Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .

........... 447 xv ............................................................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index.............Rhino 2.........................................................................

0 Command Reference xvi .Rhino 2.

This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.Rhino 2.com/support/faq.com Web site www. and Find.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. To explore the related topics. 17 .com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.rhino3d. the name stuck. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. and by the time the product was in beta testing. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. Index. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background.rhino3d. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. under the topic Help. see the Rhino Command List. Help Access Rhino's Help file. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work.rhino3d.

0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. Ortho pane on the status bar. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. drag with the right mouse button. F8. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Lens length displays on status bar. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. Shift. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Front. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. and Right view. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 .Rhino 2. In parallel views like the default Top. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P.

Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. PageUp. PageDown. Rotate mouse wheel. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button.Rhino 2. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. Snap pane on the status bar.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button.

Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. Lens length displays on status bar. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Keyboard tab and Aliases tab.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. See Options dialog box.Rhino 2.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases.

0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. 26 . the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix.Rhino 2. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance.

27 .y. click Line. enter the starting point for the line. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. type 0. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.z and press Enter. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12.y. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. type coordinates in the format: x. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type w0. type coordinates in the format: rx.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.10 in the construction plane coordinates. the point will lie on the construction plane. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates.z and press Enter.6. the point will lie on the world x.10 and press Enter. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter. y and z coordinates to place points.and y-coordinates.0. Note If you enter only x. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. then click Single Line. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button.0.0 and press Enter.6. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12.6. click Line. click Line. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. with r prefix relative coordinates. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates.and y-coordinates. type r2.10 in the world coordinates. then click Single Line. type coordinates in the format: wx. type 12. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. then click Single Line. Note If you enter only x. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt.3 and press Enter.6.0 and press Enter.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx. With w prefix you can type world coordinates.10 and press Enter.y plane.Rhino 2. type w12. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.

then click Single Line. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. enter the starting point for the line. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. indicating the new location of the selection set. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered.axis) and press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. then click Single Line. A white tracking line will display. click Line.Rhino 2. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. Click the left mouse button to select the point. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. click Free-form. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. 28 . At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. then click Interpolate Points. click another point in the perspective viewport. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. type 4<45 and press Enter. At the Next point of curve. click a point in the perspective viewport.axis) and press Enter. enter the starting point for the line. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type r4<45 and press Enter. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker.

Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. After starting elevator mode. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Continue with picking locations. Press Tab. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. then click Single Line. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. Release the left mouse button to place the objects.D points using 2. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Release Ctrl. release Ctrl. negative numbers are below.Rhino 2. was when you pressed Tab. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. press Ctrl. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes.D. From the Curves menu. but only if the point can be truly 3. Place the first line point. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. type NoElev. You can start elevator mode in another location. Specifying 3. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Drag the mouse out. Or press Tab twice. then press Ctrl and click. click Line. Change viewports. and click again. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport. 29 .

You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. enter the starting point for the line. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . Your line will pass through the end of the curve. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. Click to place the point. type <60.Rhino 2. type a distance and press Enter. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. click Line. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. From the Curves menu. the marker snaps to the curve end. Turn on end object snap. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line. Or.

The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. enter the starting point for the line. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Or. type 10. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. Click to place the point. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . click Line.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. From the Curves menu. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. then click Single Line. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. Click to place the point. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. you can turn them on.

When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. so those are the things that need to be merged. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way.Rhino 2. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. this will become more clear. the surfaces cannot be merged. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. 32 . so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge.

The text height. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. Text height The text height in Rhino units. 33 .0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. extension line offset distance. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. extension line extension. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command.Rhino 2.

Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. 34 . Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line.

This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. is from 1 to 100. Document Properties dialog box. This setting is scale independent. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. whenever you start a new model without a template. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. more accurate meshes. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. these settings are used. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Notes tab Add notes to your model. but should shade and render relatively fast. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. when not zero. This setting is scale independent. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. 35 . The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. and higher polygon count. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. but may take very long to shade and render. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. When the Refine check box is selected. type information you want to save with the model.Rhino 2. Custom Set the custom options. Document Properties dialog box. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing.

The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. By default. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Document Properties dialog box. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. When the Refine check box is selected. The default values is 16. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. In practice. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. less accurate meshes. and higher polygon count. and Max dist. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. By default. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Refine is selected. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. After initial meshing. Min edge length. edge to Srf options.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Setting Max dist. Max dist. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. and lower polygon count. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. 36 . Jagged seams is not selected. Max edge length. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. more accurate meshes. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. By default. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. This option is scale dependent. Simple planes is not selected.Rhino 2.

Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. With large objects.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. In general. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. In practice. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. if the shadows are turned on. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. use bigger shadow offset. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color.Rhino 2. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. but also slows down rendering. use smaller shadow offset. With small objects. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. This makes the image appear smoother. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. 37 . None Each pixel is sampled once. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. In Rhino. None No shadows. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. Background Sets the color of the render background. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image.

For example. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.Rhino 2. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. trimming surfaces. the relative tolerance is used instead.2m 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. or Feet & Inches. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. Select Decimal.2cm 1.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. Mils 1. In those commands. Fractional.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2.2c 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input.2mm 1.2(") 1-1/2" 1. When you change from one units to another.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 .2centimeter(s) Meters 1. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. Document Properties dialog box. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model. Example types and forms are: Microns 1.2km 1. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2meter(s) Kilometers 1.2mic 1.

39 . Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. rename viewports. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.01 millimeters. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. Zoom Window. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. Use defined and named views. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. You can create new viewports. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display.001. You can specify which viewport is maximized. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. and place a named viewport on top.01 to 0. and use predefined viewport configurations. Extents. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport.Rhino 2. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. In general. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. Rhino 2. step through the viewports. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. set multiple templates. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. or Extents of the selected objects. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. Close the viewport.

To select additional objects. To remove an object from a selection set. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. When you make a Crossing selection.Rhino 2. Edit viewport properties. click Set View > Plan. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. To bring all your objects into view. When the selection menu pops up. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. from the View menu. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. Select objects General Click an object to select it. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. Edit Grid properties. 40 . click Zoom Extents All. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Crossing. from the View menu. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. When you make a Window selection.

Click another object. Import and export file types Rhino 1.x file into Rhino 2. select Rhino 1. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 . click Export or Save As. For instance if you have a plane.x file. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. Sweep1. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object.Rhino 2. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude).0 If you save as a 1.x 3D models (. type a filename. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. no 2.0. you'd get one line. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move.x files into Rhino 2. To cancel the selection process: Click None.0 rendering information is saved in the 1. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. Sweep2).x files from Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list.0 If you load a 1. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1.x file from Rhino 2. and you picked an edge as a curve.3dm). Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice. In the File name box. Copy. Saving 1. press Enter or the spacebar.0. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. but if you picked it as a boundary. When object is highlighted.

3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. In the File name box. They are not converted to NURBS. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. select 3D Studio. click Export Selected. Or. select 3D Studio.2. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties.0 use IGES to transfer files. If so. 2. click Import/Merge. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. or MAX 2. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added.Rhino 2. Click Save. When building morph targets. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. In the File name box. 2. in the Files of type. 42 . 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. from the File menu. For version 3. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. type a name for the 3DS file. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. click Save As. click Open.5. Click Open. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.0. In the Save as type box. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. In the Open dialog box. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter.2. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. Or.0. MAX 2. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. If no object name is defined. from the File menu. type a name for the 3DS file. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible.

from the Files of type box. use 3DS file format. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. RhinoMax25imp.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. Only Spline objects get exported.dli into your "3dsmax2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces.5.5\plugins\" directory. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.dli.dli from the directories in your MAX2.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. The Rhino web site at http://www. Attempt trimming? 43 . To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. export to a DWG.0 Command Reference File formats In general. select Rhino 3D Models. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported.5 File Import dialog box. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. RhinoMax2imp.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.5 plug-ins path.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. or 3D Studio R4. or RhinoMax25imp.5.3dm.dli. click Import.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots.dli. This happens because the MAX2.5 File menu. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. In the MAX2. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. This happens because MAX2. From the MAX2. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. and RhinoMax20imp.dli. MAX does not export NURBS curves.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. Now mesh your curved surfaces. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. (3dmimp. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. 3DS MAX version 2. RhinoMax20imp. are imported in several pieces.rhino3d. RhinoMax2imp.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX.dli. Select the 3DM file to import.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.Rhino 2.

you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Click the MAX2. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. (3dmimp.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. Using developers tools.dli and RhinoMax2imp. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. From the MAX2 File menu.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. click Import.0 Command Reference If you answer yes.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Be patient. If you answer "no. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.5 module called "ACISMAX2. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box.Rhino 2. Select the 3DM file to import. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.5 NURBS object.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. select Rhino 3D Models. 3D Studio MAX 2. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces. NURBS curves: 44 .dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. Given the information we have." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims.rhino3d.5 or 3DS DOS. CurveCV. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. In general.0. from the Files of type box. 3DS MAX version 2. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.5 as a single surface. If MAX crashes.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. Surface. Curve.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. To closely examine and edit MAX2. click the Sub-Object button. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file.dli or RhinoMax2imp. The Rhino web site at http://www. it is not possible to say what is going wrong.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool).

obj+number is used as a name. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Curve. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. On December 10 1997." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. 45 . If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. are imported in several pieces. Select the 3DM file to import. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. click Mesh.habware. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2. Select a MAX2 NURBS object.at/duck3. click Import. From the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. Open 3D Studio MAX. CurveCV. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. 3D Studio MAX 3. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. Some surfaces. select Rhino 3D Models. from the Files of type box. Click the Sub-Object button. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. From the File menu. Surface.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. Clear the Weld control.rhino3d.Rhino 2. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1.1.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. If there is no Rhino object name. In the File Import dialog box.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through.

Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. In Rhino. from the File menu. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects.and v-direction vectors.0 ACIS Version: 3. All of the version types export curves. It does not fix geometry problems. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Export Selected. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. Or. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. Using ACIS Version 5. type a name for the file. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. but import in as bodies.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3. The options can be changed by editing the INI file. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. To change these into splines. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file.Rhino 2.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . select the curves and explode them. Click Save. In the Save as type box.5 ACIS Version: 1. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select the options for the export. select ACIS SAT.0 ACIS Version: 2.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. At the Select object prompt. click Save As. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. In the File name box.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2.0 is currently not suggested.

select a scale option.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid.Rhino 2. click Import/Merge.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. 47 . Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. click Open.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. under Scale.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1. In the AI Import Options dialog box.0 ACIS Version: 4.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. Click Open. type a name for the AI file. from the File menu. In the File name box.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. In the Files of type box. select Adobe Illustrator. Or.

Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. from the Files of type box. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. click Open. Make the viewport you want to export from active.0 files. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator.5.11 fall off the page in Illustrator.ini. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. type a name for the AG file. In some situations. curves need to be refit before exporting. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program.Rhino 2. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. In the Save as type box. Rhino only reads curve geometry. In the File name box. type a name for the AI file. From the File menu. click Save As. Or. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0.0 > 8. select Adobe Illustrator. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. click Save As. click Export Selected.1 units from the original curve. In the Save as type box. click a scale option. select AG. click Import/Merge. In the File name box. select AG. from the File menu. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. From the File menu. In the AI Export Options dialog box. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. In the File name box. Under some circumstances. from the File menu. Click Save. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. not text. from the File menu. under Scale. Or. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. Or. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. Click Open. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. In the Open dialog box. click Export Selected.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. type a name for the AG file.

To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. from the File menu. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. or anything in paperspace. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. AutoCAD line types are ignored. select the options for DXF export. Click Open. regions. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. select AutoCAD DXF. from the File menu. They are not converted to NURBS. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. Or. select AutoCAD DWG. click Export Selected. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. rays. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. Object properties. Click Save. OLE objects. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. From the File menu. click Save As. Or. In the File name box. click Open. Or. type a name for the DWG file. In the Files of type box. from the File menu. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. In the File name box. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. In the Files of type box. Or. click Save As. click Import/Merge. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Click Save. click Open. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. Rhino will not import images. select AutoCAD DWG. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. type a name for the DWG file. type a name for the DXF file. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. from the File menu. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. click Export Selected. In the File name box. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. select AutoCAD DXF. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . Click Open. From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Import/Merge. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. XREF's are imported. select the options for DWG export. type a name for the DXF file.

This means if the curve is just one line. you can export either polyline or spline entities. 2-D curves are simplified. AutoCAD line types are ignored. circles. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. export curves as splines. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. Rhino will not import images. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. arcs. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. or circle. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. 3-D curves are never simplified. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. curves are approximated with polylines. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. but do not properly read polyface meshes. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. 50 . OLE objects. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. rays. or circle. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. use RAW instead. arc. arc. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. regions. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. circle. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. or anything in paperspace. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. They are not converted to NURBS. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. and line entities. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export.Rhino 2. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. you will probably want to export curves as polylines.

Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. In the File name box. lines. and line entities. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. In the Save as type box. type a name for the file. Use simple entities Circles.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. arcs. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. it will be exported as such. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. not the file header. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. click Export Selected. arcs. circle. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. or ellipse. circle. If the simplify tolerance is too small. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. it is exported as a simple entity. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. arc. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. ellipses. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. This setting uses current model units. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. From the File menu. and ellipses as NURBS curves. For silhouette lines. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. Click Save. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. If the simplify tolerance is too large. line. ellipse. or later DWG/DXF. select Object Properties (. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . line. but increase the number of polyline segments.csv).Rhino 2. The larger this number. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands.

C). When exporting curves as polylines. Rhino produces one component for each shape. 52 . object render color and selected mass properties. pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. If you have previously selected a centerline. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. Rhino must approximate each polyline.0. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. object name. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. This setting determines how the station lines are created.S) or only half (. layer color. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. Each component will have the same name as the shape. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. The larger this number. All component origin shift is considered 0.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. You can give each shape the name you would like here.Rhino 2.0.

Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. type a name for the LWO file. click Save As. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. which does not have the 65. In the Open dialog box. They are not converted to NURBS. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Import/Merge. from the File menu. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. type a name for the UDO file. select Moray UDO. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. Note Object names are supported. Each component will initially be a member of this part. Or. Click Save. Moray automatically numbers the objects. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Click Open. click Open. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the Save as type box. Object names will be used when exporting the . click Save As. type a name for the LWO file. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. If the same name is used for multiple objects. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Containment. 53 . In the File name box. In the File name box. from the File menu. select Lightwave. Click Save. from the File menu. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. The LWO file is limited to 65.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Or. select Lightwave.Rhino 2.000 polygon limitation. click Export Selected. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the File name box. Or. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. from the Files of type box. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO.lwo file instead of a generic name. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. or Windage (sail).535 points for the entire file.

If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. they will be ignored with no warning. click User Defined. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. click Save As. they display a blank window. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. 54 . In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. surfaces. from the File menu. Rhino creates a . Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. select the target application for the export. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe.0 will not read in open surfaces. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids.stmuc. and colors. To import the object into Moray. surfaces. If the file contains open surfaces.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. only closed solids will be imported." Solution The model probably exported just fine. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. When you export to UDO. and curves Solid Edge 6. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters.Rhino 2. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. Or. Planes are important primitives. Click Save. select Parasolid X_T. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. from Create menu. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. type a name for the file. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor.com/moray/. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. click Export Selected.UDO file and a . Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces.INC file. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same.

In the File name box.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. select RenderMan. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T. from the File menu. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. 55 . ISBN: 1558606181. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.rhino3d.bmrt. In the Save as type box. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. ISBN: 0201508680. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann.rendering. Or.graphics. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. click Save As.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. click Export Selected. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. type a name for the RIB file.rhino3d.Rhino 2. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. Click Save. however.

Use Properties to set the object names. To cancel the rendering process. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render." Two windows will open. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.Rhino 2.org. from the File menu. Rhino writes the surface. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. and highlight. To test render the scene. The transparency color is the color of the object. Or. transparency. Click Save. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. Set up your scene with materials and lights.povray. The intensity is always set to 1. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. click Export Selected. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file.rendribrc. type a name for the POV file. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the File name box.povray. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. Export to RIB file format supports render background color. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . click the big blue "R. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary.org. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. click Save As. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). Make sure the correct view is active when you export. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. however. select POV-Ray Mesh. color. 56 .0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. and opacity statement for each object. In the Save as type box.1." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color.rib reboot your computer. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light.

Textures are not exported. select Raw Triangles. In the File name box. but object colors are. click Save As. 57 . This material name is exported for use by the renderer. click Open. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object.inc and lights. from the File menu. from the Files of type box. or into one large POV file. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. click Import/Merge. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials.Rhino 2. Click Save. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. type a name for the RAW file. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. type a name for the RTF file. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. from the File menu. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. transparency. and highlight. Or. They are not converted to NURBS. Click Open. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Or. select Raw Triangles. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. click Export Selected.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. In the File name box. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV.

type a name for the SLC file. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. from the File menu. click Export Selected. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. The greater the number of polygons. click Open. Or. Export it in RAW format. from the File menu. 0. type a name for the STEP file. type a name for the STEP file.0127mm. Import it back into Rhino. click Import/Merge. select STEP. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. select STEP. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. click Save As. Or. select SLC. The slices will be evenly spaced. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. from the File menu.Rhino 2. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. Click Save. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. 0. Click Save. In the File name box.0381mm. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. click Save As. In the File name box.0254mm. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. click Open. click Import/Merge. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. use DXF instead. from the File menu.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. (For example. From the File menu. from the Files of type box. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. Or. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. Click Open. 58 . Or.0508mm and 0. Consequently. 0. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Open dialog box. and use ExplodeMesh.0762mm. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result.

Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire.ini file to look like this. click Polygon Mesh. Click Save. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. select STL. click Polygon Mesh.Rhino 2. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. select STL. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. From the Tools menu. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. Or. click Save As. from the File menu. They are not converted to NURBS. then click Weld.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. then Weld (angle=180). Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. click Export Selected. then click Join. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects.) Select the new mesh object. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. type a name for the STL file. Instead. In the File name box. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. then they have the same idea of up. From the Tools menu. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. if two triangles share an edge. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. type a name for the STL file. but doesn't glue the edges together. For example. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. In the Save as type box. to control STL accuracy. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. to get JCAD to work. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. In the File name box. Click Open. Use JoinMesh. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. 59 . STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. click Polygon Mesh. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. from the Files of type box. From the Tools menu. If a mesh point is highlighted. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. that is. then click Unify Normals.

Click Save. In the File name box. Rhino now 60 . Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. Or. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select VRML.Rhino 2. from the File menu. click Import/Merge. from the File menu.axis toward the x. Texture assignments are currently not exported. click Save As. Render color. click Open. shine. From the File menu. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. In the File name box. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. In the File name box. type a name for the VDA file. click Save As. views. Or. It does not support representation of drawing information. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. type a name for the WRL file. Click Save. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. click Export Selected. from the File menu. Click Open. It does not support assembly and feature information. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z.y plane. select VDA. Or. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. symbols. In the Save as type box. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. In the Save as type box. etc. type a name for the VDA file.D geometry and topology information. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. from the Files of type box. click Export Selected. select VDA. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the Open dialog box.

Export options Version You can choose between version 1. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. select Windows Metafile. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. In general. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file.0 and 2.0. In the File name box.pdf.viewpoint.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. In the Save as type box. Render Mesh tab. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. try 1. 61 .zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. type a name for the WMF file. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. type a name for the file. and if so. click Export Selected. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. from the File menu. click Export Selected. From the File menu. you should try 2. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. click Save As.com/software/mtx2html. (The MTS file contains the actual data. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export.exe.) Outside of Rhino. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. In the Save as type box. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export.0. but will make the WRL file much larger.Rhino 2. click Save As. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. This can be tricky. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. Or. Or. In the File name box.viewpoint. You can download it from http://developer. from the File menu. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero.0 first. Click Save. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. Click Save.

To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. select IGES. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. type a name for the DXF file. From the File menu. Detailed options Author. click Export Selected. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. from the IGES type box. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. 62 . In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Sender's product ID. and click Save. select an IGES type. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types.x is created. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. enter a name for the file. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. 1 2 In the File name box. In the File name box. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. in the Save as type box.3ds A file yourfile. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. This means various settings have different values for each product.Rhino 2. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. Click Save. Organization.

the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.Rhino 2. the IGES file will be empty. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units.ini. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 .0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1.ini.2 or 5. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. To import trimming curves as curve objects.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. When Rhino 2. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. To create an IGES import log.

The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks.. but this is not required. Lines that begin with semi-colon (.Rhino 2.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. you need to do a bit of sleuthing. an IGES level number is automatically selected. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. 1. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry.) are ignored. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N".txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. Spaces and tabs are ignored. To see if this is the case. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. 3.). A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. When Rhino reads an IGES file.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . This file can contain multiple flavors. 2. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. A flavor is terminated by a blank line. .. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history." For example.

65 . The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read.igs and gamma. Other(). If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. click Close.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. regardless of type. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. Definition(). Rhino reads alpha. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. or Logical/Positional().igs. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. If you do something like: open alpha. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need.igs.igs normally. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category. set the options for the IGES type. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. accepting only entities marked as geometry.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta.igs open gamma. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file.Rhino 2. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. click New. you will get it. If one of the Annotation().

To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. The number must be bigger than zero.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and click Edit. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines.2 stores years using two digits and 5. and maximum degree five. IGES 184 entities.Rhino 2. select an IGES type.3. select an IGES type. and click Copy Type. click Close. and click Delete. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. maximum degree three. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. 66 . from the IGES type list box. or IGES circles. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. Unix. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. from the IGES type list box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF).2 and 5. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. IGES arcs. If the max degree is set to five. The difference is 5. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. and MacOS style line endings. this number should be one. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. Unix uses LF. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. arcs. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. set the options for the IGES type. In most cases. click Close.3 using four digits. set the options for the IGES type. If the max degree is set to three. and MacOS uses CR.

In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. type a name for the OBJ file. try the following test. If the max degree is set to five. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. If the max degree is set to three. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. when possible. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. select the options for OBJ export. Or. 67 . In the File name box. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. select Wavefront OBJ. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. from the File menu. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. when possible. Curves are not exported. maximum degree three. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news.Rhino 2. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. when possible. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. click Save As. If you get better results with one export type. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance.com/rhino so we can document this file format. Try to load both files into your product. and maximum degree five. In the Save as type box. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. If you export geometry as polygon mesh.rhino3d. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). click Export Selected.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. Click Save.

Rhino 2. If is far from 100% satisfactory.obj file. Export layer names Exports layer names. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. mesh export is disabled. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. 68 . By default. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. Export object names Exports object names. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. The . IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. There are also references to these materials added to the . Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. Options Skip Don't export meshes. Export material definitions Creates an . Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Export layer names should be cleared. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. CR (Mac OS) Return only.mtl file contains one material definition per object. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list.ini file. LF (Unix) Line feed only. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. To export to MAX. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet.mtl file with the same name as the . Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names.obj file.

select Alias V8. click Export or Save As. select IGES. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. In the Save as type box.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. try using OBJ format instead. click Export Selected. make it independent. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. For the fastest import.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. and Customize > Preferences. In the Save as type box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. and set the display to wireframe. type a filename. Or. and flip the trim. In this case. click Export or Save As. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. and then restart MAX. Note When merging an IGES file. it is recommended that you save your work. To distinguish between separate entities.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. All data that is not grouped. from the File menu. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application.x. After a large IGES import. From the IGES Type box. select the surface.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. change your viewport layout to a single viewport.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select the trim curve. select 3D Studio MAX 3. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. select IGES. it is recommended that you save your work first.

select Ashlar Vellum. In the File name box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select AUTOFORM. type a filename.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . type a filename. In the Save as type box.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select IGES.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select IGES.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select Breault Research's ASAP. 71 . select AutoShip.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. type a filename. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. In the File name box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select CADCEUS.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As.

In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CATIA.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. In the File name box. type a filename. select IGES. select IGES. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. select CamSoft. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 .

0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the Save as type box. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. select IGES. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. click Export or Save As. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. even those that are trivially trimmed.Rhino 2. select Cosmos/M.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . type a filename. Surfaces and Solids. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole.

74 . select IGES. select IGES. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. In the File name box.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. select FastShip.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the Save as type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. type a filename. select Cosmos/M.

000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IronCAD. type a filename. select IGES.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . From the IGES Type box. select Integrity Ware.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. type a filename. select FastSURF.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.

From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 .0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select Mastercam. select LUSAS. select IGES. type a filename.Rhino 2.

from the File menu. In the Save as type box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. 77 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select IGES. type a filename. click Export Selected. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Surfaces and Solids. Or. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select ME30.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select IGES. select Maya. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. type a filename.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

click Start and Global. select IGES. set IGES Version to either 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click DE Mappings.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. (The MDT defaults work fine. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. To get the best results. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 .Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. click Edit options. type a filename. Version 5. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK.3. Surfaces and Solids. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. select Mechanical Desktop. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command.2 or 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box.IGESOUT dialog box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above. Version 5. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. 78 . 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select Microstation. in the Description box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. From the IGES Type box. You may set these options as you see fit. click Export or Save As. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. In the Save as type box. click Geometry.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. To save these settings.opt. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. click Structure.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. and click OK.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select NASA GridTool. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box.1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. In the File name box. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. select IGES.000000 79 . If you add the following section to your Rhino. the current version of Multisurf is 3. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As.ini file. Multisurf 3. select IGES. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims.1 using an IGES file. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Multisurf.

type a filename. click Export or Save As. select OptiCAD.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 .0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. select NuGraf. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.Rhino 2.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 .pro file or save them as rhino. type a filename. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5.pro file then read it in before exporting. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. use these settings in the Pro/E config. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.001 to 0. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0001 will produce good results. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. select IGES. when exporting to IGES. If you set your tolerances right.01 units. somewhere around 0. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. Note With Pro/E version 20.Rhino 2. In the File name box. use the "All Parts" option. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. even those that are trivially trimmed. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. If the curves are planar. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. 82 .Rhino 2. then. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. When modeling in Rhino. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. Things like fillets and drafts . The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surface replace is another good tool to use. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. Surfaces and Solids. The more trims you have. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. there are now two types. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino.

Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. In the Save as type box. a surface. type a filename.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. select IGES.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. select SDRC's I-DEAS. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. In the File name box. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. There is no geometry information in it. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. you will not get back what you sent. and a solid.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 .

from the Save as type box. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. Open Softimage.8: ftp://ftp. 3.phoenixtools. All three have their own problems and benefits.igs MyDSCFile.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2. select IGES.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.okino.txt contains command line option information. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. from the IGES Type box. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. Run iges2soft. Type a filename and click Save. In the IGES Export dialog box. In the Save As dialog box.7sp1 and 3. select Softimage.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0.Rhino 2. DXF. then click IGES.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.com.com Plugin download link page: www. for SI versions 3. 1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs.phoenixtools. select Softimage. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. SGI and x86 (Intel). Softimage can also import 3DS. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www.phoenixtools. Check out their web site for more information: www. From the File menu.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null. 2 84 .dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3. click Save As.

select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . From the IGES Type box. type a filename. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. In the File name box.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. Surfaces and Solids. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. click Export or Save As. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene.Rhino 2. In the File name box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. type a filename. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Solid Edge. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. select IGES.Rhino 2. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. Surfaces and Solids. click Export or Save As.001 or 0. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. From the IGES Type box.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. type a filename. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. In the Save as type box. To export models to Rhino. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 86 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select SolidWorks. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed.0001 before building the geometry.

. leaving features such as fillets. select IGES.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. Nothing replaces experience. etc. select SUM4. then shelling is likely to fail.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0. SUM 4. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. try to model with smooth. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. to test feasibility. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. Shelling. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended.Rhino 2.0001. Also. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. is tangent. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. In the File name box. select SURFCAM. Generally. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. and investigate alternative approaches.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. select IGES. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. which works on both edges and faces. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. click Export or Save As. ribs. 87 . shelling. for SolidWorks. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. by nature. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. which within human perception. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. type a filename. In the Save as type box. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select IGES.Rhino 2. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . select IGES. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select Unigraphics. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select TekSoft.

From the IGES Type box. select Yamaha ESPRi. click Export or Save As. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box.Rhino 2. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. 90 . Surfaces and Solids.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. In the Save as type box. select IGES. Context-sensitive menu with object selected. type a filename.

Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. In addition. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. The same limitation does not apply to render color. Context-sensitive menu indicator. or drag to manipulate the view. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. actions related to objects appear in the menu. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector.txt in the Rhino install directory. Green. Saturation. 91 .Rhino 2. and Blue boxes. type values in the Hue. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. select a color. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. and Value boxes. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. from the Named Colors list. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value.ini file to add or change menu items. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Edit the Rhino. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. If context-sensitive menu is on. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value.ini file. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. If no object is selected. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. type RGB values in the Red. The first item is always to repeat the last command. For maximum speed.

Midpoint. 92 . Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. and Knot object snaps can persist. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. and Point will not work for that pick.Rhino 2. right-click the Lock checkbox. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. Quad. if End. Perp. the appropriate object snap displays. To clear all persistent object snaps. click Osnap. on the status bar. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Intersection. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. Point. Only Near. or can be activated for one pick only. If object snaps are locked. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. End. Center. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. To display the Osnap dialog box. As you pass your cursor over an object. For example. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Tan. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. Near. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. End. When activated. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. When an object snap is active. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. All object snaps behave similarly. Near. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. After the pick.

Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .

NoSnap Turn object snaps off. then click End. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. separated by commas. Click to enter the endpoint. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. from the Tools menu. End. Tan. and Knot. Valid options are NoSnap. 94 .0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. InsertKnot. Only these object snaps will be set. all others will be cleared. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Quad. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. This command is useful for command files. Point. If a command is active. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Near. with no spaces. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. OrientOnSrf. it turns off all persistent object snaps. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. or just suspends them for one pick. The marker jumps to the endpoint. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt.Rhino 2. Center. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. Intersection. Midpoint. for example in ExtractIsoparm. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. Perp. click Object Snap.

The marker jumps to it. In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Point. 95 . Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. Click to enter the point. Click to enter a point on the curve. click Near. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. The marker moves along the curve. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. click End. click the Osnap pane.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. click the Osnap pane. Near object snap Snap near a curve. Click to enter the midpoint. then click Mid. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. On the status bar. the seam point on closed curves. click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. click Mid. On the status bar. click Point. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. and the "corners" of surfaces. The marker jumps to its midpoint. Move the cursor near a curve. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Move the cursor near a point. click Object Snap.Rhino 2. In the Osnap dialog box. On the status bar. then click Near.

click the Osnap pane. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Center. from the Tools menu. On the status bar. Move the cursor near a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. then click Perpendicular To. Move the cursor near an intersection. click Object Snap. then click Intersection. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. The marker jumps to its center point. then click Tangent To. Click to enter one of these points. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. from the Tools menu. click Perp. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Click to enter one of these points. Click to enter the center point. click Int.Rhino 2. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. Click to enter the point of intersection. click Object Snap. Move the cursor along a curve. perpendicular to the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. The marker jumps to it. from the Tools menu. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. tangent to the curve. click Object Snap. Move the cursor along a curve. from the Tools menu. 96 . click Cen.

then click Knot. Click to enter one of these points. In the Osnap dialog box. click the Osnap pane. You can set this point. click Quad. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. 3 Example 97 . then click From. At the Choose a base point prompt. arc or ellipse. from the Tools menu. Move the cursor near a curve. distance constraint. or similar surface edges. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. and relative coordinate entry. from the Tools menu.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. From object snap Snap from a point.Rhino 2. angle constraint. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. On the status bar. with From. You can use another object snap to pick this point. and finally choose the point for the original command. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. click Object Snap. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. Click to enter the knot point. Similarly. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. from the Tools menu. type Knot. without picking it. click Tan. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. Set your constraints relative to the base point. click Object Snap. then click Quadrant. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. click Object Snap. Move the cursor along a circle. pick a point. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. without entering that point for the original command.

The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. snap to the end of the line. The cursor moves only along the curve. and Quad. from the Tools menu. At the Choose a point prompt. Note When selecting points during this sequence. click Object Snap. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Mid. from the Tools menu. then click Tangent From.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. for greater precision. you can use simple snaps. click Object Snap. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. End.Rhino 2. At the Click near the curve prompt. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. At the Choose a base point prompt. Cen. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. Near. 98 . click Object Snap. Point. from the Tools menu. select the curve. Int. select the curve. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. type 2 and press Enter. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. then click Perpendicular From. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. then click From.

and Quad) for greater precision. At the End of base line prompt.Rhino 2. Click to enter a point on the line. you can use simple snaps (End. Or. in the Object Snap toolbar. and Quad) for greater precision. Cen. Near. The marker moves only along the line. Note When selecting points during this sequence. 99 . select a second point. Near. The marker moves only along the line. Point. At the Start of tracking line prompt. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. you can use simple snaps (End. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. you can use simple snaps (End. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Point.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. Cen. Cen. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. Int. Near. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. select a first point to specify the tracking line. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. Click to enter a point on the line. type AlongParallel. Int. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. click Object Snap. At the Start of base line prompt. Along object snap Track along a line. Point. right-click the Along toolbar button. then click Along Line. Mid. Note When selecting points during this sequence. The marker tracks along the tangent line. Int. At the Choose a point prompt. At the End of tracking line prompt. Mid. from the Tools menu. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Mid. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. select a second point. and Quad) for greater precision.

select Project to CPlane. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane. you can use simple snaps. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. When Osnap projection is on. but works on curves. it is off. The marker moves only along the surface. Mid. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. select the surface. then click On Surface.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off.Rhino 2. and the cursor is over an object snap point. Near. for greater precision. 100 . Center. By default. At the Click near the surface prompt. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. and Knot. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. Click to enter a point on the surface. End. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Note When selecting a point on the surface. Intersection. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. Point. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to.

The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. or just the knot isoparms. 0.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. 2. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects.Rhino 2. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. General tab. Object Properties. 1. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. go to the Options dialog box. The valid values are -1. Isoparms at surface knot locations. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. Information Technical information about the command displays. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. and RenderMan RIB. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. 101 . The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. POV-Ray. and OBJ file export. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. and the other positive integers. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox.

0 Command Reference Object Properties. this tab displays the properties for that light type. This option applies only when spotlights are selected.Rhino 2. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. using a plug-in library. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. use the Edit Layers dialog box. finish. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. From top left to bottom right. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Turns light on or off. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Light tab Edit light object properties. To change the material assignment of the layer. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. 102 . you can set the color. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. Material tab Edit object material properties. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. texture. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. Color Sets the color of the light. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. transparency.

Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. 103 .Rhino 2. polysurface. or a polygon mesh. From top left to bottom right. To change the color of the wireframe display. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Text tab Edit text properties. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Unlike more advanced renderers. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Clear this option to remove the texture map.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Object Properties.

Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab.Rhino 2. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items.25 inches. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Example If your units are inches. The two sizes update each other. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. When you place annotation text. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Options dialog box. 104 . Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Command string Command alias definitions.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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spotlighting.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. Also. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. and the color-andshadows Render. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. you will see improved performance. highlights. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Render Mesh tab. click Use OpenGL. click Options. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. On the Shade tab. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. and a backdrop image. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. from the smooth geometry. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. shadows. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. 114 . Render Render your model to see a realistic view. Rhino takes that time to calculate. this shading mode may be much faster. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. The next time you shade the same model. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Choose between the quick render preview. For highest quality results. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

115 . Rhino takes that time to calculate. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. Also. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. When you draw the plane. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Self. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Render Mesh tab.Rhino 2. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Jagged spotlight edges and self. the patterns may probably disappear. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time.5. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. In some situations. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. you will see improved performance. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. which might appear in waves. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. Rhino Render tab. Render tab. Tries to exclude the hidden lines.0 or 1. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. The next time you render the same model. of the view in the active viewport. so it won't be deformed. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. from the smooth geometry. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing.

0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. That will usually solve the problem. If the problems still persist. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow.shadowing effects. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. Change the size of the light. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. If you increase it too much. If you’re getting self. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not.Rhino 2. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. Sometimes the conversion 116 . If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. The scale of the objects is very large. Correct shadow. Self-shadowing artifacts.

com/windows/downloads/winntw.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. To update your OpenGL drivers. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. you may not have the current drivers. available from Microsoft at www. On Status of layer.microsoft. please read section the next section. Start Rhino. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor.dll and Glu32. To set the column width. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Off Status of layer. 117 . they look jagged. and download the latest drivers. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). If this does not fix the problem. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Or you can organize your parts a different way. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. Even if you got the card last week. For example. When objects are on a layer. Otherwise. you can turn them all off at once. select them all with one selection. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer.asp. and since the polygons are flat. This helps you organize your model. change the color of the wire frame. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. if you were working on a human figure. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. contact Rhino Technical Support. To update Windows NT drivers. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. Windows 95. Name Layer name. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures.

transparency. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. You can snap to objects on this layer. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. 118 . Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. texture. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. To change the color of the wireframe display. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. you can set the color. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. or a polygon mesh. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. polysurface. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. finish.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Unlike more advanced renderers.Rhino 2. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface.

Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. type a new name and press Enter. If you don't remember the layer names. In the Layer dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. You cannot create new layers with these names. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. select the name on the list. and Invert the selection. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them.Rhino 2. 119 . select a set of layers. click New. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. Clear this option to remove the bump map. You can select all layers. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right.

Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. To delete empty layers. use the Empty Layers filter. In the Select Color dialog box. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. click a filter option. In the Edit Layers dialog box.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. from the list select the layers you want to delete. When a model has a large number of layers. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on.Rhino 2. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. Click Delete. select a color for the layer. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . In the Show box. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. In the Edit Layers dialog box. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. click the color column of the layer you want to change. select all the displayed layers and delete.

set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves.Rhino 2. off. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. set the desired filter options.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. or locked." are on or locked. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. click Filtered Layers. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1.

Think of each curve you select in Loft. generally. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. then try Loft. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. If this doesn't help. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. If you are after a tent-like. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. If you are after a flag-like surface. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. Sweeps. then use a ruled surface. try adding a few more cross sections.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Sweep1. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. or accordion bellows-like surface. stair-like. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. then the surface created by loft will. The surface is smooth. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Lofts. 122 . depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. Rules. The rail curve directs the surface along it. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2.Rhino 2. then use the one closest to the top of the list.

0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. 123 . Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve.Rhino 2. use a Sweep2. If you have a several of closed curves. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. the surface will twist. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. while keeping the other end fixed. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side.

Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. and thus the fillet. For a given radius. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems.Rhino 2. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. or no curves. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. the intersection of the offsets can have one. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. For each of these four ways. there are four ways to fillet. 124 . The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. several.

there may be several fillet pieces. These pieces can be grouped into connected components. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. 125 . for this choice of sides.0 Command Reference As mentioned.Rhino 2.

and split.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. 126 . the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. When Extend = yes. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. If no. yes. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. When that is the case. then the surfaces are left intact. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. No. If split.Rhino 2. If yes. Because of this. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries.

Rhino 2. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. their offsets may intersect.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. and a fillet will exist. then no fillets will be created. 127 . Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. If two surfaces are tangent.

everything will be integrated into a single polysurface.Rhino 2. except cross-sections are lines. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. rather than arcs. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. no fillet will be created. 128 . Otherwise. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible.

then the result to B will work. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface.Rhino 2. a spherical patch will be made. on an open surface or polysurface. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. If you do. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. no corner patch will be attempted. The picking order can make the difference. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. joining A to C. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. Often. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. it is projected." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. it doesn't. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. In this case. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. If both are single surfaces. B and C. Additionally. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. If one is a polysurface. Do each surface individually. 129 . In this case.0 Command Reference In general. When joining A. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. The result will have a hole at the corner. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. However. Once we have a curve on the surface. do not pick A and B first. but it may not fit. Objects have overlapping surface areas.

This point is also called a singularity. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. 130 . For success using the Booleans.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean.Rhino 2. not mesh objects. the operation can fail. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. You can also move control points to the same location. or visa versa. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union.

In this example. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. there are three possible intersection curves. but Difference. Depending on the order the objects are selected. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. click From Objects. The objects will Union.Rhino 2. select the second object. At the Select object to intersect prompt. the two boxes are just touching along one side. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. select one object. At the Select object for intersection prompt. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. the Intersect command may give different results. In this example. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. and Intersection do not work. In this example. 131 .0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. In this example. and then click Intersection. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. we chose the cone first.

you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. however. Therefore. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. so we will Explode it. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. this may not happen. To get all the possible curves. In our simple example. If your objects are very complex. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. if your objects are polysurfaces. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. you would expect to get all three curves.Rhino 2. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . but for the same reason the Boolean failed. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway.

From the Solid menu.Rhino 2. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. click Split. Explode the cone. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. click Extract Surface. select the two faces of the box as shown below. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. select the cone. 133 . Delete the small wedge of the cone. At the Select cutting objects prompt. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. At the Select object to split prompt.

The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. A – B = A intersect ~B. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). intersection. go through the same code. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. From the Edit menu. click Trim. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. The intersection involves isolated points. select the two curves. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. and is achieved by flipping the normals. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. So.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. In this case. There is no intersection. 134 . select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. union. difference. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts.

then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. Double-click Rhino.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino.ini and restart Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. To edit the Rhino. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. In Windows Explorer.ini file. Edit the Rhino. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. Surfaces overlap. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. select the check box for the toolbar. the outside is the side to which the normals point. Find the setting you want to change. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar.ini. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Exit Rhino. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display.Rhino 2.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. planes. etc. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance.ini to open it for editing. To understand the results. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. 135 . Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. find the folder where Rhino is installed. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. cylinders. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. For a polysurface that is not a solid.

You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. and from the Toolbar menu. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. type the new name. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. The title bar appears on the toolbar. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. The title bar appears. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. and click Properties. This is a setting in the Rhino. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. until the preview frame of it changes shape. select the toolbar. The toolbar appears or hides. which can be on or off the Rhino window. The toolbar moves to a new position. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. click Properties. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and is docked. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. loses its title bar. 136 . Or. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar.ini file. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. The toolbar reshapes. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. it has no title bar.

and from the Toolbar menu. Click Open. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and drop in the desired position. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. click Delete. select the toolbar. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. Click Import. select the toolbar. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. Or. Or. Or. The linked toolbar appears. 3 137 . select the toolbar. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. Or. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. it will distort the bitmap icon. click Import. and click Properties. and click Delete Toolbar. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. click Properties. Press and hold Ctrl.Rhino 2. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. right-click the toolbar name in the list. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Release the mouse button. and from the Toolbar menu. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. which has the white triangle in the corner. select the toolbar. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. and click Import Toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. click New. Or. The linked toolbar appears.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. and click New Toolbar. select the toolbars to import. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.

click both mouse buttons simultaneously. Move the cursor over a link button. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Release the mouse button. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. 138 . Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. The linked toolbar vanishes. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. clear Float to Top. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. it will distort the bitmap icon. Press and hold Ctrl. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Press and hold Shift. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. select Float to Top to make the link button float. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. and click the right mouse button. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The toolbar is floating. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. Or. The toolbar appears. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. The buttons rearrange. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. In this case. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor.

Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. the left and right mouse buttons commands. You can clear the image. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. and click the right mouse button. Press and hold Shift. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. and click the right mouse button. right-click the toolbar name in the list. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. select the toolbar. capture a portion of the screen. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Use this area to edit your bitmap. Or. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. click Add Button. In the Delete Button dialog box. If you don't know what to enter. Press and hold Shift. 139 . pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. A blank button is added to the toolbar. You can change the ToolTip. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. draw with the paint tools. Press F2 to view the command history. Release the left mouse button. type text in the ToolTip box. and the bitmap icon. type text in the ToolTip box. Press and hold Shift. click OK.Rhino 2. and click Add Button. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. for example: Zoom In | Out. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Click Close.

In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. the button is blank. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. To undo a mistake. click Edit Bitmap. from the Edit menu.Rhino 2. and click the right mouse button. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. Or. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. Press and hold Shift. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click Clear. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. and click the right mouse button. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. click Grab. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. click Edit Bitmap. Click the pencil tool. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. and click the right mouse button. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. up. from the Edit menu. then OK. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. right. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. click Edit Bitmap. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Or. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. A square replaces the cursor. 140 . Note You can shift the image left. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. from the Edit menu. and click the right mouse button. click Undo.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. Press and hold Shift.

Rhino 2. Press and hold Shift.0 5. click Edit Bitmap. In the Import Bitmap dialog box.4 13. type a bitmap file name. from a text file. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box.-3 1. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. select a bitmap file. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. from the File menu. Click Save. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. and click the right mouse button.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. In the Export Bitmap dialog box.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream.4 -4. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. from the File menu. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line.1 4. Click Open. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. command aliases. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Import Bitmap. which stops the creation of point objects. shortcut keys.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model.-4 8. 141 . Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. click Export Bitmap. This script moves objects.

If you don't know what to enter. Divs is the samples per knotspan. then click Paste from Clipboard. variable names. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. Options are 0=Interpolate. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts.Rhino 2. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. 142 . 1=Fit. These scripting languages allow loops. The default is 1. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. click Commands. and Java applets. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. From the Tools menu. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. queries. Mode is always 1. layername2. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1.5. The default is 20. is a fast. the Web's only standard scripting language. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. Automation servers. Press F2 to view the command history. browsing for files. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. portable. Fit is the fitting method. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. Microsoft JScript 5.

The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated. For more information on scripting. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. If a model passes Check. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. and join everything back together again. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. see: http://msdn.microsoft. These damaged areas can cause problems. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. you may find some of those microscopic edges. you have to explode the model. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. Another problem is having a tiny. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems.for instance. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems.rvb. Rhino will let you do it. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. 143 . There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects.Rhino 2. re-trim the surface. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. If Rhino matches the large edges. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. then edit the trim curves. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. and Check doesn't check for those things. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. The first one to try is the Check command. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. Some bad model parts. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. though. If your model doesn't pass Check. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. If you zoom in enough. To fix broken edges. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. then it will list some specific problems. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. If your model doesn't pass Check. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming.

or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models.Rhino 2. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. Additionally.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Solution: Rebuild the curve. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). open up the kink by control point editing.10 5. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good.4 10.5 5. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together.0 5. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Split the curve at the kink. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. 144 . then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. you can Undo changing the degree.0 5. Thus. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. Untrim or DetachTrim. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. simple edge-to-edge matching. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. and Join. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. To draw a non-G1 curve. If there are lots of tiny edges. Trim again. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. You will get this error message. This test does not check the geometry. the Join command can get confused when that happens. FitCrv. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible.

Internal control points are coincident. You will get this error message.Rhino 2. 145 . Usually.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. Solution: Rebuild the edge. but not right on top of each other. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. and then control point edit the extrusion. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. fix curve and retrim. You can put control points very close to each other. Solution: Open up the stacked points. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. In short. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. Extrude it. Solution: DetachTrim. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). The warning lets you know when this has happened. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. Use this to install as a standalone node. Edge direction. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. Rhino 2. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Join and Booleans in particular. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Some operations. but not right on top of each other. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. Draw a Circle. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. You will get this error message. You can put control points very close to each other.

Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. This is an installation option. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. visit www. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge.com/plugins/developer. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. unlike standalone Rhino. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node. No special hardware is needed. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. Thus. Very little administration is required. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. When a node shuts down. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network.rhino3d. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. the license is added back to the available license pool. 146 .rhino3d. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy.htm. it does not modify the shape of the surface.0 as a workgroup node. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down.0" as a workgroup node. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo.com/plug-ins. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. contact your network administrator. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. For details on setting up a workgroup.Rhino 2.

90 degrees The range is from . 147 . the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. 1/3. the marker will snap to the snap point.D curve (the one you see). trim curves are ignored.D curve. called the edge. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. the draft angle is 0. 0. For example. When using elevator mode. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. After the initial grid is made. Rhino meshes all trim edges. Each 2. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. 3.D edge is to the surface. 2.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . 3. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. When the initial mesh grid is made. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions.90 degrees to 90 degrees. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. The 3. Cursor. 0. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge.D curves. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. 2. 8/3. the cursor turns into a crosshair. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. Marker.Rhino 2. then e_tol tells how close the 3. called the pedge. which also approximates the intersection. 1. and tolerance values for each of the curves. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected.D edge. 1. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. two 2.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. If an object snap is on.

Sphere with normal direction displayed However. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. flat constant on the other). there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. or a polysurface. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. the stiffness of the rope. Imagine a rope. However. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. blue on one side. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed.) with a polynomial definition. etc. Solid objects do not have naked edges.Rhino 2. 148 . Some renderers support double-sided shaders. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. If you hold it at the ends. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. or reflective metal on one side. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. when you have a single surface. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. red on the other. The other side is the inside. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. When you have a finished solid.

it is also a solid. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Snap pane. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. In some other 3-D programs. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms.Rhino 2. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. Ortho pane. 149 . The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. and solids. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. this is called a "quilt. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. surfaces. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box.

UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. When no command is active. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. and normal. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. Esc deselects all objects. no objects are selected. Surfaces have three directions.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. u. there will be no holes in the mesh. v. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. v. The u. You can save your own templates to base future models on.direction is indicated by the red arrow. units. and the v. The u. You can display the u. If objects are selected and no command is active. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino.direction is indicated by the green arrow. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. Esc turns off the points. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. A rectangular surface with the u. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. Esc clears the command prompt.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. grid size. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. If a mesh is generated from a solid.Rhino 2. and tolerances. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. 150 . U.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command.

You can shade and render the wireframe view. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Or. 4View Four-viewport layout. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. and Third corner of polygon prompts. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Turn control points on for an existing mesh. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. 151 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. 3View Three-viewport layout. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. using Point object snap and JoinMesh.Rhino 2. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Second corner of polygon. Press Enter for triangle prompt.

The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. Start the AddNextV command. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. 152 . Start the AddNextU command.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected 153 . Start the AddPrevU command. Select a point on the surface.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection.

154 .0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. 1 At the Select objects prompt. prompt select the group or enter a group name. 2 At the Select groups. Select a point on the surface. Start the AddPrevV command. select an object to add to a group.Rhino 2. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. Use the Group command to group objects together. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping.

At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. 155 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. World Front. At the Select curve to change prompt. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. 1 2 Select the objects. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. AlignProfiles Align two curves.Rhino 2. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust. The curves must be planar. or World Right. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length.

select a point that defines the start of an angle line. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. Start of second line prompt. End of first line prompt. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt.Rhino 2. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. 156 .

If the surface is trimmed. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. and fitted onto the selected surface. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. 157 . UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. select the surface on which to apply the curves. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder.0000 degrees. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. select the surface to apply the mesh.Rhino 2. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1.

one of which has been squished around in some way. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. ApplyMesh guarantees that. 158 . At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. enter the center of the arc's radius. enter the angle for the arc. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. Arc Draw an arc. At the End point or angle prompt. mesh the most complex surface first. Generally. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. you can make such morphs. so if you Mirror something. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. For example. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. enter the center of the arc's radius. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. But that swaps u and v on the surface. Then. enter the start point of the arc. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. Or. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. Start.Rhino 2. At the Start of arc prompt. Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. If you use the Mirror transformation. although if you understand the process and work at it. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. If making morph targets. enter the end point of the arc. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other.

Rhino 2. enter the start of the arc. Arc from three points 159 . At the End of arc prompt. At the Point on arc prompt. enter a point on the arc. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. You can enter the number of control points. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. enter the end point of the arc. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.

End. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. At the Radius prompt. At the Radius prompt. enter the end point. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. end point. enter the radius of the arc. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. If the radius value is too small. At the End of arc prompt. End. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. select the first curve. At the End of arc prompt. end point. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. enter the end point. 160 . Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. Arc from start point.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction.Rhino 2. select the second curve. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. Tangent. At the Direction prompt. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. enter a radius value. and radius. At the Choose arc prompt. enter the start point. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. enter the start point. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.1e-006. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.4601236.0. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).1.1. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.1. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. product moments.0 (+/. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. If you cannot see the entire report.7e-006. second moments. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.34 (+/. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. 161 .Rhino 2. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0.014).8545412.0). First moments. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.

10.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.1e-009) Ry: 1. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.1e-009.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. Area = 60 (+/.36650165 (+/. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.77350269 (+/. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 3.0.88675135 (+/.0 is shown below.5. As an example.1e-007) y: 300 (+/. with a surface or open polysurface.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 6.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below. if you select a box polysurface. Area First Moments: 162 .0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 3. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/. For example.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.Rhino 2. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.0 and 6.1e-009.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2.73300329 (+/.46410162 (+/.73205081 (+/.0 (+/.0) zx: 0 (+/. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. and sometimes contradictory. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments.

