also called a singularity. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. or visa versa.

but Difference. In this example. the Intersect command may give different results. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. and Intersection do not work.Rhino 2. At the Select object for intersection prompt.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. and then click Intersection. The objects will Union. we chose the cone first. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. In this example. In this example. select one object. the two boxes are just touching along one side. In this example. select the second object. click From Objects. 131 . create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. Depending on the order the objects are selected. there are three possible intersection curves. At the Select object to intersect prompt. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box.

Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. If your objects are very complex. if your objects are polysurfaces. but for the same reason the Boolean failed.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command.Rhino 2. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. you would expect to get all three curves. this may not happen. To get all the possible curves. Therefore. so we will Explode it. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. however. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. In our simple example.

5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. At the Select object to split prompt. click Split. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. select the cone. 133 . click Extract Surface. At the Select cutting objects prompt. select the two faces of the box as shown below. From the Solid menu.Rhino 2. Delete the small wedge of the cone. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Explode the cone.

The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other.Rhino 2. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. and is achieved by flipping the normals. union. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. go through the same code. 134 . Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). all comments refer to any Boolean operation. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. A – B = A intersect ~B. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. From the Edit menu. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. In this case. The intersection involves isolated points. select the two curves. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. click Trim. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. There is no intersection. So. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. difference. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. intersection.

To understand the results. Exit Rhino. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. the outside is the side to which the normals point.Rhino 2. cylinders. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. planes. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. Find the setting you want to change.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. clear the checkbox for the toolbar.ini to open it for editing. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Edit the Rhino.ini file.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. find the folder where Rhino is installed. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. For a polysurface that is not a solid.ini. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. etc. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. 135 . In Windows Explorer.ini and restart Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. select the check box for the toolbar. Double-click Rhino. Surfaces overlap. To edit the Rhino. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen.

and click Properties. select the toolbar. The toolbar reshapes. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. it has no title bar. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. loses its title bar. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. The toolbar appears or hides. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. type the new name. which can be on or off the Rhino window. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. and is docked. Or. right-click the toolbar name in the list. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box.ini file. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. The toolbar moves to a new position. The title bar appears. The title bar appears on the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. click Properties. until the preview frame of it changes shape. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. 136 . and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. This is a setting in the Rhino.Rhino 2.

it will distort the bitmap icon. Release the mouse button. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. click New. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Click Import. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and click Properties. click Properties.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. Or. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. select the toolbars to import. Or. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and from the Toolbar menu. right-click the toolbar name in the list.Rhino 2. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. and click Delete Toolbar. Or. The linked toolbar appears. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. and drop in the desired position. and click Import Toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. select the toolbar. which has the white triangle in the corner. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. 3 137 . the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. Click Open. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Or. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Press and hold Ctrl. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. Or. and from the Toolbar menu. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. select the toolbar. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. select the toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. and click New Toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. click Import. click Delete. select the toolbar. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay.

The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. Or.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. In this case. and click the right mouse button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. Move the cursor over a link button. select Float to Top to make the link button float. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. The buttons rearrange. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. Press and hold Ctrl. Press and hold Shift. Release the mouse button. 138 . clear Float to Top. The toolbar appears. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. The toolbar is floating. click both mouse buttons simultaneously.Rhino 2. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. it will distort the bitmap icon. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Press and hold Shift. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Press and hold Shift. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. or to a different position in the same toolbar. The linked toolbar vanishes. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button.

You can clear the image. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. type text in the ToolTip box. draw with the paint tools. the left and right mouse buttons commands. Use this area to edit your bitmap. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. click Add Button. You can change the ToolTip. Or. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. Press and hold Shift. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. for example: Zoom In | Out. Release the left mouse button. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. A blank button is added to the toolbar. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars.Rhino 2. and click the right mouse button. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Press F2 to view the command history. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and click Add Button. 139 . and the bitmap icon. select the toolbar. type text in the ToolTip box. capture a portion of the screen. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. right-click the toolbar name in the list. click OK. Click Close. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. and click the right mouse button. If you don't know what to enter. Press and hold Shift. and from the Toolbar menu. In the Delete Button dialog box.

Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and click the right mouse button. from the Edit menu. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Press and hold Shift. 140 . The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. and click the right mouse button. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. from the Edit menu. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Note You can shift the image left. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. the button is blank. click Edit Bitmap. right. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. click Grab. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. then OK. from the Edit menu. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click Clear. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Press and hold Shift. and click the right mouse button. Press and hold Shift. click Edit Bitmap. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. To undo a mistake. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color.Rhino 2. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Click the pencil tool. Press and hold Shift. Or. up. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. and click the right mouse button. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click Edit Bitmap. click Undo. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Or. A square replaces the cursor. click Edit Bitmap.

Click Save. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons.4 -4. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. select a bitmap file.Rhino 2. from the File menu.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. click Import Bitmap.4 13. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.1 4.-4 8. 141 . type a bitmap file name. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. and click the right mouse button. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line.0 5. shortcut keys. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. Press and hold Shift.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. click Export Bitmap. Click Open. click Edit Bitmap.-3 1. which stops the creation of point objects. from a text file. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. command aliases. This script moves objects. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. from the File menu.

Microsoft JScript 5. Divs is the samples per knotspan. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Press F2 to view the command history. The default is 1.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. is a fast. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. variable names. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. then click Paste from Clipboard. Mode is always 1. click Commands. These scripting languages allow loops. 142 . the Web's only standard scripting language. Fit is the fitting method.Rhino 2. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. portable. browsing for files. If you don't know what to enter. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. The default is 20. and Java applets. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. Automation servers. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. 1=Fit. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition.5. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. From the Tools menu. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. Options are 0=Interpolate. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. layername2. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. queries. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt).

like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. If your model doesn't pass Check. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems.microsoft. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. Another problem is having a tiny. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. These damaged areas can cause problems. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. Rhino will let you do it. But it can check the general overall structure of the object.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting.for instance. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. you may find some of those microscopic edges. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . and Check doesn't check for those things. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. you have to explode the model.Rhino 2. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. If a model passes Check. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve.rvb. To fix broken edges. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. though. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. Some bad model parts. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. 143 . Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. then edit the trim curves. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. The first one to try is the Check command. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. see: http://msdn. and join everything back together again. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. If you zoom in enough. re-trim the surface. If Rhino matches the large edges. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. then it will list some specific problems. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. For more information on scripting. If your model doesn't pass Check.

Untrim or DetachTrim. Trim again. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible.0 5. and Join. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. open up the kink by control point editing. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. FitCrv. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face.0 5. This test does not check the geometry. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. you can Undo changing the degree. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. the Join command can get confused when that happens.Rhino 2.5 5. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. simple edge-to-edge matching. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Thus. Solution: Rebuild the curve. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. You will get this error message. If there are lots of tiny edges.4 10. Additionally. 144 .10 5. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. To draw a non-G1 curve. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. Split the curve at the kink. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points.

Internal control points are coincident. Extrude it. Join and Booleans in particular. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Some operations. Edge direction. You will get this error message. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. In short. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. Draw a Circle. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. The warning lets you know when this has happened. There are stacked control points along a surface edge.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. You can put control points very close to each other. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Solution: DetachTrim. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Use this to install as a standalone node. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance.Rhino 2. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. You will get this error message. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. 145 . and then control point edit the extrusion. Solution: Rebuild the edge. Usually. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. fix curve and retrim. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. but not right on top of each other. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can put control points very close to each other. but not right on top of each other. Rhino 2. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it.

Very little administration is required.0" as a workgroup node. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. visit www. For details on setting up a workgroup. 146 .0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. the license is added back to the available license pool.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network.Rhino 2. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino.htm.0 as a workgroup node. This is an installation option. unlike standalone Rhino.com/plugins/developer. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems.rhino3d. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. contact your network administrator. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. Thus.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. it does not modify the shape of the surface. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back.com/plug-ins. No special hardware is needed. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. When a node shuts down.rhino3d. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded.

If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. called the edge. 0. Each 2. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. After the initial grid is made.90 degrees The range is from . Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. For example. When using elevator mode. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. then e_tol tells how close the 3. which also approximates the intersection.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. 8/3. 2. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). Cursor. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . The 3. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0.D curve (the one you see). the cursor turns into a crosshair. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. 147 . Rhino meshes all trim edges. 1/3. 3. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. and tolerance values for each of the curves.Rhino 2. the marker will snap to the snap point.90 degrees to 90 degrees. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. two 2.D edge is to the surface. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. trim curves are ignored. called the pedge.D edge. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3.D curve. Marker. 1.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. the draft angle is 0.D curves.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. 1. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. 3. If an object snap is on. When the initial mesh grid is made. 0. 2.

Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. etc. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. If you hold it at the ends. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. Imagine a rope. or reflective metal on one side. Solid objects do not have naked edges. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. blue on one side. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. 148 . so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. red on the other. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. Normals are also used for lighting a surface.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. flat constant on the other). However. or a polysurface. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. When you have a finished solid. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. when you have a single surface. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge.Rhino 2. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. The other side is the inside. the stiffness of the rope. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction.) with a polynomial definition. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it).

Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. and solids. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Ortho pane." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. this is called a "quilt. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. it is also a solid. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. Snap pane.Rhino 2. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Planar pane and Osnap pane. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. surfaces. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. In some other 3-D programs. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. 149 . It is a mathematical way of defining curves. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent.

This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. You can save your own templates to base future models on. grid size. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. Esc deselects all objects. Esc turns off the points. The u. u.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. and tolerances.direction is indicated by the green arrow. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. v. units. Esc clears the command prompt. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. If objects are selected and no command is active. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. You can display the u.Rhino 2. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. v.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. The u. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. there will be no holes in the mesh. U. A rectangular surface with the u. and normal. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. Surfaces have three directions. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. no objects are selected. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh.direction is indicated by the red arrow. When no command is active. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. and the v. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. If a mesh is generated from a solid. 150 .

3View Three-viewport layout. You can shade and render the wireframe view. and Third corner of polygon prompts. At the Fourth corner of polygon. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. Second corner of polygon. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Or.Rhino 2. 4View Four-viewport layout. 151 . Press Enter for triangle prompt. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Turn control points on for an existing mesh.

Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. 152 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. Start the AddNextU command.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Start the AddNextV command. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.

0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Surface with four control points selected 153 . Select a point on the surface. Start the AddPrevU command.Rhino 2. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.

Select a point on the surface. 1 At the Select objects prompt. select an object to add to a group. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. prompt select the group or enter a group name.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. 2 At the Select groups. Start the AddPrevV command. 154 .Rhino 2. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. Use the Group command to group objects together.

World Front. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. or World Right. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. AlignProfiles Align two curves. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. 155 . At the Select curve to change prompt. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top.Rhino 2. The curves must be planar. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. 1 2 Select the objects. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point.

AllLayersOn Turn all layers on.Rhino 2. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. 156 . Start of second line prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. End of first line prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. select a point that defines the start of an angle line.

and fitted onto the selected surface. select the surface on which to apply the curves. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface.0000 degrees. select the surface to apply the mesh. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. 157 . Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. If the surface is trimmed.

If making morph targets. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. enter the start point of the arc. Start. But that swaps u and v on the surface. although if you understand the process and work at it. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. Generally. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. Or. enter the center of the arc's radius. one of which has been squished around in some way. 158 . Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. For example. Then. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. mesh the most complex surface first. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). enter the end point of the arc. enter the center of the arc's radius. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face.Rhino 2. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. enter the angle for the arc. Arc Draw an arc. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. At the Start of arc prompt. At the End point or angle prompt. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. ApplyMesh guarantees that. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. so if you Mirror something. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. If you use the Mirror transformation. you can make such morphs. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. When you're in ExtractIsoparm.

At the End of arc prompt. At the Point on arc prompt. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. Arc from three points 159 . Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. enter a point on the arc. enter the end point of the arc.Rhino 2. You can enter the number of control points. enter the start of the arc.

select the first curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. select the second curve. Tangent. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. End. end point. At the Choose arc prompt. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. At the Direction prompt. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. and radius. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. End. enter the end point. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. At the Radius prompt. At the End of arc prompt. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. If the radius value is too small. Arc from start point. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. enter a radius value. enter the end point.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. At the End of arc prompt. 160 . At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the start point. At the Radius prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. end point. enter the radius of the arc.Rhino 2. enter the start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start.

8545412. second moments.4601236. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).1. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. 161 .014). The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0.1.0 (+/. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. First moments. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.1.0). area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.0. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.1e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. If you cannot see the entire report.34 (+/.Rhino 2. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. product moments.7e-006.

0) zx: 0 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.10.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/.1e-009.46410162 (+/. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 1.88675135 (+/. Area = 60 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 . with a surface or open polysurface.1e-009.1e-009) Rz: 6.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/. For example.Rhino 2.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.36650165 (+/. if you select a box polysurface.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.73205081 (+/.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.1e-009) Ry: 3.77350269 (+/. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.0 is shown below. In order to get the particular moment you need. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.5.0 (+/. and sometimes contradictory.1e-009) Rz: 3.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.0 and 6.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.73300329 (+/. As an example. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.0.

In terms of integrals. area second moments. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . the area. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area.Rhino 2. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. In particular. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. and area product moments. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. area first moments. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. The relationship between the area first moments.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. In terms of integrals. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration.

y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. At the Number in X direction prompt. The array directions are the x. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. press Enter.and y-intervals. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. At the Number in Z direction prompt. type the y-interval and press Enter. At the Number in Y direction prompt.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments.Rhino 2. 164 . the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. to indicate the x. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. Or. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. type the x-interval. those distances are applied to the array directions. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. Transform.

or the spacing distance along the curve. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. 165 . set the number of elements to array. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. type the z-interval and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. specify twist behavior.Rhino 2. choose two points that define the z-interval. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. Or.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. At the Select path curve prompt. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions.Rhino 2. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. type the number of copies and press Enter. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. You can continue to place objects. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. select objects to copy along the curve. type an angle and press Enter. choose a center point for the array. At the Select the surface prompt.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. Objects arrayed along line. At the Angle to fill prompt. At the Center of polar array prompt. Surface. and object to array. curve on surface. Enter a value of 1 or more. select a curve on a surface. 166 . Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. At the Basepoint prompt.

rotated around the axis defined by the center point. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. At the Select surface to array along prompt. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. If the surface is a trimmed surface. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly. Array along a surface 167 . choose the surface to array along. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. type a number of objects. type a number of objects.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt.Rhino 2.

the model's folder will be used as the default. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. At the End of line prompt. the path. 168 . Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. it prints a detailed description of the error.Rhino 2.rhp Options set the resolution. See the PluginManager command. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. enter the end of the arrow. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. otherwise you must select a folder. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. If the Audit command detects a database error. enter the start of the arrow.

If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. 169 . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Files tab.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. automatic Autosave is turned off. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. At the Radius prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. General tab.Rhino 2. Files tab. Back Set to world back view. choose a center point. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. Note By default.ini. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius. you must edit your Rhino. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. By default. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.

choose an endpoint. Bend 170 . choose the amount of bend. place the point outside the object. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. To bend the entire object. choose an endpoint. place the point outside the object. At the End of second axis prompt. To bend the entire object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. At the End of spine prompt. At the Start of spine prompt. choose a center point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the End of third axis prompt. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. choose an endpoint.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. Bend Bend objects. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. choose the second endpoint of the line. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. At the End of first axis prompt.

You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. 171 . Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. enter the start of the bisector line. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.only control points. surfaces. The remainder of the object is kept straight. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. You can't bend a polysurface .Rhino 2. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. and meshes. enter the start of the angle to bisect.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Bend moves the control points of objects. you will only bend that part of the object. curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. enter the end of the angle to bisect. or enter a length and press Enter.

At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. 172 . select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves.

and then use Blend to fill in the gap. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend.Rhino 2. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. it applies to both ends. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. and curvature. and curvature is called a G2 blend. tangent direction. select adjacent edges. tangent direction. then you should probably use InsertKnot. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. In either case. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. At the Select first set of edges. tangent direction. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. delete the arc. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. tangent direction. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. A blend curve that matches location. The location. select a surface edge. If it is invoked after picking the first end. and one of the curves is a blend curve. tangent direction. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. If you are joining curves. it applies only to the second end. If a blend appears to tight or loose. and curvature. Note The location. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. To do this. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. tangent direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. tangent directions. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. 173 . This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). The Blend command creates G2 blends. or press Enter. If you need a G1 blend. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

This gives you more control over the shape. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. click the new layer.Rhino 2. but adds control points between each knot span. 183 . The number of control points added depends on the degree entered.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. it will no longer be periodic. If you raise the degree of a surface. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. the higher the degree. the greater the number of control points. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same.

184 . use the CheckInLicense command. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. select one object. enter the radius point. When the user gets back in the office. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. enter the center point. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. Circle Draw a circle. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager.Rhino 2. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. Note Delete or rebuild the object. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. Diagnostics. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. To check a license back in. Select objects. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. When users get back in the office. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt.

Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 .Rhino 2. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.

CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. select the first curve. enter a second point on the circumference. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. select the second curve. enter the end of the diameter. enter a radius. Tangent. You can enter the number of control points. At the Radius prompt. There may be multiple circles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. delete the extras. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. At the Second point on circle prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter a third point on the circumference. At the Third point on circle prompt.Rhino 2. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the End of diameter prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. enter a point on the circumference. 186 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent.

select the first curve. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. 187 . There may be multiple circles. select the third curve. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Point Select a point for input. select the second curve. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. or are tangent to a second curve. delete the extras. Note To reduce the size of the model file. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt.Rhino 2. At the Third tangent curve.

Point objects are not a part of any other object. enter a point. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. At the Base point for closest point prompt. or in the Command area. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. pick it from the list. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. Note Point objects display as small squares. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. Press F2 again to close the window. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects.Rhino 2. To start one of those commands. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. CommandHistory View command history. right click in the Rhino Command History window. 188 .0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode.

Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended.Rhino 2. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. it is pasted. At the End of cone prompt. choose a radius. look at the Command List in this help file. Without the command area. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. choose a center point for the base. If there is text in the Clipboard. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. it is pasted as a command script. Cone Draw a cone. Or. At the Radius prompt. Commands List all Rhino commands.

At the End of conic prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. Or. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Conic 190 . At the Curvature point or rho prompt. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt.Rhino 2. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. At the Reference vertex prompt. Conic Draw a conic section curve. enter the start point for the conic. enter the middle point for the conic.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. enter the end point for the conic. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter.

let T be the point where line(B.Rhino 2. First reference curve prompt.0 and less than 0. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. select a second curve. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. type T to select tangent curves. Point on first curve prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.5. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . Parabolic Rho value of 0. If you work out the details.5. Point on second curve prompt. Second reference curve prompt. B. select a curve.C). Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. Curvature point or rho prompt. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A.5 and less than 1.S) intersects chord(A.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle.

5. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. At the End of conic prompt. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. enter the end point for the conic. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. 192 . type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. Or.0 and 0. enter the reference vertex for the conic.5. so the w<1 case is elliptical.Rhino 2.5 and 1. End control points are at the same location. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. Parabolic Rho value of 0. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots.

choose a base point. and meshes for contour line creation. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Blend. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. 193 . At the Contour plane base point prompt. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. polysurfaces. One of the contour planes will go through this point. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. curvature. Match.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. BlendSrf. Position. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity.

the less dense the control polygon will display.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. generated in both directions from the base point. At the Distance between contours prompt. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. At the Control polygon display density prompt. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines.Rhino 2. 194 . The higher this number is. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off.

Edges can't be converted with this command. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. then convert the resulting curves to polylines.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines.Rhino 2. use the ExtractWireframe command first. select curves and press Enter. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. 195 . select an object to create polylines from. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. At the Angle tolerance prompt. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. The original curves are removed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt.

it is created when the object is pasted. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. When you Paste objects into Rhino. type I and press Enter.Rhino 2. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. to copy the object in the same place. If the layer does not exist. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. choose locations for copies. snap spacing. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. type v and press Enter. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. At the Point to copy to prompts. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. choose a point to move the copy from.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. 196 . Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. to move the copy vertically. Object properties and location are stored with the object. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. Or. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt.

At the X axis direction prompt. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. 197 . The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the y-axis. choose a point on the x-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. At the CPlane elevation prompt. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. At the CPlane orientation prompt.axis. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. choose the new origin. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.Rhino 2. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.

and yaxes to a new location. choose the new origin. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want.D location where it needs to be. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. At the CPlane origin prompt. for example. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. drag the construction plane's new x. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. in the dynamic preview. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. 198 . CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve.D. Once your construction plane is positioned. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.Rhino 2. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane.

At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 199 . select a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane.Rhino 2. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object.

Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the X axis direction prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane.axis. choose a point on the x. choose the new origin. choose the new origin. 200 . At the CPlane origin prompt.axis. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the Z axis direction prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. choose a point on the z. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis.Rhino 2. choose a point on the x. At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the X axis direction prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.

Top view of profile curves 201 .0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. If true arc-length mapping is desired. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. select the first planar curve. select the second planar curve. Use UnrollSrf. At the Select planar curve prompt. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. cut openings in the unrolled surface. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt.Rhino 2. select a surface. the original surface must be developable. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface.

" 202 . From 2 Views. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. Example For an example. Look in the index under "Curve.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes.Rhino 2.

joining the ends of the overlap interval. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. pick a new location for the seam point. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. 203 . The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. At the Location of seam point prompt. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. They are connected with a line. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. and move it along the curve. For each overlap interval. When you are done adjusting the connections.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. pick on a seam point marker. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves.Rhino 2. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. press Enter. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve.

You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.Rhino 2. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. 204 . Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. reversing the direction of the curve. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them.

At the Select profile curves in order prompt. V or Both directions. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 .0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. pick near a control point. The control point for the surface appear. At the End of cross-section line prompt. At the Select point on the surface prompts. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. end the line for the cross section plane. Press Enter to stop creating curves. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt.Rhino 2. that passes through the profile curves. with the control polygons. press Enter to end the command. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. select a surface. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter.

For best results. space the cross section curves relatively evenly. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.

select a curve. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. 2 207 . the curve is locally flat.Rhino 2. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. This does not automate finding the inflection points. click to create the circle object. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. Or. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. press Esc to end the command without change. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn.

The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. set the style and range. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. 208 . and other important properties. For example. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. Options Gaussian In the images below. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green.Rhino 2. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. In the Curvature dialog box.

and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. Set the value for blue rather high (10. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. In the case of an offset.>100. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. cylinders. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. (Planes. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. In the case of the mill. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Blue areas should be safe. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. 209 .Rhino 2.>1000) and the red close to infinity.

encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . this may result in a rather uninformative image. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. these values may not be appropriate. At any point on a curve in the plane. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. both free and attached to objects. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. If we care about this. or to the right of the curve.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. A soap bubble. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. and the direction. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. As a starting point. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. then we establish a convention.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line.Rhino 2. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. This is known as signed curvature. the normal to the surface at that point. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. unlike a simple soap film. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. These meshes can be large. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface.

This contrasts with a soap bubble. frequency. close the dialog box. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. 211 . even when other commands are started. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. Curvature graph on surface. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves.Rhino 2. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. u. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. Adjust the length. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. such as wire loops.

So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph.Rhino 2. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. However. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. In other words. They are not curvature continuous. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. Degree 5 curve 212 . the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. or tangent only. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span.

curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. that is. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. To see the circle. pick a point on the surface. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale.Rhino 2. negative when the circles point opposite ways. Curve Draw a curve by control points. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. If the graph changes smoothly. As you move your cursor. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. minimum principal curvature. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. 3. Press F2 to show the Command History window. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. If isoparm display is turned off. At any point on a curve (except lines). play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves.D point. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 .D normal. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. To better grasp this. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. 3. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. Gaussian curvature. maximum principal curvature.

The curve closes. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. enter the start of the curve. press Enter.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt.Rhino 2. and pick. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. When drawing a high degree curve. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Sharp When you make a closed curve. enter an additional control point. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. To end the curve. At the Next point. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. At the Next point. enter additional control points. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does.

they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. 4 215 . Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. second moments. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.0. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box.1e-006. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Object properties and location are stored with the object. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.4601236. First moments. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.014). Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.34 (+/. When you Paste objects into Rhino. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.0 (+/.1. select the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the box.8545412.Rhino 2.1. select the box.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. If the layer does not exist. it is created when the object is pasted. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.0). product moments. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.1.7e-006.

0. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.3921 (+/. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623.Rhino 2. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. 216 .0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. select the first point of a line to define a plane. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. At the Start of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. press Enter to stop making cut planes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.0001). At the End of cut plane prompt. select the box. select the end point of a line that defines a plane.

volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. choose a radius. product moments.1. Solid cylinder 217 . volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.8545412. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. choose a center point for the base. First moments. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. At the Radius prompt.1e-006. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box.4601236. select the box. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0 (+/. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. second moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2.0). select the box.1. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. choose a point for the center of the top surface. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt.7e-006. At the End of cylinder prompt.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.

Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. To start a new model. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. Layers. use New command instead. All objects in the model are deleted. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. 218 . Delete Delete selected objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. saved views.Rhino 2. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command. use the Erase command. Press Delete. and saved construction planes are not deleted.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane.

but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. Similar to Untrim . 219 . Surface before outside trimming curve detached. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. use the arm to choose an x. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. choose an origin in Rhino. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. Microscribe. and the trim curve is created.axis is perpendicular to the x.axis in the real world. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. You do not need to ensure that the y. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. select the proper serial port and baud rate. select your digitizing arm.axis in the real world. use the arm to choose a y. Rhino will do it for you.axis. In the Baud Rate dialog box.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. select a boundary to detach.

If it is more convenient. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. circles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. choose a y. recording reference points as you go. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. arcs. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. You can draw lines. and curves with the digitizer. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. Whatever the reason. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. and is assigned to the F12 key. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. or the object moves slightly. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer.axis in Rhino. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. Calibrate the digitizer with the table.Rhino 2. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. 220 . choose an x. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. you can use the digitizer. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Thus. Digitize the third set of reference points. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt.

Microscribe. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. Label each point O. From the Tools menu.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. and then click Calibrate. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen.axis on the table. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. and Y for the origin.axis on the table. and O. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt.axes. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. click Digitize. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. and y. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. click Digitize. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. If the digitizer or object moves. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. From the Tools menu. use the arm to choose a y. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. x. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. or you need to close and restart Rhino. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. use the arm to choose an x. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Y. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. X. This is the reference polyline.

DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. enter a third point on the base plane. 222 . specify how you want to space the planes. At the Second point on plane prompt.54. direction. When you finish digitizing points on the object.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes.0254. type the scale factor for all digitized input. Type C to create a closed curve. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. enter 25. a point is sampled. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. To digitize in meters. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. As long as the pedal is depressed. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to.4. To digitize in millimeters. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. You can space the planes at intervals. enter the start of the section plane axis. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. To digitize in centimeters. hold the pedal. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. enter a second point on the base plane. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. The planes are defined with a base point. and spacing.Rhino 2. At the Start of axis prompt. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. enter 2. At the Third point on plane prompt. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. Press Enter when you are finished. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. enter a point on the base plane. enter 0. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object.

At the Place the dimension prompt. When you release the pedal. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. pick a point for the dimension line location. enter the distance between sampled points. As long as the pedal is depressed. At the Second dimension point prompt. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Rhino samples points. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a second line. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. At the Select second line prompt. pick a line. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. 223 . a point is sampled.

Rhino 2. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. At the Dimension line location prompt.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. At the Second dimension point prompt. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick a curve. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 .

pick a curve. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the First dimension point prompt. enter the second point of a reference angle. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. At the Place the dimension prompt. At the Second reference point prompt. Or the first point of a reference angle. enter an angle for the dimension line. 225 . turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt.Rhino 2. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location.

At the Second dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. pick a point for the dimension line location.Rhino 2. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Dir Show direction display. pick a point on the model to dimension to. red and green arrows show the u. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points.and v.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. Curve direction 226 .directions at the point. At the Dimension line location prompt. surface or polysurface. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Dimension line location prompt. to change the direction. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Or. select a curve. type F. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. Press Enter to terminate the display. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. On surfaces.

The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface.Rhino 2. VReverse. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction.and v. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. The directional light icon does not render or shade.order and direction. pick a location for the directional light. 227 . At the Start of light direction vector prompt. unless you apply textures. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. the UReverse. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. The location of the directional light does not matter. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.

0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. light the scene less. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. like gray.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. 228 . clear the Disable checkbox. right-click the Disable checkbox. Distance Measure the distance between two points. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. When Object snaps are disabled. pick a point. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. Darker colors.

Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. At the Length of segments prompt. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. 229 . use the Split command.0000 units. Point objects are not a part of any other object. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. Note Point objects display as small squares. At the Number of segments prompt. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. select curves and press Enter. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. reversing the direction of the curve. type an integer number and press Enter.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt.Rhino 2. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. select the curves to divide and press Enter. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line.

surface. If you want points to start at the other end. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. or polysurface to evaluate. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. 230 . Point objects are not a part of any other object. use the Split command.Rhino 2. select a curve. When a polysurface is picked. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. use the Dir command to flip the curve. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.

The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. At the Location of dot prompt. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis.Rhino 2. You can check this with the Dir command. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. 231 . Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. enter the location of the dot. type the text to show in the dot.

Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 . At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. DragMode Toggle drag mode.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. A surface is created that drapes over the objects.

The Dup command only duplicates curves. type f (face). At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. The object will be duplicated in place. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. To limit your selection to surfaces. edge. type c (curve). Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. It does not duplicate points. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt.Rhino 2. the surface will always sag more than the original. dimensions. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. Duplicate border curve 233 . and polysurfaces. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. Because of this. surfaces.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. and solids. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. or bnd (boundary). but it only makes points. or lights. For example. select an object to duplicate. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. textblocks. and press Enter. then select the edge to duplicate. meshes. Dup Duplicate an object. surfaces.

The edges are duplicated as separate curves. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. 234 .Rhino 2. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. select the fourth curve. select the second curve. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. press Enter to create a triangular surface. For many surface creation commands. select the third curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. select the edges of a surface. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. Or. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. select the first curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.

EditDim Edit dimension text. In the Edit Dimension dialog box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. For a surface from closed planar curves. You can use surface edges. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. select a dimension. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. type new text. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets.

so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. select a text block. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. In the Edit Text dialog box. Type the new text. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. set the options. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. They are not the same as knots. 236 .

This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor.25 inches. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the endpoint for the first axis. enter the center point. Example If your units are inches. You can enter the number of control points. The two sizes update each other.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. When you place annotation text. At the End of second axis prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. enter the endpoint for the second axis. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor.

Partial Draws a partial ellipse. At the End of second axis prompt. At the End of first axis prompt. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Draw an ellipse from focus points. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. enter the end of the axis. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the second focus point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. 238 .Rhino 2. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the end of the second axis. enter a focus point.

Rhino 2. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. enter the second focus point. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. End of third axis prompt. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose a center point. 239 . End of second axis prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. enter a focus point. choose an endpoint. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. or type a height and press Enter. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. End of first axis prompt. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. choose an endpoint for the major axis. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt.

Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. curvature. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. These meshes can be large. and other important properties. 240 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. select a bitmap file to use for mapping. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. When you use the EMap command.Rhino 2. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. In the Environment Map Options dialog box.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object.

0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. under Zebra and EMap. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. on the Shade tab.Rhino 2. in the Options dialog box. select More reliable. When More reliable is selected. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. 241 . When Faster is selected. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. but will always work. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh.

This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. In each case. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. No means there is one drag point. At the Start of region to edit. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. maintains the tangent direction. One-point-per-end mode. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. select a surface edge. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. as with the Blend command. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt.Rhino 2. 242 . Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. you are moving control points of the curve. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. drag point indicators. At the End of region to edit. drag control points to edit the edge bulge.

Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u. For example.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. 243 .0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. After editing.Rhino 2. the script Circle 0. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts.0 Command Reference Surface before editing.1 2. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing.1 2. During EndBulgeSrf editing. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. aliases.2 does the same thing as Circle 0.

244 . Exit Exit Rhino. select a point.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. the untrimmed surface is used. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. select the objects you want to erase. click points on the surface. select the surface to evaluate. If the surface is trimmed. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). Note Erase is the same as Delete. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. A point object is created on the surface.y. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. and the U. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. Press Enter when done prompt. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. Note When a polysurface is picked. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt.z format.

In the File name box. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. File. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Click Save. type a filename. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. Export Export selected objects to a file. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. layer color. select Rhino 2 3D Models. In the Files of type box. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. object render color. This command is obsolete. Rhino supports several file types.0 files. and selected mass properties. In the File name box. In the Files of type box. object name. 245 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. select the file type you want to use. Click Save. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.Rhino 2. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. select objects to explode. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. Use the Explode command. type a filename. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects.

Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. The extension is joined to the original curve. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. Extend Extend a curve.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. Click Save. select a boundary object to extend to. 246 . enter a name for the text file. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. At the next Select boundary objects. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. At the next Select object to extend prompts. Press Enter when done prompts. select objects to extend. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Or. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. In the Files of type box. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. select Rhino 2 3D Models. In the File name box. Or. type a filename. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. select objects to extend and press Enter when done.

Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. At the End point or angle prompt. select a curve to extend. Note You can use any combination of curves. enter the end of the extension. type a number for the radius and press Enter. At the Radius of arc prompt. type an angle for the arc. Or.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. 247 . Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension.Rhino 2. Or. Type=Line Makes a line extension. surfaces. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. and solids as boundary edges. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc.

At the End of arc prompt. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Select near the end of the curve to extend. use Extend a curve. select a curve to extend. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . the extension will be joined to the original curve. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes.Rhino 2. use Extend a curve. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. enter the endpoint of the extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. select a curve to extend. 249 . enter the endpoint for the line extension. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. if possible. near the end you want to extend. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. type a distance to extend and press Enter. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. Or. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Options Join If Join=Yes.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. At the End of line or length prompt. select the curve to extend. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend.Rhino 2.

thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. or pick two points to specify the distance. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. Note With the linear extension. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. enter an amount to extend. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. The extension length is based on parameterization. 250 . If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. This fixes the original. depending on the shape of the object. and MetaNURBS in LightWave.Rhino 2. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. Then the surface is extended on the end. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX.

Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way.Rhino 2. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface.and v-directions of the surface. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. choose a point. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. and polygon mesh objects. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. If you need to place an object on a surface. v or both directions. If you need curved cross sections. The marker is constrained to the surface. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. and Loft a surface through them. If you need angled cross sections along surface. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. Extract several isoparms. and isoparms display at the marker. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. In contrast to InsertKnot. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. use Project or Intersect.

252 .0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. At the Extrusion distance prompt. or type a distance and press Enter. The original surface is left intact.Rhino 2. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Main. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. select surfaces and press Enter. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. and polygon mesh objects. If you choose the Copy option. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. surfaces. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. Note ExtractPt works on curves. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. the surface is copied. select curves and press Enter. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. Solid Tools. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. drag the desired distance and pick. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface.

This option does not appear for open curves. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. Smooth. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . The choices are Sharp. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. and Chamfer. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. Round. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. Otherwise. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction.Rhino 2. then the extrusion is in that direction.

Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. The default is vertical to the construction plane. At the Select path curve prompt. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. select the path curve. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. or enter a distance and press Enter. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. pick a point.Rhino 2. draw two lines at right angles.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. select surfaces and press Enter. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. At the Extrusion distance prompt. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. choose the point. select the curve to extrude. 254 . At the Point to extrude to prompt. select the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. To draw a deformable plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. enter a number. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. type R and press Enter. Fillet Fillet two curves. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. At the Tolerance prompt.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. select curves and press Enter. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. 255 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. Or. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. Join To change the Join option.Rhino 2. type J and press Enter. or accept the default and press Enter. type the fillet radius and press Enter. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve.

FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface.Rhino 2. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. choose the first surface to fillet. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. choose the second surface to fillet.

Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. enter a tolerance. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. select curves and press Enter. The curves are refitted. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. At the Fitting tolerance <0. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. The original curves are unchanged. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail.Rhino 2. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. In general. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. If you have a dense string of points. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. 257 . Each face has a constant monochrome color. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. For scripting.

click Options.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. The grid. Each face has a constant monochrome color. If OpenGL shading is turned on. click Use OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports.Rhino 2. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. On the Shade tab. Each face has a constant monochrome color. object highlighting. 258 . see Troubleshooting OpenGL. the OpenGL shade options will be available. axes. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. this shading mode may be much faster. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.

click Use OpenGL. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. 259 . but their directions are reversed.Rhino 2. On the Shade tab. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If OpenGL shading is turned on. select curves. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. click Options. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. enter a number and press Enter.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. this shading mode may be much faster. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. that define the outline of the flattened surface. The objects looks exactly the same. At the Increment size prompt. If Booleans give unexpected results. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. such as Union instead of Difference. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2.

The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. especially those with trimmed edges. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. At the New backbone curve . straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Instead of drawing a line before the command. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. Flow works on the control points of an object . select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. At the Original backbone curve . This curve will be used as a new backbone. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object. Front Set to world front view.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . Flow does not work on polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. select the new backbone curve to flow to. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve .select near end prompt. select the second curve near the coinciding end. you must edit your Rhino. 261 .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. At the Second curve . Grid Toggle the display of the grid. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.select near end prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.

Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines.Rhino 2. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. select the curve or surface to edit. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. 262 . Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. Group Place selected objects in a group. You can then apply commands to the entire group. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. A handlebar displays on the curve. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. select a bitmap file. or enter a length. 263 . adjust options. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. At the Second corner or length prompt. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. A handlebar will display on the surface. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. pick a point. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. In the Heightfield dialog box. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. select the surface to edit. Height The scale of the height of the surface. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. pick a point. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. At the First corner prompt.

This is the line the helix will wind around. the helix will twist counterclockwise. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. At the End of axis prompt. select Turns or Pitch. enter the end of the helix axis. 264 . Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. If you select Pitch. enter the number of turns for the helix.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. enter the start of the helix axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. If you select Reverse twist. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. If you select Turns. enter the radius for the helix.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.

Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. If you exit the model and reopen it.Rhino 2. close the Osnap dialog box. Status bar: Osnap Or. select the objects you want to hide. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. 265 . Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. Visibility. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Organic. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility.

Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. 266 . HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts.axis. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. The smaller the number. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. Waterline Length Length at water line. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. The longitudinal direction. the more concentrated the hotspot. enter a number between 0.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Use 1. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement.0 and 1. the command does nothing.Rhino 2. (This is a limitation of the command. The visible objects hide. not a statement of a physical principle. and press Enter. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). Longitude=X. only half of the model needs to be given.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. that is. ) prompt. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. The information displays in a separate window.axis or the y.

In the File name box. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. Note Rhino supports many file types. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. type a filename. the objects are placed on the current layer. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. the command will fail. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. The objects are reparameterized. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. 267 . The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. Import Import or merge objects from another file.Rhino 2. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. If the imported file type does not support layers. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. and STL Tools File menu. File. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. select Rhino 3D Models. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Click Open. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. select curves.

3dm Untitled a 2147483647.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. choose a start angle. y.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm tricky 1a. it does. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs.3dm bg 32985. Scale Scales the objects. type a filename. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. At the Rotation Angle <0. If you say yes. Press Enter to place the model at 0.Rhino 2. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag.0 with no changes in rotation or scale.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. At the Scale factor <1. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt.3dm tricky 1a 2. etc. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes. If you say no.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm tricky 1a 1. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. 268 .3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. In the File name box. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line.3dm hi 1. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. Click Open.3dm hi 2. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing. select Rhino 3D Models.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm bg 32986. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it.0. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. and rotate. scale. or a point to rotate from. and z-directions.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists.

0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. 269 . select the curve to which you want to add a kink. After inserting kinks. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. press Enter to end the command. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. choose points where you want to insert a kink. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. select the curve to insert edit points to.Rhino 2.

270 .Rhino 2. pick points on the curve for new knots. or Both. V.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. pick points of the surface for new knots. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. select a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.

press Enter. At the Start of line prompt. 271 . The curve closes automatically. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. and the parts are joined. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. and pick. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location.Rhino 2. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. enter an additional point. To end the curve. enter the start of the curve. At the Next point of curve. A straight line replaces part of the curve. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. enter additional points. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. At the End of line prompt. Main.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve.

the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. and 11. When you draw an interpolated curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. Valid degrees are 1. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. At the Next point on curve. 7. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. Sharp When you make a closed curve. 3.Rhino 2.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. 5. 272 . Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. At the Start of curve prompt. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. choose the first point of the curve. 9. choose an additional point. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. select a surface. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing.

Object snaps End. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. 273 . Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. and Intersection work.Rhino 2. Midpoint.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Near. Close Creates a closed curve. Cen. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Knot.

use the BooleanIntersection command. Non-polyline curves are rejected. select the objects.Rhino 2. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Intersect Intersect two objects.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Invert Invert the selection. To create surface and solid intersections. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt.

275 . select objects. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Points selected. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Contrast this with the Invert command. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. When you are finished selecting objects to join. press Enter. Invert also selects the polysurface.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. which also selects other objects.Rhino 2. Join Join objects. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges.

use MergeSrf. use MergeSrf. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. If the edges are too far out of line. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Booleans. Booleans. and resetting the tolerance. a 3. or Patch. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. NetworkSrf. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. doing a Join. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. For the group joiner. When two edges are joined. then the second one gets moved. BlendSrf. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. Do you want to join these edges?". If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. or Patch. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>.Rhino 2. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. For simplicity. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. BlendSrf. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. depending on what you may do with the model. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. If not.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. 276 . if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. NetworkSrf. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). you can have some problems later on.015 units apart. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. but are not coincident. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. If you use JoinEdge. but the surfaces aren't changed at all. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. Using the Millimeter template.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. no join occurs.

Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. use MergeSrf. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. If there are naked edges. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve.Rhino 2. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Booleans. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. BlendSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. The picking order can make the difference. 277 . This command does not work in all cases. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. NetworkSrf. y.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. merged or deleted. No mesh points are moved. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. The action performed is reported on the command line. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. or Patch. select curves. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. and intersections go across the seam without gaps.

but you cannot select them. select the layers you want to lock. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Start the Lasso command.Rhino 2. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Click the Lock option. press Enter to close the lasso. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. See the PluginManager command. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Lasso Select points with a lasso. 278 . Select Points. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers.

Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. from the list select layers you want to turn on.Two. Note For layer names with spaces. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. type the name of the layer to turn off. separate the layer names with commas: One. Note For layer names with spaces. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. separate the layer names with commas: One. In the Edit Layers dialog box. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces.Two. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. In the Edit Layers dialog box. from the list. Click the Off option.Layer Three". unlike the Lock (object) command. type the name of the layer to turn on. select the layers you want to turn off.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. LayerOn Turn a layer on. Note For layer names with spaces. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. separate the layer names with commas: One.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Layer Three". Click the On option. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer.Layer Two.Two.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer.Layer Two. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Rhino 2.Layer Three" 279 . type the name of the layer to lock. LayerOff Turn a layer off.Layer Two.

Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. pick additional points. They will not show in the perspective view. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. Left Set to world left view. This is the arrow end. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. Press Enter to stop the command. pick the next point on the leader line. you must edit your Rhino. At the Next point of leader.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 .Rhino 2. pick the start of the leader. At the Next point of leader.

polysurfaces. The line extends on both sides of the start point. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. At the End of line prompt. BothSides option selected 281 . and meshes. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. arcs. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. surfaces.Rhino 2. pick the start point for the line. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. Line Draw a line. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. ellipses. circles. Line. you can select any of these curve objects. polylines. pick the end point for the line.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. and can be used to create other curves. select a curve or edge. including lines and polylines. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. enter the start of the base line.Rhino 2. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. 282 . Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. enter the end of the line. enter the second point. At the End of base line prompt. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. enter the start of the line. At the End of line prompt. enter the start of the base line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. At the Start of line prompt.

enter the end of the base line. enter the end of the line. At the Select object prompts.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt.Rhino 2. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. type an angle and press Enter. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. 283 . At the End of line prompt. At the Pivot angle prompt. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. and parallel to the current construction plane. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. pick the end of the line.

select the first curve near the start of the desired line. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. 284 . enter the start of the first line segment. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. enter pick endpoints for segments. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines.Rhino 2. At the End of line prompts. When you are finished drawing lines. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. press Enter.

The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. At the End of line prompt.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. 285 . enter the end of the line.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt.

Rhino 2. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. 286 . select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line.

LineV Draw a vertical line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. At the End of line prompt. Line vertical to construction plane. or enter a length and press Enter. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. BothSides option selected 287 . enter the second endpoint. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. enter an integer. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. Load Loads a selected script file. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. on the Options dialog box. You can download plug-ins.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. Close Closes the dialog box. 288 . Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. from www. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. or press Enter to accept the default.com/plug-ins. See the PluginManager command. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. the code interpreted and run immediately.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. select one object. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. If the script file just contains script expressions. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it.rhino3d.Rhino 2. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions.

. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. The unlocked objects lock. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. Note You cannot select locked objects. Lock Lock objects. 289 . If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. You can snap to locked objects. Preview. In the install folder (e. In the scripts folder (e.exe is located (e. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves.. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. pick on a seam point marker. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock.0 Beta). Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts.0 Beta\Scripts).Rhino 2. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. adjust options.g. In the Loft Options dialog box. and move it along the closed curve. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer.. Select open curves near the same ends. select the objects you want to lock. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.g. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked.g. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. press Enter. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. When you are done adjusting the connections.0 Beta\System). pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. In the folder where Rhino.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. At the Location of seam point prompt.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. 291 . Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.

Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. Units tab before lofting. You must use at least three curves to activate this option.Rhino 2. Available when you have selected three shape curves. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. This is also known as a ruled surface. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. 292 . continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.

the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. These are called ruling lines. and some steel ship hulls. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. you may get unexpected results.Rhino 2. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. If the surface is not linear in one direction. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. 293 . You must use at least three curves to activate this option. You may get no surface or a partial surface. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. Preview Click to preview the loft. tear. or wrinkle. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. If the curves have kinks. Surfaces can be created in other ways. cones. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. the surface is not developable. too. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only.

Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. 294 . They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization.Rhino 2. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by.D surface. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. thereby smoothing the surface. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. You just have to be careful. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface.

expand the plates. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box.D models. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. select the layout and object visibility options. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Make2D Make a 2-D drawing." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. though. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects.Rhino 2. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. aluminum).y-plane. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. 295 . But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane.

Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name.D drawings from mesh objects. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. If two surfaces pass through each other. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. 296 . they may not appear on the correct layer. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges.D view. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. There is no way to avoid this.Rhino 2. Note This command does not create 2.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2.

it is closed. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Other closed curves. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Close the dialog box. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. If a joined curve is made periodic.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. At the Choose an object prompt. 297 . the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. select the first curve at the end that will move. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. This command tries to fix those surfaces. Sometimes. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . If the curve was open. Then use control point editing on both curves. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. To get a feel for what the command does. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves.pick near end prompt. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. At the Select curve to match . The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. select a curve to make periodic. Match Match two curves. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded.

Rhino 2. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match. 298 .

Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. The curves are merged together after the match. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly.Rhino 2. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. If you edit this curve with control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. 299 . Merge Only available with the Curvature option. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other.

If the target surface is also untrimmed. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. select the edge of the target surface. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity).select near edge prompt. At the Select target surface . In the Match Surface dialog box. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. reversing the direction of the curve. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity).select near edge prompt. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 300 . choose the type of match. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change .0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. select the edge of the surface to match.Rhino 2. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. Generally. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to.Rhino 2. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. 301 . Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. If necessary. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked.

302 . Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces.Rhino 2. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. percent. in degrees.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. in units.

it can twist the surface near the edge. If refinement is specified. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. Something like position = 0. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). but it will still be a valid trim. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. it may be useful to preview without refinement.2. That may be several seconds. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit.knot spacing to curvature vector. it will stay roundish.) In usable terms. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. This is sometimes useful. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. If you need to match to part of an edge.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. especially if tight tolerances are specified. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. but you will get something. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. If it isn't. If it is roundish. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. 303 . Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. If refinement is interrupted. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. but if the conditions are wrong. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge.Rhino 2. If the surface being changed is trimmed. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. In these cases. This is the hardest condition to meet.

Right click the viewport title bar. Or. select the second surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. and the prompt repeats. Note The edges must be naked. if possible. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join.Rhino 2. must belong to the same surface. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Maximize Maximize Rhino. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. 304 . then click Restore.1 ) prompt. select an adjacent edge. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. select the first surface to merge. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. then click Maximize. must share an endpoint. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. double click the viewport title bar. Or. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. double click the viewport title bar. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends.

notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 . but may alter the shape of both surfaces.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .Rhino 2. Smooth The surface will be smooth. End view of original surfaces .

they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. Generally. editable surface. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. mirroring it. you have to approach things differently. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. The resulting surface can be edited. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. Once you have trimmed surfaces. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. In some ways. For closed surfaces. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments.Rhino 2. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). The default is 1 (full smoothing). 306 . you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. A mesh can be preview and then created.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface .notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. This is useful for modeling half of an object. with finer or coarser mesh.

Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. which is the default. Setting Max dist.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. after initial meshing. and adjustment for trim boundaries. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. No refinement results in faster meshing. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. more accurate meshes. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. By default. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. and higher polygon count. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Scale-dependent. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. and higher polygon count. Scale independent. In practice. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. When the Refine is checked. Scale independent. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. By default. 307 . Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. less accurate meshes. edge to Srf options. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. When this Refine is checked.Rhino 2. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. The default is zero.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Zero means no minimum. Max dist. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Simple planes is not selected. When the Refine is checked. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Zero means no limit. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. more accurate meshes. Limits the size of the polygon edges. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Default is 0. Jagged seams is not selected. and lower polygon count. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. which is the default. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Scale independent. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces.

choose the cone's point. not editable. If a length was entered. choose a height.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. At the Other corner or length prompt. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. choose a diagonal corner. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. choose a width by picking. Or type in a length and press Enter. or type in a width and press Enter. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. choose a radius. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. 308 . or type in a height and press Enter. choose a center point for the base. at the Width prompt. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. At the Height prompt. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt.Rhino 2. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. At the End of cone prompt. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. choose a corner of the box.

joined from a base circular mesh. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. joined from a base and top circular meshes. choose a height. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a radius. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. choose a center point for the base. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . At the Height prompt. and a open cone-shaped mesh.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created.Rhino 2. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder.

to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. Or type in a length and press Enter. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. at the Width prompt. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. If a length was entered. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. 310 . Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner.Rhino 2. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. choose a the diagonal corner. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. choose a corner of the plane. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. At the Other corner or length prompt. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. choose a width by picking. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. or type in a width and press Enter.

MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt. choose a radius.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. At the Radius prompt. 311 .Rhino 2. choose a center point.

Select the objects. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Minimize Minimize Rhino. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. choose a point on the mirror plane. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. As you move the cursor. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. Move Move objects. Mirror Mirror objects. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Note Mirror makes a copy.Rhino 2. The original is left selected. Press delete to delete the original. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. 312 . choose a point to move the objects from.

Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. y-. choose a location for objects. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. At the Point to move to prompt. pick a base point. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. corner3. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. Slider scale affects this mode. or z-direction. and n.sliders to move the selected control points. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. 313 .and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. v-. During the command. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. pick a new location for the base point.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. UV Move mode Along tangent The u.0 Command Reference Or. to move the objects vertically. type V and press Enter. corner2. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. To move objects small amounts. At the Choose offset point prompt. MoveUVN Use u-. Along control polygon The u. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. Modeling Aids tab. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. you can type corner1.

and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. 314 . Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. All points to edit have to be selected. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. rename or delete unwanted named views. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. All points to edit have to be selected. NamedView Edit named views. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves.Rhino 2.

this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. the best guess is made at the surface. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. Edge Matching After the command is done. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. The surface will be created. The default is the system tolerance. If a curve and surface edge overlap. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. If you want to select the curves individually. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. The default is the system tolerance x 10. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. 315 . Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. the surface will have four edges. you can turn the automatic sorter off. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves.Rhino 2. be sure to select the surface edge. you will be prompted to select the curves manually.

0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Select from Loose. Tangent. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Position. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge.Rhino 2. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces.

Rhino 2. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.

grid settings.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. layers. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. For example. select a template to base your model file on. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. Use New to open the template you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport.Rhino 2. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. drag a window for a new viewport. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. 318 . Or enter options to create a viewport specification. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. viewport layout. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. units. New Create a new model. and tolerances. NewViewport Create a new viewport.

The next control point in the u-direction is selected. Start the NextU command.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 . NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface. Start the NextV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction.

The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. At the Point on surface prompt. At the Length of line prompt. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current.Rhino 2. choose a point on the surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. pick a point for the end of the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. select a surface. or enter a length and press Enter. 320 . The marker is constrained to the surface.

BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Line normal to a surface. it will be open next time the model is opened.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. copy. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. Offset Offset a curve. type information you want to save with the model. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box.

If the surface is offset to the wrong side. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Negative values offset the other way. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. torus. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. When a plane. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. the resulting surface is exact. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. or cone is offset. A surface and its offset 322 . click on one side the curve. cylinder. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. sphere. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. select a curve or edge. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves.Rhino 2. Otherwise. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Note For best results.

Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked.Rhino 2. they are also unlocked. In the File name box. When you turn the layers back on. select an object on the layer you want to turn off.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. select the layer to turn on. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. type a filename. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. Open Open an existing model. so the fact that they are locked is lost. Click Open. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. not the trim edges. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Note Rhino supports several file types. All other layers will be turned off. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. File. 323 . they are not converted to NURBS objects. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. select Rhino 3D Models.

Rhino 2. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. and the number of columns when floating. type s and press Enter. Options Opens the Options dialog box. type c and press Enter. the buttons in them. to orient copies of the objects. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. but objects remain the same size. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. 324 . from the File menu. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. pick a target point for the first reference point. whether it is floating or docked. Or. The prompt will change to Scale=No. click Open. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. In the Open Workspace dialog box. pick a target point for the second reference point. and whether it is hidden or showing. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. the screen position of each toolbar. select a workspace file. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. or some of them may be hidden. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Scale If Scale=No. The objects are moved.

The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. The three points are not interchangeable. The two triplet of points define two planes. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. pick a point that. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. to orient copies of the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. with the other two reference points.Rhino 2. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. Or. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. If the curve does not start on the edge. select objects and press Enter. 325 . OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. select the surface.

Rhino 2. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. The Mirror option toggles between them. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. As you move the cursor over the surface. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. There are four possible orientations on the surface.and v-directions. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. 326 . and an arrow indicates the normal direction. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface.

If you pick this point in different views. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. select a base point on the object. The cursor tracks along the curve.Rhino 2. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. At the Base point prompt. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. Shift Note The Ortho command. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. 327 . Ortho Toggle ortho mode.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. select the curve you want to align the object to. click a point on the curve to move the object. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. you will get different end results. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. are all toggles. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. and the F8 key. clicking Ortho in the status bar. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve.

Polysurface made of four surfaces. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Note When Ortho is on. Off. At the Ortho Angle prompt. 328 . These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. The default angle is 90 degrees. When polysurfaces are meshed. type the new angle and press Enter. and Toggle. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. When Ortho is on. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. If more than one object is selected. The default angle is 90 degrees. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. Packed textures. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. the packed texture coordinates are created. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Modeling Aids tab. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects.

To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanLeft Pan the view left. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. PanDown Pan the view down. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. Pan Pan the view. use the Pan command. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. use the Pan command.Rhino 2. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanRight Pan the view right. Plan parallel views like the default Top. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. Front. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 329 .

click Parabola. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. click Parabola. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. show a direction for the parabola. This is the "open" direction. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. use the Pan command. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. and then click Vertex. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. This is the "open" direction. Focus. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. From the Curve menu. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose.Rhino 2. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Focus From the Curve menu. Direction. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. 330 . Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. and then click Focus. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.

At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Focus and direction. End. 331 . At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. Uncapped paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. 4 Vertex and focus. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt.Rhino 2. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.

Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Uncapped paraboloid. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. 332 . Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Object properties and location are restored with the object. they are pasted into your model.0 Command Reference End. When you Paste objects into Rhino. it is created when the object is pasted. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.Rhino 2. If the layer does not exist.

Rhino 2. select curves that form a closed shape. you may need a starting surface. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. but it also can produce some unexpected results. In the Patch Options dialog box. Minimum of 8 points per curve.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. For a trimmed patch. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. 333 . To make a highly curved surface. Note This command can be very useful. but with proper configuration. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Even for a relatively flat patch. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. select the point objects. it will be very close to reasonable input. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. and edges to base the patch on. These don't have to be connected. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. use a starting surface with a similar shape. curves. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. adjust options. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly.

Perspective Set to perspective view. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. and type PerspectiveMatch. 2 The wallpaper image. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. 334 . Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective.Rhino 2.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. Pause is a built in command option. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. aliases. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport).

The first point on the model. The first point on the image. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. All points picked on the image.Rhino 2. 4 All points picked on the model. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. 335 .

This aids in accurate image point picking. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. etc. you have modified your model. select a bitmap file to use. changed the viewport settings. Pick carefully. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. If possible.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. In particular. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. At the Length of picture frame prompt. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. Note The image must be a true perspective image. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate.Rhino 2. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. Pipe Draw a pipe. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. Make the image view large. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 .

For an open curve. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. At the Second start radius prompt.Rhino 2. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. type T and press Enter. At the First corner prompt. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. 337 . if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. select a curve. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. and the closed pipe is created. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. At the First end radius prompt. Click Open. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. if the curve is closed. If the pipe objects are capped. enter the radius for the pipe. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. At the Second end radius prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. At the Second corner or length prompt. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls. select a bitmap file. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. at the End radius prompt. select a curve. At the Starting radius prompt. At the Starting radius prompt.

Background bitmaps are a construction aid. 3-D Digitizing. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. and temporarily hide it.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane.Z> prompt. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane.Y. 338 .Y. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. enter the camera point. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. To place a backdrop behind your model. align it (move and scale in one operation). see Place a bitmap backdrop. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. Placing a second deletes the first. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. remove it. PCX. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. Front. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera.Rhino 2. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. TGA. At the New target location <X. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. scale it. BMP.Z> prompt. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. and JPG. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). You can move the background bitmap. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. In PARALLEL viewports. enter the target point. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. By default the Top. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer.

In PERSPECTIVE views. Without Planar on. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. 3-D Digitizing.Z> prompt. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. then those objects are not visible on the screen. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. click Free-form. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Planar Toggle planar mode. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. regardless of where the previous point was picked. then those objects are not visible on the screen.Y. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. In PERSPECTIVE views. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. From the Curve menu.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. PlaceTarget Place the target location. In PARALLEL viewports. enter the target point. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. 339 . In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed.Rhino 2. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Toolbar: Menu Set View. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. then click Control Points.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. press Enter. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. enter the start point of the polyline. At the Next point of polyline prompts. To end the polyline.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. To end the polyline. enter additional vertices for the polyline. 349 . enter additional vertices for the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt.Rhino 2. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. making a closed polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. press Enter. start the polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. select a mesh object.

making a closed polyline. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location.Rhino 2. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. 350 . Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline.

Select a point on the surface. Start the PrevU command.Rhino 2. 351 . Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Start the PrevV command. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected.

If viewports overlap. the objects outside the viewport are printed. the central part of the view is printed. Always.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. print scale. the contents are printed on top of each other. No viewport edge is printed. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. print to a file. color. and each viewport is printed in its area. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. and number of copies. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. The part that does not fit is not printed. 352 . If you fit the image to the page. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports.

hide them. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. If you want to print at some other scale. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. (Actually. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. Then. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. not printing from perspective viewports. Print. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. too. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. and same orientation. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page.Rhino 2. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. PrintSetup Set up your printer.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. If the objects don't fit. It will crop objects that are visible. as the paper you're printing on. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. if they don't fit on the page. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. Curve projected to a surface 353 . Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. Light objects do not print. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized.

Properties Edit object properties. set the projection type for the viewport. Basic shapes like ellipses. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. lines. and free-form curves work well. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. This command works on points. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. and polysurfaces. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. Project will never work correctly for this. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. choose to keep or delete the input objects. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. circles. however. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. curves.

Toolbar: Menu: Main. Organic. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. Point Editing.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Main. STL Tools. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. STL Tools. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. Point Editing. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. Organic. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. surfaces.Rhino 2. To control point edit a polysurface. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects.

When drawing the curves. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. select the surface to pull the curves back to. select a curve to measure. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface.0000. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point.Rhino 2. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. use the fewest control point possible. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. Use curve commands to draw the curve. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. Then. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. Both commands ask for the viewport name. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. At the Select surface that pulls prompt.

You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. Profile curve. In this case.Rhino 2. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. select a profile curve. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. select a rail curve. rail curve. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. the result looks exactly the same both ways. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. in addition to being revolved. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 .

0 23.txt Click the button to read the file.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis. use the Enter command.7.Rhino 2.2. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.1. Note When building command files. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line. readcommandfile myfile.1. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. a file dialog box appears.0 27.0 23. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. If you leave off the filename.8. ! Interpcrv 23. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.1 Enter Interpcrv 26.5. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. 358 . select the file to read. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.2.9 Enter etc…. If the rail curve is closed. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved. If you read in a particular file often.1 26. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.4. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.4.1. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.0.5.8.4.1.9.5. You can then select a file from the list.9. The file contents are copied into the command line.

ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. 359 . To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. the highest number of control points is shown.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. When you are satisfied with the results. use the FitCrv command. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. but a more accurate fit. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. leaving only the rebuilt curves. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box.Rhino 2. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. If more than one curve is selected. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. click OK. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves.

The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. Joined and exploded polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. Edges are pulled away from the surface. select an object.Rhino 2. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. in the Degree box. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. in the Point Count boxes. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. draw two planes several units apart. To see what it does.

choose a corner for the rectangle. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. You will be prompted for the width. Or. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. 361 . choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. Degree Sets the degree of the surface.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt.Rhino 2. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature.an v-directions. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. At the Other corner or length prompt. enter the length of the rectangle. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt.

At the End of edge prompt. select the center point of the rectangle. At the Width prompt. 362 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. You will be prompted for the width. select a corner point.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. At the Corner or length prompt. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt.Rhino 2. enter the end of the same edge. enter the width of the rectangle. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. enter the length of the rectangle.

At the Height of rectangle prompt. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt.Rhino 2. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. At the End of edge prompt. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. 363 .

General tab. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. click Preview. This makes this command scriptable. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. To see the results of the reduction. 364 . set the polygon count. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box.Rhino 2.

RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. 365 . click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session.Rhino 2. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. avoid clearing meshes. type c and press Enter. To reduce the size of the model file. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. which may be undesirable in some cases. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). After RefreshShade. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Or. to remap copies of the objects. For one thing. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane.

0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .Rhino 2.

RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. and Blend commands. which is equal to the degree. select objects. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. 367 . the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. In particular. select a curve. Use the Group command to group objects together. At the Select knotline to remove. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. At the Click knot to remove prompt. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. select a surface. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Sweep2. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces.Rhino 2. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts.

Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. Render tab. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. 368 . it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. the current working folder.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. and render again. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. increase the size of the viewport. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. When on. It has a single menu: File. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image.Rhino 2. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. Render tab. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. expanded to fill the page. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer.

Does not show shadows. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.Rhino 2. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Toolbar: Render 369 .0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. When on. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. or bump mapping. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. zoom. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. Basically.

you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. Example You have two surfaces side by side.Rhino 2.length for both is about 22 units. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. At the New U begin domain prompt. including the domain unless you apply textures. The x. and similar prompts.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. it is distorted. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports.length of righty is about 11. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. In this example. First you must set the u. The y.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. 370 . set the new limits of the u. However. (In this example. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf.and vdomains for the surface.and v. let's call them lefty and righty. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. the texture is not distorted. the x.

Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. RestoreView Restore a named view. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. then click Set View. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. select the construction plane to restore. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Right click the title of a viewport. select one or more curves. select the named view to restore. choose a point on the revolution axis. Use the SaveView command to save a named view.Rhino 2. Revolve Revolve a curve. then click the name of the view to restore.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. 371 . Or. or to restore only the view.

select a surface that is not a polysurface. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. select a curve. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. The marker tracks on the curve. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. click Exact or Deformable. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. If you choose Deformable.Rhino 2. enter the number of control points. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. In the Revolve Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. defining the revolution axis. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. choose a second point. 372 . Enter the Start angle and End angle. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle.

Rhino 2. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. choose a point to rotate the objects around. or a point to rotate to. or a point to rotate from. Right Set to world right view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. you must edit your Rhino. choose a start angle. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. type C and press Enter. to rotate copies of the objects.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Or. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. choose an end angle. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. 373 . Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects.

the following prompt appears. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. 374 . At the End of rotate axis prompt. type in an angle.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. etc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. to rotate copies of the objects. choose a second point on the rotation axis.Rhino 2. or choose a point to rotate from. choose a point on the rotation axis. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. type c and press Enter. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. If you entered a point to rotate from. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. Or. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis.

This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. At the Second reference point prompt. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. Or. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. place the construction plane. enter the start of the rotation axis. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. At the End of rotation axis prompt. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. etc. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. enter the end of the rotation axis. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. 375 .Rhino 2. etc. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. pick a point. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. etc.

Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. use the RotateView command.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 376 . use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. At the Name of program to run prompt. RotateRight Rotate the view right. RotateUp Rotate the view up. type the name and path of the file to run. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateView Rotate the view. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Run Run another application from Rhino. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Press the arrow keys.Rhino 2. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts.

Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Cancel Closes the dialog box. Save. Click Save.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. See the PluginManager command. Note Rhino supports several file types. File. type a filename. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Language Specifies the language of the code. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. or SaveAs dialog boxes. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Push Pin When the button is depressed. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. In the File name box. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. 377 . Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Save Save your model. you can use RunScript command. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Otherwise.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript.

Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. You can also save default geometry with the template.Rhino 2. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. type a filename. In the File name box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. units. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Save. type a filename. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Click Save. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. layers. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Note Rhino supports several file types. Files tab. Click Save. or SaveAs dialog boxes. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. and tolerances and save them in a template. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. viewport layout. 378 . select Rhino 2 3D Models. You can set up grid settings. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

388 . ?. all objects with no name are selected." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. This command is "transparent. SelPolyline Select all polylines. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent.Rhino 2. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. Note You can use wild cards (*. enter an object name. etc.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name.) to select multiple objects. SelNone Deselect all objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt.

Start the SelU command.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points.direction based on previously selected control points.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. 389 . Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelPt Select all point objects.

Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface.Rhino 2. The control points on the surface display.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select.and v. select the surface. A surface with control points selected 390 .direction. At the Select row of points prompt. Press Enter to finish selecting rows. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.

Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. v-direction. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Start the SelV command. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 .Rhino 2.direction based on previously selected control points.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u. or both directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface.

This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. and FlatShadeAll. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. FlatShade. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. You can download plug-ins.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID.com/plug-ins. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. ShadeAll. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. from www. Note Type w to start a window selection.rhino3d. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.Rhino 2. Shade tab. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. 392 . To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter.

393 . check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. select an object on the layer you want to be current. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. select the layer to set current. Lets you name or rename a group. SetLayer Set the current layer. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. The Undo command will work. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. In the Edit Layers dialog box. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script.Rhino 2. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts.0 to 1. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID.

Rhino 2. Object names are exported to IGES. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. If the object name has already been used. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Moray UDO. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. This is not the same as restoring a named view. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. and RenderMan RIB. double-click the viewport title bar. POV-Ray. If no object name is defined. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. Or. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 to 255) Transparency (0. and OBJ material/shader export. Rhino uses a generic name. Note The object material can be used by RIB. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. POV. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. To set names for a group of objects. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command.0 to 1. 3DS. 394 . It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. Or.

Select the objects. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command.Rhino 2. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. check the coordinates you want to set. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. At the Planar is On. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. Object names are not used in Rhino. To set names for individual objects. enter one of the options. Starting number Sets the starting number. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. In the Set Points dialog box. 395 . This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. if you selected ten unnamed objects. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. SetPt Set control point location. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. At the Ortho is Off. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. POV-Ray. and RenderMan RIB. For example. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. use the SetObjectName command. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. enter one of the options.

SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. At the Viewport height prompt. enter the viewport width in pixels. etc. You still see interactive drawing of curves. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. At the Grid snap is Off.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. 396 . SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff.Rhino 2. enter the viewport height in pixels.

you get 256 colors for background and surface color. It may not be very quick the first time. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . and no antialiasing. this shading mode may be faster. Shade Shade a viewport. Note Be patient on the first shade. zoom. monochrome. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. If OpenGL is turned on. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front.Rhino 2. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. The grid and axes are not shown. click Options. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. the OpenGL shade options will be available. select the working directory. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. and a special background color appears. Pan. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. On the Shade tab set the options. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Subsequent renderings may be faster. with no shadows.

Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Be patient on the first Shade. 398 . and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views.opengl. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. monochrome. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). this shading mode may be much faster. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. then Rhino will use it. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. click Options. and a special background color appears. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. If OpenGL is turned on.Rhino 2. On the Shade tab. The grid.com/software/optimizer/. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. If you use OpenGL Shade. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. The objects in current viewport are shaded.sgi. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Use OpenGL. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. On the Shade tab. axes. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Subsequent renderings will be faster. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. click Use OpenGL. zoom. Pan. The grid and axes are not shown. the OpenGL shade options will be available. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. It may not be very quick the first time. with no shadows. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. click Options.org/ and www. and no antialiasing. see www. object highlighting. For more information.

or annotation or the object will be selected.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. isoparms. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade.Rhino 2. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Shear Shear objects. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. points. The click cannot be near curves. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. select the objects to shear. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. You do not have to select an isoparm. 399 . Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. you can click on a shaded object to select it. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed.

Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. 400 . select objects and press Enter. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. If you exit the model and reopen it. pick the first point that defines the shear angle.Rhino 2. If your object has broken edges. The edge is highlighted. Visibility. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. hidden background bitmaps are displayed.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. At the Reference point prompt. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Show Show hidden objects. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. The base point does not move with the shear. pick the base point for the shear. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt.

terminate the command. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. Status bar: Osnap 401 . At the Press Enter when done prompt. Camera icon. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. The edges highlight. press Enter to terminate the command. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. Edge Tools. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport.Rhino 2. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. If you cannot see the naked edges. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. Sometimes.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line.

At the Select objects to show prompt. To fix this. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. When textures are applied to surfaces. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. select the objects you want to show. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. You will see no visible change in the surface. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. Original trimmed surface.Rhino 2. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . Organic. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface.

Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. For example. the silhouette looks like an oval. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from.Rhino 2. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. the silhouette is two circles. only backwards. If you look at a doughnut from the side. if you look at a doughnut from the top. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. 403 .D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model.

Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. drag the mouse. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. Sketch Sketch a curve. Release the mouse button.Rhino 2. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Or. 404 . The curve closes immediately and the command ends. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. a polyline appears along your path.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. Options Closed Creates a closed curve.

drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. The marker is constrained to the surface.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. select the surface to sketch on. press Enter.Rhino 2. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. Or. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. type C. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. drag a curve. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Sketch on surface 405 . Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. At the Click and drag to sketch.

From the Transform menu. Smooth works on mesh objects. select the curves. Smooth Smooth objects. 406 . click Point Editing. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. The default is 0.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth.01 and 1. adjust the Smooth factor. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. The selected control points will move slightly. then click Control Points On. too. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. click Smooth. In the Smooth dialog box. The larger the number.00. The selected entities will appear to melt. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0.Rhino 2. meshes. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt. From the Edit menu. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. smoothing the curve or surface. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter.2. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode. Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .

Note This is different from the grid size. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt.Rhino 2. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. Note When Snap is on. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Modeling Aids tab. At the Radius prompt. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. it is grayed out.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. choose a center point. When Snap is off. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. 408 . Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. Sphere Draw a sphere. A sphere is single closed surface. choose a point for the radius. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. SnapSize Set snap size. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. Grid tab. or enter a distance and press Enter. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter.

A sphere is a single closed surface. At the Second point on sphere prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the first circumference point. choose the third circumference point. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 409 . Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. A sphere is a single closed surface.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. choose an endpoint for the diameter. At the End of diameter prompt. At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose the second circumference point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt.

enter the start of the spiral axis. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. enter the radius for the spiral. If you select Pitch. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. At the End of axis prompt. If you select Reverse twist. enter the number of turns for the spiral. This is the line the spiral will wind around. If you select Turns. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. At the Radius prompt. enter the end of the spiral axis.Rhino 2. 410 . enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. select Turns or Pitch. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box.

press Enter. select the cutting objects. At the Select cutting objects prompt. the polysurfaces are ignored. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. and points.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. select the curve to split. type p and press Enter. surfaces. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. The marker moves along the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt.Rhino 2. select the objects to split. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. 411 .

select an edge on a surface or polysurface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Front. to access option directly. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. Options control the direction of the split. The edge is split into two edges. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. At the Point to split edge prompt. or b. v. select points at which to split the surface.press Enter when done prompt. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces.Rhino 2. surfaces and polysurfaces. Select a surface. the marker is constrained to the edge. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. select a point. Type u. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. 412 .0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. and Right view. At the Split point prompts. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm.

Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. and then deleting the extra isoparms.Rhino 2.and v-directions of the surface. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. then Split. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. 413 . SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports.

SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. length. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. not the range of the light. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. Darker colors. At the Degree in V prompt. like gray. The spot light icon does not render or shade. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. set the radius of the spotlight. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone.Rhino 2. hotspot angle. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. pick a location for the spotlight. light the scene less.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. beam angle. pick a target point for the spotlight. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones.it stays the same. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. Or. and position. At the End of cone prompt. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 .

415 . At the Number of points in a column prompt. At the Point prompts. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the first corner. enter points until all the points have been entered. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested.Rhino 2. choose the third corner. enter points until all the control points have been entered. choose the fourth corner. At the Second corner of surface prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. Or. choose the second corner. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. press Enter to create a triangular surface. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. At the Third corner of surface prompt.

5 4.and v-directions of a surface.33.5.5 0. the surface is created but not point objects.10 0. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.5.0 -4.33. select a curve.10 -4.33.33.5 4.-2. copy it.33. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.2.-5.-2.2.5.10 4.10 4. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.5. and run the CommandPaste command.5. When off.5.0 0. pick a point for the new end point. click in the other viewport to swap.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.2.5 0.5. The marker is constrained to the curve.-5.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points. KeepPoints When on. 416 . At the End of curve prompt. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.33.Rhino 2.5.5. At the Start of curve prompt. SwapUV Swap a the u.-5.-2.5.-2.5 -4. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command.5 -4.5.0 0. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.33.-2.2.33. pick a point for the new start point.5.2. select the following text.33.2. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.33.0 -4.10 -4. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.5. select a surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.33.33.-2.5.5.0 4.0 4.

Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. the new surface should also be tangent. reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.Rhino 2. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. the shape will twist with the surface edge. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. select the single rail curve for sweeping. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. 417 . adjust options.

adjust options. With closed rail curves. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. (The original curves are not modified. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Preview Click to preview the surface.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. If you use the Smooth option. The swept surface is created. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. If you don't use Smooth. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts.Rhino 2. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Note To create a single surface. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. the cross section curves need to be compatible. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. 418 . reversing the direction of the curve. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep.

The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep.Rhino 2. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. use the Maintain height option. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. 419 . Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position.

This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve.) With closed rail curves.Rhino 2. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. Preview Click to preview the surface. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. (The original curves are not modified. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. If you use the Rebuild option. and continues to the ends of the rails. but want to control where the sweep ends. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. If you don't use Rebuild. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. To create a single surface. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If you get the wrong surface. the cross-section curves need to be compatible.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. one of two possible surfaces appears. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep.

the SynchronizeViews command does nothing.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. Taper Taper objects. 421 . pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. At the End of taper axis prompt. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them.Rhino 2. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. At the Start of taper axis prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around.

curves.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Taper moves the control points of objects. second Radius prompt. choose a radius for the base of the cone.Rhino 2. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. Radius prompt. End of cone prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. 422 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. You can't taper a polysurface . If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. surfaces. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.only control points. TCone Draw a truncated cone. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. and meshes. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. choose a center point for the base. you will only taper that part of the object. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter.

and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. enter the start position for the text. When you place annotation text. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. surfaces. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. The two sizes update each other.25 inches. Example If your units are inches. or solids. 2000. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. in the form of curves. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. and XP. or solids based on TrueType fonts. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Type the text. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. It will not show in a perspective view. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. surfaces. In the Edit Text dialog box. 423 . set the options.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT.Rhino 2.

select Surfaces. specify the height of the text characters. The text appears in the Sample window. In the Font Style box. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. type text characters to make into solids. in the Font box. select a font. select a style. specify the height of the text characters. select a style. In the Font Style box. select a font. The text appears in the Sample window. In the Text height box. Under Create.Rhino 2. in the Font box. type text characters to make into surfaces. In the Text box. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . Under Create. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. In the Text box. select Solid. In the Text height box. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.

Top Set to world top view. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. add new buttons to toolbars. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 425 . Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. The workspace holds the toolbars. and whether it is hidden or showing.Rhino 2. the screen position of each toolbar. create new toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. adjust the size of buttons. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. the buttons in them. import toolbars from a different workspace file.

Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. When you are finished selecting objects. choose a center point. When you are finished trimming. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. press Enter. you must edit your Rhino. 426 . press Enter. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Second radius prompt. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. At the Radius prompt. click the parts of objects to trim away.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus.Rhino 2. select objects you want to trim other objects with.

At the first Radius prompt. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. choose a center point for the tube's base. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. use trim several times. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. choose a radius for the tube wall size. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. Front. imaginary extensions of the line are used. and Right view. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points.Rhino 2. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. or use Split. 427 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. At the second Radius prompt. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. Tube Draw a tube. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. To trim a surface with more than one curve.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. surfaces and polysurfaces. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces.

0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.Rhino 2. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Twist Twist objects. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. and Render Preview. Note The view rotates about the target point. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Shade. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. 428 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Press Esc to stop the turntable. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

or transform commands. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. the following prompt appears. and meshes. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. you will only twist that part of the object.only control points. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. choose a second point on the axis. The opposite to undo is Redo. Or. General tab. Twist moves the control points of objects. or construction planes. 429 .0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. curves. choose a point on the twist axis. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. edit. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. At the End of twist axis prompt. viewports. type in an angle. If you entered a point to rotate from. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. You can't twist a polysurface . or choose a point to rotate from. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. Undo Undo the last command. to twist copies of the objects. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. surfaces.Rhino 2. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. type c and press Enter. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view.

For example. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. This makes this command scriptable. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio.Rhino 2. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. their normals are flipped. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Render your mesh. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. 430 . If some of the faces that should render disappear." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option.

Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. UnLock Unlock locked objects. For example. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set.Rhino 2. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. explode it. re-join the meshes. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. select the objects you want to unlock. Once the normals are correct. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. When polysurfaces are meshed. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. If more than one object is selected. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. the packed texture coordinates are created. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. All polygons have a face normal direction. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. normals point the wrong way. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. The 431 . In general. If you see inside the mesh. Export in desired format. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. 3DFace object. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. Use UnifyMeshNormals.

UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. If the surface is developable. Packed textures. Unpacked textures. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. Polysurface made of four surfaces.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. 432 . select a surface or curves.

Surfaces such as spheres. tori. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. but not meet that requirement. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. Surface Tools. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. you can remove the trim curves. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. a developable surface has to be single span linear. 433 . it may be geometrically developable. removing any attached geometry.Rhino 2. In Rhino. Curves on a surface can also be developed. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. This is not like folding out a box. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. Toolbar: Menu: Main.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. This command may take some time. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. an information message is printed at the command line. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). an information message is printed at the command line. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. If the surface grows or shrinks in area.

Trimmed surface. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim removes the trimming curve. 434 .0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted.Rhino 2. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. Untrim joined polysurfaces.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.

select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. Appearance tab. you can change the lens length of the camera. 436 .0001). ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport.3921 (+/. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera.0. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm.

At the End radius <x> prompt.6. enter or drag a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. second moments. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt. At the Point on edge prompts.7e-007). The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2.2e-007.7e-007. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. At the Start radius prompt. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. select a surface or part of a polysurface. 437 . volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.-4e016. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. choose a point on the edge. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start.1.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. enter a radius for this point. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces.9553974. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt.4649522 (+/. If an edge point was picked.3. First moments. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. select a surface or part of a polysurface. product moments. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt.Rhino 2. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt.6. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.

Weight Edit control point weight. pan. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. 438 . Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. It does not change when you zoom. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. or rotate your view. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. Wallpaper Display wallpaper.Rhino 2. In other cases. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles.

When shaded. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. If we want a smooth roof. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. texture mapping on mesh objects. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. In our case. we can use weld with an angle of 40. At the Angle tolerance prompt. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. and file export for stereolithography. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. No points in the blue mesh are welded.Rhino 2. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. 439 . then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. see the SetPt command. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. To get this to happen. To perform a similar operation with control points. they are replaced by a single mesh point.

they always get welded. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. Thus. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. then Weld (angle=180). Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. 3D Studio MAX). To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. the bottom right is (1. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture.0). The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. top left is (0. It does not physically fuse the vertices. They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex.Rhino 2. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. 440 . A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. Weld does not report the results on the command line. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object.1). Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes.1) and top right (1. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. they must be joined before welding is effective. See Importing and exporting STL files. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. Welding in MAX is different. Use JoinMesh.

or polysurface. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. World axes icon on 441 . axes. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. The wireframe of the objects. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe.Rhino 2. the grid. object highlighting. select a curve. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. At the Select object prompt. surface.0 Command Reference What Display object information.

and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino.Rhino 2. When objects are rendered in Rhino. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. WorldYAxisIcon=. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. on the Shade tab. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. and black is the farthest away. 442 . Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. In the Zebra Options dialog box.ini file set the color for the icon. where white is the closest to your eye.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. size. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. and color. set the stripe direction. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it.

Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. MatchSrf. and curvature between the surfaces match.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Position. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches.Rhino 2. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. Tangent matches. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. curvature. These meshes can be large. this means the position. curvature. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. 443 . tangency. the surfaces touch. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. and other important properties. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag.

Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. When More reliable is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. on the Shade tab. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. select More reliable. but will always work. 444 . This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. under Zebra and EMap. If you have a wheel mouse. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. When Faster is selected. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. ZoomNext Redo the last view change.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.Rhino 2. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab.

If you have problems with ZoomWindow. At the Zoom factor prompt. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. ZoomWindow Zoom window. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. drag a window to zoom. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. 446 . Note In a perspective view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. This is particularly useful in perspective views. type a zoom factor and press Enter. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. pick a point for the center of the view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt.Rhino 2.

152 Attach command. MAX 3. 143. 5. 2. 145 AreaMoments command. 28. 5. 251. 144 Area command. 135 4View command. 141 ApplyCurves command. 144 Arc command. from three points. 255. 206. 232 Arc3Pt command. 206. 231. dimension. 139 AlignTrace command. 151 ArraySurface command. toolbar button function. 139 AlignOnSrf command. VIZ. 220. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. measure between two lines. circular. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 169 3CPlane command. 150. 255. options. 212. 151 array:. 138 AddToGroup command. 207. 148. 28. 152. 279 2Sphere command. 149. 140. 143. 333. import. 10. 5. 5. 152 ASAP file exchange. 368. 146 arguments at the command line. 139 All command. 35. 82 Alt key. from start. 221. 144 ArcSER command. 136 AddNextV command. 362 3Plane command. 5. MAX 3. to copy while dragging. 140. 5. MAX 2. 149. 305. 143. end and radius. 33. set ortho. 123 Arrowhead command. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 5. 29 3DFace command. 150 ArraySrf command. 144. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. scale factor. 206. create planar sections. 251. 170 2-D drawings from model. 203. 53 aliases. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 210. 207. 5. MAX 2. 361. 426 Analyze toolbar. 14. 53. 239. 393 3View command. DWG file exchange. pause input. 5. 141 ApplyMesh command. 2. export options. 324 3Rectangle command. 309 AlignProfiles command. 140 angle:. 135 3DM file exchange. 255. 123. 333. 29. 140 Along object snap. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 5. 230. 265. 151. MAX 1. 29. tangent to two curves.0 OBJ. 138 adjust end bulge. add notes to the model. 144. 31 AG file exchange. 149 ArrayPolar command. 187. 145 AreaCentroid command. 24 AddNextU command. 5. 28. 281 AttachEnd command. 123 2Circle command. rectangular. 144 arc:. 215. 139. initialize. 203. 245. 308 align:. 232. 151. 82 AlongTan object snap.2. 163 3Circle command. 152. 27. 229. 215 annotation. 206. 143 3Box command. 205. 149 ArrayCurve command. set scale. 151 ArrayCrv command. 322. 205. 136 AddPrevU command. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 3. 150. 203. 150. 150. end and direction. 204. from the last point. 5. 298. DOS. 137 AddPrevV command. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 5. 127. 10. 205. 192. around a pole. 148 Array toolbar. 312 Angle command. 340. 5. 385 analyze:. 149 Array command. 150. Release 12 export. 142. with a MicroScribe. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 28. 251.0 Command Reference Index !. shortcuts. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. set spacing between points. 205. 14. 30 add object to selection. 152 arrowhead on curve. export. 207. 139 Align3D command. arrow. 5. 152 AutoCAD. sketch curve with. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 215. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 27. 168. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 393 34View command. 230. 5. 141 arc: extend by. 148. 62 447 . 27. 142 Arc toolbar. 5. 204. 33. DXF file exchange. 330. set up function key for click. 88 align: background bitmap. 251. 88. 305. 143 ArcDir command. 5. 152 Arrow command. profile curves. 55 Ascii STL tag. 141 ApplyCrv command. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 5. 221.Rhino 2. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 180. 204. 152. 5. 133. 26. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 281 Audit command. 144. 5. disconnect. 5. polar. 125 array: along a curve. 198. 207. 312 AngleLine command. 231. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 197. 140 Align command. 33.0. suspend autoclose. 205. 53. 426 angle: constraint. extend to a point. 144 ArcTTR command. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 143 Arc3Pts command. 266 animate view. 5. 135 ACIS file export. 346 3Sphere command.0 IGES. 34. 76. 5. built into Rhino. command aliases. calibrate. 3DS file format. 34. 206. dot. to suspend object snaps. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 412 Annotate toolbar. 195. 152 AnnotateDot command. with FaroArm. 323 3-D digitizing:. 5. 5. 407. 140. 32 AGLib file exchange. 5. 151 arrow annotation object. 127. on a surface. 307. 251. 5. 135 3Arc command. 162. 205. 152. 149. arrowhead on curve. 29. 180.5.