The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. In terms of integrals. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. the area. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. area second moments. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area.Rhino 2. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. and area product moments. In terms of integrals. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. area first moments. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. The relationship between the area first moments. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. In particular. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area.

y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete.Rhino 2. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies. At the Number in X direction prompt. Transform.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. The array directions are the x. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. 164 . type the x-interval. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. At the Number in Z direction prompt. to indicate the x.and y-intervals. Or. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. press Enter. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. those distances are applied to the array directions. At the Number in Y direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. type the y-interval and press Enter.

At the Select path curve prompt. 165 . or the spacing distance along the curve. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. specify twist behavior. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed. Or. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. set the number of elements to array.Rhino 2. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. type the z-interval and press Enter. choose two points that define the z-interval. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start.

166 . ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. select a curve on a surface. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. and object to array. Surface. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. You can continue to place objects. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. type an angle and press Enter. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. type the number of copies and press Enter.Rhino 2. choose a center point for the array. Enter a value of 1 or more. At the Angle to fill prompt. At the Basepoint prompt. Objects arrayed along line. curve on surface. select objects to copy along the curve. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. At the Select the surface prompt. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. At the Center of polar array prompt.

At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. Array along a surface 167 . At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. If the surface is a trimmed surface.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. At the Select surface to array along prompt. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface.Rhino 2. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. type a number of objects. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. type a number of objects. choose the surface to array along. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly.

Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. See the PluginManager command. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). enter the start of the arrow. At the End of line prompt. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly. If the Audit command detects a database error. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid.Rhino 2.rhp Options set the resolution. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. the path. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. otherwise you must select a folder. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. enter the end of the arrow. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. 168 . the model's folder will be used as the default.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. it prints a detailed description of the error.

Note By default. General tab. automatic Autosave is turned off. At the Radius prompt.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. choose a radius. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Back Set to world back view.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. By default. choose a center point.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.ini. 169 . Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. you must edit your Rhino. Files tab. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. Files tab. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box.

choose an endpoint. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. Bend 170 .Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. choose an endpoint. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. Bend Bend objects. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. At the End of third axis prompt. place the point outside the object. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. To bend the entire object. At the Start of spine prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the amount of bend.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. place the point outside the object. At the End of spine prompt. To bend the entire object. choose a center point. choose the second endpoint of the line. choose an endpoint. At the End of first axis prompt. At the End of second axis prompt.

At the End of angle to bisect prompt. 171 . enter the start of the angle to bisect. enter the start of the bisector line. Bend moves the control points of objects. curves. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. You can't bend a polysurface . or enter a length and press Enter. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. you will only bend that part of the object.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag. and meshes.only control points. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. surfaces. enter the end of the angle to bisect. The remainder of the object is kept straight. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. 172 . select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.

and one of the curves is a blend curve. tangent direction. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. A blend curve that matches location. tangent directions. and curvature. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. tangent direction. delete the arc. then you should probably use InsertKnot. it applies only to the second end. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. select a surface edge. In either case. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. The Blend command creates G2 blends.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. If a blend appears to tight or loose. If you are joining curves. If it is invoked after picking the first end. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. select adjacent edges. tangent direction. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). 173 . If you are going to export the curve to other applications. The location. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. and curvature is called a G2 blend. or press Enter. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. and curvature. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. If you need a G1 blend. To do this. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. tangent direction. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing.Rhino 2. Note The location. At the Select first set of edges. tangent direction. tangent direction. it applies to both ends.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. but adds control points between each knot span. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). 183 . Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. the higher the degree. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer.Rhino 2. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. click the new layer. If you raise the degree of a surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. it will no longer be periodic. This gives you more control over the shape. the greater the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box.

Note Delete or rebuild the object. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. enter the radius point. run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. Circle Draw a circle. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view.Rhino 2. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. select one object. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. Select objects. use the CheckInLicense command. 184 . Diagnostics. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. To check a license back in. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. enter the center point. When users get back in the office. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. When the user gets back in the office. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager.

Rhino 2. You can enter the number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 .0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points.

At the Second point on circle prompt. 186 . select the second curve. enter a third point on the circumference. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. At the Third point on circle prompt. delete the extras. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. You can enter the number of control points. At the End of diameter prompt. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. There may be multiple circles. enter the end of the diameter. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. At the Radius prompt. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. Tangent.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. enter a point on the circumference. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter a second point on the circumference. select the first curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. enter a radius. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle.

Rhino 2. 187 . select the second curve. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. select the third curve. There may be multiple circles. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Point Select a point for input. or are tangent to a second curve. At the Third tangent curve. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Note To reduce the size of the model file.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. delete the extras. select the first curve.

Rhino 2. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. 188 . It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point. enter a point. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. CommandHistory View command history. pick it from the list. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. To start one of those commands. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. Note Point objects display as small squares. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. or in the Command area.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. right click in the Rhino Command History window. At the Base point for closest point prompt. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. Press F2 again to close the window. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window.

it is pasted.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. At the End of cone prompt. Or. look at the Command List in this help file. Cone Draw a cone. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. Commands List all Rhino commands. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. At the Radius prompt. Without the command area. choose a center point for the base. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. choose a radius. If there is text in the Clipboard.Rhino 2. it is pasted as a command script. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2.

enter the start point for the conic. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. At the End of conic prompt. At the Curvature point or rho prompt.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. At the Reference vertex prompt. Conic Draw a conic section curve. enter the middle point for the conic. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. enter the end point for the conic. Or. Conic 190 .

S) intersects chord(A. Parabolic Rho value of 0. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.Rhino 2. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S.5 and less than 1. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A.5. select a curve. Point on first curve prompt. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0.5. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. Point on second curve prompt. Curvature point or rho prompt. Second reference curve prompt. select a second curve. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. B.C). First reference curve prompt.0 and less than 0. If you work out the details.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. let T be the point where line(B. type T to select tangent curves.

End control points are at the same location. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to.Rhino 2.5. Parabolic Rho value of 0.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. enter the reference vertex for the conic. Or. At the End of conic prompt. enter the end point for the conic. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. so the w<1 case is elliptical. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.5 and 1. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature.0 and 0.5. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter. 192 .

Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. BlendSrf. One of the contour planes will go through this point. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. curvature.Rhino 2. Match. 193 . Blend. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). At the Contour plane base point prompt. choose a base point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Position. polysurfaces. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. and meshes for contour line creation. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up.

At the Distance between contours prompt. At the Control polygon display density prompt. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. generated in both directions from the base point. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. the less dense the control polygon will display. The higher this number is.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction.Rhino 2. 194 . ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. select curves and press Enter. use the ExtractWireframe command first. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight.Rhino 2. 195 . At the Angle tolerance prompt. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. select an object to create polylines from. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. Edges can't be converted with this command.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. The original curves are removed.

If the layer does not exist. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. choose a point to move the copy from. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. choose locations for copies. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. When you Paste objects into Rhino. to move the copy vertically. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt.Rhino 2. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. Or. to copy the object in the same place. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. 196 . At the Point to copy to prompts. it is created when the object is pasted. Or. type v and press Enter. snap spacing. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. Object properties and location are stored with the object.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. type I and press Enter.

All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. At the CPlane elevation prompt. 197 . Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. choose a point on the y-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane.axis.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. choose a point on the x-axis. At the CPlane orientation prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the CPlane origin prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points.

choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. At the CPlane origin prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want.D location where it needs to be. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands.D. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. 198 . Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. drag the construction plane's new x.and yaxes to a new location. in the dynamic preview. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. Once your construction plane is positioned. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.Rhino 2. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. for example.

The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane.Rhino 2. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. select a curve or surface. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. 199 . pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane.

CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. choose a point on the x. At the X axis direction prompt. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose the new origin.axis. At the Z axis direction prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin.Rhino 2. choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 200 . At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose the new origin.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis.axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the X axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the z. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the CPlane origin prompt.

If true arc-length mapping is desired. Top view of profile curves 201 .0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. the original surface must be developable. select a surface. cut openings in the unrolled surface. Use UnrollSrf. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves.Rhino 2. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. select the first planar curve. select the second planar curve. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. At the Select planar curve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt.

Rhino 2. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. From 2 Views. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. Example For an example. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. Look in the index under "Curve.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane." 202 .

pick on a seam point marker.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. When you are done adjusting the connections. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. For each overlap interval. 203 . or it may report that the curves don't overlap. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. At the Location of seam point prompt. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. joining the ends of the overlap interval. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves.Rhino 2. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. They are connected with a line. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. press Enter. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. and move it along the curve. pick a new location for the seam point. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts.

CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. reversing the direction of the curve. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. 204 . Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.Rhino 2. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface.

V or Both directions. end the line for the cross section plane. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. Press Enter to stop creating curves. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. At the Select point on the surface prompts. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. select a surface. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. The control point for the surface appear. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. pick near a control point.Rhino 2. At the Start of cross-section line prompt. that passes through the profile curves.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. press Enter to end the command. with the control polygons. At the End of cross-section line prompt. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. At the Select profile curves in order prompt.

Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. For best results. space the cross section curves relatively evenly. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.

At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. 2 207 . The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. click to create the circle object. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. This does not automate finding the inflection points. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle.Rhino 2. Or. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. the curve is locally flat. but it makes it possible to mark them manually.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. select a curve. press Esc to end the command without change.

208 . The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. For example. A smooth surface has two principal curvatures.Rhino 2. set the style and range. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. and other important properties. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Options Gaussian In the images below. curvature. In the Curvature dialog box.

>100. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. In the case of the mill. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. cylinders. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. In the case of an offset." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue.Rhino 2. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. (Planes. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. Set the value for blue rather high (10. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. 209 . Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1.>1000) and the red close to infinity. Blue areas should be safe.

you must first know what the curvature of curve is. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. At any point on a curve in the plane. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. these values may not be appropriate. If we care about this. or to the right of the curve. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. unlike a simple soap film. These meshes can be large. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. and the direction. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. You have to map values to saturated computer colors.Rhino 2. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. This is known as signed curvature. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. both free and attached to objects. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. A soap bubble. the normal to the surface at that point. As a starting point. then we establish a convention. this may result in a rather uninformative image.

The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Curvature graph on surface. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. Adjust the length. even when other commands are started. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. This contrasts with a soap bubble. such as wire loops.Rhino 2. close the dialog box. u. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. 211 . frequency. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces.

Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph.Rhino 2. In other words.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. They are not curvature continuous. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. or tangent only. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. Degree 5 curve 212 . We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. However. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve.

the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous.D normal. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. At any point on a curve (except lines). CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. To better grasp this.Rhino 2. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. 3. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. minimum principal curvature. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. that is. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. 3. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. negative when the circles point opposite ways. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. If the graph changes smoothly. If isoparm display is turned off. As you move your cursor. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). maximum principal curvature. Press F2 to show the Command History window." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous.D point. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. Gaussian curvature. Curve Draw a curve by control points. pick a point on the surface. To see the circle. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves.

Rhino 2. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. At the Next point. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. When drawing a high degree curve. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. enter the start of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 .0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. To end the curve. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. At the Next point. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. You must draw one more control point than the degree. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. Sharp When you make a closed curve. press Enter. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. and pick. enter an additional control point. enter additional control points. The curve closes. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard.

select the box.014). Object properties and location are stored with the object. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. product moments.0.Rhino 2. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.1.1. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1e-006. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select the box.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.1. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.4601236. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. If the layer does not exist. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt.8545412. second moments. it is created when the object is pasted. 4 215 .34 (+/. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. First moments.7e-006. When you Paste objects into Rhino. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box.0 (+/. select the box.0). CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.

select the box. At the End of cut plane prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. press Enter to stop making cut planes. select the end point of a line that defines a plane. At the Start of cut plane prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.Rhino 2. select the first point of a line to define a plane. 216 .0001). At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects.3921 (+/. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623.0.

At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. Solid cylinder 217 . The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. First moments. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. select the box.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1e-006.7e-006. At the End of cylinder prompt. At the Radius prompt. choose a center point for the base. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. select the box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt.1. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.0 (+/.4601236. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.8545412.0). choose a point for the center of the top surface. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1. product moments. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. choose a radius.1. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. second moments. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.Rhino 2.

Select the control points on the curve to delete. use New command instead. 218 . saved views. All objects in the model are deleted. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. To start a new model. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. Layers. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. use the Erase command. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Delete Delete selected objects. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Press Delete. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter.

You do not need to ensure that the y. select the proper serial port and baud rate. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. use the arm to choose a y. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system. Similar to Untrim . Surface before outside trimming curve detached. select your digitizing arm. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. and the trim curve is created. Rhino will do it for you. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. use the arm to choose an x. choose an origin in Rhino.axis in the real world. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface.axis is perpendicular to the x. In the Baud Rate dialog box. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. Microscribe.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. 219 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing.Rhino 2. select a boundary to detach. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.axis in the real world. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt.axis.

Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. Thus. 220 . Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. You can draw lines. and is assigned to the F12 key. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. circles. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. choose a y. and curves with the digitizer. Whatever the reason. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. recording reference points as you go. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Digitize the third set of reference points. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt.axis in Rhino. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. If it is more convenient. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. arcs. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. or the object moves slightly. you can use the digitizer. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick.Rhino 2. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. choose an x. Digitize the first two sets of reference points.

and Y for the origin. X. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. Label each point O. Microscribe. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer. click Digitize.axis on the table. or you need to close and restart Rhino. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. Y. From the Tools menu. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . and then click Calibrate. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. x. click Digitize.axes. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. use the arm to choose an x.axis on the table. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X.Rhino 2. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen.. From the Tools menu. If the digitizer or object moves. use the arm to choose point O on the real object.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. and y. and O. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. This is the reference polyline. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. use the arm to choose a y. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer.

As long as the pedal is depressed. 222 . Press Enter when you are finished. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. The planes are defined with a base point. enter the start of the section plane axis. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. To digitize in centimeters. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes.4. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. hold the pedal. direction. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. type the scale factor for all digitized input. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer.Rhino 2. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. and spacing. At the Third point on plane prompt. enter 0. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt.54. Type C to create a closed curve. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes.0254. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. At the Second point on plane prompt. specify how you want to space the planes. enter a third point on the base plane. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. enter 2. enter a point on the base plane. enter 25. enter a second point on the base plane.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. When you finish digitizing points on the object. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. To digitize in meters. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. You can space the planes at intervals. To digitize in millimeters. At the Start of axis prompt. a point is sampled.

At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a line.Rhino 2. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. Rhino samples points. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. enter the distance between sampled points. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. At the Second dimension point prompt. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. At the Select second line prompt. As long as the pedal is depressed. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. pick a second line. When you release the pedal. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. a point is sampled. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. 223 . pick the a point in the model to dimension from.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. pick a point for the dimension line location.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. pick a location for the dimension text and leader.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick a curve.

225 . enter an angle for the dimension line. pick a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. Or the first point of a reference angle.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. At the Place the dimension prompt.Rhino 2. At the First dimension point prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. At the Second reference point prompt. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. enter the second point of a reference angle.

DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. On surfaces. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick a point for the dimension line location. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt.Rhino 2. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.directions at the point. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. At the Press Enter when done prompt. select a curve.and v. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. to change the direction.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. Press Enter to terminate the display. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Dimension line location prompt. surface or polysurface. Or. Dir Show direction display. type F. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Dimension line location prompt. red and green arrows show the u. Curve direction 226 .

0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. 227 . Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. The location of the directional light does not matter. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. VReverse. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. The directional light icon does not render or shade.Rhino 2. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. If the textures don't apply in the right direction.order and direction. pick a location for the directional light. the UReverse. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. unless you apply textures. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction.and v. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light.

clear the Disable checkbox. light the scene less. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. When Object snaps are disabled. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade.Rhino 2. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. right-click the Disable checkbox. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. pick a point. Darker colors. like gray. Distance Measure the distance between two points. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. 228 .

Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt.0000 units. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. reversing the direction of the curve. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. Note Point objects display as small squares. select the curves to divide and press Enter. use the Split command.Rhino 2. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. select curves and press Enter. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. type an integer number and press Enter. At the Length of segments prompt. 229 . Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. At the Number of segments prompt.

230 . To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. use the Dir command to flip the curve. When a polysurface is picked. use the Split command.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. select a curve. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. or polysurface to evaluate. If you want points to start at the other end. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. surface. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line.Rhino 2. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. Point objects are not a part of any other object. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt.

Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. 231 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. type the text to show in the dot. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. enter the location of the dot. At the Location of dot prompt. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. You can check this with the Dir command.

At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .

The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. The Dup command only duplicates curves.Rhino 2. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. textblocks. To limit your selection to surfaces. Duplicate border curve 233 . and press Enter. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. For example. The object will be duplicated in place. then select the edge to duplicate. It does not duplicate points. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. or bnd (boundary). Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. and solids. surfaces. Because of this. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. or lights. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. select an object to duplicate. type c (curve). surfaces. but it only makes points. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. and polysurfaces. meshes. type f (face). the surface will always sag more than the original. dimensions. Dup Duplicate an object. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. edge. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. press Enter to create a triangular surface. select the fourth curve. Or.Rhino 2. select the edges of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. select the first curve. For many surface creation commands. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. select the second curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the third curve. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. 234 . DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. The edges are duplicated as separate curves.

or you can eliminate the angle brackets. type new text. select a dimension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. For a surface from closed planar curves.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . use Create a planar surface through planar curves. EditDim Edit dimension text. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. You can use surface edges.

Rhino 2. They are not the same as knots. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. select a text block. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Type the new text. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. 236 . set the options. In the Edit Text dialog box. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages.

The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. At the End of second axis prompt. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. enter the endpoint for the second axis. set Annotation Scale factor to 4.25 inches. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.Rhino 2. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the endpoint for the first axis. At the End of first axis prompt. enter the center point. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. You can enter the number of control points. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. When you place annotation text. The two sizes update each other. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Example If your units are inches.

0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. At the End of first axis prompt. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Draw an ellipse from focus points. enter the end of the axis.Rhino 2. enter a focus point. Partial Draws a partial ellipse. enter the end of the second axis. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. At the End of second axis prompt. enter a point on the ellipse curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. enter the second focus point. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. 238 . Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt.

enter a focus point. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. End of first axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. choose an endpoint. choose a center point. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint for the major axis. 239 . Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. enter the second focus point. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. End of second axis prompt. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. End of third axis prompt. or type a height and press Enter.

This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. These meshes can be large. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. In the Environment Map Options dialog box.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. When you use the EMap command.Rhino 2. 240 . select a bitmap file to use for mapping. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. and other important properties. curvature. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials.

under Zebra and EMap. 241 . There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. on the Shade tab. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. select More reliable. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. When More reliable is selected. When Faster is selected. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. but will always work. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh.Rhino 2. in the Options dialog box.

Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. No means there is one drag point. select a surface edge. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. maintains the tangent direction. you are moving control points of the curve. as with the Blend command. At the End of region to edit. 242 . drag point indicators. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. At the Start of region to edit. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. In each case. One-point-per-end mode.

This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing.1 2. 243 .0 Command Reference Surface before editing.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered. aliases. During EndBulgeSrf editing. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u. the script Circle 0. After editing. For example. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.Rhino 2.1 2.

244 .V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. Note When a polysurface is picked.y. select a point.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Press Enter when done prompt. Note Erase is the same as Delete. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). the untrimmed surface is used. Exit Exit Rhino. select the surface to evaluate. A point object is created on the surface.z format. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. At the Select objects to erase prompt. If the surface is trimmed. click points on the surface. Or use the C option to suppress creating points.Rhino 2. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. and the U. select the objects you want to erase.

Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. Click Save. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Files of type box. object render color. Use the Explode command. layer color. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. type a filename. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt.0 files. and selected mass properties. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. Export Export selected objects to a file.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. Rhino supports several file types. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. In the File name box. In the File name box. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces. select objects to explode. Click Save. In the Files of type box. 245 . This command is obsolete. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. object name. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. select Rhino 2 3D Models. type a filename. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. select the file type you want to use.Rhino 2. File. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export.

At the next Select object to extend prompts. Or. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. select a boundary object to extend to. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Extend Extend a curve. enter a name for the text file. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. In the Files of type box. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. In the File name box. Or. 246 . Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. type a filename. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts.Rhino 2. Click Save. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. At the next Select boundary objects. The extension is joined to the original curve. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. select Rhino 2 3D Models. select objects to extend. Press Enter when done prompts. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. type t and press Enter to change the extension type.

Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. 247 .Rhino 2. At the Radius of arc prompt. and solids as boundary edges. Type=Line Makes a line extension. At the End point or angle prompt. select a curve to extend.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Note You can use any combination of curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt. Or. type a number for the radius and press Enter. enter the end of the extension. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. surfaces. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. type an angle for the arc. Or.

enter the endpoint of the extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. use Extend a curve. Select near the end of the curve to extend. the extension will be joined to the original curve. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. use Extend a curve.Rhino 2. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. the extension will be joined to the original curve. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. select a curve to extend.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. At the End of arc prompt.

Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. select the curve to extend.Rhino 2. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. At the End of line or length prompt. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. type a distance to extend and press Enter. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. enter the endpoint for the line extension. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. Options Join If Join=Yes. 249 . the extension will be joined to the original curve. near the end you want to extend. Or. if possible. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. select a curve to extend.

250 . depending on the shape of the object. Note With the linear extension. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. This fixes the original. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. or pick two points to specify the distance. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. The extension length is based on parameterization. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. enter an amount to extend.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor.Rhino 2. Then the surface is extended on the end.

and v-directions of the surface. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. v or both directions. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. and Loft a surface through them. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. use Project or Intersect. and isoparms display at the marker.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . The marker is constrained to the surface. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. If you need angled cross sections along surface. If you need to place an object on a surface. In contrast to InsertKnot. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Extract several isoparms. and polygon mesh objects.Rhino 2. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. If you need curved cross sections. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. choose a point. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface.

and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. Solid Tools. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface.Rhino 2. drag the desired distance and pick. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. and polygon mesh objects. Note ExtractPt works on curves. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. select curves and press Enter. the surface is copied. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. surfaces. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first. If you choose the Copy option. select surfaces and press Enter. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. Toolbar: Menu: Main. or type a distance and press Enter. The original surface is left intact. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. At the Extrusion distance prompt.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. 252 .

then the extrusion is in that direction. and Chamfer.Rhino 2. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. Round. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 .0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. The choices are Sharp. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. Otherwise. This option does not appear for open curves. Smooth.

choose the point. At the Extrusion distance prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. or enter a distance and press Enter. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. The default is vertical to the construction plane. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. To draw a deformable plane. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. draw two lines at right angles. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. At the Point to extrude to prompt. At the Select path curve prompt. select the path curve. select the curve to extrude. select the curve.Rhino 2. pick a point. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. 254 . select surfaces and press Enter. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid.

You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. 255 . type R and press Enter. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. type J and press Enter.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. select curves and press Enter. Fillet Fillet two curves. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Join To change the Join option. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. At the Tolerance prompt. enter a number.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. type the fillet radius and press Enter. or accept the default and press Enter. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Or. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command.

Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go.Rhino 2. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. choose the first surface to fillet. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. choose the second surface to fillet. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go.

select curves and press Enter. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. 257 . the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. For scripting. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. The original curves are unchanged. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. If you have a dense string of points. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. The curves are refitted. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. In general. enter a tolerance. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius.Rhino 2. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. At the Fitting tolerance <0.

Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. click Use OpenGL. Each face has a constant monochrome color.Rhino 2. axes. the OpenGL shade options will be available. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. this shading mode may be much faster. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. object highlighting. click Options. 258 . On the Shade tab. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. The grid.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. If OpenGL shading is turned on. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card.

Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. that define the outline of the flattened surface. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. the OpenGL shade options will be available. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. such as Union instead of Difference. select curves. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. The objects looks exactly the same. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. If OpenGL shading is turned on. The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line.Rhino 2. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. At the Increment size prompt. enter a number and press Enter. On the Shade tab. 259 . this shading mode may be much faster. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. If Booleans give unexpected results. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Options. click Use OpenGL. but their directions are reversed.

For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. At the New backbone curve . especially those with trimmed edges. Front Set to world front view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . Instead of drawing a line before the command. At the Original backbone curve . select the new backbone curve to flow to. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. Flow works on the control points of an object . Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. This curve will be used as a new backbone. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. Flow does not work on polysurfaces.Rhino 2.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. You might want a line to be one of the backbones.

select near end prompt.select near end prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve . Grid Toggle the display of the grid. At the Second curve .ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. you must edit your Rhino. 261 .0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. select the second curve near the coinciding end. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes.Rhino 2. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.

Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. select the curve or surface to edit. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. 262 . HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. You can then apply commands to the entire group.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Group Place selected objects in a group. A handlebar displays on the curve. GridSize Set the extents of the grid.

The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. At the Second corner or length prompt. select a bitmap file. adjust options. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. pick a point. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. select the surface to edit. At the First corner prompt. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. In the Heightfield dialog box.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. pick a point. or enter a length. A handlebar will display on the surface. 263 .Rhino 2. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. Height The scale of the height of the surface. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt.

Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. If you select Pitch. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. At the End of axis prompt. At the Radius prompt. enter the number of turns for the helix. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. enter the end of the helix axis. the helix will twist counterclockwise. If you select Reverse twist. enter the start of the helix axis.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. select Turns or Pitch. 264 . If you select Turns. enter the radius for the helix. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box.Rhino 2. This is the line the helix will wind around.

Organic. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. 265 . Note You can use the Hide command multiple times.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. select the objects you want to hide. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. close the Osnap dialog box. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. If you exit the model and reopen it. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Status bar: Osnap Or. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Visibility. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap.

axis. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set.axis or the y. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. not a statement of a physical principle. 266 . Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes.0 and 1. the more concentrated the hotspot. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. ) prompt. (This is a limitation of the command.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). enter a number between 0. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. and press Enter. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. The smaller the number. only half of the model needs to be given. the command does nothing. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. Waterline Length Length at water line. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. Use 1. The information displays in a separate window. The visible objects hide. The longitudinal direction.Rhino 2. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. that is. Longitude=X. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden.

Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. If the imported file type does not support layers. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. The objects are reparameterized. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. Click Open.Rhino 2.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. In the File name box. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. and STL Tools File menu. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. File. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. the objects are placed on the current layer. select curves. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. type a filename. 267 . Note Rhino supports many file types. select Rhino 3D Models. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. the command will fail. Import Import or merge objects from another file. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given.