5.Rhino 2. 123 Cap command. 180. 249. 322. scale. 249. render meshes when saving file. 169 Circle3Pts command. 363. 152. 162. 122. 157. 165 ChamferSrf command. display grid. 164. 168. hide. 366 CArc command. 124. 425. 153 background bitmap: align. 163 Box3Pts command. 165 Chamfer command. 118. 321. 5. 157. 122. 167. 160. 172. 365. 170 CircleTTR command. 316. clear undo. as bitmap. 161. 322. 172 built-in aliases. use for tracing. 351. 250 button. 170 Circle command. 116. 161 BooleanDifference command. 250 Center object snap. radius. 124. 79 center:. toggle world icon.0 file exchange. 170. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 124. 384 bad objects. 90. ortho angle. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 365. time control. 250. 102. 170. undo levels. 124 capture viewport. 179. with toolbar button. 168 check objects for errors. clear button image. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 322. 243. 184. 171. backdrop for rendering. 114. 158. lock. to the Clipboard. 157. 5. 169 CircleD command. 154. command. 168. undo buffer. 171 circle:. 171. 124. 168. 384. 172. 184. 351. 133. 162. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 160 BooleanUnion command. 297. 166 ChangeLayer command. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 312. 123. 384. 171 clear. selection. troubleshooting. 5. 5. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 123. 168 CheckInLicense command. 338. 392. 123. 402 Bisector command. toolbar layout. 367. place background. 123. 409. 139. 90 ChangeDegree command. set construction plane z. 232 Clipboard. 153. 152 AutoShip file exchange. hide background. 13. 363. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 5. tangent to three curves. 322 blend: curve. 368 Baseball command. 162 Box toolbar. with Esc key. 162 BoundingBox command. 245. intersection. 321. 139. 366. center of. background. delete toolbar button. 167. 56 cancel command. 90 Autosave command. 321. 297. 166. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. settings. 292 Box command. 351. 365. 169. 54 autosave: file location. move toolbar button. 321. sphere. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 139. 160. 153 BD command. 90. remove. 163. 365. 425 Back command. 101. 168 choose one object. 180. 84 Bezier curve. 172. 249. 5. place. 155 bitmap. 156. 249. floatation. edit toolbar. 133. 366. render meshes. 171. 123. scale background. 122. 125. convert NURBS curve to. as 256-color bitmap. 322. 161 Bottom command. paste from. from three points. 320. 367. 130. 125. layer. 145 chamfer: two curves. copy toolbar button. toolbar button image. place. 160 bi-rail sweep. to current layer. 39 BMRT support. 161. 56 center: buoyancy. ellipsoid. variable radius between surfaces. 170 CircleTTT command. 90. 168. 154. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 124. select. 320. 179 BI command. import button image. width. 351. 368. 384 background bitmap:. 297. 162 box: from length. 421 BlendSrf command. 250. 172 CLine command. align backgound. object properties. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. copy to. from three points. 162. 292 Box3Pt command. 154 baseball-style seams. toolbar button tooltip. 184. 115. save button image to file. 5. use. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. cut. two surfaces. surface degree. 351. 365. 165 change. 124. 124. 171. show. 338 buoyancy. 133 BU command. 133. 159. the layer of an object. 170. 243. polygon mesh. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 232 CATIA file exchange. 113. 152 autosave:. 163. 139. 168 Check command. 168. capture button image. edit button icons. 171 Circle3Pt command. difference. remove background. 249. edit button image. 199. area. 123. 24 circle: by diameter. 39 BMP file format. 245. 2. 198. 384. 5. 55 axis. toolbar. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 229. show hidden background. 5. 321. 297. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 156. move background. 160 Bend command. 164 chamfer:. 122. surface. 39 Boolean. 145. 139. 297. 153 back view. 198. 123. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 164 cap open planar ends. 166. 101. from center. set construction plane x. 133. 124 C command. 123. 362 ClearMesh command. 322. 169. 160. height. 170. 231 CArcPt command. union. tangent to two curves. 349 ClearUndo command. 163 B-spline. snap size. move. 250 centroid. 323. 164. 5. 392. 12. 162 bottom view. 168 Circle toolbar. 312. 204 camera. 369 C2View command. 421 Blend command. 85. 163 box:. 154 Between object snap. 156 blend:. 316 448 . 161 buffer.

154. 13. 5. move all through a point. import from 3DM file. 195 color. bend. 88. 182 CPlaneO. 182. add next in v-direction to selection. 202. set distance between grid lines. 406. 5. set extents of. move through a point. 338. 342. wheel. 339. 176. 246. display axes. 11. 246. 228. along line. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 104. turn off. 5. 245. turn grid on or off. 235. 75. 174 conic:. 183. 184. draw curve using. 131. G0. 303. 11. 303. 173. 181. render window to Clipboard. 174. 218 Contour command. 176 constraint. 136. viewport. 75. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 5. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. set display density. script. select row in vdirection. 422. 172. 172 CommandPaste command. 345. 327 Cob command. 5 command:. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 114. polar coordinates. 172 Closest point to an object. view left of. 298. 5 CPlaneObject command. 123. 181. show hidden. set to z-axis. set to x-axis. 126. 10. 179. 10. 88. 119. 386. 181. 89. 125. 183. render. 137. objects. 90. for spotlight editing. 406 ConfigScript command. 177. dialog box. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. move in u-. delete from a curve. curve. 180. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 164. layer. 327. 339. 122. 14. G1. display for a point. truncated. 126 conic: curve. named construction plane. 362. toolbar button. add to surface. 5. 125. 217 COff command. 246. 180. 245. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 413 CommandHistory command. 137. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 172 cloud of points. 176. 304. relative polar coordinates. 11.0 Command Reference close. 179. 166. 183. 202. 75. 88. 15. 14. 164. 74. move along Z. 138. AutoCAD. 246. set to object. 182 449 . select next in u-direction. 89. save. 195 cone: cone. view bottom of. 180. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 172. G2. 379. 386. set to 3 points. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 219 coordinate entry. holes in surfaces. extract. list. 183. 10. 344. 178. 11 coordinates. make all have same orientation. 373. 84. 359. 406 Cone command. 182. list all. 419 context menu. 138. 180 copy:. 136. select previous in v-direction. set top. select previous in u-direction. entering coordinates. 177 contour curves. 197. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 173. view back of. 251 command area. 406. angle. 5. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 182. 249. 298. next. 131. options. 379 control polygon. display. 2. 104. 173 COn command. 131 ControlPolygon command. 323. set origin. previous. curve and surface. move to coordinate location. 114. rendering to Clipboard. settings of one construction plane to all. set to view. 133. 89. render window. 173. 335. 173. 375. 419. 380. 181 Copy command. world coordinates. toggle display of. 184. 181. 179 Coons patch. 140. 126. rotate. 176 ConicPerp command. objects to Clipboard. 21. options. 228. 75 comma-delimited file export. 2. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. old. 180. 35 command: alias. toolbar. 172 CloseViewport command. highlight. 177 continuous shading. 297. 155. view to all viewports. v-. display in clipboard or history. 373. 245. 197. 181. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. 297. 181 CPlaneNext command. 5. 413 command aliases. place point objects on. project objects to. 422. 183. 15 construction plane. project object snap to. 339. 12. 173. distance. history. 133. 245. view right of. toggle construction plane entry. 362. polygon mesh. set right. 323. undo. 178 control vertex. 155. 175. 131 control points. 172 ClosestPt command. View top of. 359. set front. 419. 292. 419. add next in u-direction to selection. weld. 419. 173. select next in v-direction. 57 CPDash command. and ndirections. set weight. false. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. coordinates. 343. 234. 335. 11. 303. 419. 2 command line. 5. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 115. toggle world coordinate entry. 338. 336. 11. 172 ClosePoint command. 180. toggle display. construction plane coordinates. 419. read from file. 173 CommandPrompt command. 126. 245. 122. 177. 166. 335. 379. set to previous. 84.Rhino 2. 136. 178 control point definition. 11 copy: command shortcut. assign to mouse buttons. 123. set the number of thin gridlines. 338. set to vertical. 250. hide. 115. display recently used. shortcut. 178. 125. 11. 173 commands: list of all. 245. macro. 5. 172. 342. arguments. 374. 184. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 181. 234. paste from clipboard. turn on. 88. 4. 75. 18. 182. 75. 88. 140. 12. 182. set origin of all construction planes. 181. 180. select row on surface. 182. set normal to curve. 131 command history. 405. 176 Conic command. create curve from. 125. copy settings of one to the all. 184. taper. add previous in u-direction to selection. view front of. relative coordinates. 173 cone:. 174. 235. 178 CPHighlight command. 11. 292. 183. 174. 119. 172. 343. 173 Commands command. 181 CopyClip command. 173 commands:. 12. 173 command names. 183. 75 continuity. set to next. 5. 173. add previous in v-direction to selection. 249. perpendicular to curve. Esc to cancel. 184. 85. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. coincident. plan view. 2. 181 CPlaneFront command. 398. 90. 375. 398.

258. 304. 218. 156. 311. 197. 195. 221. polyline through point objects. convert to polyline. 2. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 330. 387 Curve toolbar. 184 CPTog command. 232. 141. ellipse. offset. 188. 391. 343. 24. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 197 curve degree. 356. 170. 390. end. 339. 191 curvature:. 189. 183 CPlaneTop command. simplify. 367. 238. 254. 305. 239. 2 Ctrl+S. extend to surface boundary. 239. sketch. 239. 174. section. 184 CPlaneX command. 183 CPlaneRight command. 24. direction. 197. 258. 187 CurveSeam command. adjust end bulge. 184 CPlaneZ command. 270. arc tangent to two curves. extend by arc to a point. 256. 311. 177. 231. 279. 233. 216. 253. 187. 202. 168. circle tangent to two curves. 3. extrude straight. 4. 190 CullCP command. line perpendicular to two curves. 307 Ctrl+P. crosshairs. 15 crossing: select with mouse. marker. 255. 334. 218. 142. 141. 4. 4. 389. 369 crossing selection. 155. 340. 367. 165. 169. 387. parabola. 191. 314. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 187 CurveSketch command. analyze surface. line normal to a surface. 141. 195. 314. add knots. Gaussian. 198 CutPlane command. from 2 views. bisector line. 231. 256. 343. line segments. convert to Beziers. 195. 4. 236. 305. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. curvature graph. 241. 339. 390. 143. 13. 2. 255. 346 cross sections through profiles. 248. 216. from interpolated points. 226. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 254. measure between two curves. extract wireframe from surface. 238. 248. 389. 241. blend. spiral. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 355. graph off. 367. 185. from point cloud. refit. arc from start. 304 Ctrl+A. 165. 187 CrvEnd command. curvature graph off. 189. 144. single line. 195. tangent line. fillet. 330. display graph. 213. 198 Ctrl+Y. 133. 232. 239. 196. 302 Ctrl+O. line tangent to two curves. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 197. 185. 189 crosshairs. 168. 24 curvature: analyze curve. 197. 230. 2. 268. 197. 343. arc from three points. 195. 257. 326. 142. 187 CrvStart command. align in two views. 389. 257. points. 235. adjust seam point. 337. 258. 164. 144. contour. 157. 175. 170. 169. 156. 139. extrude to point. polyline. constrain to ortho. 226. 179. 133. 234 CreatePCurves command. 218. 186. pull to surface. 337. 14. make periodic. 270. helix. 4 Ctrl+V. 305. graph on. 170. 226. sketch on polygon mesh. measure radius. 238. 178. 236. 184 CPlaneV command. 394 CurveBlend command. 306. 327. 174. tracking line. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 281. 265. 2. duplicate edge of surface. 241. 185 CrvBox command. 369. 190 cursor. point. flatten section of. 2. 269 Curve command. place point at start. 164. 195. 194. 195. 2. 281. arc. constrain to plane. remove knots. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 323. 267. 187 CurveOverlap command. 185 CRectangle command. circle by diameter. 187. 253. 194. 248. intersect two objects. 348 Ctrl+Z. 131. 195. 189 CSec command. 165. 15. 236. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. rebuild. 143. chamfer. 235. 257. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. revolve. 281. constrain along line. 249. 333. 144. project onto surface. extend. 156. 213. 189. 4. 327. delete control points. 271. 192. 169. 189 CSV export. 15. 395. 389 CurveStart command. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 177. 255. extend by arc. periodic. 187. 182 CPlanePrev command. silhouette. raise degree. 187 CrvSeam command. 200 450 . 217. 184 CPlaneView command. 197 curve. 387 curve:. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. toggle. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 162. 337. 230. surface from network. 180 Ctrl+N. radius. 339. extract isoparms from surface. 255. duplicate border of surface. extrude along path. 316 Ctrl+X. interpolate through polyline. insert edit point. 25. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 387. 156 CurveBox command. fair. 139. cross sections through profiles. 90. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 351. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. 334.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 15. 2. 174. 245 Curvature command. 217. match ends. 197. 165. 235. 394. 387. 3 Ctrl+C. circle from center. 267. 232. 162 CurveEnd command. 3 crossing:. divide by number of segments. 131. 155. 268. 355. 298. sketch on surface. apply to surface. 156. 202. 256. 90. 236. 179. 233. line vertical to construction plane. 369. from control points. 268. 340. selection. 194. 187. 271. 179. 4. bounding box. 304. 164. 305. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 323. 281. interpolate on surface. 177. 389. 269. smooth. 268. 369 Crv2View command. place point at end. 222. 326. constrain parallel to view plane. 388. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 298. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 4. extend by line. 221. 162 CrvDeviation command. mean. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 24. conic. select all. 217. 185. 183 CPlaneToView command. 351. 265. 333. 239. 188. 388. line. circle from three points. 191.Rhino 2. 230. 388. 162.

166. 207 DimAligned command. 251 dot: annotation. 293 Cylinder command. 209 DimRecenterText command. Notes tab. 416 developable surface definition. 135. 218. control polygon. 203 develop a surface. 10. 15. 208 DimOptions command. 298 DigPause command. Rhino. 215 drafting. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. raise curve degree. select all. 15 divide: curve by length. 209 DimRotated command. 216. 195. 202. 22. merge. set spacing between points. disconnect. with MicroScribe. 209. 23 distance:. 211 DirectX file export. 272 date. 17. 201. 122 Delete command. layer. 209. 205. 213 Divide command. 120 document properties: notes. 425. 206 DigSketch command. 122. 197. 213 dock a toolbar. 211. 203 DigCalibrate command. grid. tolerances. curve by number of segments. 3-D digitizing. 206. 123. 218 duplicate. 344. 135. 104. 411. 2. 218. 370. 132. display curve or surface. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. in Trim command. 123 451 . 19 document properties:. 201 cylinder:. 210 DirArc command. 210. 166. 202 Deselect All. 204. 121. toggle. change. 260. 127. broken edges. 217 draw. 217 DupEdge command. 121. 22 degree. 243. 338. naked. 202 delete:. 207. 250. Boolean. units. 410. 202 DeleteAll command. 206. 384 diameter dimension. 212. 219. polygon mesh. 104. 23. 85. 12. 207. 33 DynamicShading command. command button. 209. 210. 17. 205 DigDisconnect command. render mesh settings. naked edges. angle between lines. 212 disconnect digitizer. 205 displacement. 396 EdgeSrf command. set up function key for click.Rhino 2. objects. 19 DocumentProperties command. diameter. 212 DisableOsnap command. pause input. Render Mesh tab. 245. select all objects. 207 DimDiameter command. 250 display: bitmap window. 213. 119. 422 Display command. join two out of tolerance edges. 160. 105. hydrostatic calculation. 168. border of surface. 212 distance: constraint. summary. 260. 205. 370. 370 DWG file exchange. 106. aligned. in Split command. 217. 210. 18. annotation text. 178. surfaces. 208. 99 disable. 213 DivideByLength command. 206 DigSection command. lines. 220. 251. edit points. 208. 215 dot:. 344. 45 dirty looking rendering. 15 Distance command. 3-D polygon mesh face. 22. 384. recenter text. 217. 217 DrapePt command. 214 domain: match. 206.ini. 215 Dot command. 265. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 288. 212 display:. 208. 370. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. radius. 144 direction. 410 cylinder: NURBS. button image. 288. options. 108 Dup command. set scale. toolbar button. 127. horizontal. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 214 domain:. 207. 330. 243 DirectionalLight command. 212.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 207 DimAngle command. 160 Dig command. 167. control points. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 205 digitize. grid axes. edit text. 330. 251 Domain command. intialize. 260. 197. 385. 220. show. display broken. toolbar button bitmap icons. 330. 202. 91. 209. 208 DimRadius command. 220. 205. object. isoparm density. object discription. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 344. split. 204 DigClick command. 212 distance display. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 368. 127. 210 DimHorizontal command. polylines. 203. rotated. 17. 131 Ebroken command. viewport properties. persistent object snaps. 288. create 2-D curves. 34 DXF file exchange. calibrate. 165. 384 edge: create curve from. 385. 217. 395. 196. 219. from last point. rebuild. 372 DeselectAll command. 208. 210 Dir command. 207. 372 Deselect command. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 165 Delcam file exchange. 58 delete: all objects. 2. 209 DimVertical command. 216 Drape command. 218. 22. 205 DigScale command. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 88. edge of surface. 279. 123. with FaroArm. 168. 219. 372 DetachTrim command. planar section. 133. 19. points at naked edges. wallpaper. curve. 124. 277 diagnostics. dimension text. vertical. 293 data structure for object. 107. reverse object direction. change degree of surface. 239. 208 dimension. 19. shortcuts. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 215 draft angle. 201. 213 divide:. 208 difference. 218 e_tol. sketch curve. 207. 265. 132. 12. 209. 217 DupBorder command. 10. 385. 395. 218. 19. 385. 202. 245. 272. 384. 384. 279 Dragmode. toolbar. 217 drape surface. options. 396 edge:. 206 DigSpacing command. 196.

174 Elmo command. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 56. space and rightmouse click. 45. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 253. 288 Enaked command. 238. IGES. 228 error messages. Solid Edge (IGES). 33. 230. 52. 229. 3. 220. 67. 35. Alias (IGES). 93. 29. options. 228 exit Rhino. 133 Escape key. SolidWorks (IGES). 70. 230. 26. 4 F8. 236. VRML. 219 EditPtOn command. 52. 236. 60. 128. 385 EnakedPt command. 226 endpoint object snap. raw triangles (RAW). POVRay (POV). 123 edit:. 62. 344 EMap command. 45.0 (IGES). 231. 232. 231. surface from polysurface. 429 End object snap. 30. 63. 3D Studio MAX 3. TekSoft IGES. 238 F1. 41. 133. 238 Extrude command. 69. curve by offset. isoparms from surface. 40 errors in model. 229. 33. 72. Mastercam (IGES). 233. 53. 119. GHS. 60. 220 EJoin command. 59. 229 export:. 385 ESplit command. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 73. 45. 224 erase objects. 35. 57. unable to run program renrib. 222 ellipse:. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 228 expand a surface. Delcam (IGES). 74. curve to point. 53. 230 extend. 45. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 232. 12. 44. object properties to file. 62. OptiCAD (IGES). 234. 67. FastSURF (IGES). 219. 233 extend:. 31. export to. Plug-in). 253. triangles. AutoShip (IGES).0 (IGES). 13. 221. 223 elliptical conic curve. surface into a solid. 69. 40. 11. 236 Extrude toolbar. DirectX. 63. 4 F9. 233. 72. 2. 51. 236. 58 FastSURF file exchange. 230. 124. NuGraf (IGES). 71. Catia (IGES). 231. 236 ExtractWireframe command.0 Command Reference edit points. 30. surface. Pro/E (IGES). 3D Studio (3DS). 58 452 . 224 EMerge command. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. Viewpoint Technologies. 58. 41. Moldex DXF. 233 ExtendSrf command. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. Wavefront (OBJ). Applied Geometry (AG). 12 ELine command. Commadelimited file. 51. 235 ExtractSrf command. 127 Esc key. 356. 73. 233 ExtendByArc command. 35. 36. 239 FastShip file exchange. 58. 59. 63. 234. 229 explode:. 55. ACIS. Cosmos/M (IGES). show. 1 Faro command. turn on. 229 Explode command. 260 elevator mode. 53. 235. 70. mesh to IGES file. Yamaha ESPRi. 230. 54. 53. 65. 92. 43. 68. 330 End key. 62. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. curve to surface boundary. 68. SAT file format. 30. 232. 4 Fair command. 65. 42. 32. 55. 44. 57. 343 ElmoSrf command. 45. 13. 12 Enter:. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). Multisurf (IGES). SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 4 F2. 71. Unigraphics (IGES). 133 EShow command. AutoCAD (DXF). 35. Lightwave (LWO). AutoCAD (DWG). 236. 74 Export command. curve on surface. CamSoft (IGES). 31. 36. curve. 232. 231. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 133 enter coordinates. 61. 61. Microstation (IGES). 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 59. CAD 3D SUM 4. 41. Softimage (IGES. arc to a point. 230 Extend toolbar. 37. surface. 47. 46. 396 EvaluatePoint command. 2. 223 ellipsoid:. by line. 235. 154 Ellipsoid command. 31. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). STL. 55. 221. SURFCAM (IGES). 239 fair curve. 227. 202. Moray (UDO). insert on curve. IronCAD (IGES). 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 228 Excel. 46. 420 EditDim command. 35. 229 export. turn off. 10. 237. polygon mesh. CADCEUS (IGES). wireframe curves from surface. 239 false color display. 123. 63. AUTOFORM (IGES). Adobe Illustrator (AI). 231. 45. SLA. 222 Ellipse command. 238. 220 EditText command. 55. command aliases. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 56. 37. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 92. 58. 222 EllipseEnds command. Maya (IGES). 45. 235 ExtractPt command. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 33. 36. 131 FAQ. FastShip (IGES). 232 ExtendByLine command. 56. 228 EvaluateUV command. Solid Designer (IGES). 356 extrude:. 69. 54. 73. 238. NASA GridTool. curve along path. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 64. 229 Exit command. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 32. control polygon. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 220. 58. Integrity Ware (IGES). 238 ExtrudeSrf command. PostScript.0 (OBJ). 71. 236. 227 environment map. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 236 extrude: curve. from focus points. CSV file. by arc. 64. Tebis IGES.Rhino 2. ME30 (IGES). 42. 3D Studio MAX 3. 234 Extend command. 233 extract. 48. 46. Alias (OBJ). 26. 26. 61. Metastream. 233. 42. 2. 236. 78 EndBulge command. 221 EllipseD command. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 60. 46. 54. LUSAS (IGES). 131. 64. 37. 40. 73. 29. 228 EvaluatePt command.

133. objects. 1. 74. 1. 281 FlatShade command. 407. 62. 133. 245 GridOptions command. axis lock. set snap size. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 119 HideTrace command. save as. 380 GridAxes command. 390. 277. control points. 407. 417 FlattenSrf command. 134. 386. unlock locked objects. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 246. 396. 49. 325 FitCrv command. 279. 273. 130 Flow along a curve. 18. 307. Osnap dialog box. 131. 12 Home key. status bar panes. AutoShip. periodic surface. 130. open. 385. 133. 246 group. 410. 53. 386. 236. 415 GHS file export. polysurface. 278. 53. 120. edit points. 47. control point. 55. 63. false color. developable surface. 131. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 54. 52. 50. swap hidden status. 3D Studio MAX 3. 273. polygon mesh export. 131. 249 highlight in rendering. units. 262. simple controls. 122. 429 Horizon command. 249 HideSwap command. new. 132. 124. toolbar. 387 HSV color. 244 Flowline command. 59. 70. 75 Hydrostatics command. 54. 246. 73. 247 Helix command. 246 GridSize command. 1 help:. 228. run application from inside Rhino. 130. 305. 249 HideCV command. seamless mesh. 104 fit a plane through points. 377 Group command. set the number of lines. objects. 36 glossary terms. isoparm. 242 FlatShadeAll command. tolerance. 203. 262. edge of polysurface. 245 Grid command. definition. 65. 249. bumpmap. 245 grid:. show hidden control points. 348. 395. objects. 302. center of. 81 Front command. 131. 249 hide:. 240 FilletSrf command. surface. 377. 214 fillet. 54. 250. 212 frequently asked questions. 229. flyout toolbar. show selected. 245. 220. 417 ghost: a layer. 172 hold. 123. world axes. set the extents of. 243 floatation. 416. 119. 46. 132. 119 Hide command. 339 HideOsnap command. 425 IGES: file exchange. 244 Flow command. Esc key. 131. reduce size of model. 122. 221 fonts. edit using. 378. 56. initial mesh grid. 176 Gaussian curvature. 135 grid: axes . 171. 240 Fillet command. set distance between lines. 336. 135. import. 248 help: display Help file. texture mapping coordinates. 241 FitPlane command. 176 G1 continuity. 262. 61. tracking line. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 249 HidePts command. 168. 133. 5. 250. 131. 68. 220. 246 Heightfield command. 229. 249. 249. 46. 255. command line. 133. 246. 240 FilletEdge command. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 330. 246 Gridsnap command. 133. NURBS. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 134. 120. 50. cursor.0. save. 239 fillet:. 71. 246 Group objects for selection. 132. 249. 192. 415 Freeze command. panes. 131. 246. edit toolbar button. 260. two surfaces. Breault Research's ASAP. 67. 250. technical support. 245 GridSections command. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 46. Enter key. 362 file:. 246 HBar command. 46. 229. 69. 360. 262. 250. 55. 1 Help command. 273 ghost:. 407 freeze: a layer. periodic curve. 133. 1 From object snap. 239. turn on or off. 361. shortcut. IGES export type details. 122 font. 379 IGES file types. 241 FlatShade1 command. 2 hidden layer name. section of curve. 55. 243 Flip command. 123. 426. naked edge. 72. 386. 55. 361. marker. 251. 57. 75 hue. AUTOFORM. 338 history. troubleshooting import problems. 174 icon. 361. 249 HidePoints command.turn on or off. 235 FltE command. toolbar. command area. 249. 378. 240. wireframe. 251 floating license. 245. curve. 302. 380 GridThick command. 307. 246 handlebars. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 134. 273 freeze:. 380. 2. snap to. 273. 133. 133. 134. 64. 380. 229. 46. name. 386. 46. 49 IGES export:. 131. 103 hidden objects. 246 HBarSrf command. 337. 12. 123. 251. spacing. CADCEUS. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. normal. 239. keep last used on top. 171. 132. 172. 384. 250 hide: background bitmap. 194 GCon command. 246. unlock locked objects. 416. 251. 425. 53.Rhino 2. 48. Ashlar Vellum. 277. 249 HidePt command. 119 HideToolbox command. 415 Ghost command. 244 G0 continuity. 379. 240 filter the layer display. 251. 413. 273. 261. 362 FileProperties command. 131. text.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. object names. 176 G2 continuity. 255. 386 HideAll command. 242 flatten. 360. 307. 249. Alias|Wavefront. 58. 362 File toolbar. 244 front view. 194. 259. types. Unicode. 339. 60. 368. 2. 302. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 453 . 250 HideToolbar command. template. text.

121. 61. ME30 IGES. 377 LayerLock command. 58. FastSURF IGES. 135. 67. 63. 64. OptiCAD. 33. 62.0 IGES. 72. 253. 312. 101 Layer pane. 73. 29. 3D Studio 3DS. insert in surface. 10. SDRC's I-DEAS. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 72. surface or polysurface. 261 JoinEdge command. 255. 254. 63. 130 license:. 152. 261 Join command. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 59 InterpCrv command. 256 interpolate. check out from workgroup license manager. 60. NASA GridTool IGES. 259. 251 import:. 60. match. rename. delete. display density. Solid Designer IGES. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 264 Left command. CamSoft IGES. 261 JoinSrf command. 56. 264 length: measure curve. CATIA. AutoCAD DXF. 257 InterpPolyline command. arrowhead on curve. 264 leader:. 59. knot. 262 lasso selection. 46. 259 join:. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 63. Microstation IGES. 61. set material. 168 454 . object snap. 64. 140. 69. TekSoft IGES. 53. Multisurf. 70. 102. 167. Delcam. 71. purge empty. 343. 355 layer: change color. 101. Solid Designer. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 132 isoparm. 258 intersection. 69. 257. 377. 64. 101. 265 Length command. 262. Tebis IGES. Solid Edge. curve on surface. 63. 37. 53. stereolithography STL. 264 left view. 59. distance from. 260. 260. definition. 265 length:. 251 Improve command. 70. 258 InvertPt command. 263 LayerOn command. 68. 254 Insert command. 41. 41. 57. FastShip IGES. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 103.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 255. 307. 103. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 253 InsertKink command. 74. Alias IGES. 69. 101. 71. 258 intersect:. 59 isoparametric curve. 58. 160 Invert command. 58. turn on. 312. 76. 55. TekSoft. 62. 73. 104. 52 import. 56. 338. 135 jagged shadows. 252 insert:. 263. 71. 56. AutoShip IGES. Applied Geometry AG. 59. 90. 132. 253. curve. 62. Pro/E. turn off by selecting an object. 31. 58. 61. 160. Yamaha ESPRi. dialog box. 253 knot. Mastercam. 260 JoinFaces command. 251 IncrementalSave command. 262 LayerOff command. 73. 256. 85. 103. translate IGES/Rhino. 70. IronCAD. Pro/E IGES. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 3D Studio MAX 3. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 60. SURFCAM IGES. 104. FastSURF. 263. 377 layer:. AUTOFORM IGES. 32. wireframe view. Microstation. SolidWorks IGES. 168. 140. 160. 29. SUM 4. Boolean. 363. 119 initial mesh grid. 91. 132. 258 Intersect command. kink in curve. 307. 64. 32. 54. 168. LUSAS IGES. FastShip. 14. 63. CAD 3D SUM 4. 102. 48. 253 InsertKnot command. Multisurf IGES. 53.0 OBJ. 168 license manager. Mechanical Desktop IGES. AutoCAD DWG. 254 InsertKnots command. set current. 26. 371. 68. 54. 46 IGES:. 60. 63. 126 kink. 69. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. display for object. new. 104. 59. 367 JPG file format. 168. 73. snap to. 253. 78. surfaces. 261 JPG. 61. Tebis.0 IGES. definition. split surface at. SURFCAM. Delcam IGES. 57. 101. 10. Softimage. construction planes from 3DM file. Cosmos/M. 42. change to current. turn off. 78. 261 JoinMesh command. Integrity Ware IGES. 69. 62. Adobe Illustrator AI. 73. Maya IGES. 54. CADCEUS IGES. 261 Lasso command. 396. 56. 283. 41. Solid Edge IGES. IGES. 55. insert on curve or surface. Raw triangles RAW. 55. 425. 104. 167. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 258 IntersectCrv command. 283. Softimage IGES. select objects by. 253 InsertKinks command. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 133 Layer toolbar. 254. 103. 140. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 81. 67. 160. 322 JScript. 425 ini file. 74 Import command. 65. 366. 3D Studio MAX 3. 61. 351. insert in curve. set material properties. 15 lathe. 103.Rhino 2. 14. 283. 73. Integrity Ware. 46. 46. 81. change for an object. Cosmos/M IGES. one layer on. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 62. turn all layers on.0. 71. remove from curve or surface. 152 Leader command. 253. 167. 104. Maya. select from list. 254. 42. 60. 72. OptiCAD IGES. 121. management. match attributes. named views from a 3DM file. 251. 65. 68. filter display. 307. 160. 99 JCAD STL export. 343. 263 Layer command. 103. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 71. Breault Research ASAP IGES. SolidWorks. aliases. 57. 77. 42. angle from. 132. 66. 56. 263 leader: arrow. 10. NASA GridTool. two objects. 263. 132. 257 intersect: Boolean. 15. IronCAD IGES. Unigraphics. 70. 33. 67. 46. 65. 59. 396. 254. 104. ME30. 26. 67. 2. 256. 371. 63. 37. 55. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 255. CATIA IGES. 71. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 33. 58. 307. Unigraphics IGES. objects. 252 information. 262 last point. NuGraf IGES. 259. toolbar from another layout. 46. Lightwave LWO. LUSAS. 377. Mastercam IGES. Mechanical Desktop. 152. triangles. 251. 255 Int object snap. 69. 131 insert: edit point. 31. 104. 64. 58. 59.

363. 39. 229. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 75. 288 maximize:. 334. insert straight segment into curve. 329. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 334 LineTan command. 273 Logoff command. 155. 86 lights. 281. 338. BMRT. set for layer. 271. 269 LineTP command. 279 Make2d4View command. 348. 211. 142. objects. 296 macro. tangent to a curve. 140. length. vertical to construction plane. cylinder. 270 LineV command. 40. 288 Menu command. 273 Lock command. 338 mapping coordinates. 171. 334 merge: surface. 140. 288 Maya file exchange. 265. 288 MergeEdge command. 130 map. 212. 268. 141. 371. 266. 270. 105. 268 Lines command. 265. 348. perpendicular to curve. snap to. 377. 131 mass properties. set viewport. 38 match: curve ends. definition. 290. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 292. 292. 271 Line command. 269. plane. 212 LockSwap command. 141. 358. 421 MeasurePoint command. 148. 271. texture. 265 line:. 74. 225. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 123. density for primitives. 268. 266 LineAngle command. 273 lock: a layer. select all. 103 locked objects. 420. point. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 212. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. cone. area moments. distance. detailed options. 259. 84. 161. 288. 273 lock:. 255. 333. 239. tangent to two curves. 338. 220. layer attributes. 281 manage: license. 334 Line4Pt command. 156. 342. 396. 270 LineTT command. apply to surface. 371. 288 MergeSrf command. 261.Rhino 2. radius. set for export. 228. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 210. 268. 395. surface. 273 Loft command. 224. 213. 399. volume centroid. 88. volume moments. 228 LooseLoft command. polyline through point objects. 273 LockOsnap command. 62 menu: context. 130 manage layers. 135. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. options. 61 MDT IGES options. 284 MatchLayer command. 194. 191. 288 menu:. 290. 92. 267 LinePP command. normal to a surface. 265. 267. pop up at cursor. export to IGES file. 284. 268. seamless. 270. 304. 194 MaxViewport command. 338. Rhino. 52. clear render mesh for all objects. 272 LoadPlugin command. explode. 398. bisector. spotlight. 281 match:. 455 . 290. 334. swap status with unlocked objects. area. 270. 342. 126. 273. segments. 192. 267. 265. 266. breaking apart. 12. 296. 12. 245. clear render mesh. unlock locked objects. 421 Measure command. 270. 155. 180. 291. 371. 101 manage:. 273. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. extend by. 296. 61 mean curvature. 285. 145. 262. 23. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. from four points. from NURBS object. 187. perpendicular to two curves. 331. single line. 273 loft surface. viewport. 145. 288 Merge command. 415. 266. 415 locked layer name. 329. 74. 173. curve curvature. 134. 3DFace. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 245. join. 326. 290. 417 Make2D command. 371. 283. geometric continuity. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 41. set properties for layer. 293. 213 measure:. bump. 286. 125. 228 Logout command. two adjacent edges of a surface. 155. run from an alias. 211. area centroid. 267 LinePerp command. 273. 134 marker definition. 145. convert each face to NURBS surface. 24 menu bar. 304. 288. 268 Lines toolbar. reduce density. 104. 378 maximize: current viewport. 146. 145. 294. create. run from external file. 337. run from shortcut key. volume. 421. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 33. run with middle mouse. 135. 420. toggle display. 232. 232. 255. 162. 255. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. axis. 420. 221. 333. 293. 268. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 330. 37 M command. 261. 236. 340. 410. from closed polyline. 123. 349. 23. 365. 267. 377 maximum curvature. 377 Maximize command. 294. 179. 328. clear at save time. layer. 272 LoadScript command. 288. 256. 173. 228. 39. 145. 420. 269. box. 338. 262. 269. deviation between two curves. 333. 102. 266 Line4pts command. 339. 90 Main toolbar. 290. paste script from Clipboard. 288 mesh: 3D face. 37 line: at angle from line. 265. 288. 191. 224. 377 Material properties. 292. 194 measure: angle. 357. select all. 92. 251 merge:. 187. 333. 287 Match command. environment. 283. 91. 328. 88. 378. polyline. 145. 212. 289. 284 material: for rendering. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. directional. 212. 84. 60 LWO file exchange. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 304. 86 material:.0 Command Reference Light tab. 288. 125. 240. 266. 62 ME30 file exchange. unlocked objects. 212. 271 List command. 345. decrease number of faces. persistent object snaps. 281. deviation of points and curves from a surface. select naked edges. run from toobar button. 283 MatchSrf command. 272 list data structure of an object. 229. 225. 340.

304. definition. 355. 297 MoveTrace command. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 348. 133. viewport. 3. 378. 79. 33. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. perpendicular from a curve. 251. 80. 385 name. 243 456 . 296 Metastream file export. 79. view. 12. 206. 290. 338. 79 NetworkSrf command. 251. 387. 122. 80. turn off. 249. 183. 140. 296 minimize:. 423. 338. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 78. 113. 81. 12. 132. 421 Moray UDO file export. export to. 307 Offset command. 296 mirror objects. 303. 103. 338. 304 normal:. 3. 78. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 251. 348. 123. options. 378. construction point through point. 298 NamedViews command. 343. 80. 4. toggle persistent. 295. 338. 384. 204. multiple objects. knot. 2. 229. 133. 140. parting line. 293. 229. point. 423 mesh:. 296. 302 New command. 229 Microstation file exchange. 80. 311 OBJ export properties. 303. wheel function. 409. export to IGES. 92. 372 non-uniform scale. 298 Multisurf file exchange. disable. 92. 304. end. 298. 134. 292 MeshCone command. 355. 62 middle mouse button function. 229. 249. 78 Notes command. center. 415 object names. pull direction. viewport. 384. 306. 81. 362. a view. 297. quadrant. 85. 297 Mscribe command. 414. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 290. edit. 212. 92. 113. 41. 349. 363 name:. 84. 297. 294 MeshPolyline command. 78. 83. 117. 298 new: file. 132. 303 NextU command. 37 object: description. 64 NURBS. 37 morph target. 425 offset: curve. 92. 79 minimize: Rhino. set persistent. 132. 379. 298. 302. 294 MeshSphere command. 90. 93. project to construction plane. export to file. 298 NamedView command. 91. 123. 118 Normal command. 212. restore. 311. v-. display. save named construction plane. tangent from curve. read from file. 338 OBJ file exchange. surface display. 362. 296. 296. 80. 114. 343. 377. 79. 84. 387. unlock. 296. 84. improve. reparameterize. toolbar. 90 move: background bitmap. 343. 205. between two points. 415. show toolbar. 297. surface. 251. 84. 302. 298. 305. 323 Microsoft Excel. draw line. 296 minimum curvature. 377. 103. 425. 302. 305 notes in Rhino file. 83. 81. layer. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 261. 385. 309. 215. ortho viewport active. 292. 132 O command. 90 Midpoint object snap. 2. set mesh the same. 79. 296 Minimize command. 212 object snap:. 322. 295. 83. 293. 135. save. 414. midpoint. show hidden. 84. 297. 298 Microscribe toolbar. toolbar. 243. 243. 309. hide toolbar. perpendicular to a curve. 302 next. viewport to top. 120. 311. 35 object snap: along. 409 object:. 294. 298. intersection. 362 named view. set for multiple objects. 4. 121. definition. off construction plane. 414 NoSnap command. 363. weld. 121. 290 Mesh toolbar. 293 MeshDensity command. 46 moments. 424 Mesh command. 292. 297. lock. 292 MeshCylinder command. near. 378. 132. 385. surface. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 12 None command. 81. object to align with curve. 35. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 343. 355. 171. export to OBJ. 30. 304. 297. 203. 82. 82. 366 normal: definition.Rhino 2. 234. 298. 349. 305 offset:. 308. tangent to a curve. 293 MeshPlane command. 82. 305. 79. 355 NamedCPlane command. 378 object properties. 84. 304. 308. 261. 146. 75 named construction planes. 414. 385. on surface. 414. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 79. 304 node. 302 new:. 81. options. 147. remove flipped. export to RIB. objects. 306 OffsetSrf command. 385. 63 naked edge. viewport active. 194 Mirror command. surface control points in u-. parameterization. toolbar button. 141. and n-directions. 363. 122 Move command. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 63 Near object snap. 78. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 215. move control points. 212. objects to new construction plane. 297 MoveUVN command. 141 mouse. toolbar button. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. read from file. 141. 379 Named Colors list. restore. set for single object. an object. group. 131 NoElev option. 362. 303 NextViewport command. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 135. 379. 371. 2. 306. 296 modeling aids. 80. 145. 30. 82. 294. 338. 295. 303 NextV command. 243. 148. 295 MeshToNurb command. reverse direction. 2. 423 MeshBox command. 302 NewViewport command. perspective viewport active. from. set properties. 115. 305 N-sided patch. scale and rotate. 296 move:. 52. 317 nudge. 79. 120. 82. 309. construction planes through a point. 132. to move objects. snap to a curve. 312 mold. 379. scale and rotate on surface. show. 183. 216 Moldex command.0 Command Reference sphere. unify normals.