00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line. If you say no. If you say yes. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.3dm hi 1.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then. At the Scale factor <1. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. or a point to rotate from. At the Rotation Angle <0.3dm tricky 1a. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag.3dm bg 32986. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. Press Enter to place the model at 0. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. scale.3dm hi 2. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command. y.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects.Rhino 2. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm tricky 1a 1. The scale operation works just like the Scale command.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm Untitled a 2147483647. it does. In the File name box. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi.3dm tricky 1a 2.3dm tricky 1a 1. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. Click Open. Scale Scales the objects.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. etc. 268 .) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. type a filename. and rotate. select Rhino 3D Models.0.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1.3dm bg 32985. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. and z-directions. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. choose a start angle.

choose points where you want to insert a kink. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. select the curve to insert edit points to. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. 269 . click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts.Rhino 2. press Enter to end the command. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. After inserting kinks. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt.

0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. select a surface. pick points of the surface for new knots. 270 . At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt.Rhino 2. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. pick points on the curve for new knots. V. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. or Both.

Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. Main. The curve closes automatically. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. pick a point for the end of the straight segment.Rhino 2.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. press Enter. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. To end the curve. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt. enter an additional point. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. 271 . Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. At the End of line prompt. At the Next point of curve. A straight line replaces part of the curve. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. and the parts are joined. enter additional points. and pick. enter the start of the curve. At the Start of line prompt. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve.

9. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to the surface. 272 . select a surface. 7. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. At the Start of curve prompt. and 11. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. 3. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. Sharp When you make a closed curve. choose an additional point. Valid degrees are 1. choose the first point of the curve. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. At the Next point on curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. When you draw an interpolated curve. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. 5.

InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Knot. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Object snaps End. Close Creates a closed curve. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. Cen.Rhino 2. and Intersection work. 273 . Midpoint. Near.

Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. use the BooleanIntersection command. To create surface and solid intersections.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Intersect Intersect two objects. select the objects. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Non-polyline curves are rejected.Rhino 2. Invert Invert the selection.

Rhino 2. Points selected. Invert also selects the polysurface. When you are finished selecting objects to join. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. which also selects other objects. Join Join objects. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. select objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. Contrast this with the Invert command. press Enter. 275 .0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects.

If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. 276 . select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. you can have some problems later on. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. then the second one gets moved. If the edges are too far out of line. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. Booleans. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. BlendSrf. use MergeSrf. doing a Join. Booleans.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. use MergeSrf. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. If you use JoinEdge.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. Do you want to join these edges?". The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. Using the Millimeter template. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3.Rhino 2. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). or Patch. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance.015 units apart. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. depending on what you may do with the model. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. but are not coincident. but the surfaces aren't changed at all.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. For the group joiner. If not. no join occurs. For simplicity. a 3. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. BlendSrf. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. NetworkSrf. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. NetworkSrf. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. and resetting the tolerance. or Patch. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. When two edges are joined.

or Patch. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. Booleans. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. This command does not work in all cases. NetworkSrf. select curves. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface.Rhino 2. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. No mesh points are moved. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. y. The action performed is reported on the command line. The picking order can make the difference. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. merged or deleted. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. use MergeSrf. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. 277 . LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. BlendSrf.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. If there are naked edges. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing.

Rhino displays objects on locked layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Start the Lasso command.Rhino 2. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Click the Lock option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. select the layers you want to lock. 278 . You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. but you cannot select them. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Lasso Select points with a lasso. Select Points. press Enter to close the lasso. See the PluginManager command.

surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. select the layers you want to turn off. separate the layer names with commas: One. from the list. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. from the list select layers you want to turn on. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Click the Off option.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. separate the layer names with commas: One. separate the layer names with commas: One.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt.Two. Click the On option.Rhino 2. LayerOn Turn a layer on. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Layer Three".Layer Three".Layer Two. unlike the Lock (object) command. type the name of the layer to turn off. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Two. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. type the name of the layer to turn on. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). To turn on multiple layer names with spaces. LayerOff Turn a layer off.Layer Three" 279 . The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. Note For layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces.Layer Two.Layer Two. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. type the name of the layer to lock.Two.

pick the start of the leader. At the Next point of leader. They will not show in the perspective view. Press Enter when done prompt. pick the next point on the leader line.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. At the Next point of leader. you must edit your Rhino. Press Enter to stop the command.Rhino 2. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. pick additional points. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Left Set to world left view. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. This is the arrow end.

ellipses. and meshes. The line extends on both sides of the start point. pick the end point for the line. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve.Rhino 2. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. including lines and polylines. circles. and can be used to create other curves. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. you can select any of these curve objects. polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. Line. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. arcs. polylines. At the End of line prompt. Line Draw a line. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. pick the start point for the line. surfaces. BothSides option selected 281 . Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. select a curve or edge.

enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. enter the second point. At the End of base line prompt.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments.Rhino 2. enter the start of the base line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. 282 . and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. At the Start of line prompt. enter the start of the base line. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. enter the start of the line. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2.

type an angle and press Enter. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. At the Select object prompts. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. At the Pivot angle prompt. pick the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. 283 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. enter the end of the base line.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. and parallel to the current construction plane.Rhino 2. enter the end of the line.

At the End of line prompts. Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. enter pick endpoints for segments. press Enter.Rhino 2. 284 . Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. When you are finished drawing lines. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. enter the start of the first line segment.

LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. enter the end of the line.Rhino 2. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. select a point on a curve for the start of the line.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. At the End of line prompt. 285 .

0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. 286 . LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.Rhino 2. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt.

At the End of line prompt. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. BothSides option selected 287 .Rhino 2. LineV Draw a vertical line. Line vertical to construction plane.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. or enter a length and press Enter. enter the second endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt.

Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. You can download plug-ins. enter an integer.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Load Loads a selected script file. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Close Closes the dialog box.Rhino 2. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. or press Enter to accept the default. the code interpreted and run immediately. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. from www. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. If the script file just contains script expressions. 288 .com/plug-ins. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript.rhino3d.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. on the Options dialog box. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. select one object. See the PluginManager command.

Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead.. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. At the Location of seam point prompt. In the install folder (e. In the folder where Rhino.g. adjust options.. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.Rhino 2. The unlocked objects lock..0 Beta\Scripts). LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. In the Loft Options dialog box. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. You can snap to locked objects. and move it along the closed curve. 289 . Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock. Note You cannot select locked objects. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. Select open curves near the same ends.g.g. select the objects you want to lock. press Enter.0 Beta). C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.0 Beta\System). C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Preview. When you are done adjusting the connections. pick on a seam point marker. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction.exe is located (e. In the scripts folder (e. Lock Lock objects.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.Rhino 2. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. reversing the direction of the curve. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. 291 . Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.

Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. 292 . A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. Units tab before lofting. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. This is also known as a ruled surface. Available when you have selected three shape curves.Rhino 2. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.

Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. 293 . Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. If the curves have kinks. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. cones. tear. You may get no surface or a partial surface. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. too. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. These are called ruling lines. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. If the surface is not linear in one direction. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. or wrinkle. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. you may get unexpected results. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Preview Click to preview the loft. and some steel ship hulls.Rhino 2. the surface is not developable.

0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. 294 . Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted.Rhino 2. You just have to be careful. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization.D surface. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. thereby smoothing the surface. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves.

I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. though.Rhino 2. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. expand the plates.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout.y-plane.D models. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. select the layout and object visibility options. aluminum). The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. 295 . or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely.

D drawings from mesh objects. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. There is no way to avoid this. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports).D view. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. they may not appear on the correct layer. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. If two surfaces pass through each other. 296 . Note This command does not create 2. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown. ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing.Rhino 2. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout.

This command tries to fix those surfaces. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. If a joined curve is made periodic.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. 297 . The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. Sometimes. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. Then use control point editing on both curves. Close the dialog box. To get a feel for what the command does.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. At the Select curve to match .pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. At the Choose an object prompt. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed.pick near end prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. it is closed. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. If the curve was open. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. select the first curve at the end that will move. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. select a curve to make periodic. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. Match Match two curves. Other closed curves.

Rhino 2. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. 298 .

This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. If you edit this curve with control points. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. The curves are merged together after the match. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. 299 .Rhino 2.

If the target surface is also untrimmed. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. select the edge of the surface to match.select near edge prompt. choose the type of match. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.select near edge prompt. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. select the edge of the target surface. Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 300 . Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.Rhino 2. At the Select target surface .0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces. reversing the direction of the curve. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). In the Match Surface dialog box.

0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance.Rhino 2. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. Generally. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. If necessary. 301 . Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end.

Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces.Rhino 2. in degrees. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. percent. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. 302 . Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. in units.

you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). but you will get something. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. This is the hardest condition to meet.) In usable terms. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. especially if tight tolerances are specified. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. Something like position = 0. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition.knot spacing to curvature vector. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface.Rhino 2. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. That may be several seconds. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. If you need to match to part of an edge. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. it may be useful to preview without refinement. but if the conditions are wrong. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. If refinement is interrupted.2. If it isn't. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. it can twist the surface near the edge. but it will still be a valid trim. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. This is sometimes useful. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. If the surface being changed is trimmed. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. it will stay roundish. If refinement is specified. If it is roundish. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. 303 . In these cases. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter.

and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. Or. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined.Rhino 2. then click Maximize.1 ) prompt. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. must belong to the same surface. 304 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. must share an endpoint. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. if possible. select the first surface to merge. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. double click the viewport title bar. select the second surface. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. then click Restore. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. double click the viewport title bar. Maximize Maximize Rhino. and the prompt repeats. select an adjacent edge. Right click the viewport title bar. Note The edges must be naked.

End view of original surfaces .0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge.Rhino 2. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . Smooth The surface will be smooth.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 . but may alter the shape of both surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. For closed surfaces. 306 . You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. you have to approach things differently. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. editable surface. In some ways. The resulting surface can be edited. Once you have trimmed surfaces. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. This is useful for modeling half of an object. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. with finer or coarser mesh. A mesh can be preview and then created. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth).notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. Generally.Rhino 2. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. mirroring it. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. The default is 1 (full smoothing). Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface .

01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Zero means no limit. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. When this Refine is checked. which is the default. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. By default. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. which is the default. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Scale independent. 307 . refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Scale independent. Scale-dependent. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. more accurate meshes. more accurate meshes. By default. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. The default is zero. edge to Srf options. Jagged seams is not selected. Limits the size of the polygon edges. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. less accurate meshes. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. Default is 0. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. No refinement results in faster meshing. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. Scale independent. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. and adjustment for trim boundaries. Setting Max dist. In practice. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Simple planes is not selected. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. and higher polygon count.Rhino 2. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Zero means no minimum. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. and lower polygon count. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. after initial meshing. and higher polygon count. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. When the Refine is checked. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. Max dist. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. When the Refine is checked.

Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. 308 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. Or type in a length and press Enter. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. choose a center point for the base. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. choose a height. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. At the Other corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. At the Height prompt. choose a corner of the box. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. not editable.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. choose a radius. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. or type in a height and press Enter. choose the cone's point. If a length was entered. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. at the Width prompt. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. At the End of cone prompt. or type in a width and press Enter. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. choose a diagonal corner. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. choose a width by picking. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from.

choose a radius. and a open cone-shaped mesh. At the Height prompt. joined from a base circular mesh. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. joined from a base and top circular meshes. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. choose a height.Rhino 2. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. choose a center point for the base.

If a length was entered. at the Width prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. 310 . The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. or type in a width and press Enter. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Or type in a length and press Enter.Rhino 2. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. choose a corner of the plane. choose a width by picking.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. choose a the diagonal corner. At the Other corner or length prompt. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane.

0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. 311 . Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt. At the Radius prompt. choose a radius. choose a center point.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. choose a point to move the objects from. 312 . Note Mirror makes a copy. choose a point on the mirror plane. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Mirror Mirror objects. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. The original is left selected. Press delete to delete the original. Move Move objects. As you move the cursor. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Minimize Minimize Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. Select the objects.

Modeling Aids tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Or. v-. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. 313 .and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. MoveUVN Use u-. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units.sliders to move the selected control points. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. you can type corner1. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. Slider scale affects this mode. choose a location for objects. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. corner2. To move objects small amounts. y-. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. corner3. During the command. Along control polygon The u. and n. At the Choose offset point prompt. type V and press Enter. or z-direction. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. pick a new location for the base point. At the Point to move to prompt. to move the objects vertically. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. pick a base point.

NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. NamedView Edit named views. rename or delete unwanted named views. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. 314 . Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. All points to edit have to be selected. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. All points to edit have to be selected.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view.Rhino 2. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid.

Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. the surface will have four edges. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. the best guess is made at the surface. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. you can turn the automatic sorter off. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. be sure to select the surface edge. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. 315 . If you want to select the curves individually. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. If a curve and surface edge overlap. The surface will be created. Edge Matching After the command is done. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature.Rhino 2. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. The default is the system tolerance x 10. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. The default is the system tolerance.

Surface with singularities Toroid shapes. Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Tangent.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Position. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Select from Loose.

This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other.Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. and tolerances. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. NewViewport Create a new viewport. grid settings. For example. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. layers. viewport layout. Use New to open the template you want to change. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. units.Rhino 2. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. 318 . Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. drag a window for a new viewport. New Create a new model. select a template to base your model file on.

Start the NextU command. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the u-direction is selected.Rhino 2. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Start the NextV command.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. 319 .

The marker is constrained to the surface. select a surface. At the Point on surface prompt.Rhino 2. or enter a length and press Enter. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. 320 . At the Length of line prompt. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. pick a point for the end of the line.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. choose a point on the surface.

Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. type information you want to save with the model. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box.Rhino 2. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. Line normal to a surface. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. Offset Offset a curve. copy.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. it will be open next time the model is opened. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. or cone is offset. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. the resulting surface is exact. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Negative values offset the other way. torus. Note For best results. A surface and its offset 322 . Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. click on one side the curve. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. select a curve or edge. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. cylinder. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Otherwise. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. When a plane. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. sphere.Rhino 2.

select the layer to turn on. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. All other layers will be turned off. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. File. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. select an object on the layer you want to turn off.Rhino 2. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. Open Open an existing model. 323 . Note Rhino supports several file types. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. they are not converted to NURBS objects. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. type a filename. An arrow indicates the offset direction. select Rhino 3D Models. not the trim edges. they are also unlocked. When you turn the layers back on. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. so the fact that they are locked is lost. In the File name box. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Click Open.

In the Open Workspace dialog box. click Open. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. pick a target point for the second reference point. select a workspace file.Rhino 2. type c and press Enter. from the File menu. Options Opens the Options dialog box. to orient copies of the objects. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. pick a target point for the first reference point. or some of them may be hidden. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. whether it is floating or docked. the screen position of each toolbar. but objects remain the same size. type s and press Enter. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. and whether it is hidden or showing. 324 . the buttons in them. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. Or. The prompt will change to Scale=No. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Scale If Scale=No. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. and the number of columns when floating. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. The objects are moved. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace.

type c and press Enter. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. with the other two reference points. The three points are not interchangeable. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. Or. If the curve does not start on the edge.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. The two triplet of points define two planes. pick a point that. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. select objects and press Enter. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. to orient copies of the objects.Rhino 2. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. 325 . OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. select the surface. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt.

This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction.Rhino 2. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. The Mirror option toggles between them. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. 326 .and v-directions. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. As you move the cursor over the surface. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. There are four possible orientations on the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt.

At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step. 327 . The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. and the F8 key. Shift Note The Ortho command. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. click a point on the curve to move the object. At the Base point prompt. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. are all toggles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. If you pick this point in different views. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. select the curve you want to align the object to. select a base point on the object. you will get different end results. The cursor tracks along the curve.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve.Rhino 2.

You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. The default angle is 90 degrees. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. At the Ortho Angle prompt. the packed texture coordinates are created. Note When Ortho is on. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. 328 . Polysurface made of four surfaces. and Toggle. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. type the new angle and press Enter. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. Packed textures. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Off. If more than one object is selected. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. When Ortho is on. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. Modeling Aids tab. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. The default angle is 90 degrees.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. When polysurfaces are meshed. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle.Rhino 2.

Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. 329 . and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. PanRight Pan the view right. Plan parallel views like the default Top. PanLeft Pan the view left.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. Front. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Pan Pan the view. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanDown Pan the view down. use the Pan command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view.Rhino 2. use the Pan command. To pan with the mouse or keyboard.

show a direction for the parabola. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. 330 . This is the "open" direction. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. and then click Vertex. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. use the Pan command. Direction. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. and then click Focus. enter a point for an end of the parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. enter a point for an end of the parabola.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Focus. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. click Parabola. This is the "open" direction. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. click Parabola. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. From the Curve menu. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Focus From the Curve menu. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus.

enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. 4 Focus and direction. End. 331 . At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. Uncapped paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Vertex and focus. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.

they are pasted into your model.0 Command Reference End. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. it is created when the object is pasted. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. 332 . Object properties and location are restored with the object. When you Paste objects into Rhino. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. If the layer does not exist. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model.Rhino 2. Uncapped paraboloid. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.

Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. 333 . Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. adjust options. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Even for a relatively flat patch. select curves that form a closed shape. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. For a trimmed patch. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. but it also can produce some unexpected results. select the point objects. use a starting surface with a similar shape. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. you may need a starting surface. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. Note This command can be very useful. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Use Sweep2 instead if possible.Rhino 2. and edges to base the patch on. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. These don't have to be connected. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. To make a highly curved surface. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Minimum of 8 points per curve. In the Patch Options dialog box. but with proper configuration. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. it will be very close to reasonable input. curves. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves.

Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. Perspective Set to perspective view. aliases. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. Pause is a built in command option. and type PerspectiveMatch. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. 334 . Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). you must edit your Rhino. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. 2 The wallpaper image. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input.Rhino 2. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle.

4 All points picked on the model. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points.Rhino 2. The first point on the model. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. The first point on the image. 335 .0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. All points picked on the image. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model.

you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. In particular. etc. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. Pipe Draw a pipe. changed the viewport settings. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. you have modified your model. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . select a bitmap file to use. Pick carefully. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap.0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image.Rhino 2. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. Make the image view large. This aids in accurate image point picking. If possible. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. Note The image must be a true perspective image. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. At the Length of picture frame prompt.

At the Second end radius prompt. and the closed pipe is created. if the curve is closed. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. select a curve. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Second start radius prompt. enter the radius for the pipe.Rhino 2. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the Starting radius prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. At the Starting radius prompt. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. For an open curve. 337 . The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. At the First corner prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. Thick The pipe has two walls. select a curve. Click Open. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. type T and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. Or. At the Starting radius prompt. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. at the End radius prompt. At the Second corner or length prompt.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. select a bitmap file. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. At the First end radius prompt. If the pipe objects are capped. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt.

Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane.Y. By default the Top. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane.Z> prompt. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. and temporarily hide it. enter the camera point. BMP. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. Placing a second deletes the first. To place a backdrop behind your model. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. You can move the background bitmap. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. Front. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. TGA. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. not a part of the scene that will be rendered.Y. enter the target point. and JPG.Z> prompt. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. remove it. see Place a bitmap backdrop. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. scale it. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. 338 . In PARALLEL viewports. 3-D Digitizing. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. align it (move and scale in one operation). if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. PCX. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it.Rhino 2. At the New target location <X.

the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. then those objects are not visible on the screen. In PERSPECTIVE views. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). Toolbar: Menu Set View. 3-D Digitizing.Y. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar.Z> prompt. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Without Planar on. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. regardless of where the previous point was picked. In PARALLEL viewports. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. then click Control Points.Rhino 2. 339 . Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. enter the target point. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. In PERSPECTIVE views. PlaceTarget Place the target location. From the Curve menu. click Free-form. Planar Toggle planar mode.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. enter additional vertices for the polyline. enter additional vertices for the polyline. At the Next point of polyline prompts. making a closed polyline. To end the polyline. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. select a mesh object. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex.Rhino 2. enter the start point of the polyline. 349 . PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. press Enter. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. start the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. To end the polyline. press Enter.

Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline.Rhino 2. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. 350 . Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. making a closed polyline.

351 .0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction.Rhino 2. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. Select a point on the surface. Start the PrevV command. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. Start the PrevU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.

0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. the objects outside the viewport are printed. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. print to a file. the central part of the view is printed. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. and number of copies. If you fit the image to the page. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. 352 . No viewport edge is printed. the contents are printed on top of each other. The part that does not fit is not printed. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. Always.Rhino 2. color. and each viewport is printed in its area. print scale. If viewports overlap. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options.

It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. (Actually. hide them. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. Then. It will crop objects that are visible. not printing from perspective viewports. Curve projected to a surface 353 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. as the paper you're printing on. If the objects don't fit. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. if they don't fit on the page. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. PrintSetup Set up your printer. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. and same orientation. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. too. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized.Rhino 2. Print. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. Light objects do not print. If you want to print at some other scale. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. The curves are projected onto the surfaces.

New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. set the projection type for the viewport.Rhino 2. lines. and polysurfaces. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. circles. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Properties Edit object properties. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. curves. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Project will never work correctly for this. surfaces. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. This command works on points. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. choose to keep or delete the input objects. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Basic shapes like ellipses. however. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. and free-form curves work well. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves.

and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves.Rhino 2. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. Point Editing. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. Point Editing. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. STL Tools.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. To control point edit a polysurface. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. Organic. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. surfaces. Organic.

select the surface to pull the curves back to. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. When drawing the curves.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface.0000. Both commands ask for the viewport name.Rhino 2. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. select a curve to measure. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. use the fewest control point possible. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. Use curve commands to draw the curve. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. Then. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 .

You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. Profile curve.Rhino 2. in addition to being revolved. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. select a rail curve. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. select a profile curve. rail curve. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. the result looks exactly the same both ways. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . In this case.

readcommandfile myfile.5. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis.9.7. a file dialog box appears.4. 358 .9. If you leave off the filename. If you read in a particular file often. Note When building command files. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. ! Interpcrv 23.0 23. select the file to read.2.2. You can then select a file from the list.1 Enter Interpcrv 26.1.8.txt Click the button to read the file.4.4.1.1.1. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin. use the Enter command.5. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.8. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.0. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. The file contents are copied into the command line. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.9 Enter etc….1 26.0 23. If the rail curve is closed. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.5.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.0 27.

Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. but a more accurate fit. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. When you are satisfied with the results. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. the highest number of control points is shown. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. use the FitCrv command. click OK. 359 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File.Rhino 2. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. leaving only the rebuilt curves. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. If more than one curve is selected. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts.Rhino 2. in the Point Count boxes. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. select an object. draw two planes several units apart. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. in the Degree box. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Edges are pulled away from the surface. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Joined and exploded polysurface. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. To see what it does. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter.

0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Or. 361 .Rhino 2. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. enter the length of the rectangle. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. At the Other corner or length prompt. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. choose a corner for the rectangle. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. You will be prompted for the width. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt.an v-directions. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. At the End of edge prompt. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. Or. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. enter the end of the same edge. enter the width of the rectangle. At the Width prompt. select a corner point. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. 362 . RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. You will be prompted for the width. enter the length of the rectangle. select the center point of the rectangle. At the Corner or length prompt. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt.

Rhino 2. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. At the Height of rectangle prompt. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. 363 . The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. At the End of edge prompt.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners.

RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. 364 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. click Preview.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. General tab. set the polygon count. This makes this command scriptable. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. To see the results of the reduction.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. To reduce the size of the model file. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. For one thing. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). avoid clearing meshes.Rhino 2. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. which may be undesirable in some cases. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. Or. to remap copies of the objects. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. type c and press Enter. 365 . use the SaveAs command and check Save small. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. After RefreshShade. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh.

0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2. 366 .

To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. At the Select knotline to remove. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts. Use the Group command to group objects together. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. Sweep2. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. select a curve.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. select objects.Rhino 2. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. At the Click knot to remove prompt. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. which is equal to the degree. 367 . pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. and Blend commands. In particular. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. select a surface. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface.

Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. expanded to fill the page. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. and render again.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. It has a single menu: File. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. increase the size of the viewport. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. the current working folder. Render tab. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. When on. 368 . and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. Render tab. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified.Rhino 2. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats.

Does not show shadows. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. Toolbar: Render 369 .0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. When on. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. zoom. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. or bump mapping. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option.Rhino 2. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. Basically.

First you must set the u.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading.length of righty is about 11.and v.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. set the new limits of the u. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture. (In this example. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture.Rhino 2. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. At the New U begin domain prompt. In this example. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. and similar prompts.and vdomains for the surface.length for both is about 22 units. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. However. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. let's call them lefty and righty. Example You have two surfaces side by side. the x. including the domain unless you apply textures. 370 . if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture. the texture is not distorted. The x. The y. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. it is distorted. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization.

Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. Or.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. select the construction plane to restore.Rhino 2. Revolve Revolve a curve. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. select one or more curves. select the named view to restore. or to restore only the view. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. then click Set View. choose a point on the revolution axis. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. RestoreView Restore a named view. then click the name of the view to restore. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. 371 . At the Start of revolve axis prompt. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Right click the title of a viewport.

select a surface that is not a polysurface.Rhino 2. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. enter the number of control points. If you choose Deformable. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. select a curve.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. 372 . At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. defining the revolution axis. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. In the Revolve Options dialog box. click Exact or Deformable. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Enter the Start angle and End angle. The marker tracks on the curve. choose a second point. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve.

Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. type C and press Enter. Or. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. choose a start angle. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. Right Set to world right view. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or a point to rotate to.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. or a point to rotate from. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. choose an end angle. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. to rotate copies of the objects. 373 . choose a point to rotate the objects around. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. you must edit your Rhino.

At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. At the End of rotate axis prompt. 374 . etc. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. the following prompt appears. to rotate copies of the objects.Rhino 2. choose a point on the rotation axis. Or. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. choose a second point on the rotation axis.0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. type in an angle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. If you entered a point to rotate from.

Or. At the End of rotation axis prompt. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. place the construction plane. enter the end of the rotation axis. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. etc. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Second reference point prompt. etc. pick a point. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. 375 . enter the start of the rotation axis.Rhino 2. etc. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. etc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down.

Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateRight Rotate the view right. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateUp Rotate the view up. RotateView Rotate the view. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. 376 . Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button.Rhino 2. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Name of program to run prompt. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Press the arrow keys. Run Run another application from Rhino. type the name and path of the file to run. use the RotateView command. use the RotateView command.

Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command. File.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Note Rhino supports several file types. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Click Save. Cancel Closes the dialog box. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Save Save your model. you can use RunScript command.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Push Pin When the button is depressed. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. Otherwise. This image displays when you select the file in the Open.Rhino 2. 377 . and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. type a filename. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. In the File name box. Language Specifies the language of the code. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Save. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file.

In the File name box. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. viewport layout. layers. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter.Rhino 2. and tolerances and save them in a template. Files tab. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. type a filename. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. select Rhino 2 3D Models. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. units. Note Rhino supports several file types. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Click Save. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. Click Save. You can set up grid settings. Save. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. type a filename. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. You can also save default geometry with the template. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. or SaveAs dialog boxes. 378 .

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. SelNone Deselect all objects. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. 388 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt.) to select multiple objects. SelPolyline Select all polylines. ?. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. all objects with no name are selected. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. etc. Note You can use wild cards (*." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. enter an object name. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent.Rhino 2.

Note SelLast clears the current selection set. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. SelPt Select all point objects." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Start the SelU command." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. 389 .direction based on previously selected control points. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select.

At the Select row of points prompt. Press Enter to finish selecting rows.Rhino 2. The control points on the surface display. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. select the surface. A surface with control points selected 390 .direction.and v.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. Start the SelV command. or both directions. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . v-direction. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v.Rhino 2.direction based on previously selected control points.

If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Note Type w to start a window selection. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. Shade tab. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt.rhino3d. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. FlatShade.Rhino 2.com/plug-ins. ShadeAll.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. and FlatShadeAll. You can download plug-ins. 392 . from www. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. This is not the same as restoring a named view. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.

You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. 393 . SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. The Undo command will work. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. SetLayer Set the current layer. select the layer to set current. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. Lets you name or rename a group.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object.Rhino 2. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. select an object on the layer you want to be current.0 to 1. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. In the Edit Layers dialog box.

Note The object material can be used by RIB. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Or. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. To set names for a group of objects. and OBJ material/shader export.0 to 1. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export.Rhino 2. 3DS. double-click the viewport title bar. and RenderMan RIB. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. POV. POV-Ray. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name.0 to 255) Transparency (0.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. If no object name is defined. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. Or. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. Object names are exported to IGES. 394 . right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. If the object name has already been used. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. Rhino uses a generic name.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. Moray UDO. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport.

if you selected ten unnamed objects. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. POV-Ray.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. For example. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. Object names are not used in Rhino. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. and RenderMan RIB.Rhino 2. Starting number Sets the starting number. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. use the SetObjectName command. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. SetPt Set control point location. At the Planar is On. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. In the Set Points dialog box. enter one of the options. enter one of the options. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. At the Ortho is Off. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. 395 . To set names for individual objects. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. check the coordinates you want to set. Select the objects. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off.

type the first letters of one of the options to set it. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. etc.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. enter the viewport width in pixels. 396 . SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. enter the viewport height in pixels. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. At the Viewport height prompt. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options.Rhino 2. At the Grid snap is Off. You still see interactive drawing of curves.

Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. On the Shade tab set the options. Pan. you get 256 colors for background and surface color.Rhino 2. and no antialiasing. and a special background color appears. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. select the working directory. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. this shading mode may be faster. click Options. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. zoom. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Note Be patient on the first shade. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Subsequent renderings may be faster. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. Shade Shade a viewport. monochrome. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . In the Browse for Folder dialog box. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. It may not be very quick the first time. The grid and axes are not shown. with no shadows. If OpenGL is turned on. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image.

398 .com/software/optimizer/. If you use OpenGL Shade. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. object highlighting. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. Be patient on the first Shade. Pan. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. On the Shade tab. The grid and axes are not shown. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. and a special background color appears. monochrome. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Subsequent renderings will be faster. and no antialiasing. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. this shading mode may be much faster. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. see www. axes. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.opengl. click Use OpenGL. If OpenGL is turned on. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. For more information. The objects in current viewport are shaded.org/ and www. then Rhino will use it. the OpenGL shade options will be available. On the Shade tab. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. click Use OpenGL.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.Rhino 2. click Options. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. with no shadows. zoom.sgi. It may not be very quick the first time. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. click Options. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. The grid. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT.

Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded. points. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. 399 .0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. The click cannot be near curves. isoparms. select the objects to shear. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. Shear Shear objects.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. or annotation or the object will be selected. You do not have to select an isoparm. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. you can click on a shaded object to select it.

Visibility. Show Show hidden objects. If your object has broken edges. pick the base point for the shear. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. 400 . Broken edges show in the selected objects color. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. hidden background bitmaps are displayed.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. At the Reference point prompt. The base point does not move with the shear. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. select objects and press Enter. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic. The edge is highlighted.Rhino 2. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. If you exit the model and reopen it. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions.

Sometimes. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. The edges highlight. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. press Enter to terminate the command. At the Press Enter when done prompt. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. terminate the command. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. Camera icon. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off.Rhino 2. Status bar: Osnap 401 . ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. If you cannot see the naked edges. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. Edge Tools. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color.

At the Select objects to show prompt. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. Organic. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Original trimmed surface.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . You will see no visible change in the surface. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. When textures are applied to surfaces. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. To fix this. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility.Rhino 2. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. select the objects you want to show.

SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. 403 . Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. if you look at a doughnut from the top.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. If you look at a doughnut from the side. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. the silhouette looks like an oval. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. the silhouette is two circles. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. For example. only backwards.

404 . Options Closed Creates a closed curve. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. drag the mouse. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments.Rhino 2. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Or. a polyline appears along your path.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Sketch Sketch a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Release the mouse button.

type C. select the surface to sketch on. At the Click and drag to sketch. press Enter.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. drag a curve. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Sketch on surface 405 . and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. drag a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. The marker is constrained to the surface.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free.Rhino 2. Or.

too. smoothing the curve or surface. 406 . or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. The selected entities will appear to melt.Rhino 2. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. click Point Editing. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. The selected control points will move slightly. click Smooth. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. adjust the Smooth factor. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. The default is 0. then click Control Points On. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt.00. The larger the number. Smooth works on mesh objects.01 and 1. Smooth Smooth objects. From the Transform menu. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. select the curves. meshes. From the Edit menu. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed.2. In the Smooth dialog box.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.Rhino 2.

Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. Grid tab. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Sphere Draw a sphere. A sphere is single closed surface. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. SnapSize Set snap size. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. it is grayed out. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. Note When Snap is on.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Note This is different from the grid size. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. Modeling Aids tab. choose a point for the radius. When Snap is off. or enter a distance and press Enter. choose a center point. At the Radius prompt. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. 408 .

A sphere is a single closed surface.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt.Rhino 2. choose an endpoint for the diameter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. A sphere is a single closed surface. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Third point on sphere prompt. 409 . choose the first circumference point. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. choose the third circumference point. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the Second point on sphere prompt. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. At the End of diameter prompt. choose the second circumference point.

At the End of axis prompt. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. At the Radius prompt. If you select Reverse twist. If you select Pitch. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the radius for the spiral.Rhino 2. select Turns or Pitch. enter the number of turns for the spiral.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. This is the line the spiral will wind around. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. 410 . Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. enter the end of the spiral axis. If you select Turns. enter the start of the spiral axis. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral.

411 . The marker moves along the curve. select the objects to split.Rhino 2. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. the polysurfaces are ignored. surfaces. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. select the curve to split.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. press Enter. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. type p and press Enter. select the cutting objects. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. and points. At the Select cutting objects prompt. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt.

to access option directly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt.Rhino 2. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. v. select a point. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. The edge is split into two edges. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. Type u. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. Select a surface. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . select points at which to split the surface. At the Split point prompts. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces.press Enter when done prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. surfaces and polysurfaces. Options control the direction of the split. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. 412 . pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. the marker is constrained to the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. and Right view. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. At the Point to split edge prompt. or b. Front.

413 . and then deleting the extra isoparms.and v-directions of the surface. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. then Split. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces.Rhino 2. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.

At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all.Rhino 2. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. and position. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . length. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. pick a target point for the spotlight.it stays the same. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. like gray. Or. Darker colors.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. The shape of the cone affects the lighting. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. not the range of the light. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. pick a location for the spotlight. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. set the radius of the spotlight. The spot light icon does not render or shade. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. light the scene less. beam angle. At the Degree in V prompt. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. hotspot angle. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. At the End of cone prompt. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the.

At the Third corner of surface prompt. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. Or.Rhino 2. At the Point prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. press Enter to create a triangular surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. choose the fourth corner. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. choose the third corner. At the Second corner of surface prompt. At the Number of points in a column prompt. enter points until all the points have been entered. choose the first corner. enter points until all the control points have been entered. 415 . enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the second corner. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested.

0 -4. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.5.5.33. and run the CommandPaste command. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.0 4.5 4.0 0.5.33.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.5 0. select a surface that is not a polysurface.0 -4.10 4.-2.5. When off.33.5.33.5. KeepPoints When on. select a curve.10 4.2. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt. copy it.2. select the following text.33.33.5 -4.-2.0 0. pick a point for the new start point.2. click in the other viewport to swap. the surface is created but not point objects. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points. SwapUV Swap a the u. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.2.0 4.5.2.10 -4.5.-2. The marker is constrained to the curve.-5.5 -4.-5.33. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command. pick a point for the new end point.10 -4.2.33.5 0.10 0.-5.Rhino 2.33.33. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order.5.-2.5.5.5. At the End of curve prompt. At the Start of curve prompt.5 4. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.5.and v-directions of a surface.5.5.33. 416 .33.-2.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.-2.

Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. select the single rail curve for sweeping. reversing the direction of the curve. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. the shape will twist with the surface edge. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. the new surface should also be tangent. adjust options. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. 417 . Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep.

the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. Note To create a single surface. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Preview Click to preview the surface. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. reversing the direction of the curve. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. The swept surface is created.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. With closed rail curves. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. 418 . Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. If you don't use Smooth. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. select two curves as the rails for the sweep. If you use the Smooth option. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. (The original curves are not modified. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. the cross section curves need to be compatible. adjust options.

To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling.Rhino 2. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. 419 . Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. use the Maintain height option. Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position.

If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . one of two possible surfaces appears.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. If you get the wrong surface. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition.) With closed rail curves. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. and continues to the ends of the rails. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails.Rhino 2. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. (The original curves are not modified. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If you use the Rebuild option. but want to control where the sweep ends. If you don't use Rebuild. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. To create a single surface. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. Preview Click to preview the surface. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. and it touches the rail curves at their ends.

If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. At the End of taper axis prompt. Taper Taper objects. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper.Rhino 2. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. At the Start of taper axis prompt. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. 421 . pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects.

curves. choose a center point for the base. choose a radius for the base of the cone. and meshes. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. you will only taper that part of the object. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. TCone Draw a truncated cone.only control points. Taper moves the control points of objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. End of cone prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. You can't taper a polysurface . Radius prompt. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. second Radius prompt. surfaces. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important.Rhino 2. 422 .

surfaces.Rhino 2. The two sizes update each other. When you place annotation text. and XP. enter the start position for the text. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. Example If your units are inches. in the form of curves. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. It will not show in a perspective view. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). or solids based on TrueType fonts. set the options. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. 423 . TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Type the text. 2000.25 inches. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. or solids.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. In the Edit Text dialog box.

select Solid. In the Font Style box. in the Font box. The text appears in the Sample window.Rhino 2. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. select a font. In the Text height box. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. select Surfaces. In the Text box. Under Create. specify the height of the text characters. In the Font Style box. In the Text height box. In the Text box. select a style.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box. select a font. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . specify the height of the text characters. type text characters to make into surfaces. The text appears in the Sample window. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. select a style. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. in the Font box. type text characters to make into solids. Under Create.

425 . Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. Top Set to world top view.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. import toolbars from a different workspace file. adjust the size of buttons. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. TiltRight Tilt the view right. the buttons in them. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. and whether it is hidden or showing. create new toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. the screen position of each toolbar.Rhino 2. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. add new buttons to toolbars. The workspace holds the toolbars. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box.

Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. click the parts of objects to trim away. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. At the Radius prompt. you must edit your Rhino. At the Second radius prompt. press Enter. press Enter.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube.Rhino 2. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. When you are finished selecting objects. choose a center point. select objects you want to trim other objects with. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. 426 . When you are finished trimming. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube.

and Right view. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. imaginary extensions of the line are used. At the first Radius prompt. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. To trim a surface with more than one curve. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. At the second Radius prompt. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. or use Split. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. surfaces and polysurfaces. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. Front. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. use trim several times. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. choose a radius for the tube wall size. Tube Draw a tube. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt.Rhino 2. 427 . choose a center point for the tube's base.

Rhino 2. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 428 . Note The view rotates about the target point. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. and Render Preview. Shade. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Twist Twist objects.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. Press Esc to stop the turntable. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Or. and meshes. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or choose a point to rotate from. At the End of twist axis prompt. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. viewports. or transform commands. or construction planes. choose a point on the twist axis. Undo Undo the last command. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. General tab. choose a second point on the axis. to twist copies of the objects. surfaces. type in an angle.Rhino 2. you will only twist that part of the object.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. The opposite to undo is Redo. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. Twist moves the control points of objects. edit. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. the following prompt appears. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. curves.only control points. type c and press Enter. You can't twist a polysurface . The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. If you entered a point to rotate from. 429 .

You can then apply commands to the individual objects. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Render your mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction.Rhino 2." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. This makes this command scriptable. If some of the faces that should render disappear. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. 430 . Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. their normals are flipped. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. For example. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object.

re-join the meshes. If more than one object is selected.Rhino 2. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. In general. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. When polysurfaces are meshed. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Once the normals are correct. Use UnifyMeshNormals. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. UnLock Unlock locked objects. the packed texture coordinates are created. Export in desired format. For example. normals point the wrong way. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. All polygons have a face normal direction. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. If you see inside the mesh. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. select the objects you want to unlock. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. explode it. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. The 431 . 3DFace object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded.

Packed textures. 432 . If the surface is developable. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers.Rhino 2. Polysurface made of four surfaces. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. select a surface or curves. Unpacked textures. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state.

tori. This command may take some time. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. removing any attached geometry. an information message is printed at the command line. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). Surfaces such as spheres. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. an information message is printed at the command line. but not meet that requirement. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. a developable surface has to be single span linear. 433 . If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting.Rhino 2. In Rhino. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. Surface Tools. it may be geometrically developable. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. you can remove the trim curves. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. This is not like folding out a box. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. Curves on a surface can also be developed. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface.

Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim removes the trimming curve.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. 434 . Untrim joined polysurfaces. Trimmed surface.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 .0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.

Appearance tab.Rhino 2.0. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles.3921 (+/. 436 . The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap.0001). Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. you can change the lens length of the camera. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu.

and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. choose a point on the edge.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.7e-007. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Start radius prompt.9553974. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. enter or drag a radius. At the Point on edge prompts. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. enter a radius for this point. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. If an edge point was picked. 437 . VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. At the End radius <x> prompt. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. product moments.Rhino 2.6.4649522 (+/. second moments. select a surface or part of a polysurface. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.2e-007.1.3.7e-007). First moments. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.6. select a surface or part of a polysurface.-4e016. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii.

pan. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. 438 . use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. In other cases.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve.Rhino 2. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. Weight Edit control point weight. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. or rotate your view. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. It does not change when you zoom.

the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. we can use weld with an angle of 40. In our case. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. If we want a smooth roof. No points in the blue mesh are welded. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. they are replaced by a single mesh point. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. and file export for stereolithography. To get this to happen. 439 . Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur.Rhino 2. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. To perform a similar operation with control points. texture mapping on mesh objects. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. At the Angle tolerance prompt. When shaded. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. see the SetPt command.

To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes.1). they must be joined before welding is effective. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. 440 . Welding in MAX is different. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. they always get welded. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. then Weld (angle=180). STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. Use JoinMesh. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. Thus. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. See Importing and exporting STL files. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values.Rhino 2.1) and top right (1. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. top left is (0. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. It does not physically fuse the vertices. 3D Studio MAX). They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex.0). Weld does not report the results on the command line. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. the bottom right is (1. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly.

or polysurface. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. select a curve.Rhino 2. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. World axes icon on 441 . the grid. object highlighting. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. surface. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. At the Select object prompt. The wireframe of the objects. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. axes.0 Command Reference What Display object information.

and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings.Rhino 2. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. and color. where white is the closest to your eye. 442 . There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form.ini file set the color for the icon. set the stripe direction. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. on the Shade tab. In the Zebra Options dialog box. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. size.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. When objects are rendered in Rhino. and black is the farthest away. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. WorldYAxisIcon=. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport.

tangency. MatchSrf. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. curvature. and curvature between the surfaces match.Rhino 2. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. the surfaces touch. These meshes can be large. curvature.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Position. and other important properties. 443 . Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. Tangent matches. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. this means the position. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes.

Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. When More reliable is selected. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. under Zebra and EMap. select More reliable. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. in the Options dialog box. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. If you have a wheel mouse. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. on the Shade tab. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. 444 . but will always work.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. When Faster is selected. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.

Note In a perspective view. ZoomWindow Zoom window. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. This is particularly useful in perspective views. 446 . ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in. pick a point for the center of the view. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. type a zoom factor and press Enter. drag a window to zoom. At the Zoom factor prompt. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. If you have problems with ZoomWindow.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All.Rhino 2.

32 AGLib file exchange. 308 align:. 5. 140. 206. from start. 14. 152 AnnotateDot command. 203. 136 AddNextV command. 152. 53. 230. 207.0 OBJ. 229. 5. 141 ApplyCurves command. 53 aliases. set ortho. 135 3Arc command. 5. import. 149 ArrayPolar command. 251. 33. calibrate. set scale. 212. 210. 180. 281 AttachEnd command. 5. 221. 82 AlongTan object snap. 206. 151 ArraySurface command. 251. 149 ArrayCurve command. 139 Align3D command. 27. 143. 33. 152 ASAP file exchange. 255. 426 Analyze toolbar. 204. 152 AutoCAD. 27. toolbar button function. dimension. 239. 82 Alt key. 5. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. measure between two lines. 266 animate view. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 138 adjust end bulge. 142. 133. 215. shortcuts. to copy while dragging. MAX 3. 309 AlignProfiles command. 135 4View command. 279 2Sphere command. 5. from three points. 144 Arc command. 5. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 195. rectangular. with a MicroScribe. 5. 123. 27. Release 12 export. 187. 3. 139 AlignTrace command. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 220. 14. 28. 5. 307. 123 2Circle command. 168. 140 Along object snap. 152 Arrow command. 140. pause input. 127. scale factor. 55 Ascii STL tag. 28. 143. 140. 207. 150. 53. 3DS file format. 5. 146 arguments at the command line. 29. 5. export options. 152 Attach command. arrowhead on curve. 143 Arc3Pts command. 88 align: background bitmap. 407. 323 3-D digitizing:. 232 Arc3Pt command. DWG file exchange. 31 AG file exchange. 125 array: along a curve. end and direction. 135 ACIS file export. 145 AreaMoments command. 5. polar. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 215. 5. 5. 251. 127. 162. 5. 281 Audit command. 150. 207. 150 ArraySrf command.5. 151 array:. 5. initialize. 151. 139. 192. 412 Annotate toolbar. 144 arc:. 150. 10. 204. 144. 393 34View command. 33. 151 arrow annotation object. 152. 24 AddNextU command. 305. 255. export. 163 3Circle command. 143 3Box command. arrow. 324 3Rectangle command. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 62 447 . 5. 149 Array command. 2. 137 AddPrevV command. set spacing between points. 88. 29. 26. 149. 135 3DM file exchange. 148. 197. 298. 144 ArcTTR command. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 205. 385 analyze:. 5. 169 3CPlane command. 10. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image.2. 35. 231. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 149. 34. 205. 206. set up function key for click.0 IGES. 230. 5. 251. 136 AddPrevU command. 151 ArrayCrv command. 34. extend to a point. 170 2-D drawings from model. on a surface. DOS. 312 AngleLine command. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 205. 5. 123 Arrowhead command. 312 Angle command. dot. around a pole. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. profile curves. MAX 1. 322. 5. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 143. 141 arc: extend by. 368. command aliases. 151. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 141 ApplyCrv command. 152 arrowhead on curve. 180. 76. 205. 340. 144 ArcSER command. 145 AreaCentroid command. add notes to the model. 333. 149. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 205. circular. 148 Array toolbar. 140 angle:. 333. 5. 5. 232. 362 3Plane command. built into Rhino. to suspend object snaps. 138 AddToGroup command. 144. create planar sections. 305. disconnect. 148. 5. 203. 5. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. VIZ. 330. 205. 255. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange.0 Command Reference Index !. 152. 5. 207. 204. 144 Area command. end and radius. tangent to two curves. 346 3Sphere command. 361. 265. 245. 206. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 426 angle: constraint. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 29. MAX 2. 150. 144. 5. MAX 2. 29 3DFace command. 2. 143 ArcDir command. 141 ApplyMesh command. 139 All command. 206. sketch curve with. 28. with FaroArm. 140 Align command.Rhino 2. from the last point. 30 add object to selection. suspend autoclose. options. 221. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 203. 150. MAX 3. DXF file exchange.0. 393 3View command. 152. 28. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 5. 251. 198. 142 Arc toolbar. 231. 215 annotation.

90. 56 center: buoyancy. 164. 297. 159. the layer of an object. 124. undo buffer. 101. 169 Circle3Pts command.Rhino 2. 154 Between object snap. 39 Boolean. 365. 153 back view. difference. command. 297. two surfaces. 351. 160 BooleanIntersection command. remove background. 153 background bitmap: align. 322. show. 5 bumpmap for rendering. render meshes. 322. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 366. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 170 CircleTTR command. 56 cancel command. 116. 249. 179 BI command. clear undo. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 124. 122. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 157. 409. 161 Bottom command. 168. 163 box:. set construction plane x. 153. 171. 170 CircleTTT command. 5. capture button image. with toolbar button. 162. variable radius between surfaces. 55 BringViewportToTop command. center of. 351. 170. 169 CircleD command. 162 box: from length. 162. 199. 172 CLine command. 312. edit button image. hide. use for tracing. 322. 321. 166. 365. 365. paste from. 79 center:. 425 Back command. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 366 CArc command. 133. hide background. 392. 123. 245. 5. remove. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 84 Bezier curve. 164 chamfer:. 351. 312. 90. 170. with Esc key. width. 123 Cap command. 122. radius. 171. 321. 351. 321. 161. 292 Box command. 243. 172 built-in aliases. 133 BU command. 101. from center. 5. clear button image. 367. 133. 161. 384 background bitmap:. 322. 123. 139. 158. 421 Blend command. 184. copy toolbar button. 154. use. 171. ortho angle. 322 blend: curve. 172. 139. tangent to two curves. 124. as bitmap. 5. 118. 365. 156. 130. 168 CheckInLicense command. 39 BMRT support. 351. 184. 250 centroid. snap size. 165 Chamfer command. 162. undo levels. 163. 157. place. 152. 250. 316 448 . 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 297. 139. 292 Box3Pt command. place background. 124.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. 55 axis. delete toolbar button. 39 BMP file format. 90. to current layer. 367. move toolbar button. 168 Circle toolbar. 363. layer. 12. 245. 161 buffer. 160. 154. 154 baseball-style seams. 170. 152 autosave:. 156 blend:. show hidden background. 168 Check command. 13. 171 Circle3Pt command. from three points. 5. 184. 297. sphere. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 321. 232 Clipboard. 180. 162 BoundingBox command. 402 Bisector command. 320. background. 125. 231 CArcPt command. 5. 250 Center object snap. 125. surface degree. 113. 171 circle:. 297. 152 AutoShip file exchange. toggle world icon. area. selection. 123. select. 2. scale. 250. 163 Box3Pts command. 171. toolbar. 369 C2View command. ellipsoid. 168 choose one object. 145 chamfer: two curves. 243. 171 clear. 102. 124 C command. move background. 123. import button image. floatation. 316. 90 ChangeDegree command. 384 bad objects. 166. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 155 bitmap. 162 bottom view. 338 buoyancy. 123. 114. 169. 133. 384. 133. 338. 139. time control. object properties. 123. 153 BD command. move. 168 check objects for errors. 169. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 156. 124. render meshes when saving file. 323. 5. 160 BooleanUnion command. toolbar button image. 249. cut. convert NURBS curve to. 115. 168. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 249. to the Clipboard. align backgound. 198. 392. 170 Circle command. tangent to three curves. 172. 204 camera. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 85. 123. 168. toolbar layout. 124 capture viewport. 368 Baseball command. 5. 122. 250 button. 168. as 256-color bitmap. troubleshooting. 421 BlendSrf command. 160. 322. 122. 384. set construction plane z. 179. 157. 5. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 232 CATIA file exchange. 160. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. display grid. 24 circle: by diameter. polygon mesh. 368. 164 cap open planar ends. scale background. 5. 365. 164 capture image for toolbar button. 167. copy to. 165 change. toolbar button tooltip. 161 BooleanDifference command. 180. 170.0 file exchange. 123. backdrop for rendering. surface. 198. edit toolbar. union. 160 Bend command. from three points. 321. 165 ChamferSrf command. 139. 124. 54 autosave: file location. 163. 5. edit button icons. 162 Box toolbar. 124. 362 ClearMesh command. height. 164. 384. 320. lock. 249. 349 ClearUndo command. settings. 160 bi-rail sweep. 168. 363. 90 Autosave command. place. 167. intersection. 425. 163 B-spline. 249. 229. 145. 172. save button image to file. 166 ChangeLayer command. 366.