338 PerspectiveAngle command. about. to curve. 64 options: aliases. 311 ortho mode.Rhino 2. 3DS MAX 2. 94. 307 OneLayerOn command. Keyboard tab. 98 Options command. 351. toolbar. 325 Plane command. 94. 324 Plane toolbar. 329. middle mouse button function. grid of. 324. autosave. 172. 88. 96. 92. 309. 307. 322. Osnap. 206 PlanarSrf command. load. 3DS MAX 1. toggle. 339 point: control. shortcuts. 312 PageDown key. 323. 325 Plane3Pt command. 363. ortho angle. 326 Point object snap. 339. Layer. click ortho pane to toggle. 188 point cloud. 2. shortcut keys. 101. 281. 92. 27. 90. 27. 90. manager. 307 OnSrf object snap. 272. 281. 314 parabolic curve. pan distance. 324. 316. 94. 326. polygon mesh. options. 311. 131. Softimage. trim options.5. Aliases tab. options. 253. 339. shortcuts. 379 Ortho pane. shade. 92. 330. 325 PlaneV command. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. troublshooting. 320 place. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 373 Point toolbar. 97. camera and target location. 92. trackball motion. 307. 200. isoparm density. 130. 28. 318. select method. 313. 96. 258. 325 plug-ins. 339 POffSelected command. toggle. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 311 Ortho command. 325. nudge increment. 133 P command. place multiple. 313. 313 Panes. 2. 90. 92. 314 Pan command.2. 92. on surface from UV coordinates. 96. 307 open:. 376. 130. View tab. 88. turn on or off. 220. 308 orient objects. 84 OneLayerOff command. 313. 133. right. 322 PlaceTarget command. 323 Plan command. 92. 2. use for shade. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. digitize. create curve from. make surface non-periodic. 290. options. 90. 96. 213. 323 Planar command. 82 PerpLine command. 309. 323 planar mode. 133. 328. 318. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 2. 90. 29. Planar. 92. 317 pause digitizer input. 133. select all. 200. 330 457 . no-repeat commands. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 119. 88. 326. 323. 176 PCX file format. 68 PictureFrame command. left. 78 Osnap:. fit through points. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 90. 374. background bitmap. 363. 96. by three points. 133 OrthoAngle command. 312. 326. 133. object snap radius. 324 Plane3Pts command. 321. 318 Perspective command. 373. 249. 290. 422 Point filters. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 314 PanDown command. 133. 133 Perp object snap. 314 Parabola command. 79 point objects. 133. 2. 330. file locations. 92. 313 PanUp command. 133 Osnap command.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. redraw speed. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 206. place at start of curve. 88. 133. surface. 312 Osnap: pane. 281. 90. 29. 2 Patch command. 308 OpenWS command. snap increment. 84 open: file. 88. 327 Point command. 309. startup commands. 2. 267 PerpFrom object snap. control polygon appearance. 92. set. Appearance tab. 386. 322. undo number. General tab. 314 parabola. 376. 311. 425 Orient. 90. 311. 98. set. set angle. 387 paste. 426 OpenGL:. 321. 131 pedge. 254. 379. 95. 262. 320 Pipe command. 4. 68 PNG file format. make curve periodic. 3DS MAX 2. 313. from three points. 101. 5. 190. Modeling Aids tab. 131 periodic. 92. 133. 2 Pan: down. 366. 218. 88. toggle. 322. 90. 94. 313 Pan:. 272. 308. 323 planar section. 12. 92. 94. 96 options:. 351. 96. 133. press shift to toggle. Files tab. 324 plane: cut through objects.set. 40 perspective angle . 187. 90. Shade tab. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 93. 367 pe_tol. up. 246. 28. 119 Open command. 366. 327. 88. 281. 318 PConic command. 318 perspective view. 316. 313 PanRight command. 2 PackTextures command. 330. 200. developers. 323 Pa. 98. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 312. 375. 133 PanLeft command. 311 Orient3Pt command. 325. 379. view. 308 Orient command. curve. place one. 326 Point Editing toolbar. saved toolbar layout. Snap. 325 plane:.0. Ortho. 333 PluginManager command. 96. 4. objects from the clipboard. 308 Options dialog box. 329. 253. 379. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 38 parting line. 68. place at end of curve. on a surface. target location. 373. 90. 338. lock to axis. make surface periodic. 224. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 92. detailed polygon mesh. 96. 2. 205 pause for user input in script. 94. 5. change interface appearance. 130. 90. 367 POff command. 80 Perpendicular line. 325 Pline command. 290 Organic toolbar. 325. 92. 133. 96. 174 parameterization.

290. document. 86. 131. 334 polysurface. 254. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 382 QRenderAll command. 259. 229. 338. 420. object. 337. surface. 249. 335. 228 radius: dimension. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 229.Rhino 2. 339. 336 print. interpolate curve through. 333. 344 recent commands list display. 333 polyline:. 339. clear render mesh for all objects. 343. 368. 423 Polygon toolbar. 68. objects to construction plane. 334. 136. 339 PopupMenu command. 424. 339 PointTest command. 340 Radius command. 64. explode. 337 ProjCP command. 257. 295. show edit and control. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. options. 197. 21. hide back. 41 POV-Ray file export. 381 QRender1 command. 328 PointGrid command. select next in v-direction. 345 Rebuild command. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 190. 413 Points command. select with lasso. 337 Print command. 338 Projection command. 336. 85. 339 Pull command. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. explode. from edge. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 303. 337 project:. 339. 335 PrevViewport command. 331 Polygon command. to file. 332 polygon:. 414. 86. material. named views from a 3DM file. join. twist. 138. 386. 68 POn command. 343 rebuild: curve. 339 PtOn command. 372. 296. 123 Proj command. 338. 338 project: curve to surface. 141. 340 RailRev command. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 12. 2 PrevU command. 330 PointsFromUV command. select previous in u-direction. image of model. grid. add previous in u-direction to selection. 339 PtOffSelected command. 12. 337. 378. relative. control points. set normals the same. 293. 344 RebuildSrf command. 10. 331 polygon mesh. 333. 423. 382 Quad object snap. 187. 36. 87 properties:. measure. 303. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 296. 19. 372. 50 Quit command. 260. edit points. select all. 349. 334 Polyline command. delete control on curve. 366 PrintSetup command. 81 QueryDomain command. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 338 Project command. 334 PostScript file export. 294. 259. knot. 220. 353 previous viewport. 261. select object to turn off. 171. 343. sphere. 293. 349. select previous in v-direction. draw. 254. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 331. 85 Properties Material tab. 179. 372 Polytrans. 291. box. 19. 339 pull curve to surface. 340 radius:. cone. 190. 338 properties. 386. 343. 223 PolarSphere command. clear render mesh. 294. 138. 292. from NURBS object. draw on mesh. 40. 197. select naked edges. 261. convert each face to NURBS surface. 202. 121. 338. 335 PrevV command. 179. 327 PointDeviation command. 392 polygon: circumscribed. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 17. select connected. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 136. 262. 249. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 19. 229. 340 QRender command. 141. 3D face. 344. 135. 171. 150 polar coordinates. 343. 344 RebuildEdges command. 331. 339 PointsOn command. 414. 361. 65 program toolbar functions. from closed polyline. 257. invert selection. 209.0 Command Reference point:. through point objects. 331. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. export to file. 379 preview. named construction planes from file. 420 Properties command. notes. 340 rail revolve. 412. 121. render. 46 POV Lights toolbar. select all. 64. 90 458 . 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 371. 202. 343. 330 points:. 292. 292. 329 PointLight command. 209. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. join. 328 polar array. 41 read. 371. 368. 86 Properties Text tab. 334 PopupToolbar command. 425. add next in v-direction to selection. 366. 332. viewport. plane. 235. 135. 18. render mesh. hide edit and control. 220. weld. 188 PointCloudSection command. show control. 332 PolygonEdge command. 229. select next in u-direction. 294. 344. density for primitives. 10. render using OpenGL shade. viewport layout from file. 353. 235. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 259. 12. 35. 262. 330 PointsOff command. 137. 425 PtOff command. 19. to Clipboard. coordinate points. 335. cylinder. 333. 343 rebuild:. Polytrans Softimage translation. 293. display information about an object. 303. 367. 295. absolute. 361. 35. 290. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. toolbar. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 259. 137. 290. 136. 87. 228 quinitics. 340 RailRevolve command. 335. inscribed. create from control points. 339 purge empty layers. apply to surface. add previous in v-direction to selection. 40 POV Materials toolbar.

354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 349 RemapCPlane command. close render window. 309. 355 Rev command. 357. 39. 120. 378. 181. 363. 19. 391 SAT file export. objects. 357. an object. 355. 171. 152. 358. 340. 125. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 346 RectangleV command. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 360 RotateRight command. 3. materials. 5. 352 rename. 354. 120 restore: current viewport size. 381. file to a different file name or file type. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 338. view continuously. 24. 354. 90 reshape a toolbar. 2. 5. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 347 Rectangle command. copy to Clipboard. 345. 360. Rhino from being minimized. length and width. 347 rectangular array. 251. 3. shine. 358. 349 remove. 171. up. curve knots. 20 render problems. 355 RevU command. autosave. object from selection. 309. 346 RectangleCen command. 30 save: as small file. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 360. 459 . 1. 357 right mouse button. named view. 3. 25 Rhino web page. 351 RemoveTrace command. 338. textures. vertical. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 181. 356 Right command. 356 RGB color. named construction plane. 4. scale and move on surface. 121 render: BMRT. 103. 354 repeat command exclude list. 4. 126. 4. 320. 324. 4. 353. 3. 40. 348 refit a curve. 355. 120. 379 RenderOptions command. 338 Render command. 39. 25. 353 RenderPreview command. image in the render window. 347 rectangle:. 360 rotate:. 360 RunScript command. 288. 230. 352 RenderCrv command. 429 Redo command. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 362. 183. 39. 338. 308. surface using rail curve. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 363. 4. 360. 353. 351 RemoveKnots command. 349 relative coordinates. 203. 416 rotate: construction plane. 360 Rule command. 353. 355 RestoreView command. 355. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 2 redo:. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command.0 Command Reference Rect command. 2. 24. preview using OpenGL shade.Rhino 2. Rhino 1. 360 Run command. bumpmaps. 2. 351. 320. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. highlight. 288. 398. 346. place lights. 241 RefreshShade command. 203. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command.ini. Front construction plane. 338. 346. 325. sequentially numbered versions of model. 2. 363. 355 revolved surface. 353. view change. 348. vertical to construction plane. 171. 352. 353. 351. 338. background bitmap. 352. 133 right view. 359. 348. 363. 351 RemoveKnot command. 19. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 382. 273 ruled surface. 398. 348 Redo command shortcut. 412 Rotate3D command. 352 render plug-in application: options. 1 Rhino. 103. 39. why the name. 181. 356 RevV command. 363. 346. curves. 351. options. 363. objects in 3D space. 96. 346 rectangle: center. layer. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 357 right-click menu. 172. 94 RIB file export. 355. 1 RhinoScript options. file. 357 rotate view. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. from three points. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 183 Restore command. create background image. Top construction plane. 75 Rhino 1. wallpaper. 412 Rotate command. 346 RectV command. 346. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 353 RenderCurves command. 361 S command. 352. a surface. 324. 355 revolve:. save image in render window.0 file exchange. move and scale. 252. 308. 354 reparameterize. 359. 148 rectangular surface. 3. 172. clear render mesh for all objects. 359 RotateDown command. 362. 358 RotateCamera command. 355 restore:. named construction plane. down. corner. 429 RedoMultiple command. 338 Ribbon command. 30. 2. mesh settings. 10. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. command aliases. 2. 347 redo: last undone command. 119 Rhinoceros.0. 324. 360 RotateView command. 353 RenderEdges command. 99 Render toolbar. 96. 181. 345 Rect3Pt command. clearing render meshes. 348 ReduceMesh command. transparency. button image to file. right. 309. 360 RotateUp command. edges of polygon meshes. named view. 338. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. through three points. 425 render:. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 4. 338. 2. 30. toolbar. left. 352. 3. 325 RectCen command. 340 Revolve command. 360. 361. trim curve from surface. 359 RotateCPlane command. ii roll out a surface. 360 RotateLeft command. edges.

373 SelU command. 373 select:. 370. with mouse method. 373. 103. 366. 288. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 50. to file. 365. 372 SelPolylines command. 138. 372 SelGroup command. 365. 51. 370 SelLast command. 362 save:. 308. coordinates of points. 370. 365 screen capture. 368. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 262. 373. 377. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 383. next control point in v-direction. 67 Sect command. objects for render preview. to Clipboard. 365. 375. 364. 181. 371. 376. 24 SelectLayer command. 383. 137. 371 SelLights command. 372 SelSolids command. 370 SelLayer command. layers from list. 460 . 181. 369 SelCrvs command. 374. 138. 303. to file in 256 colors. 366. 371 SelectName command. 374. 24. deselect all objects. subparts of objects. 373 SelPts command. 367. 367 Section command. template. 361. 366. 373 SelUV command. 138. 371. rows and columns of control points on surface. objects in two dimensions. points objects. 309 Scale command. 368 SelectID command. VBScript. extents of grid. 181. 374 SelV command. 375 SelWindow command. by object ID. 369 SelDim command. previous control point in udirection. 183. 369 SelCurve command. 372 SelNone command. 370 selection menu. 125. 369. 371 SelMesh command. polylines. 230. 137. 50. 184. invert. dimensions. 367. 129 scripting tools. current layer. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. 184. 375 Select toolbar. 262. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. lasso. row of control points in udirection. 375. 363. in shaded viewport. toolbar layout as different name. 368 SelectConnected command. 366 ScaleTrace command. 184. 373 SelSolid command. IGES. 363 SaveSmall command. distance between grid lines. with a window. 303. 182. 363 SaveWSAs command. 379. 335. 136. 371 SelLight command. 367. 364. 339.0 Command Reference shortcut. 137. 90 Select Color dialog box. 364 Scale2D command. 369. 368 SelCrossing command. 363 SaveWorkspace command. construction plane to zaxis. 364. 376. 370. construction plane vertical. 136. 303. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 373. 25. next control point in u-direction. 368. 24. 364 Scale toolbar. 368 SelConnected command. 182. 372 SelSrf command. 371. with crossing window. 367 SelAll command. 374. construction plane origins to a point. 367 screen:. 262. 335. construction plane to view. 365 ScaleNU command. 373 SelPt command. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 366 scale:. 2. 369. 335. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 364. 372 SelPolysrf command. 371 SelMeshes command. 25. 366. construction plane to x axis. bad objects. 373. add previous control point in v-direction. 363 SaveView command. duplicate objects. 354. objects in one direction. curves. 136. by layer. 371. 372 SelPoint command. 372 SelPrev command. front construction plane. meshes. 373 SelSurface command. toolbar layout. 90. 178. 258. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 372. 367 section curves. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 373 SelSurfaces command. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 369. 335. 363. construction plane to next used. rotate and move on surface.Rhino 2. surfaces. invert point selection. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 309. 372. objects uniformly. 377. maximized viewport by name. objects by name. 258. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 373 SelPolyline command. 126 scripting:. 373 SelSrfs command. 303. objects instead of control points. 125. 368. 366. 371. objects. control polygon display density. add previous control point in u-direction. 383. 368 SelColor command. 372. 370. 136. 246. 372. 25. 363 scale: background bitmap. 370 SelID command. 184. previous control point in vdirection. all objects. 246. construction plane to object. 369 SelCurves command. 366 Scale1D command. 75 Select Points toolbar. 262. polysurfaces. 309. 259. 376. construction plane with 3 points. objects to unlock. 182. 372. 370 SelDups command. 354. 362. 371 SelName command. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 415. 259. JScript. objects to shade. 206. 363 SaveWS command. 365. 258. 183. construction plane origin. 362 SaveCPlane command. 371. 370. 367. 361 save template. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 363 SaveAs command. 126. 367 SelBadObjects command. 362. digitizing scale. 376 set: active viewport by name. move and rotate. spotlights. 368. 152. 339. 372. 103. 172. objects non-uniformly. 252. construction plane to previously used. connected points. 308. add next control point in v-direction. 246. 369 SelCrv command. 370 SelDup command. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 126. 363 Save command. 373. objects by layer number.

along a line perpendicular to a curve. 383 shear objects. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 92. 98. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 5. 79. by key. Osnap toolbar. 339. 246. with grid. curve on polygon mesh. 80. 380. z-buffer. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 178. working directory. 318. 343. 385. 379. 322. in all viewports. hidden control points. 242. 42 SLC file exchange. 84. 381. 220. 392. 385. 386. 387 sketch: curve. 382. 125. 181. 384 show:. 387 silhouette curves. grid. 389 skinning. 242. to the end of a curve. 318. 120. toggle object snaps. 241. to a surface. 390 smooth curve or surface. 181. 153. 78. shortcuts. 173 ShowCV command. 383 ShadeOptions command. 125 show: background bitmap. 140. 383 ShadedViewport command. 95. 183. 388. 182. options. turn off object snaps. bitmap in a separate window. 386 Silhouette command. 377 SetHotspot command. to construction plane. 220 ShowGrid command. to a point object. 379 SetPts command. 250. toolbar. 381. onto a curve. 385. Right. 355. 80. 42 Smooth command. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. pane. 380 Settings command. 2. 218. 78. right construction plane. 206. 182. 94. 385 ShowOsnap command. naked edges. 4 Shift+PageDown. 184. to the view. 362 Set View toolbar. 273 SLA export. 5 shine in rendering. 382. broken edges. 384. to a knot. 385. 206. 318. 83. tangent to a curve. 386 ShowSelected command. 261. 383 shadow. flat in all viewports. 2. control points. 81. 182. 81. scripting tools. 377. selected hidden objects. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 382. 183. 220. 355. 337. 84. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. spotlight hotspot. 242. 390 snap: along a line. 183. 381 set construction plane. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 183. flat in one viewport. 298. 183. 388. 23. 381 SetActiveViewport command. curve with digitizer. 183. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. to next used. 242. edit points. 184. 5 Shift+PageUp. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 241. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 385 ShowPoints command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 409 ShowToolbar command. edges of surface or polysurface. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 241. 384. 359. 2. 119 ShowTrace command. 382 ShadeAll command. continuous shaded mode. selected objects. to the midpoint of a curve. 409 set:. top construction plane. 206. continuous in perspective view. from a point. x-axis. 385 ShowGrev command. 339. by function. 261. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 379 SetOrtho command. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 376 SetGridSnap command. built-in aliases. 218. OpenGL. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 339 ShowEdges command. 5. 381 shade:. 380 SetGroupName command. 183. 2. 76. 386 ShowPt command. 21 Shear command. 383. 323. keys. 384. 425 Shade1 command. 94. 3 Points. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. hidden objects. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 184. 78. 363. 244. 2. 246. 78. 357. viewports. 379 SetPt command. toggle OpenGL mode. 84. 80. 378 SetObjectName command. 264. 98. 382 shaded display. 184. flat with grid. midway between two points. 181. vertical. 82. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 207 SetSnap command. 384. 389. 212. 250 SetLayer command. 391. 383.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. project object snaps to construction plane. 386 ShowPts command. 218. 119 ShowToolbox command. Top. 181. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 79. selected objects in all viewports. to surface isoparm. 74. 184. display context menu. 382. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. with no smoothing on mesh. 3. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 245 ShowMenu command. 133. 79. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 337. 23. 182. 388 sketch:. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 77. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 79. 426 ShowAll command. 119. 376. 94.Rhino 2. 82. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 162. 212. to the intersection of two curves. z-axis. with wireframe. 425 Shade command. 81. 426 Show command. 400 ShowTitle command. object. 250. 384 ShowCamera command. 92. 119. to an object. 298. 96. 386. 2. to previously used. 383 Shift key. 92. 389 Sketch command. change size. perspective angle. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 338 shortcuts. 318 SetPlanar command. 84. 376. 246. to the center of a circle. 183. 386. perpendicular to a curve. on surface. 94. 78 461 . 76. 376 SetGLShade command. near a curve. along a line tangent to a curve. 184. 381 shade: continuous. 376. handlebars. printer. 383 ShadeSelected command. 383. options. 183. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 409.

match. drape. 372. 430 startup commands. 160. 397 spotlight: control point editing. turn on or off. 218. 320. 302. offset. 284. 360. viewport horizontally. cone. 36. 279. 161. 317. 401. export object properties to. 189 SrfMatch command. 166. 96. 399. 4. 316. 288 SrfPointGrid command. rebuild. change degree. extrude. torus. 429. 401. 273. 192. 380 snap to locked objects. 192. 153. 190. 241. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 158. 298. 236. 372. 203. 240 solid:. pipe. 395. 290. 133. 324. 171. 166. 240. 275. 273. 385. 132. 2. viewport vertically. patch. 16. 233. 277. 189. 409 SnapSize command. 162. 15. 295 Sphere command. 92. 255 split: edge of a surface. 366. 229. 238. 392. 355. 325. X_T file export. 173. 393 SphereD command. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 398 SrfCV command. chamfer. 83. 395. 192 Surface menu. 2. 385. display. cylinder. split. 133. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 398. skin. 395. 216. 338. 320. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 133. 247. 78. draw curve through control points. 135. 396. 417 surface:. 200. 399 SrfPt command. 372. developable. 344. 330. 35. 22 support. 249. 391 snap mode. 69 Solid Edge. 234. 288. 339. from 3 or 4 curves. 103. 104. 317. 399 SrfSum command. 288. 398. 160. 238. 325. 218. 261. 399 SrfPoints command. 163. rule. from heightfield bitmap. 307. 162. 180. 217. 377. 160. 243. 118. IGES file exchange. 42 StopScript command. 105 surface normal. 164. 394 spline. from 3 or 4 points. 373. 238. 189. cutting plane. 288. for rendering. 157. toolbar. 90. 68 solid: Boolean difference. unroll. 354. ellipsoid. 115. 173. 371. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 277. 307. make nonperiodic. 364 SubCrv command. 307. 284. 38 Solid toolbar. 406. 68 Softimage plug-in. 317. 398. 84 snap:. 373. 262. 298. 10. from grid of points. surface at isoparms. 273. 334 spacebar. revolved. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 84. 409. 392 SnapToLocked command. hide backfacing control points. 398 spreadsheet. 309 SrfBlend command. 236. 153. 201. 406. 277. 164. 416. 201. 70. 82. 276. 132. 229. 421. 284 SrfMerge command. 3. select all. 328. 90 status bar. minimum radius of curvature. 411 SolidWorks. 42. truncated cone. 400 StatusBar command. create fillet between. 233. 161. extend. 396. 233. 92. 400 STEP file exchange. 84 Softimage file exchange. IGES file exchange. 411. 242. 397. mean curvature. 421. box. 324. 391. 380. 157. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 393 Sphere2Pt. 398. 163. 398. 398. 113. 410. 160. turn on or off. 289. 126 Stretch command. 238. by diameter. 251.0 Command Reference Snap command. merge. 340. 423 STL:. 386. 344. 5. 249. 250. 38 SortPoints command. 393 sphere:. tube. tolerance. 223. make periodic. maximum radius of curvature. 393. 224. 417. periodic. 243 Surface toolbar. trim. toggle. 114. 281. create variable radius fillet between. 287. 355. 306. 278. blend. from planar curves. 426 462 . 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 393 Spiral command. 228. 285. from curve network. 237. select all. 251. polygon mesh. 400. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. untrim. 416. 164. 396. 306. comma-delimited file export. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 223. 284. reverse direction. 402. 398 spotlight:. extrude curve to point. 402. 406. 352. 392 Sphere toolbar. 381. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 216. 236. hotspot. 321. 133. 38. file exchange. 1. 417. 391. 69. 396 SplitSrf command. 399. 273. 243. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 354. 35. 286. 192. cap planar ends. 396. 393. 163. 399. 392. 391. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 200. 114. 324. 340. 392. sweep along path. 395. 399 SrfPts command. 416. 38. 190. 281. 367. baseball sphere. 165. 159. 298. 413. 399. 263. 216. Boolean intersection. Boolean union. 238 Standard toolbar. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 410. 397 Split command. one object with another. 79. develop. 15. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 229. 426. plane from three points. 410. create. 324. 173. 426 surface analysis:. 382. 273. plane vertical to construction plane. 407. 313. 288. center. 392. 165. 70. 236. 393 Sphere2Pts. 306. 247. 240. X_T file export. Booleans. extrude curve along path. 88. 160 summary information. 414. 240. 154. 320. extrude into solid. 324. 371 Spotlight command. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 348. 229 SrfAlign command. 401. 81. 192. 386. 218. loft. plane. 281. 94. 236. 361. 198. 153. 361. 281. 101. 250. 400 SubCurve command. 384. 356. 247. panes. 392. 162. 165. 157. 80. 392. extract from polysurface. shortcuts. from three points. 182. 133 sphere. 10. 397 SplitEdge command. 2. reparameterize. 380. 76. 166. 344. 202. from grid of control points. select all. 317. box from three points. 42. 133. 295. 238. 426 STL: ascii tag. 69. 223. 42 Stereograms. 417. 161. 395 split:. 428. sweep two rails. 238. 201.Rhino 2. 19.

104. 168. 185. 379. 257. left. grid axes on or off. 323. 119. 179. 195. 323. 14 Tan object snap. import button image. 363. 259. 392. 189. 141. 311. 125. 216. 185. 363. display of title bar. 240. surfaces. 352. 154. 190. 236. 268. new file. 80. 51. 235. 303. 266. 420. 258. 331. 192. 335. 387. 245. 120. 220. 262. 269. 273. display viewport. 121. 410. 122. Diagnostics. 272. 383. 409. 123. 305. 183. 361. right. 236. 304. 255. 231. Analyze. 73 template. 230. 39. 347. 210. 395. 401. 355. close. 362 text: annotation dot. 255. 429. Box. 366. capture button image. 326. 121. 330. 165. 322. scaled size. 212. 265. 245. 221. 215. 419. 168. 394. 348. 384. 15. 256. 138. 215. control polygon highlight. 409 toggle. 377. 122. 270. 423. 123. 22. 251. 349. clear the bitmap image. 23. 363. 395. 406. cascade. 366. hide toolbar. 206. 209. 363. 121. 284. 409. 19. 396. 260. 420. 269 TanLine command. 352. 295. perspective view on and off. 264. 124. 374. 221. edit 2-dimensional. 338. 309. 221. 281. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. display of status bar. 210. 136. 78. 168. 407. 172. 246. 297. 400 SwapUV command. change name. 228. Curve From Object. 353. 215. show toolbar. 124. 125 Toolbar command. 420. IGES export. float toolbar. 248. 241. change. 150. unlink flyout. 139. angle. 375. 353. 409. 90. display of menu bar. 50. 358. 122. 160. 337. 279. 195. 203. solids. 162. 40. 407. 390. save. surface u and v. 363. 94. 90. 178. planar curves. 122. 122. 226. 124. 332. 368. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 165. status bar on or off. 269 Taper command. viewport title. 134 TGA file format. 173. 330. delete toolbar. Circle. 385. edit bitmap icon. 92. 248. 245. 292. 249. 308. new button. 151. ortho. 121. 359. 137. menu bar. 168. save layout as different name. 244. 164. 216. 322. save. 72 technical support. 162. 382. 337. clear button image. 171. 231. 216. 120. 322. save. 338. 279. 174. 405. 409 toolbar layout. 371. 288. 379. 71 Swap. 255. 197. 173. capture icon. 367. 283. 308. 224. 143. 242. 368. 155. 407. rename toolbar. 209. display of viewport title. 353. 179. 144. 463 . 187. 1. 385. 387. 407 TextObject command. 177. 233. 140. 311. 232. 167. 180. save button image to file. 263. 150. 203. 307. 187. edit. title bar on or off. 200. 241. ortho mode. 174. 192. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 306. Array. 398. change button size. 220. 229. 189. 22 toolbar buttons. 425. pop up with middle mouse. 153. 201. create cascading toolbar. 388. 215. 392.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 346. 230. Ellipse. 409. 140. 344. 169. 400. 124. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 379. 257. 206. 80 TanFrom object snap. 120. 142. 396. Extend. 320. 360. BMRT Materials. 120. 294. delete button. 182. 425. 400. 333. 389. 388. float icon to top of cascade. 271. hide flyout. 401. 90. 402. 103. 207. 119. 405 target. 370. 334. 330. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. Dimensions. 281. 400. 101. 369. viewports. import from another layout. 316. 124. 3-D Digitize. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 308. 123. 3-D Digitizing. 79. 125. 323 TCone command. 166. 420. 218. 135. 119. 198. 121. 401 Sweep2 command. 239. 120. 253. 313. 210. 223. dragging based on view plane. 217. 134. 218. 288. 325. 420 Title command. move toolbar. Curve Tools. 408 Text command. 321. 400. 390. 400 sweep. 372. model size. 408. 120 tolerance. 409 title bar. 254. 288. 122. 389. 171. 342. 260. 321. 403. 121. 143. 426. snap mode. 340. 90. 365. 344. 145. 365. display of command prompt. 409 TogglePerspective command. 290. 288. 324. 125. programming. 120. 151. 402.Rhino 2. move. 13. 119. 162. 413. 328. 5. 407 Texture command. 409. 261. 404. 391. 123. 323. 22. 88. 409. 330. reshape toolbar. 409 TiltLeft command. 367. 340. 51. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 152. 414. Edge Tools. 139. 170. 208. 245. 351. 416. 163. 351. edit annotation. Background Bitmap. 302. 385. world axes on or off. 362. 135. 204. two rails. 391. 119. 357. 302. 134. 90. 402 Sxtrd command. 205. 298. 226. 245. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 187. 387. 397. 407. 173. 265. 311. toggle toolbar on and off. 194. 368. Curve. open. 148. 404 Sweep1 command. 185. 124. 401. dock. 82 tangent line. 293. 181. BMRT Lights toolbar. 409. 345. 407. 356. 124. 409. planar mode. 379. 272. 323. 121. 120. control polygon display. 164. 323. 420. 149. move button. 15. 120. copy button. 422. 123 Toolbars. 373. edit button image. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 297. 409. relative. 425 Toggle34View command. 243. 415 tilt view. 184. 338 texture for rendering. 39. 135. 122. 161. tear off flyout. 415. rendering of edges. 213. 120. 205. 336. 364. 212. 198. 352. 220. 305. 122. 302. 343. 220. 428. 393. 120. 177. 152. 156. 120. 81. 39. 124. 267. 123. 178. 222. 404 TAB key. 222. 288. 409 TiltRight command. 362. persistent object snaps. 170. 258. 249. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 430. 400 SwapView command. 234. crosshairs on and off. 142. 121. toolbar on and off. 204. 239. 353. Annotate. 83. 318. grid on and off. 121. display program. scripting. 179. 407. 197. 386. 384. 232. 217. 247. 417. 338. 412. 411. 221. 230. CPlane View. properties. along path. 296. 141. open toolbar. 123. 400. 169. 421. 82. 207. 256. new toolbar. 156. Arc. 149. 407 text:. 409. file location. 409. 157. 381. 96. 399. definition. 125. 367 Thaw command. 144. 148. 122. 384. 419. copy. 235. 223. 238. 339. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. set viewport. 339. rendering of curves. 84. 317. 163. 208. 343.

88. 426 Turntable command. 355. Boolean. 425. 413. 296. 373. 243. 417. 92. 322. 369. 264. 172. 244. 234. 84. 379. 413. 356. 201. 180. 307. 332. 399. Point. 358. 328. 206. Move command. 411 turn off. 78. 290. shortcuts. 153. Sphere. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 48. 349. 420. Fillets and chamfers. 379. 430. 357. 260. 244. Point Editing. 233. 412 transform:. 338. command line. 249. 349. 288. POV Materials. SetPt command. 423. 365. 399. 421. 251. 386. 99. rendering. 51. 425. 415 Ungroup command. 357. 172. 407. 334. 263. 386 Unicode fonts. 345. 400. Transform. 244. Plane. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 377. 266. Smooth command. 140. 135. 333. 208. 19. 251. 246. 181. 349. 316. 400. 311.Rhino 2. Organic. 412 U command. 358. 290. Select. 363. Standard. 425 turn on. 348. 73 union. 151. 131 transform: Array command. 362. 288. 368. pop up at cursor. 413 u-direction: move control points. 102. 381. 342. 137. 153. control points on selected objects. 208. 92. 1. 101. 410 trim:. Tools. along a line. 403. 429. 404. 161 unit systems. 148. 82. 317. 162. 283. 203. 298. 396. 238. 399. 154. 416. IGES. 153. 351. 288. 80. 135. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 203. 245. 190. 308. 383. 123 464 . Scale2D command. 140. 288. Set CPlane. 296. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 331. 334. 223. command. 240. 382. 271. 415 units systems. control points. 414 UnhidePoints command. 351. 249. 321. 365. 255. autosave. 352. 50. 370. definition. 405. 267. IGES export file types. 262. 259. 269. 180. 236. 180. 152. 307. 429. 134. grid axes. 220. Shear command. 239. 412 Transform toolbar. 338. 240. 277. 357. 2 Torus command. 153. 82 tracking line. 347. 161. options. 339. 401. Rectangle. 360. 393. 150. 41. 306. redo. all layers. 398. 392. 180. Taper command. 94. 134. 244. 406. 415. 352. Mesh. 284. 173. ProjectToCPlane command. 307. 240. 243. 414 unfold a surface. 154. 228. 263. 160.0 Command Reference 233. 342. 15 Units command. 379. 148. world axes. 138. Geometry Fix. 308. 304. 358. 90. Select Points. 261. 251. 2. 148. 164. Surface Analysis. 258. 263. 309. 245. 154. 339. 303. ArrayCrv command. 263. 79. 386. 366. 390. 94. menu bar. 194. 304. world axes. 103. Surface Tools. 386. 384. STL Tools. 330. POV Lights. 276. Mass Properties. 96. 398. 96. 429 UndoMultiple command. 373. 162. 366. 309. 405. Mirror command. 171. 229. 218. 265. 41. 406 Tube command. 339. 365. 90. 414 UndoSelected command. 2. Surface 2. 337. 343. 113. 409. autosave. 409. Microscribe. Layer. 263. 305. 410. 229. 330. 425. 323. Orient3Pt command. 145. 182. 412 Twist command. 414 Ungroup objects. 398. 157. 296. RemapCPlane command. 100. 405. 241. 198. 101. 330. 385. Render. 268. 203. 414. set. 172. menu bar. 386. 184. 149. 348. Set View. 49. layers. 372. 262. Flow command. 366. 302. 364. 172. 383. Lines. 395. 374. 150. 136. 216. 92. 48. 203. 325. 105. OrientOnSrf command. 2. 302. 356. 410. 94. 317. 258. 365. 155. 409. 256. 236. 412. 236. 361. grid. 307. grid. 133. 339. 229. 339. Scale command. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. ScaleNU command. 288. 148. 409. 244. 339. 405. 338. 262. 326. 348. 220. 298. reverse. 409. 335. 141. in text. 318. 203. 363. 179. 321 track. 229. Extrude. IGES export type details. 413. 400. 357. shrink to trim boundary. 364. 375. 104. 92. grid axes. 413 undo:. 359. 355. 365. 268. 300. 140. 412. 364. 202. 324. 275. 391. command line. 140. 245. 173. 210. 349. 373. 249. 381. 2. 245. title bar. 363. along a line tangent to a curve. Visibility. 154. 339. 429 Undo command. 390. 428. 247. Solid Tools. 161. 417. Booleans. Bend command. 142. OrientPerpToCrv command. Object Snap. 409. 228. 423. 82. 242. 296. 342. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 254. 339. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 357. title bar. 344. 374. 412 transparency in rendering. 262. 372. 168. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 420. 90. 348. 183. 238. 384. 384. 200. 270. 103. 308. File. 263. 182. 192. 249. 409 Top command. Rotate command. 383. 339. 336. 296. 165. 19. 224. 236. 326. 281. 173. 427. 400. 259. Rotate3D command. 425. 357. 218. 361. 409. 337. 362. view change. status bar. 311. 367. 297 u-direction curves. 348. 81. 273. 323. 416 UnGhost command. 375. 338. Polygon. 366. layer. 392. 261. 180. 219. 410 TraceBitmap command. 364. 273. 308. 365. 148. 307. 386. 413. 83. 166. 236. 390. 245. Scale1D command. 408. 409. 311. 338. shortcut. 253. 368. 167. 356 u-direction:. 245. 313. 249. 214. 180. 343. 386 troubleshooting. 293. 16. trimmed surfaces. layer. 19. 338. 161. 396. 262. 345. 382. 162. Twist command. 261. 355. 311. 142. 50. Copy command. 83. 299. Viewport Layout. Solid. 15 truncated cone. 371. 173. 346. 203. 90. 173. status bar. Orient command. 101. 307. 341. 309. 348. Scale. 294. 339. 173. 205. ArraySrf command. 229. 108. ArrayPolar command. 92 Trim command. 422. 414. control points. 309. 321. 324. 425. 409 Tools toolbar. 16. 261. 2. 152. 82. 292. 88. 149. 333. 190. 203 trimmed surfaces. 108. 212. 383. 185 u-direction definition. 424. 173. 174. 204. 410. 349. 96. 397. 135. 338. 171. 104. OpenGL. 90. 417. 331. 402. 395. 296. 358. 151. 386. 377. 229. Main. 83. 295. 318. 322. 353. 390. Surface. 213. 298. 253. 154. 409 top view. 409. 309. 358. 88. 361. 288. 367. 379. 415 Toolbox command. 221. 330.

165 UpDegSrf command. 336. 132. 377. 23. 172. 355. 250 What command. 409. 288. 163. 273. 126 VCPlane command. 425 WMF file export. 347 view: back view. 420. 131 vertical. bottom view. next perspective active. 24. 384. 304. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 181. 404 visibility: control points. synchronize. 90 window selection. 430. 397. 415 UnPackTextures command. zoom in. 416 untrim a surface. create new. 347. rectangle. split horizontal. 172. 212. 429. front view. 400. create from surface. 355. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. unlock objects. 429 viewport layout:. 162. with mouse. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 1 window: select. 325 Vrbf command. 343. maximize viewport. 412. 420. object. 288. 357. 323. 318. rotate right. wireframe viewport. left view. 360. 425 WireShade1 command.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 336. hide back. 162. 400. 416 UpDeg command. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. lock objects. split vertical. 397. 304. zoom. set perspective view. maximize. reverse. 302. 430. 383. 429. 415 Visibility toolbar. 422 weight:. 24. 23. continuously rotate. 425 ViewportProperties command. 322. 415 UnLock command. place camera and target. set to shaded display. zoom all to the same scale. 429. new. 135. 412. zoom extents in all viewports. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 224. set all to match. 419. 190. 54 vertex. 249. 3 window:. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 323. 323. 428. set to wireframe display. control point. 185 v-direction definition. 400 viewport properties. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 357. 271 Volume command. 429. close. 419. 415. target. 44 W command. 347 VRML file export. 313. 314. 249. 271. 430. 363. 132. 2. 421 VolumeMoments command. 168 465 . zoom extents selected. 302. zoom out. 376. pan left. construction plane bottom. 421 VRBSrf command. 314. 153. 303. edit named. 420 VolumeCentroid command. rotate. 135. zoom window. 181. set right view. 409. pan up. layout. 425. 322. 343. 322. 250 water plane area. 23. 383. 185. read from file. 419. 338. 236. 384. 429. 357. properties. 360. 419. 288. pan right. 415 unroll a surface. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 338 wireframe display. 288. save named. 297 v-direction curves. plane. 429. 415 visibility:. 325. 304. 302. 198. 163. 430. set top view. 153. three viewports. place target. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 343. 425 wireframe:. swap viewports. 343. 325. check out license. 153. camera. 430 view:. 184 VDA file exchange. 25. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 376 Wallpaper command. 313. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. menu. right view. 415 unlock:. control points. 416 UnrollSrf command. 244. 386. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 423 wetted surface area. 428 Windows Clipboard. 417 unwrap a surface. object snaps. 376. 135. 397. 134. 409. zoom extents. 271. next ortho active. 379. 313. line. 386. 45 workgroup: check in license. zoom in and out by a percentage. 321. 190. 244. 379 Weld command. 318. redraw speed. 363. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 43 v-direction: move control points. 323. construction plane back. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 336. selected objects. 318. 135 WireframeViewport command. 429. 421 VRectangle command. swap. set maximized by name. 417 Untrim command. 360. rotate up. 264. 126 Vline command. 356 v-direction:. 244. 264. 318. 422 Weight command. 409. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. show control points. 357. 90. 298. 419. 51 weight: edit control point. 313. tilt right. isoparm. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 304. set viewport. 420 viewport title menu. 360. 288. zoom window and set a target point. 420. 162. zoom extents in one viewport. perspective view. 421 VPlane command. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 420. 409. 420 ViewportTitle command. 45 viewport: bring to top. 298. 428. 415 Visual Basic script. 386. 425. set front view. 162. 397. 377. make previous active. pan. set left view. 134 VBscript. 273. 343. construction plane left. 302. 383. 190. 11 user input in script. 419. 322. 415 UnLockSelected command. 244. move next to top. 409. 420 views. 404. 405. 376. next active. 264. 249. 423 weld:. pan down. 135. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. display. copy to all. 318. plan view. set active by name. 420.Rhino 2. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 264. 131. 360. shade. 153. 250. 96. 303. 423. rotate down. 24. 273. 430 viewport:. 135. 360. 96. construction plane right. 313. top view. 430. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. construction plane front. 249. set back view. restore named. set bottom view. zoom window. 400. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. set density. 168. 430. 422 water level. read named from file. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. tilt left. 302. 384. print. rotate left. 404.

429 ZoomPrev command. 430. 426 ZM command. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. in and out by a percentage. 429 ZoomSelected command. 2. 429 ZoomIn command. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 38 XtndB command. 425 world coordinates. save as different name. open. 429. 428. 233 XtndF command. save. 430 ZoomWindow command. 168. 430 466 . 96. 430 ZP command. 3. 430 Zoom command. extents in one viewport.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 233 Xtra command. 430 ZoomTarget command. 429. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 130. 4. 429 ZS command. 429 Zebra command. 2. 130 zoom: dynamic. window and set a new target point. 363. 381 workspace. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. check out license. out. 168 workgroup:. extents in all viewports. 4.Rhino 2. toggle display. 425. 425 WRL file export. 429. 363. 3. 308. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 429 ZEA command. 428. 429 ZoomMouse command. 168 working directory. 429. 429. window. 430. 430 ZBuffer command. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 428 ZoomNext command. 2. 3 zoom:. 429 ZoomP command. 2. options. 428. 216 ZE command. 308. 430 zoom window. 429 ZoomOut command. 430 ZSA command. 96. extents of selected objects in all viewports. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 425. 74 Z command. 430. 11 WorldAxes command. set colors. 97. in. 44 X_T file export. 217 ZBufferPt command. 5. check in license. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 217 ZBufferPts command. 430. previous view. 428 Zoo. 363 world axes. 430 ZoomX command. 428. 428 ZoomExtents command. 168.

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