362. toggle world coordinate entry. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. display for a point. render. 138. rendering to Clipboard. save. 11 copy: command shortcut. move through a point. 379. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. 183. 172 cloud of points. 180. 297. view back of. 172 ClosePoint command. 173 cone:. 164. render window to Clipboard. 155. 375. 182. 136. 89. 359. 336. 75 comma-delimited file export. add previous in u-direction to selection. 88. 84. 11. 126 conic: curve. 182 449 . 11 coordinates. View top of. 140. 234. 180. 386. project objects to. 181 CPlaneNext command. 10. Esc to cancel. 181 Copy command. options. 2. 245. 12. 119. create curve from. 2. shortcut. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. set to 3 points. script. 182. 228. 11. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 2. coordinates. 173. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 173. 375. 166. 75. 5 CPlaneObject command. 181. 419. 178. 398. place point objects on. 335. 173. 5. set extents of. along line. objects to Clipboard. 335. 342. weld. 155.0 Command Reference close. 343. 133. 2 command line. 338. 57 CPDash command. 126. 89. set to z-axis. 88. 123. 137. 303. move to coordinate location. view bottom of. 327 Cob command. select next in u-direction. 379. 217 COff command. 5. 183. set origin. 164. 172 CommandPaste command. 174. wheel. 5. display axes. 179. 303. 114. 84. 115. 406 Cone command. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 174 conic:. 380. 175. false. 131 command history. show hidden. 183. 182. select previous in u-direction. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 338. G0. 125. 173 Commands command. 181. set distance between grid lines. 219 coordinate entry. 177 continuous shading. select row on surface. view front of. 123. view left of. curve and surface. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. set to previous. entering coordinates. 18. set top. 184. 184. 181. 12. 88. 90. 89. 5. named construction plane. 176 Conic command. 178. 197. 292. 235. 303. previous. 245. holes in surfaces. 297. turn grid on or off. 136. 182 CPlaneO. 172. 12. 177. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. settings of one construction plane to all. 180. 88. 250. 88. 74. 234. toggle display. viewport. 176 ConicPerp command. 386. read from file. add next in u-direction to selection. 339. move in u-. view right of. 11. objects. 422. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 218 Contour command. dialog box. 195 color. 176. 179 Coons patch. add to surface. world coordinates. 184. 323. make all have same orientation. 344. display recently used. 75. move along Z. add next in v-direction to selection. bend. angle. construction plane coordinates. set the number of thin gridlines. 419. 172. AutoCAD. delete from a curve. 5. import from 3DM file. 202. 183. 249. 90. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. 114. 181. v-. 246. 166. 181. 342. history. 202. set to x-axis. 174.Rhino 2. move all through a point. 173 COn command. set to vertical. 406 ConfigScript command. 75. 228. 413 CommandHistory command. 183. 5. 173. 235. toggle display of. 5 command:. set normal to curve. 182. display. 5. plan view. 339. 338. G2. 323. hide. display in clipboard or history. render window. 178 control vertex. 126. 181. 304. set right. perpendicular to curve. 133. 182. 173 commands:. 184. extract. 176 constraint. 174. 177 contour curves. G1. set weight. 177. taper. 75. 246. 183. 246. 343. 173 commands: list of all. list. 115. toggle construction plane entry. 339. 298. 405. 335. set origin of all construction planes. arguments. 11. 13. 184. 21. select row in vdirection. polar coordinates. 374. options. 15 construction plane. 11. set display density. copy settings of one to the all. 373. 137. 104. 406. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 172. 398. 373. 173. 75. list all. 5. add previous in v-direction to selection. 35 command: alias. layer. 172 Closest point to an object. 179. 422. 419 context menu. 379 control polygon. 138. 197. 183. turn on. 122. 246. 181. 11. 292. set to next. project object snap to. next. 4. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. set front. 180 copy:. 181 CPlaneFront command. 173. 176. 104. 136. 419. paste from clipboard. 15. 10. select previous in v-direction. 119. 180. draw curve using. 359. 173 CommandPrompt command. 131. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. relative polar coordinates. 406. and ndirections. turn off. 14. 413 command aliases. 11. 85. 173. 131 control points. 172 CloseViewport command. 178 CPHighlight command. 180. highlight. 14. truncated. 419. 419. 249. 362. 125. 327. set to object. distance. select next in v-direction. 5. 140. 181 CopyClip command. set to view. polygon mesh. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 75 continuity. assign to mouse buttons. 172. macro. 154. undo. 172 ClosestPt command. 419. 173 command names. 125. 245. 10. 345. for spotlight editing. 125. toolbar. 245. 5. 245. 182. 298. 195 cone: cone. view to all viewports. 126. toolbar button. 131 ControlPolygon command. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. relative coordinates. 178 control point definition. rotate. curve. 122. 245. 251 command area. old. coincident. 180. 131.

265. 281. 133. duplicate border of surface. 334. arc tangent to two curves. 343. 4. 235. adjust seam point. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 183 CPlaneRight command. 144. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 189. 323. 185. divide by number of segments. 340. 330. 187. select all. 2. 238. 169. 355. 270. 141. tracking line. 187. Gaussian. 239. flatten section of. 14. sketch. 4 Ctrl+V. 394 CurveBlend command. 169. 156. 236. 253. 271. 2. 255. extrude to point. 217. 195. 333. 185. 213. constrain parallel to view plane. 184 CPlaneX command. 179. 170. extrude along path. 164. analyze surface. 195. interpolate on surface. apply to surface. add knots. line segments. 304. 24. 337. 90. 198 CutPlane command. 195. 2 Ctrl+S. 25. 2. 323. 15. 165. 307 Ctrl+P. 339. 222. 267. 197 curve. constrain along line. from interpolated points. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 232. radius. 233. make periodic. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 298. align in two views. 257. 238. 230. 389. 218. ellipse. single line. 348 Ctrl+Z. 133. 195. 195. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. section. 162. 143. 139. 162. display graph. 168. contour. sketch on surface. periodic. 391. 4. 256. 24. marker. 187 CrvStart command. 239. extend by arc to a point. from control points. 395. 265. 388. 267. 187. 249. 197 curve degree. 367. 4. 186. place point at end. 177. 268. 141. 187 CrvSeam command. constrain to ortho. convert to polyline. 256. from point cloud. 255. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. raise degree. 306. 230. 200 450 . 269. 155. 143. 189. 343. 142. 314. 156. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. extract isoparms from surface. mean. 217. 258. 268. 144. 195. 24. 232. circle tangent to two curves. 248. 170. 179. 258. 226. 356. toggle. 369. 190 CullCP command. silhouette. 174. 270. 162 CrvDeviation command. polyline. 2. 253. 218. 281. 194. 180 Ctrl+N. line tangent to two curves. 256. 235. 4. 185 CrvBox command. 194. 254. 311. arc. 189 crosshairs. 316 Ctrl+X. line perpendicular to two curves. line normal to a surface. 217. 2. 268. 394. 165. 174. 369 Crv2View command. 248. intersect two objects. point. 13. 15. pull to surface. convert to Beziers. 305. 187 CurveSeam command. extrude straight. 169. 226. 337. circle from three points. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 367. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 189 CSV export. 327. crosshairs. 189 CSec command. 389. 239. 164. 235.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 369 crossing selection. polyline through point objects. 236. 197. tangent line. 255. 190 cursor. 398 CreateUVCrv command. from 2 views. 213. measure radius. 257. revolve. 258. 388. insert edit point. 183 CPlaneToObject command. refit. points. 387 Curve toolbar. 326. 304 Ctrl+A. 3 crossing:. 241. 281. 326. 221. 339. 221. chamfer. constrain to plane. 24 curvature: analyze curve. bounding box. 390. 232. 131. helix. 90. 177. 304. 187 CurveSketch command. 192. 268. 142. interpolate through polyline. line. 162 CurveEnd command. 183 CPlaneToView command. bisector line. 194. 257. 2. 343. 279. 195. 202. 197. 197. arc from start. 184 CPlaneZ command. 156 CurveBox command. smooth. 139. 189. delete control points. 234 CreatePCurves command. 255. offset. 239. 198 Ctrl+Y. 327. 298. project onto surface. curvature graph off. conic. 168. 182 CPlanePrev command. 196. 305. 3 Ctrl+C. extract wireframe from surface. 165. 187 CrvEnd command. 202. selection. 197. graph off. 185 CRectangle command. 157. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 216. 302 Ctrl+O. 271. 334. spiral. 389. 330. extend by line. 3. 218. sketch on polygon mesh. 216. 141. 236. 351. 15. 337. 254. match ends. 231. 184 CPlaneV command. 305. 191. 197. 156. 188. 4. extend by arc. 236. measure between two curves. remove knots. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 387 curve:. 241. cross sections through profiles. 387. place point at start. fair. 165. 387. 175. 269 Curve command. 387. 195. arc from three points. duplicate edge of surface. 179. 197. 156. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 187 CurveOverlap command. 15 crossing: select with mouse. simplify. adjust end bulge. 245 Curvature command. 178. 184 CPlaneView command. 340. line vertical to construction plane. 351. 305. 241. 390. 187. graph on. 170. parabola. 311. 233. 355. 177. extend. 2. direction. 314. 413 CullControlPolygon command. surface from network. 248. 191 curvature:. 144. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 155. 239. 238. 4. blend. circle from center. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 369. 346 cross sections through profiles. 191. end. 188. 333. curvature graph. 389 CurveStart command. 164. 183 CPlaneTop command. 226. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 388. 2 Ctrl+Tab. 4. 230. 281. 184 CPTog command. rebuild. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. fillet. 367.Rhino 2. 339. circle by diameter. 389. 231. 185. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 174. 131. extend to surface boundary.

ini. 10. 205 displacement. 22 degree. 203. diameter. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 216. 131 Ebroken command. 205 DigDisconnect command. 123. 99 disable. 370. Render Mesh tab. edit points. broken edges. set scale. 196. 17. 344. planar section. surfaces. 206. edit text. hydrostatic calculation. 121. 213 dock a toolbar. control points. 85. 250 display: bitmap window. 215 dot:. 239. 210. with MicroScribe. polygon mesh. vertical. 91. 210. 120 document properties: notes. show. 212 distance: constraint. 135. 168. 203 develop a surface. viewport properties. Notes tab. select all. change degree of surface. 205. display broken. 208. curve. 213 divide:. 19 document properties:. 15. 209 DimRotated command. 215 Dot command. 34 DXF file exchange. 208 dimension. tolerances. 105. layer. Boolean. 2. 213 Divide command. 201. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. rebuild. 218. grid axes. 207 DimAligned command. 211. 370. shortcuts. 293 Cylinder command.Rhino 2. 178. 206. 422 Display command. 384. 385. 208. 124. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 127. 410. summary. 206 DigSection command. angle between lines. 196. 202. border of surface. 288. 220. 251 Domain command. 425. aligned. 203 DigCalibrate command. 15 Distance command. 330. 208. 395. pause input. 272 date. 33 DynamicShading command. 209. 207. recenter text. select all objects. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. curve by number of segments. 217 draw. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. lines. 214 domain: match. 384 edge: create curve from. 385. 160 Dig command. 19. 217 DupBorder command. 215 drafting. 108 Dup command. isoparm density. join two out of tolerance edges. 45 dirty looking rendering. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 416 developable surface definition. 219. 202. 245. 217. polylines. 209 DimRecenterText command. options. naked. 205. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 144 direction. 17. 384 diameter dimension. 218. 127. 58 delete: all objects. 370 DWG file exchange. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. 15 divide: curve by length. change. toolbar. 197. 217 drape surface. 217 DrapePt command. 272. 218. 250. 165 Delcam file exchange. 384. 211 DirectX file export. persistent object snaps. 218 duplicate. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 219. 207. grid. 19. 215 draft angle. 23 distance:. 201. 208 difference. 218. 22. 298 DigPause command. wallpaper. horizontal. 3-D digitizing. 208 DimRadius command. display curve or surface. 212 distance display. 167. sketch curve. 245. 119. control polygon. 279 Dragmode. 107. 210 DimHorizontal command. 208 DimOptions command. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 202 delete:. 205. 220. points at naked edges. 19 DocumentProperties command. 368. 135. 209 DimVertical command. 207. 204 DigClick command. 123 451 . 396 EdgeSrf command. disconnect. 2. 166. 201 cylinder:. 104. calibrate. reverse object direction. 10. 209. 344. 220. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. 22. 395. 384. 12. 132. with FaroArm. 372 Deselect command. 207. 212 DisableOsnap command. 265. 88. 204. 338. 202 DeleteAll command. objects. 123. merge. 251 dot: annotation. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 12. 19. 288. 121. 210. 166. 212. 3-D polygon mesh face. 217. 411. rotated. 206. 18. naked edges. 277 diagnostics. 206 DigSketch command. 210 DirArc command. in Trim command. 213. 372 DeselectAll command.0 Command Reference cutting objects. units. 385. 212 disconnect digitizer. options. intialize. 243 DirectionalLight command. 217 DupEdge command. 206 DigSpacing command. toolbar button bitmap icons. 216 Drape command. create 2-D curves. 344. 330. in Split command. 195. split. 168. dimension text. 251. 214 domain:. 104. 205 digitize. 122 Delete command. Rhino. 165. 209. edge of surface. radius. 208. 132. toolbar button. 372 DetachTrim command. 288. 385. 330. raise curve degree. object. 202 Deselect All. 218 e_tol. annotation text. 202. 122. 260. 212 display:. 209. 279. 127. 106. 17. 197. toggle. 160. command button. 205 DigScale command. 212. render mesh settings. 23. 213 DivideByLength command. set up function key for click. 260. 133. object discription. 370. 243. 207 DimDiameter command. 293 data structure for object. button image. 265. 22. 207 DimAngle command. 396 edge:. set spacing between points. 210 Dir command. 260. from last point. 217. 219. 207. 209.

10. Viewpoint Technologies. 235 ExtractSrf command. 229 explode:. 73. 36. 67. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 57. 253. 131 FAQ. triangles. 46. insert on curve. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 56. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 232. 42. VRML. 51. 228 EvaluatePt command. Solid Edge (IGES). 68. 234. object properties to file. 343 ElmoSrf command. 288 Enaked command. Catia (IGES). 69. curve. 232. Moldex DXF. ACIS. 385 ESplit command. 36. 26. SLA. 60. 229 Exit command. surface. 260 elevator mode. 131. 238. 420 EditDim command. 73. 69. 234 Extend command. 31. Microstation (IGES). FastShip (IGES). 231. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 174 Elmo command. SolidWorks (IGES). 2. 48. 74. 44. 65. 235 ExtractPt command. 4 Fair command. Plug-in). 220. 33. 385 EnakedPt command. 30. 239 FastShip file exchange. 42. 224 EMerge command. 54. 93. 228 expand a surface. Mastercam (IGES). 228 exit Rhino. 40 errors in model. 221. 65. 231. 46. 128. 45. 202. 55. 229 Explode command. 230. POVRay (POV). wireframe curves from surface. 229 export:. Unigraphics (IGES). 43. 63. 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 330 End key. 42. 223 ellipsoid:. Multisurf (IGES). 55. 232. AutoCAD (DWG). 238 F1. 235. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 344 EMap command. arc to a point. 229 export. 237. curve to surface boundary. 64. SAT file format. 239 fair curve. 58. 71. 33. 35. 3D Studio MAX 3. 59. 124. from focus points. 72. 30. PostScript. 234. 45. STL. Delcam (IGES). 236 Extrude toolbar. 32. 58 452 . 30. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 11. 3 Enter: command for scripts. Integrity Ware (IGES). 35. 64. 45. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 222 Ellipse command. 224 erase objects. Solid Designer (IGES). 70. 58. 231. 226 endpoint object snap. 54. Commadelimited file. 429 End object snap. 12 ELine command. 229. 61. 12. 230 extend. 220 EJoin command. 222 EllipseEnds command. 233. polygon mesh. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 52.0 (OBJ). 67. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 59. Cosmos/M (IGES). 37. 41. options. 53. 3D Studio (3DS). Alias (OBJ). Applied Geometry (AG). 123. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. IronCAD (IGES). 227. 232. curve to point. by arc. 58. ME30 (IGES). 231. 56. surface from polysurface. 127 Esc key. 227 environment map. 37. 72. Lightwave (LWO). LUSAS (IGES). 54. 228 EvaluateUV command. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 230. 41. 35. unable to run program renrib. 233 ExtendSrf command. 53. 233 extract. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 238. 236. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 3.0 (IGES). 29. OptiCAD (IGES). Metastream. 58 FastSURF file exchange. CSV file. 73. 41. 231. 44. TekSoft IGES. 233 extend:. 356 extrude:. 46. 222 ellipse:. 233 ExtendByArc command. turn off.0 Command Reference edit points. 220 EditText command. 78 EndBulge command. show. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 3D Studio MAX 3. 31. 45. 31. 51. 4 F8. 62. 35. 62. raw triangles (RAW). Tebis IGES. 236. 233. 13.Rhino 2. AutoShip (IGES). 229 ExplodeMesh command. 92. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 230. 58. 53. 45. 12 Enter:. isoparms from surface. 46. 62. 55. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 36. 253. 35. FastSURF (IGES). control polygon. Wavefront (OBJ). 133 EShow command. 230. Softimage (IGES. 52. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 37. 26. 70. 73. 45. AUTOFORM (IGES). SURFCAM (IGES). Adobe Illustrator (AI). curve on surface. NASA GridTool. 74 Export command. 221. 223 elliptical conic curve. 29. 2. 133 Escape key. curve along path. AutoCAD (DXF). 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 63. 119. 71. 230 Extend toolbar. 68. 220. 55. turn on. 228 Excel. 13. 229. CAD 3D SUM 4. 40. 133 enter coordinates. Yamaha ESPRi. 26.0 (IGES). CamSoft (IGES). by line. export to. 33. 123 edit:. 56. 63. 239 false color display. 61. space and rightmouse click. 228 error messages. 236. 236. Maya (IGES). 396 EvaluatePoint command. 356. Moray (UDO). 4 F9. 71. 236 extrude: curve. 2. 53. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 219. 92. 60. 32. 64. surface into a solid. 57. 233. curve by offset. 60. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). surface. 40. DirectX. 238 Extrude command. 238. 232 ExtendByLine command. NuGraf (IGES). 235. 133. mesh to IGES file. GHS. 154 Ellipsoid command. 47. IGES. command aliases. 221 EllipseD command. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. CADCEUS (IGES). 4 F2. Pro/E (IGES). 59. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 236. 61. 236. 45. 219 EditPtOn command. Alias (IGES). 63. 69. 1 Faro command.

12 Home key. 54. 203. 131. 130 Flow along a curve. 249 HideCV command. keep last used on top. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 69. set the number of lines. 407. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 262. 250 Hyperbolic curve. developable surface. 246. periodic curve. 133. 360. open. 377 Group command. 133. shortcut. 135. 134. 119 HideTrace command. 245 grid:. 131. 235 FltE command. 240 filter the layer display. surface. 362 FileProperties command. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 425. 277. 2. spacing. flyout toolbar. 250. 61. 60. tracking line. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 120. 130. 46. 246 Group objects for selection. two surfaces. false color. 251. 5. 240 FilletSrf command. 36 glossary terms. 50. 279. 249. 305. 133. texture mapping coordinates. 245. 228. 122. 386. 277. 242 flatten. 70. name. 71. 416. 377. edit toolbar button. 212 frequently asked questions. Unicode. snap to. 194 GCon command. save as. template. 53. 245. simple controls. 302. 229. 172. initial mesh grid. 407. 249 HidePt command. 1. 246 HBar command. 131. types. save. set distance between lines. objects. 378. import. 281 FlatShade command. units. 132. 131. 307. edit points. 67. 250. edge of polysurface. toolbar. 52. Osnap dialog box. 49 IGES export:. 246. 1 help:. Breault Research's ASAP. Enter key. 46. 53. 46. 249. 72. 246 Heightfield command. 176 G2 continuity. 337. 75 Hydrostatics command. 239. CADCEUS. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 380 GridAxes command. naked edge. 55. 249. 255. 249. 229. tolerance. 241 FitPlane command. 133. 417 FlattenSrf command. edit using. technical support. 255. Esc key. 250. 55. 132. status bar panes. 325 FitCrv command. 53. 302. 57. 416. 229. 249 hide:. 2 hidden layer name. axis lock. 119 HideToolbox command. 245 GridSections command. 407 freeze: a layer. 262. 251 floating license. 453 . 244 Flow command. center of. 103 hidden objects.turn on or off. 133. 172 hold. 415 GHS file export. 239. IGES export type details. normal. 380 GridThick command. objects. 131. 74. 380. set the extents of. 65. 122 font. 240 FilletEdge command. 339 HideOsnap command. 410. 134. Alias|Wavefront. 249 highlight in rendering. 273. 339. 240. 133. marker. 245 GridOptions command. 246 Gridsnap command.Rhino 2. 12. 338 history. toolbar. 378. 123. 220. 58. 386. isoparm. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. 246 group. 250. 249.0. text. set snap size. show selected. 55. control point. objects. 73. 360. command area. 75 hue. 251. 131. 273 ghost:. 250 HideToolbar command. 131. 278. 262. 384. 54. cursor. 123. text. 134. 171. 251. 395. 59. 362 file:. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 192. 46. 220. 241 FlatShade1 command. AutoShip. 54. 362 File toolbar. 81 Front command. 133. run application from inside Rhino. 171. 243 floatation. 348. 415 Ghost command. 131. periodic surface. seamless mesh. 249 HidePoints command. NURBS. 1 Help command. 246. 47. 119. 176 G1 continuity. wireframe. 134. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 245 Grid command. 50. 361. 135 grid: axes . 259. 120. Ashlar Vellum. swap hidden status. 104 fit a plane through points. 133. 132. 380. 246. 68. 385. 55. 133. troubleshooting import problems. 1. 336. 417 ghost: a layer. 246 handlebars. 273. 62. 239 fillet:. 330. 221 fonts. 302. 250 hide: background bitmap. 247 Helix command. world axes. 1 From object snap. 413. 386 HideAll command. 48. 131. panes. 262. 260. 130. 415 Freeze command. polysurface. 174 icon. 244 front view. 390. 386. 249. object names. turn on or off. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 273 freeze:. 273. 368. 307. 246 HBarSrf command. 426. control points. 251. 249 HidePts command. 122. 64. 246 GridSize command. AUTOFORM. 46. 243 Flip command. 307. 246. 361. 229. 249 HideSwap command. 273. 379. 124. 361. 240 Fillet command. unlock locked objects. 429 Horizon command.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. 386. 119 Hide command. show hidden control points. 261. 214 fillet. 244 G0 continuity. definition. 2. reduce size of model. bumpmap. 3D Studio MAX 3. curve. new. 194. 123. 63. section of curve. 132. 56. 236. unlock locked objects. 248 help: display Help file. 244 Flowline command. polygon mesh export. 176 Gaussian curvature. command line. 46. 396. 379 IGES file types. 387 HSV color. 168. 18. 49. 425 IGES: file exchange.

256. 264 left view. 322 JScript. 77. 60. 263. 252 information. turn off. 132 isoparm. 104. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 70. 26. 104. 396. 73. 74. SolidWorks. 251 Improve command. 72. 251 import:. display density. 104. 343. 168. 78. 377 layer:. 255. 81. 61. 255. 254. 41. angle from. 253. 3D Studio MAX 3. 101. 104. 263. 67. 32. 132. set current. insert in curve. split surface at. 261 JoinSrf command. 33. display for object. 69. FastSURF. distance from. 71. 261 JoinMesh command. 71. turn all layers on. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 254. 260. wireframe view. 33. 67. 135. 152. SUM 4. 78. 263. FastShip IGES. select objects by. 260 JoinFaces command. 265 Length command. Integrity Ware IGES. 3D Studio MAX 3. AutoCAD DWG. 41. 85. 59 InterpCrv command. OptiCAD. 70. 67. 59. 68. 366. FastShip. match. insert in surface. Lightwave LWO. 126 kink. SolidWorks IGES. Solid Designer IGES. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 261 Join command. construction planes from 3DM file. 52 import. 55. Mechanical Desktop. 167. Mastercam IGES. 283. 264 Left command. 264 leader:. 160. 59 isoparametric curve. Mastercam. 119 initial mesh grid. 70. 31. 103. translate IGES/Rhino. 168. 307. 60. 56. 71. ME30 IGES. 37. 56. 73. Unigraphics IGES. TekSoft IGES. objects. AUTOFORM IGES. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 46. Integrity Ware. 121. Tebis. aliases. 251. 253 knot. 63. 91. 262 lasso selection. 99 JCAD STL export. purge empty. 425 ini file. 104. 259. 103. stereolithography STL. 55. AutoCAD DXF. 72. Delcam. 160 Invert command. LUSAS. 68. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 160. 307. curve. 68. 62. 53. 264 length: measure curve. 14. 62. 69. Multisurf. 253 InsertKink command. 152 Leader command. SDRC's I-DEAS. 251 IncrementalSave command. 258 intersection. 53. snap to. 140. 90. 253. 371. 263 LayerOn command. 73. CamSoft IGES. 257 intersect: Boolean. 53. 56. 66. definition. SURFCAM IGES. 46 IGES:. 425. 65.0 OBJ. 63. 71. 168. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 130 license:. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager.0 IGES. 251. 73. match attributes. 63. 257. 102. 263 leader: arrow. 257 InterpPolyline command. 61. 67. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 72. knot. 259 join:. 132. 167. 258 IntersectCrv command. OptiCAD IGES. arrowhead on curve. Microstation. 283. 73. ME30. 73. NASA GridTool IGES. 69. 65. Softimage. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 37. 41. 63. CAD 3D SUM 4. 76. 14. 71. IronCAD IGES. 103. 10. 15. 64. 57. 29. 307. 104. 10. 132. 42. 101. 255. 258 Intersect command. 74 Import command. SURFCAM. triangles. curve on surface. 62. 377. two objects. 61. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. insert on curve or surface. 59. 283. 338. change for an object. 371. 57. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 58. 70. 15 lathe. 55. 396. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 261 Lasso command. Delcam IGES. Solid Designer. IGES. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 260. definition. 252 insert:. 58. 307. 56.0 Command Reference CamSoft. 103. Cosmos/M IGES. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 367 JPG file format. 63. 61. 253. 31. 101. 261 JoinEdge command. 46. 312. 42. object snap. Alias IGES. 168 license manager. 121. TekSoft. surface or polysurface. 64. Applied Geometry AG. 254. 101. 343. rename. surfaces. NASA GridTool. 46. 253. 2. 254 Insert command. 133 Layer toolbar. Softimage IGES. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 103. 60. delete. set material properties. 132. NuGraf IGES. Maya. CATIA. 54. 81. 258 InvertPt command. FastSURF IGES. named views from a 3DM file. 265 length:.Rhino 2. 60. 262. 140. 10. 160. one layer on. 55. 253 InsertKnot command. 58. 26. remove from curve or surface. Yamaha ESPRi. filter display. 46. 104. 377 LayerLock command. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. Maya IGES. AutoShip IGES. 59. 167. 48. 69. Pro/E IGES. 63. 63. 33. check out from workgroup license manager. 57. change to current. Cosmos/M. Raw triangles RAW. 256. 262 last point. 254. CADCEUS IGES. 29. 32. management. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. new. 256 interpolate. turn off by selecting an object. 254 InsertKnots command. Unigraphics. 42. 351. 58. 59. 140. 160. 102. Multisurf IGES. 61. 60. 263 Layer command. 377. 69. 64. set material. 258 intersect:. 64. 255 Int object snap. 64. Microstation IGES. 168 454 . 59. Adobe Illustrator AI. 58. 58. kink in curve. Boolean. 312. 54. Pro/E.0. 135 jagged shadows. IronCAD. 54. 103. 69. 355 layer: change color. CATIA IGES. 253 InsertKinks command. 131 insert: edit point. turn on. 59. 46. 65. 259. 56. 152. Solid Edge IGES. select from list. Solid Edge. 261 JPG. 262 LayerOff command. 3D Studio 3DS. 363. 62. 101 Layer pane. dialog box. 62. 42 join: edges out of tolerance.0 IGES. Tebis IGES. toolbar from another layout. 71. LUSAS IGES.

BMRT. 288. export to IGES file. 39. normal to a surface. 272 LoadPlugin command. 131 mass properties. 371. 270 LineTT command. 103 locked objects. polyline through point objects. 161. 255. 60 LWO file exchange. 38 match: curve ends. 396. 145. 134 marker definition. 268. 24 menu bar. run from toobar button. 266 Line4pts command. 155. 62 menu: context. 141. 273 lock:. set for export. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. volume moments. clear at save time. vertical to construction plane. 291. 148. bisector. 281. distance. 334. 194. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 371. 41. 304. Rhino. 420. 268. apply to surface. 194 measure: angle. 292. 283. 84. 145. 92. clear render mesh for all objects. 268. 256. 123. 279 Make2d4View command. 329. 173. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 281. 273 Lock command. 296. run with middle mouse. 330. 349. snap to. 288 mesh: 3D face. 273. 290. 225. 270. 221. set viewport. 101 manage:. 288 MergeSrf command. 268. seamless. 284. 334 merge: surface. 334 LineTan command. 345. 33. 61 MDT IGES options. breaking apart. length. 213. 339. 40. spotlight. axis. 91. from four points. 338. 212. 399. 245. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 86 material:. 296 macro. 281 manage: license. 52. clear render mesh. 156. 292. 266 LineAngle command. 104. 265 line:. 455 . 187. 271 Line command. density for primitives. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 340. 293. 285. 271 List command. 125. 270 LineV command. 262. volume. plane. cone. 267. 272 list data structure of an object. 194 MaxViewport command. 334 Line4Pt command. 224. select all. 328. 61 mean curvature. 342. 304. reduce density. viewport. 191. 286. perpendicular to curve. toggle display. definition. 377 Material properties. convert each face to NURBS surface. bump. 296. 288 maximize:. 268. 130 manage layers. cylinder. 212. 270. area moments. 3DFace. persistent object snaps. 288. 92. 232. 410. 269 LineTP command. 155. 146. 162. 39. 145. detailed options. 75. 140. 283 MatchSrf command. box. 333. 255. 294. 228. 293. unlocked objects. 271. from NURBS object. 191. 90 Main toolbar. 145. 268 Lines command. 338. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 142. 333. 421 Measure command. 395. 294. single line. 135. 141. join. run from an alias. volume centroid. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 333. 338. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 211. 331. 123. 261. 290. 267 LinePerp command. 12. 62 ME30 file exchange. 267. area. 262. 304. 212. 155. create. 267 LinePP command. set properties for layer. geometric continuity. 240. 74. 269. 326. 266. 270. objects. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. polyline. 105. directional. 289. perpendicular to two curves. run from external file. 288 Menu command. surface. 269.0 Command Reference Light tab. 86 lights. pop up at cursor. 270. 288. 134. 140. 232. 211. texture. point. 377 maximum curvature. 283. 371. 212 LockSwap command. area centroid. 266. 420. 187. 288. 229. paste script from Clipboard. insert straight segment into curve. 265. 229. decrease number of faces. 290. 273. 228 Logout command. tangent to a curve. 333.Rhino 2. 135. 334. run from shortcut key. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 398. 228 LooseLoft command. 245. 371. 415. environment. 338. 421. swap status with unlocked objects. tangent to two curves. 261. 271. curve curvature. 378. 269. 259. 213 measure:. 284 material: for rendering. 284 MatchLayer command. 273 Loft command. 377. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 180. two adjacent edges of a surface. 268 Lines toolbar. 23. 338 mapping coordinates. 363. 266. 421 MeasurePoint command. 37 line: at angle from line. radius. 84. 273 loft surface. 255. 290. 273 Logoff command. 228. 12. segments. 220. 288 MergeEdge command. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 420. 145. 88. options. 212. 23. 145. 273 LockOsnap command. 357. 224. select naked edges. explode. 337. 281 match:. 126. 251 merge:. 358. 288 Merge command. 130 map. 348. 236. 272 LoadScript command. 288 Maya file exchange. 417 Make2D command. 192. 273. 342. 179. 292. 329. layer attributes. 415 locked layer name. deviation between two curves. 125. 340. 266. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 74. 290. 265. 287 Match command. 267. 265. 377 Maximize command. 88. deviation of points and curves from a surface. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 102. 288 menu:. extend by. 288. 365. 420. from closed polyline. 265. 225. select all. 328. 239. 171. 212. layer. 265. 378 maximize: current viewport. 210. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. unlock locked objects. 173. 273 lock: a layer. set for layer. 348. 37 M command.

133. 81. 78. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 293. 303. 387. 338. perpendicular from a curve. surface control points in u-. remove flipped. 292 MeshCone command. 338. definition. 79. 183. 2. 362. 343. 120. quadrant. 30. turn off. 84. 79. 79 minimize: Rhino. read from file. 304 node. 415. viewport to top. 229. 79. 296 Minimize command. 379. 363 name:. 84. 414 NoSnap command. perspective viewport active. 141. 183. 81. 85. 377. 83. pull direction. set for multiple objects. 303 NextU command. 296. export to OBJ. 362 named view. toolbar button. 135. 12. 80. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 148. 132. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 92. from. 293 MeshPlane command. 294. 305 offset:. 317 nudge. 261. 423. 294 MeshSphere command. 113. set properties. improve. 37 object: description. 64 NURBS. 414. 415 object names. 91. 309. set mesh the same. 261. 92. 171. 348. 229 Microstation file exchange. 84. point. 132. 204. snap to a curve. surface. surface display. 4. 298. 409. 424 Mesh command. 82. 355. 295 MeshToNurb command. disable. 385. 120. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 355. 307 Offset command. 12. hide toolbar. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 79 NetworkSrf command. 311. 298. 298. 63 naked edge. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 141. 216 Moldex command. 63 Near object snap. 384. 140. 297. 311 OBJ export properties. 80. 296. 296 move:. 296 modeling aids. 205. viewport. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 83. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 118 Normal command. 387. 355 NamedCPlane command. 409 object:. 140. 302 new:. export to file. knot. 349. surface. 296 Metastream file export.0 Command Reference sphere. draw line. 122 Move command. 297. 293. 414. read from file. 298. 4. 311. 243. 84. 115. objects to new construction plane. 302. 296. group. show hidden. 303. 35 object snap: along. 290. 133. 122. 297. 2. 305. toolbar. 206. 3. 296 minimize:. perpendicular to a curve. 349. 338 OBJ file exchange. 292. 338. off construction plane. 132 O command. 132. 363. 371. 251. unify normals. 295. toolbar button. 52. export to IGES. 304 normal:.Rhino 2. definition. 297 MoveTrace command. scale and rotate on surface. parting line. toggle persistent. 249. 309. 12 None command. 308. 305. 294. 243. 348. 297 MoveUVN command. 41. 312 mold. restore. a view. 343. 377. 46 moments. 121. 378 object properties. 322. 298 NamedViews command. 79. 363. 123. 378. 83. 297. 305 notes in Rhino file. 79. 78 Notes command. 302. 303 NextV command. show. 306. 81. objects. 251. 2. 298. 290. 362. 292 MeshCylinder command. reparameterize. 308. 93. midpoint. construction point through point. end. view. 30. 366 normal: definition. 212. 80. 302 NewViewport command. layer. 114. center. on surface. 229. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 135. ortho viewport active. save. 35. intersection. export to. 355. export to RIB. 323 Microsoft Excel. 215. viewport active. tangent to a curve. 295. 62 middle mouse button function. 123. 92. set persistent. 423 mesh:. 304. 379 Named Colors list. 385 name. 194 Mirror command. 145. 306 OffsetSrf command. 385. 75 named construction planes. 297 Mscribe command. 90 Midpoint object snap. viewport. 146. 304. 82. 378. 378. 295. 215. 81. lock. save named construction plane. options. an object. weld. 84. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. 385. 212. 296 mirror objects. 117. 103. tangent from curve. 203. edit. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 306. 362. 372 non-uniform scale. 249. 132. display. 243. 121. 343. 141 mouse. 37 morph target. 3. 79. wheel function. 113. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. move control points. 33. 2. 425. v-. set for single object. 384. 338. scale and rotate. 92. reverse direction. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 385. between two points. 78. 343. 296 minimum curvature. 82. 293 MeshDensity command. 90. 80. 82. multiple objects. 103. and n-directions. 251. 302. 294 MeshPolyline command. 379. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 338. 414. 425 offset: curve. unlock. 298 new: file. object to align with curve. 302 New command. 81. restore. 132. 297. 298 NamedView command. parameterization. 421 Moray UDO file export. 296. 80. 229. 212. 251. 234. 147. 78. 302 next. 292. to move objects. project to construction plane. 303 NextViewport command. 80. 243 456 . 79. near. 414. 90 move: background bitmap. 305 N-sided patch. 134. options. 423 MeshBox command. show toolbar. 304. 297. 290 Mesh toolbar. 212 object snap:. construction planes through a point. 304. 379. 309. toolbar. 84. 78. 131 NoElev option. 82.

90. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 131 pedge. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 313 Pan:. make curve periodic. place one. detailed polygon mesh. 246. 90. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 312. 290. 96. 94.Rhino 2. 92. background bitmap. curve. 307 open:. make surface non-periodic. 3DS MAX 1. 68 PictureFrame command. 92. 326. 351. 281. 325 Plane command. 308. 5. 98. 68 PNG file format. set. on surface from UV coordinates. 92. 363. 351. 133. Appearance tab. lock to axis. 253. 325. 318 PConic command. 96 options:. 320 place. 187. Shade tab. 92. 90. 119. view. 133. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 329. isoparm density. 130. options. 98 Options command. 379 Ortho pane. 28. use for shade. objects from the clipboard. 422 Point filters. about. load. 381 OpenWorkspace command. 28. 206 PlanarSrf command. 328. 262. 313. 84 open: file.set. 2. 90. 374. place multiple. 92. trackball motion. 133. 367 pe_tol. 133 OrthoAngle command. 308 OpenWS command. 322. 96. 330. on a surface. 323 planar section. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 96. 133 Perp object snap. 313. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 326. place at start of curve. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 386. Osnap. 79 point objects. 2. select method. 308 Options dialog box. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. surface. ortho angle. place at end of curve. 90. 290 Organic toolbar. 90. 224. middle mouse button function. 96. 95. 318 Perspective command. 325. 375. 92. 323 Planar command. 379. 133. toggle. 373. developers. options. 330. left. 333 PluginManager command. 339 POffSelected command. Modeling Aids tab. 190. 92. toggle. camera and target location. 133. pan distance. 313 PanUp command. 325. 98. 97. manager. 88. control polygon appearance. 376. startup commands. turn on or off. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. by three points. 188 point cloud. 90. 249. 94. 373. 366. right. 88. 92. 316. 174 parameterization. 322. create curve from. 338. set angle. 131 periodic. 2 Pan: down. 29. 88. Layer. options. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 323 Plan command. 96. 324 Plane3Pts command. 200. nudge increment. shade. Snap. 312 Osnap: pane. toggle. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. digitize. 426 OpenGL:. 314 Parabola command. 3DS MAX 2. 133 PanLeft command. 387 paste. 38 parting line. 133 P command. 90. from three points. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 94. 379. 172. 308 orient objects. 90. 281. 27. 339. 96. 309. 92. 321. 2. 329. 3DS MAX 2. 307 OnSrf object snap. 366. 326. 327. object snap radius. 84 OneLayerOff command. 425 Orient. 314 PanDown command. 281. 29. 206. 218. 90. 92. 133. click ortho pane to toggle. up. 323. 325 plane:. 314 parabolic curve. 205 pause for user input in script. fit through points. 92. 94. Aliases tab. 220. 325 PlaneV command. 325 Pline command. 88. 326 Point object snap. General tab. 2. polygon mesh. 339 point: control. 339. 133. 330 457 . 88. select all. Keyboard tab. toolbar. 131. 5. to curve. 323 Pa. 96. 68. 316.2. 324. 133. 323 planar mode. 309. shortcuts. target location. 254. 311 Ortho command. Planar. 258. 325 Plane3Pt command. 322 PlaceTarget command. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 40 perspective angle .5. 312. 4. trim options. 373 Point toolbar. 313 PanRight command. 96. 2. 309. 327 Point command. 324. 2 PackTextures command. 330. grid of. 101. 308 Orient command. 88. 311. 322. 311. 318 perspective view. redraw speed. 321. 133 Osnap command.0. 313 Panes. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 312 PageDown key. 323. troublshooting. 376. 363. saved toolbar layout. shortcut keys. 96. snap increment. 307. 318. Softimage. 133. 92. 320 Pipe command. 133. 119 Open command. change interface appearance. 325 plug-ins. 200. 379. 311. 12. View tab. 92. 93. 200. set. 253. 317 pause digitizer input. undo number. 4. 80 Perpendicular line. no-repeat commands. autosave. 313. 176 PCX file format. 101. 94. press shift to toggle. 307 OneLayerOn command. 313. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 318. 2. file locations. 290. 27. 311 Orient3Pt command. shortcuts. 90. 367 POff command. 314 parabola. 272. 324 Plane toolbar. 311 ortho mode. 272. 82 PerpLine command. 2. make surface periodic. 90. 88. 78 Osnap:. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 94. 2 Patch command.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 281. 130. Ortho. 213. 314 Pan command. 92. Files tab. 324 plane: cut through objects. 307. 64 options: aliases. 130.

344 RebuildEdges command. 90 458 . 36. 295. 87 properties:. 344 RebuildSrf command. 64. select next in u-direction. 353. 68. invert selection. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 361. 257. 381 QRender1 command. plane. 333. 344. 85 Properties Material tab. 414. 136. 303. 382 Quad object snap. 228 radius: dimension. 338 Project command. 123 Proj command. 121. 249. 420. from edge. 136. 137. 12. 197. named views from a 3DM file. 331 Polygon command. 349. 291. 292. 332. show edit and control. 367. 261. display information about an object. 294. cone. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 366. 86. 330 points:. image of model. 249. 19. 386. absolute. add next in v-direction to selection. grid. 150 polar coordinates. 338 properties. 260. render using OpenGL shade. 331. 261. viewport layout from file. 338 project: curve to surface. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 339 PopupMenu command. 202. 10. 223 PolarSphere command. to file. set normals the same. 329 PointLight command. convert each face to NURBS surface. 340 RailRev command. 197. 294. 339 PointsOn command. 303. 262. 386. 209. 425 PtOff command. 136. interpolate curve through. 337 project:. 334 PopupToolbar command. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 372 Polytrans. 337. 339 PointTest command. 423 Polygon toolbar. join. 202. 337 Pro/E file exchange. Polytrans Softimage translation. 343 rebuild:. select next in v-direction. 423. 330 PointsOff command. 343. surface. explode. 141. 336. 343 rebuild: curve. through point objects. 228 quinitics. 135. 303. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 190. density for primitives. add previous in v-direction to selection. 294. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 295. 339 PtOffSelected command. 366 PrintSetup command. 368. 332 polygon:. 371. 293. 327 PointDeviation command. 412. 40. 372. draw. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 343 ReadCommandFile command. render. 179. export to file. 68 POn command. select all. 335. show control. box. 339 PtOn command. 339 pull curve to surface. apply to surface. clear render mesh. 19. clear render mesh for all objects. 338. named construction planes from file. 290. 335. 141. 334. 293. add previous in u-direction to selection. 334 Polyline command. 372. 190. draw on mesh. 328 PointGrid command. 339. 50 Quit command. 35. select naked edges. select with lasso. 41 read. select object to turn off. object. to Clipboard. 138. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 229. 344. options. 259. render mesh. 254. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. select all. 229. 2 PrevU command. 18. 343. 187. 235. 338. 338. 330 PointsFromUV command. 87. coordinate points. 353 previous viewport. twist. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 81 QueryDomain command. 340 RailRevolve command. 339 purge empty layers. 138. inscribed. weld. 331. 371. 337. select connected. 339. 254. relative.0 Command Reference point:. 339. from NURBS object. 424. measure. 361. 343. 340 radius:. 340 Radius command. 220. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 340 rail revolve. 414. 257. 85. 10. 296. 86 Properties Text tab. 65 program toolbar functions. control points. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 340 QRender command. 35. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 290. 293. delete control on curve. 334 polysurface. 334 PostScript file export. 328 polar array. 420 Properties command. 262. 425. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 21. 337 Print command. join. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 378. 344 recent commands list display. 333. notes. 171. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 343. 345 Rebuild command. 292.Rhino 2. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 235. 86. 19. from closed polyline. toolbar. edit points. 12. select previous in v-direction. 259. objects to construction plane. 335 PrevViewport command. 333. 179. create from control points. 333 polyline:. 3D face. 135. viewport. 338 Projection command. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 259. 331 polygon mesh. 379 preview. 64. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 292. 290. 41 POV-Ray file export. hide edit and control. select previous in u-direction. knot. 382 QRenderAll command. 343. 296. material. sphere. explode. 349. 19. 331. 171. 131. 12. hide back. 121. 368. 339 Pull command. 332 PolygonEdge command. 336 print. 229. 229. 413 Points command. 337 ProjCP command. cylinder. 17. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 335. document. 220. 209. 259. 335 PrevV command. 188 PointCloudSection command. 137.

361. 363. named view. named view. 3. 24. save image in render window. 356 Right command. Front construction plane. 351. 3. file. 340 Revolve command. 351. 96. 378. 148 rectangular surface. 351 RemoveKnots command. 39. 355. 349 relative coordinates. 2. 357. shine. why the name. 338. 230. 359 RotateCameraRight command. left. 4.0 file exchange. 25 Rhino web page. clearing render meshes.Rhino 2. 324. 325 RectCen command. view change. 338 Render command. 359. 352 render plug-in application: options. bumpmaps. 183. 351. 19. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 351 RemoveKnot command. a surface. 355. 40. vertical. 346 rectangle: center. surface using rail curve. 429 RedoMultiple command. 324. 2 redo:. 288. 19. 183 Restore command. 308. 2. 3. 381. 172. 355 restore:. 30. 2. length and width. 363. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 354. Rhino from being minimized. 353. 338. 360. 355 RevU command. 1. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 347 rectangular array. 5. 357 right-click menu. layer. 355 revolve:. Rhino 1. 352. 348 Redo command shortcut. 320. 355. 425 render:. 2. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 412 Rotate3D command. 346 RectV command. 354. 320.0. 363. 3. 338. 171. 353 RenderPreview command. curve knots. 352. 353. 309. 358. through three points. 338. named construction plane. 349 remove. edges of polygon meshes. 39. 121 render: BMRT. Top construction plane. ii roll out a surface. 347 redo: last undone command. image in the render window. autosave. button image to file. 120. 360. 359. 241 RefreshShade command. file to a different file name or file type. 181. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. 251. from three points. an object. 2. 356 RGB color. 355. 359 RotateCPlane command. 119 Rhinoceros. 125. 90 reshape a toolbar. trim curve from surface. 39. 352. 398. 352 rename. 309. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 360 RotateView command. 346. edges. 360 Rule command. 348 refit a curve. 382. 20 render problems. 359 RotateDown command. 346 RectangleV command. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 103. 357 right mouse button. clear render mesh for all objects. objects. 360 RotateUp command. 354 repeat command exclude list. 353. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 4. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 357. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 356 RevV command. 340. 361 S command. textures. 429 Redo command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 338. 351 RemoveTrace command. 324. 360 RotateLeft command. 96. 345. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. preview using OpenGL shade. 25. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. transparency. 363. 347 rectangle:. 357 rotate view. 360 rotate:. 349 RemapCPlane command. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 181. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 172. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 1 RhinoScript options. wallpaper. 120 restore: current viewport size. up. 412 Rotate command. create background image. 360. 171. 353. 363. command aliases. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. background bitmap. 362. 347 Rectangle command. 360. 459 . 3. 10. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. scale and move on surface. 325. 75 Rhino 1. 99 Render toolbar. 30 save: as small file. 355 revolve: surface from curve.0 Command Reference Rect command. 352. 308. 171. 4. view continuously. object from selection. 398.ini. 181. place lights. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 94 RIB file export. 103. 309. 353. 360 RotateRight command. 348 ReduceMesh command. 354 reparameterize. curves. 345 Rect3Pt command. 355 Rev command. right. 353 RenderCurves command. 181. named construction plane. 252. 391 SAT file export. 360 Run command. down. 353 RenderEdges command. corner. 358 RotateCamera command. 4. mesh settings. 416 rotate: construction plane. 338. 4. 362. 346 RectangleCen command. 39. 348. 338. 379 RenderOptions command. 24. copy to Clipboard. 346. materials. 273 ruled surface. move and scale. 126. objects in 3D space. 346. 203. vertical to construction plane. 203. 338 Ribbon command. sequentially numbered versions of model. 355 RestoreView command. 1 Rhino. 120. close render window. 288. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 346. toolbar. 133 right view. 360 RunScript command. options. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. 5. highlight. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 30. 352 RenderCrv command. 4. 363. 2. 348. 355 revolved surface. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 3. 2. 152. 358.

90 Select Color dialog box. 375 SelWindow command. 181. 364. spotlights. objects by name. 383. 368 SelectConnected command. objects for render preview. 262. objects non-uniformly. JScript. 374 SelV command. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 368 SelCrossing command. 367 SelBadObjects command. in shaded viewport. 75 Select Points toolbar. 126 scripting:. construction plane to previously used. 25. 369 SelCurve command. 368. 367. 372. 376 set: active viewport by name. deselect all objects. surfaces. 376. 372 SelGroup command. 126. current layer. 262. 369. by layer. 365. 181. 370 SelID command. 90. polylines. objects to unlock. 365. 354. 354. 366 scale:. toolbar layout. 365. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. to file. next control point in v-direction. 303. 372 SelSrf command. 184. next control point in u-direction. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 371 SelMeshes command. 367. bad objects. with crossing window. 363. 309 Scale command. distance between grid lines. 370 SelLast command. 366. 370. objects. points objects. dimensions. 361 save template. 366 ScaleTrace command. objects by layer number. 373 SelPt command. connected points. 138. construction plane origins to a point. 371 SelLights command. 136. 374. 364. 367 scripting: Rhino installers.Rhino 2. move and rotate. 370 SelDup command. 206. 372 SelPolylines command. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. rotate and move on surface. 370 SelLayer command. coordinates of points. 370. 183. maximized viewport by name. 24. 362 save:. 178. 373. 137. 67 Sect command. 363 SaveAs command. 366 Scale1D command. 25. objects uniformly. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 364 Scale2D command. 364 Scale toolbar. 363. 51. 364. 183. 371.0 Command Reference shortcut. row of control points in udirection. 373 SelUV command. 373 SelSrfs command. layers from list. 184. 377. 370 selection menu. 371 SelectName command. 372 SelSolids command. 368. 368. 152. 365 ScaleNU command. 377. 137. lasso. to Clipboard. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. with a window. 375. 372. 372. construction plane with 3 points. 373 SelPts command. 262. objects to shade. 181. 371 SelLight command. 25. 372. 415 SelectBadObjects command. IGES. 369 SelCrv command. 339. 259. rows and columns of control points on surface. previous control point in udirection. 136. 184. 259. 363 SaveSmall command. 366. 138. 308. 309. 50. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. construction plane to object. 50. 383. to file in 256 colors. 362 SaveCPlane command. 309. 335. 383. subparts of objects. 246. 371. digitizing scale. 303. 372 SelPolysrf command. 366. 136. 335. 460 . 172. construction plane to next used. 363 SaveWSAs command. 367 SelAll command. control polygon display density. objects instead of control points. polysurfaces. extents of grid. 363 scale: background bitmap. 368 SelectID command. 258. add next control point in v-direction. 374. 362. 373. 125. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 339. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 373 select:. 373. 376. 303. 369. 368. 372. 369. curves. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 373 SelSolid command. 363 Save command. 369 SelCurves command. construction plane origin. 373 SelU command. 367 Section command. 373 SelSurface command. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 246. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 375 Select toolbar. toolbar layout as different name. 258. 364. 368 SelColor command. invert point selection. 379. 372 SelPolysrfs command. 371. 367. 369. duplicate objects. 252. 288. objects in one direction. 182. construction plane to view. 372. 362. 182. 369 SelCrvs command. 262. 182. 371 SelName command. 371. 335. 335. 373. with mouse method. 372 SelPrev command. 137. front construction plane. 376. 303. 370. 370. by object ID. previous control point in vdirection. 308. 375. 363 SaveWS command. all objects. 415. 103. VBScript. 371 SelMesh command. 230. 258. 2. 365 screen capture. construction plane to zaxis. invert. 371. add previous control point in u-direction. 24 SelectLayer command. 373 SelPolyline command. 374. 361. 372 SelNone command. 369 SelDim command. 367 section curves. 125. 367. 129 scripting tools. 366. 372 SelPoint command. 371. 126. add previous control point in v-direction. objects in two dimensions. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 373. 370. construction plane to x axis. 373 SelSurfaces command. 103. 184. meshes. template. 370 SelDups command. 246. 24. 363 SaveView command. 136. 366. construction plane vertical. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 138. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 365. 367 screen:. 368 SelConnected command.

options. to the midpoint of a curve. with wireframe. spotlight hotspot. naked edges. 250. 339. 338 shortcuts. 379. 5 Shift+PageUp. vertical. 380 SetGroupName command. 409 set:. 383 ShadeSelected command. 386 ShowStatusBar command. 384 show:. 376 SetGLShade command. 385 ShowPoints command. 220. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 376. 125. flat in one viewport. 386 ShowPt command. 339 ShowEdges command. in all viewports. 359. 242. 323. 264. toggle OpenGL mode. 140. scripting tools. 81. control points. 386. to previously used. OpenGL. 363. 218. x-axis. to next used. broken edges. 425 Shade1 command. 2. 5. 386 ShowSelected command. 318 SetPlanar command. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. pane. 184. 80. by key. top construction plane. 181. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 384. 261. 2. 94. 218. to the view. continuous shaded mode. 384. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 385. 382. 298. bitmap in a separate window. 96. keys. 81. Top. 5 shine in rendering. 386 Silhouette command. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 218. selected objects. 273 SLA export. edit points. 339. built-in aliases. 183. 78. 94. 181. 382 shaded display. 76. 337. 119. 80. 98. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 242. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 385 ShowOsnap command. 382. 382 ShadeAll command. 82. working directory. 78. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 376 SetGridSnap command. 2. to the intersection of two curves. tangent to a curve. 381 shade: continuous. 184. 376. to a surface. 173 ShowCV command. 383. onto a curve. display context menu. 383 ShadeOptions command. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 184. continuous in perspective view. Osnap toolbar. 183. to a point object. 381 shade:. 241. 79. selected hidden objects. 79. 386 ShowPts command. 181. perpendicular to a curve. 184. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 220 ShowGrid command. 250. 183. 3 Points. 206. with grid. 425 Shade command. 4 Shift+PageDown. by function. 322. to surface isoparm. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 388. perspective angle. 261. 386. 83. grid. 385. 241. 337. curve on polygon mesh. 92. from a point.Rhino 2. flat in all viewports. 77. 385. 384. 42 Smooth command. 426 Show command. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 182. 244. 389 Sketch command. 162. 392. 92. 92. 388. z-axis. 382. 23. curve with digitizer.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 380 SetSketchSkip command. change size. 207 SetSnap command. z-buffer. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. along a line tangent to a curve. 386. 153. 385. object. near a curve. 241. printer. 84. 125 show: background bitmap. 94. 23. 246. 380. 182. 409 ShowToolbar command. 381. 119 ShowToolbox command. 377. Right. 382. 355. 390 snap: along a line. 79. 362 Set View toolbar. 21 Shear command. 183. 387 silhouette curves. project object snaps to construction plane. 377 SetHotspot command. 379 SetPts command. 380 Settings command. 2. hidden objects. 84. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 98. 389. 184. 400 ShowTitle command. to construction plane. 318. 343. 82. 409. 212. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 426 ShowAll command. 384 ShowCamera command. 378 SetObjectName command. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. shortcuts. 183. 183. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. on surface. flat with grid. 120. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 42 SLC file exchange. hidden control points. midway between two points. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 3. 383 ShadedViewport command. 178. 383 shadow. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 389 SketchOnSrf command. options. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 390 smooth curve or surface. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 5. 94. 379 SetPt command. viewports. 381. 79. 376. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 220. 182. toggle object snaps. toolbar. 133. 119. 78. 206. 355. right construction plane. 389 skinning. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 318. 181. 183. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 78. 379 SetOrtho command. 2. with no smoothing on mesh. 383 shear objects. turn off object snaps. 383. 84. 212. to an object. 81. 182. 76. 80. 245 ShowMenu command. 357. 74. 119 ShowTrace command. to a knot. 183. selected objects in all viewports. 387 sketch: curve. edges of surface or polysurface. 84. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 383. 385 ShowGrev command. 246. to the end of a curve. 250 SetLayer command. 381 set construction plane. 391. handlebars. 388 sketch:. 318. 184. to the center of a circle. 2. 206. 78 461 . 384. 183. 242. 95. 242. 383 Shift key. 246. 298.

Booleans. extrude into solid. plane. 398 spreadsheet. 344. 392. 132. extrude curve along path. 384. 276. cone. 397. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. extrude curve to point. 284 SrfMerge command. 173. 42. from grid of control points. maximum radius of curvature. 284. 189. 372. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 233. 153. 165. polygon mesh. 393 sphere:. change degree. 160. 1. 325. 153. 338. 393. periodic. 377. 306. 428. 158. 411 SolidWorks. 399. 400 StatusBar command. sweep along path. turn on or off. 340. 104. 240. 42 StopScript command. IGES file exchange. 313. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 392 SnapToLocked command.0 Command Reference Snap command. extend. pipe. 277. 228. 401. create variable radius fillet between. 84 snap:. 400. 393 Sphere3Pt command. create fillet between. 229 SrfAlign command. 407. 201. 162. 398. 373. 161. 165. 154. 429. 392. extract from polysurface. 133. 406. 288. 92. merge. 234. 251. 284. 295. 317. 236. 426 surface analysis:. 402. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 35. 406. 298. 164. 281. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 324.Rhino 2. 320. 395. from grid of points. 391. 249. 295 Sphere command. 160. X_T file export. 162. 84 Softimage file exchange. 163. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 218. Boolean union. 285. 393. trim. 307. shortcuts. from heightfield bitmap. 399 SrfSum command. patch. 426. 81. 192. ellipsoid. 201. 242. 223. 164. 401. 192. chamfer. 402. 161. 393 Spiral command. 380. unroll. select all. 391 snap mode. 22 support. 399. 69. 414. 273. 278. skin. 69 Solid Edge. 421. 90 status bar. match. from 3 or 4 points. 396. 255 split: edge of a surface. 395. 192. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 250. 317. 160 summary information. 237. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 217. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 10. 79. box. 391. drape. 409. make periodic. 262. 416. 371 Spotlight command. 173. turn on or off. 396. 398 spotlight:. 250. 410. 164. 410. 321. 238. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 355. 114. 236. 192 Surface menu. 273. 192. hide backfacing control points. 367. surface at isoparms. revolved. 180. 364 SubCrv command. 316. 247. 339. 69. 417 surface:. 16. 416. 395. cylinder. 218. 307. 385. 216. truncated cone. 385. 223. 423 STL:. 380. 361. from 3 or 4 curves. plane vertical to construction plane. 366. 394 spline. from curve network. 182. 288. 371. 238. 413. 84. 417. 289. baseball sphere. 101. 340. 5. 126 Stretch command. 302. 201. 78. 94. 166. toolbar. 238. 261. 157. 406. 4. 386. 330. display. 392. 243. 166. torus. 238 Standard toolbar. 229. from planar curves. 324. 240. 317. toggle. 249. 277. one object with another. panes. mean curvature. 92. 324. for rendering. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 397 Split command. 229. 38 Solid toolbar. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 157. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 36. 113. 284. make nonperiodic. 380 snap to locked objects. blend. 160. 68 Softimage plug-in. 410. comma-delimited file export. file exchange. 273. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 373. 160. 162. 306. 396. 10. 251. 399 SrfPoints command. 392 Sphere toolbar. 381. 398. create. 218. 38 SortPoints command. 382. 114. 173. 398. 88. 395. IGES file exchange. 344. 281. 240. 286. 298. 133. 238. 288. 397 SplitEdge command. 70. 287. 417. 392. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 238. 216. 354. 398 SrfCV command. select all. plane from three points. X_T file export. tube. sweep two rails. rule. 223. 391. 392. 392. 216. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 393 SphereD command. 163. 118. 372. 396. 38. 198. 290. 38. 306. 163. 132. 133 sphere. 288. 19. 159. 241. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 386. 328. 247. 334 spacebar. 2. 263. 317. from three points. 15. hotspot. 243. 90. 273. 35. 238. 309 SrfBlend command. 281. 103. 189. 115. 352. 2. 15. 76. rebuild. 361. 229. 393 Sphere2Pts. 200. 42 Stereograms. 236. 320. 374 SrfCvCrv command. by diameter. 82. 243 Surface toolbar. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. developable. 203. 165. develop. 224. 3. 355. 133. 236. minimum radius of curvature. 400 SubCurve command. 189 SrfMatch command. 80. 426 STL: ascii tag. 430 startup commands. 398. 202. 400 STEP file exchange. 354. 70. viewport horizontally. viewport vertically. 277. 409 SnapSize command. 157. 298. center. 200. 399. reparameterize. 416. 96. reverse direction. 320. 279. 344. 398. 398. 236. 133. 240 solid:. 190. 166. cutting plane. 233. 417. 83. 393 Sphere2Pt. extrude. 153. 411. 348. 105 surface normal. 324. 372. box from three points. 395 split:. 171. 396 SplitSrf command. 275. 421. Boolean intersection. 399 SrfPt command. select all. cap planar ends. offset. 161. 190. 233. export object properties to. 360. 2. tolerance. 399 SrfPts command. 135. 356. 401. 324. 399. 426 462 . untrim. 42. 307. 281. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. draw curve through control points. 133. split. 325. 247. 273. loft.

334. 257. 173. 348. 249. 154. 203. display program. display of title bar. 272. new button. 410. 359. 220. 363. 401. 400. 5. new toolbar. 240. 230. 330. edit annotation. 347. 330. 192. 363. 169. 168. 317. 135. 187. 322. persistent object snaps. 389. menu bar. display of status bar. 134. 420. 179. 306. float icon to top of cascade. 308. 90. 136. 142. right. clear button image. 402. 228. Circle. 96. 245. 150. change button size. 14 Tan object snap. 358. 168. relative. 379. 120. 236. 141. 268. 355. 104. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 279. 232. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 179. show toolbar. 212. 407. 266. 392. 409. control polygon display. 422. 408 Text command. 119. 235. 1. 171. 333. new file. 338 ToggleToolbar command. control polygon highlight. 356. 337. 152. 425 Toggle34View command. file location. 362 text: annotation dot. 51. Arc. display of command prompt. 212. 372. float toolbar. 150. 463 . 155. 122. 22 toolbar buttons. 125. 270. 400 SwapUV command. 396. pop up with middle mouse. 166. 407. 81. Array. 206. 168. 346. 122. 121. 259. 297. 180. copy. 258. 399. 125. rename toolbar. 407. 368. 194. Extend. 351. 216. 255. 125 Toolbar command. Curve Tools. 120. 40. 429. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 302. 338. 80 TanFrom object snap. Box. edit 2-dimensional. BMRT Lights toolbar. 265. 162. 123. 255. 213. 326. 242. 139. 298. scripting. 244. 343. 124. 231. 177. 163. 121. 178. 400. 226. move toolbar. open toolbar. 123. 256. save. delete toolbar. 208. 144. 413. 295. 208. scaled size. 178. 345. Diagnostics. 192. dock. 245. 156. set viewport. 80. 335. 187. 50. 316. 342. 339. 185. 124. 245. 209. 241. 281. 387. 153. move. 391. 121. 360. 363. 171. 365. 351. 338. 343. 400. 216. 258. planar mode. 253. 379. 402. 321. 377. 197. 364. 22. 309. 120. 123. 428. 414.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. hide flyout. 384. 404 TAB key. 321. 239. 395. surface u and v. 198. 362. 265. 415. 217. 165. 373. 165. 323. 397. 71 Swap. 120. 173. close. 374. 222. 409 title bar. 119. 398. 163. 353. 149. 328. 363. Curve. 174. 320. 409. 409 TiltLeft command. 215. 421. 401. 303. 369. 271. 323. 302. 210. 121. rendering of edges. move button. 120. 391. 232. 235. 330. 135. 425. 409. 122. 121. 409. 125. 123. 119. 223. rendering of curves. 403. hide toolbar. 409. 353. 122.Rhino 2. perspective view on and off. 384. 396. 370. 304. 151. 407 text:. 393. 381. 120. 173. 121. 148. 13. 379. 138. create cascading toolbar. 269. 401. 408. 307. 151. 83. 415 tilt view. 255. edit button image. 392. 216. BMRT Materials. Edge Tools. 221. 124. 324. 337. 122. 82 tangent line. 124. 404. 323. 101. 190. 390. along path. status bar on or off. 215. open. 72 technical support. 120. 207. 302. 288. 90. 207. 400. properties. 420. 167. 148. 172. 322. 120. ortho. definition. 371. 311. 400 SwapView command. 234. 409. 121. 134. save. 247. 143. 51. 400. 361. 124. 73 template. 140. 352. 407 TextObject command. save. 281. 331. 387. 405. import from another layout. 283. 401 Sweep2 command. 143. 3-D Digitizing. 164. 181. 185. 349. 409. 90. 157. save layout as different name. capture button image. 198. 386. 230. solids. 229. 135. 409 toggle. 162. 215. Annotate. 292. 279. 170. 325. 273. 313. 419. 368. tear off flyout. 409. 407. 164. 251. 221. 149. 254. 124. 197. 288. 390. 230. 405 target. 430. 263. clear the bitmap image. title bar on or off. 39. 288. 409. 288. 82. 189. 174. 362. 3-D Digitize. 379. 218. 249. reshape toolbar. 365. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 330. 23. 170. 140. 139. 387. 78. programming. 245. 260. 22. 412. 332. 404 Sweep1 command. 388. 407 Texture command. 417. 416. 88. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 84. display viewport. 402 Sxtrd command. 394. 200. 185. 407. 363. unlink flyout. 338. 352. 264. 409 TogglePerspective command. 353. 206. 238. 161. 246. 420 Title command. 382. 426. 220. 323 TCone command. 187. 39. 222. display of viewport title. toolbar on and off. 103. 134 TGA file format. 120 ToggleToolbox command. Ellipse. 120 tolerance. 308. 142. 290. 366. 366. 203. planar curves. 220. 272. 294. 141. 210. 122. 375. 90. 305. 119. 39. 152. 409. 120. 385. 352. 340. 305. 269 TanLine command. 353. 125. 120. viewport title. two rails. 411. Curve From Object. 182. snap mode. 368. 248. 122. Background Bitmap. 124. 224. 420. 261. angle. 400 sweep. dragging based on view plane. 123 Toolbars. 296. 407. Dimensions. 262. 323. 221. grid axes on or off. 177. 124. 179. 120. 269 Taper command. 90. 195. import button image. 383. 323. 322. 160. crosshairs on and off. Analyze. 183. 340. 409 TiltRight command. 384. edit. 406. 419. 226. 184. 79. 162. display of menu bar. IGES export. toggle toolbar on and off. delete button. 293. 357. 267. 94. cascade. left. 257. copy button. 311. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 248. 409 toolbar layout. 420. 318. 388. 239. 339. 122. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 169. 145. capture icon. 284. 121. 220. 385. model size. 156. 420. 205. 245. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 409. 243. 367. 389. 233. 218. edit bitmap icon. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 423. 121. save button image to file. 367. 344. viewports. 215. 122. 241. 144. 336. 288. ortho mode. 395. 425. 256. 15. 137. 223. 189. grid on and off. 195. 209. 123. 260. 204. 210. 119. 168. surfaces. 201. CPlane View. 205. 367 Thaw command. 217. change name. 236. 338 texture for rendering. 297. 92. 19. world axes on or off. 344. 204. 231. 385. 15. 311. change. 308. 123. 221.

243. 357. 357. POV Lights. 375. 298. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 246. 413 u-direction: move control points. 102. 262. 142. 228. ArraySrf command. 420. 16. 415 units systems. 415 Ungroup command. 240. 261. shrink to trim boundary. Surface Tools. 414. IGES export type details. Geometry Fix. 322. 424. 317. 273. 50. 41. ScaleNU command. Polygon. 368. 104. Mass Properties. 152. 242. 366. 15 truncated cone. 288. 307. 399. 386. 406 Tube command. 233. 346. 219. command line. 379. 366. 218. 330. 296. 216. 268. 296. view change. Rectangle. 92. 326. 229. 393. 276. 333. 345. 330. 339. 339. 284. 296. 277. 413. control points. 428. 299. 308. 140. 259. 150. 414 Ungroup objects. 361. 352. 377. 141. 168. 262. 422. 165. 347. 414. 2. 373. 154. 161. 362. 19. Extrude. 363. 152. 398. 153. 82. 92 Trim command. 84. 334. OrientPerpToCrv command. 140. Sphere. Solid Tools. 78. 96. Fillets and chamfers. 372. 364. 423. 425. 307. all layers. 304. 321. 427. 367. title bar. 148. 123 464 . Surface Analysis. 413 undo:. 192. 379. 364. 296. 339. 203. 364. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 367. 101. 302. Lines. 409 top view. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 348. 262. 15 Units command. 208. 399. 307. 210. 386. 171. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 409. 414 unfold a surface. world axes. 402. 167. 339. 415 Toolbox command. 303. 157. 356. 363. 245. 298. 384. 2 Torus command. 311. 92. 403. 80. 180. 321. 309. 238. 49. 261. STL Tools. 229. 229. 138. 416. 417. 266. Tools. 154. 390. 318. 357. command line. 180. 259. 202. Rotate3D command. 172. 190. 240. 400. 384. 253. 180. 417. 135. 356 u-direction:. 249. 429 UndoMultiple command. 263. 154. Plane. 368. 254. 256. 338. 161. 425 turn on. 2. 263. 381. 260. Taper command. 172. 373. 352. 412 Twist command. File. 135. 323. along a line tangent to a curve. 407. 365. 48. 409. 94. 311. 288. 330. control points. 365. Select. 96. 330. 133. 267. 90. Mirror command. Viewport Layout. 269. 262. 135. 263. 377. Copy command. 263. 173. menu bar. 345. 88. 307. 148. set. 309. 180. 293. 92. ArrayCrv command. 275. 153. 357. 410. 374. shortcuts. 94. 416 UnGhost command. 203. 385. 245. 411 turn off. 148. 263. 357. 180. 300. 206. 164. 386. 48. 2. 244. 205. 203. 90. 375. 358. 294. SetPt command. 212. 261. control points on selected objects. 148. 174. 100. 333. 405. 351. 2. 383. 201. 96. Point. 198. 90. 390. 108. 104. Move command. 409. 244. 398. 370. 353. 288. 361. 236. 426 Turntable command. 172. 369. 220. 417. 182. 364. 194. command. 131 transform: Array command. 430. 338. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. Scale2D command. 145. 160. Scale1D command. 296. 332. 155. 262. 421. rendering. 425. 173. Microscribe. 244. 241. 405. 395. 184. 409. grid. 322. 308. Solid. 151. 200. 90. 203 trimmed surfaces. 261. 171. 302. 238. Organic. Mesh. Set CPlane. 297 u-direction curves. Smooth command. 349. 244. 148. 400. 365. Orient command. 179. title bar. 2. pop up at cursor. 408. 273. 19. 173. 236. 429. 338. 51. 404. 173. 92. 264.Rhino 2. 405. 395. 173. 412. 318. 81. 229. 355. 361. 386. 390. Surface 2. 247. 412 Transform toolbar. 406. Standard. 142. 400. 342. 348. grid. 258. 384. 313. 390. Select Points. 220. 16. grid axes. 208. 268. 251. 316. 136. 292. 214. 134. 392. 234. 358. layer. OpenGL. 414 UndoSelected command. 253. 386 troubleshooting. Visibility. 349. 1. 344. 337. 343. 149. 307. Flow command. 398. 154. autosave. 105. 305. 134. 338. 83. 258. 228. 409. 410. 82. 383. Orient3Pt command. 423. 245. 351. 383. Transform. 288. 41. 413. trimmed surfaces. 308. 309. Rotate command. 249. 326. 296. 355. 151. 79. 166. Render. 409. 103. 251. 349. 203. 328. 153. Surface. 308. 355. 342. 415. 363. 373. 412. 218. 413. 362. 249. 349. Point Editing. 366. 298. 339. 90. menu bar. 295. 213. 162. 236. 140. 405. 265. 173. 338. 409. 331. 181. 306. 309. 229. Shear command. 245. 379. 372. 236. Main. 251. 190. 425. 317. 410 trim:. 304. grid axes. 371. 150. 358. 343. along a line perpendicular to a curve. along a line. 154. 73 union. 429 Undo command. 309. 360. 101. 365. 255. 283. 425. 325. 140. 365. redo. 357. 349. 99. 342. world axes. 358. 412 transparency in rendering. 83. 391. Bend command. 356. 386. 359. 244. 336. 341. 94. 409. 324. definition. 240. 249. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. Set View. Layer. 348. 382. RemapCPlane command. 348. 290. 161. 382. IGES export file types. 82 tracking line. 113. 185 u-direction definition. 338. 103. 400. 307. 221. 137. 379. 412 transform:. 288. 429. 83. 82. 19. 335. 365. 281. 229. 224. 409 Top command. Scale. 338. POV Materials. shortcut. 88. 366. 239. 374. 339. 149. 236. 420. reverse. 409 Tools toolbar. 311. options. 245. 243. 203. in text. 412 U command. 381. 337. 396. 348. layer. 245. 396. 223. 153. IGES. 290. 249. 173. 311. 204. 339. Boolean. 172. 409. ArrayPolar command.0 Command Reference 233. 401. 161 unit systems. Object Snap. 182. 348. 386 Unicode fonts. 321 track. 203. 386. Booleans. 425. 50. 392. 399. 358. 397. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 162. 339. 414 UnhidePoints command. 270. status bar. 271. 183. 162. OrientOnSrf command. Scale command. autosave. 263. 323. ProjectToCPlane command. 101. 413. 383. 324. 339. 339. 180. 288. 331. 410 TraceBitmap command. status bar. 410. 88. Twist command. 334. 108. layers.

338. 376 Wallpaper command.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 397. 421 VolumeMoments command. 302. 224. redraw speed. 131 vertical. 172. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 264. 336. 360. 425 ViewportProperties command. line. 212. zoom out. 430 viewport:. 430. 415 visibility:. pan down. 132. 355. three viewports. next active. 250. 343. 190. 318. set left view. zoom extents. 425 WireShade1 command. 198. 273. 185.Rhino 2. 24. 271. 304. 428. 304. 419. 323. 416 UnrollSrf command. read named from file. 244. object. 360. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 416 UpDeg command. 363. 298. 430. 415 unroll a surface. 1 window: select. make previous active. rotate left. 420 views. 11 user input in script. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 376. 421 VPlane command. print. 419. 384. 303. 430. bottom view. 428 Windows Clipboard. place camera and target. 318. 165 UpDegSrf command. 135 WireframeViewport command. 409. 336. 323. set back view. swap. 421 VRBSrf command. 376. hide back. copy to all. 400. 400. with mouse. 336. 322. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 429. 321. restore named. 24. 400. 405. 343. 419. 51 weight: edit control point. control points. 343. layout. 313. 162. 313. plane. 400 viewport properties. tilt left. construction plane bottom. new. properties. 420. 429. selected objects. rotate. 244. 303. 377. 181. 134 VBscript. 318. 181. 162. 357. maximize. maximize viewport. 172. 397. 325 Vrbf command. perspective view. 422 Weight command. 244. 44 W command. 23. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 420. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 420 viewport title menu. 417 unwrap a surface. shade. 430. 153. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. display. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 415 UnLock command. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 420. set maximized by name. rotate right. zoom all to the same scale. 377. 302. 384. zoom in. 360. 23. set perspective view. 236. continuously rotate. wireframe viewport. 357. 132. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 347 view: back view. read from file. 163. 185 v-direction definition. set active by name. 96. lock objects. 135. 288. 45 workgroup: check in license. 420 ViewportTitle command. zoom extents selected. 313. 343. 415 UnLockSelected command. 409. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 45 viewport: bring to top. 419. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. front view. 379 Weld command. 249. split horizontal. isoparm. 343. 314. 429. construction plane left. 415 Visual Basic script. 430. 415 Visibility toolbar. 409. object snaps. pan left. zoom. 420. 244. 425 wireframe:. 430. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. plan view. move next to top. 313. 271. 24. 135. camera. 422 weight:. next perspective active. 425 WMF file export. 323. 423. 363. 304. 412. 397. left view. 2. 153. 168. 271 Volume command. 288. 273. 360. 383. 404 visibility: control points. 126 Vline command. set to wireframe display. construction plane front. zoom in and out by a percentage. 384. 386. 429. 425. zoom window. set density. rotate up. next ortho active. 383. 54 vertex. set all to match. construction plane right. 162. 3 window:. 404. pan right. 415. 318. 126 VCPlane command. tilt right. 304. 264. 409. 135. pan up. 190. 423 wetted surface area. 415 UnPackTextures command. 96. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 23. 184 VDA file exchange. 153. 25. 90 window selection. 325. 355. set front view. 318. 415 unlock:. 134. swap viewports. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 250 water plane area. 357. 421 VRectangle command. target. save named. 43 v-direction: move control points. pan. set to shaded display. 347. menu. 250 What command. 383. 356 v-direction:. set top view. 323. 264. 360. 168 465 . unlock objects. 409. 386. 302. synchronize. 379. 90. 347 VRML file export. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 416 untrim a surface. 429 viewport layout:. 429. 297 v-direction curves. control point. 338 wireframe display. 298. 376. 288. 429. 419. 412. 357. construction plane back. zoom window. top view. show control points. 419. 131. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 404. create from surface. check out license. 302. zoom extents in one viewport. set viewport. 264. zoom window and set a target point. zoom extents in all viewports. rectangle. edit named. 386. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 313. 420. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 429. set bottom view. 135. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 288. 314. split vertical. reverse. 422 water level. 360. 249. 397. 428. 322. set right view. 249. 322. place target. 302. 190. 417 Untrim command. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. right view. 423 weld:. 273. 135. close. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 430 view:. 163. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. 425. 249. 153. 325. create new. rotate down. 322. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 162. 288. 409.

429. 74 Z command. 3 zoom:. save as different name. in. 97. 11 WorldAxes command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 168. 430 466 . 217 ZBufferPts command. 4. 429 Zebra command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 428 Zoo. window and set a new target point. options. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange.Rhino 2. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 429 ZoomIn command. 425 world coordinates. 3. 2. 2. 130 zoom: dynamic. 381 workspace. 428. 428 ZoomNext command. previous view. 130. 3. 428. save. extents in all viewports. 430 ZoomTarget command. 363 world axes. 363. in and out by a percentage. 4. 425. 308. 429. 430. 430. 96. 429 ZoomP command. 430. 429 ZoomOut command. set colors. 429 ZEA command. 168 working directory. toggle display. 429. 425 WRL file export. 363. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 428. 426 ZM command. 430 ZoomX command. 430 ZoomDynamic command. window. open. 5. 429 ZoomMouse command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 96. 2. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 429 ZoomPrev command. 430 Zoom command. 430 ZP command. check in license. 217 ZBufferPt command. out.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 429 ZS command. 2. 233 Xtra command. 430. 216 ZE command. extents in one viewport. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 428. 38 XtndB command. 425. 430 ZBuffer command. 428 ZoomExtents command. 430 ZSA command. 44 X_T file export. 233 XtndF command. 168 workgroup:. 429. 308. check out license. 168. 429. 430 zoom window. 430 ZoomWindow command.

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