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Department of Electronics & Communication

JSSATE , BANGLORE 1

JSS ACADEMY OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION
(AFFILIATED TO VTU)

Uttarahalli-Kengeri Main Road, Mylasandra
Bangalore 560060



DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &
COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING







POWER ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL (06ECL78)
(VII SEM)


B. G. Shivaleelavathi,
Assistant Professor, E&C Dept.,
JSSATE, Bangalore.


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INDEX

SERIAL
NO.
CONTENTS PAGE
NO.
1 Power Electronics lab syllabus

3
2 Static characteristics of MOSFET and IGBT

4 to 9
3 Static characteristics of SCR, TRAIC and DIAC

10 to 17
4 Controlled HWR and FWR using RC triggering circuit

18 to 25
5 SCR turn off using i) LC circuit ii) Auxiliary
Commutation

26 to 33
6 UJT firing circuit for HWR and FWR circuits

34 to 43
7 Generation of firing signals for thyristors / TRIACs using
digital circuits/microprocessor.

44 to 47
8 AC voltage controller using TRIAC-DIAC combination

48 to 50
9 Single phase Fully Controlled Bridge Converter with R
and R-L loads

51 to 73
10 Voltage (Impulse) commutated chopper both constant
frequency and variable frequency operations

74 to 83
11 Speed control of a separately exited DC motor.

84 to 89
12 Speed control of universal motor.

90 to 91
13 Speed control of stepper motor.

92 to 96
14 Parallel / Series inverter

97 to 105
15 Model questions


16 Viva questions


17 Bibliography


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Acknowledgements: I take this opportunity to thank my husband, parents, son, HOD of E&C
Dept, E&C Department staff members and my colleagues


POWER ELECTRONICS LAB


Subject Code : 06ECL78 IA Marks : 25
No. of Practical Hrs/Week: 03 Exam Hours : 03
Total no. of Practical Hrs. : 42 Exam Marks : 50


1. Static characteristics of MOSFET and IGBT.

2. Static characteristics of SCR, TRIAC and DIAC.

3. Controlled HWR and FWR using RC triggering circuit

4. SCR turn off using i) LC circuit ii) Auxiliary Commutation

5. UJT firing circuit for HWR and FWR circuits.

6. Generation of firing signals for thyristors/ TRIACs using
digital circuits/microprocessor.

7. AC voltage controller using TRIAC-DIAC combination.

8. Single phase Fully Controlled Bridge Converter with R and R-L loads

9. Voltage (Impulse) commutated chopper both constant frequency and
variable frequency operations.

10. Speed control of a separately exited DC motor.

11. Speed control of universal motor.

12. Speed control of stepper motor.

13. Parallel / Series inverter.






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1) STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET AND IGBT

(i) STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET .

AIM: To plot input and transfer characteristics of an MOSFET and to find ON state resistance
and trans conductance.

APPARATUS:
1. 0 50V DC Voltmeter
2. 0 100V AC Voltmeter
3. 0 100mA AC Ammeter
4. Regulated power supply
5. n-channel MOSFET(IRF-840)
6. Resistance (500/5W).

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: IRF 840.
1. VDss-Drain to Source Breakdown voltage : 400 Volts.
2. R
ds
(on)-On state Resistance : 0.55 ohms.
3. ID-continuous drain current-25 C : 10 Amps.
4. ID-continuous drain current-100 C : 6.3 Amps.
5. RJC-Max thermal resistance : 1 C/Watt.
6. PD Max-power dissipation@ 25 C : 125 watts.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

0 - 5 0 0 m A
V
V 0 - 1 5 V
0 - 5 0 V
R
G S
VD S
D I
1
2 R
2
V1


PROCEDURE:
i)Trans Conductance Characteristics:

Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram including meters. Initially keep V1 and V2
minimum. Set V1=VDS1=say 10V. Slowly vary V2 (VGS) and note down ID and VGS readings for
every 1 Volt and enter in the tabular column. The minimum gate voltage VGS that is required for
conduction to start the MOSFET is called Threshold Voltage VGS(Th). The Drain current depends on
magnitude of the Gate Voltage VGS which may vary from 2 to 5 Volts.
Repeat the same for different VDS and draw the graph of VGS V/s ID.
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ii)Tabular Column:

VDS1 (Volts) VDS2 (Volts)
VGS (Volts) ID (mA) VGS (Volts) ID (mA)














iii)Drain Characteristics:

Initially set V2 to VGS1=3.5 Volts. Slowly vary V1 and note down ID and VDS. For a particular value
of VGS1 there is a pinch off voltage (Vp) between drain and source.
If VDS is lower than Vp, the device works in the constant resistance region and ID is directly
proportional to VDS. If VDS is more than Vp, constant Id flows from the device and this operating
region is called constant current region.

Repeat the above for different values of VGS and note down VDS Vs ID.

Draw the graph of VDS Vs ID for different values of VGS.
iv) Tabular Column:

VGS1 (Volts) VGS2 (Volts)
VDS (Volts) ID (mA) VDS (Volts) ID (mA)



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WAVEFORMS :
Ohmic
ID
mA
0
GS4 V
Active
GS3 V
GS2 V
GS1 V
GS4 V > GS3 V > > VGS2 VGS1
DS V
volts
Output Characteristics
D I
DS V
Transfer Characteristics
VGS(th)



RESULT:
VDS
1. RD = -------------- = ------------------------------ .
ID

ID
2. Gm = -------------- = ------------------------------ mho.
VDS

CONCLUSION:
We conclude that MOSFET is a voltage controlled device. VDS remains constant after it crosses the
Vpeak value.
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(ii)) STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBT.

AIM: To plot the characteristics of IGBT.

APPARATUS:
1. 0 50V DC Voltmeter
2. 0 100V AC Voltmeter
3. 0 100mA AC Ammeter
4. Regulated power supply
5. Resistance (500/5W).
6. IGBT (IRGBC-20S)

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: IRGBC 20S
1. V
ce
-Collector to emitter Voltage : 600 Volts.
2. Max V
ce(on)
-Collector to emitter Voltage : 3.0 Volts.
3. I
c
-continuous collector current @ 25 C : 19 Amps.
4. ID-continuous collector current @ 100 C : 10 Amps.
5. Pd max-Maximum power dissipation : 60 Watts.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
0-500mA
V
V 0-15V
0 - 50V
GE
VCE
C I
R
2
2
1 R
V1


PROCEDURE:

i)Transfer Characteristics:

Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram with meters.
Initially keep V1 and V2 minimum. Set V1=VCE1=say 10V. Slowly vary V2 (VGE) and note down IC
and VGE readings for every 1.0 Volt and enter in the tabular column. The minimum gate voltage
VGE which is required for conduction to start the IGBT is called Threshold Voltage VGE(Th). If VGE
is greater than VGE(Th) only very small leakage current flows from Collector to Emitter. If VGE is
greater than VGE(Th), the Collector current depends on magnitude of the Gate Voltage. VGE varies
from 4 to 8 Volts.
Repeat the same for Vc and draw the graph of VGE V/S IC.

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ii)Tabular Column:

VCE1 (Volts) VCE2 (Volts)
VGE (Volts) IC (mA) VGE (Volts) IC (mA)















iii) Collector Characteristics:

Initially set V2 to VGE1=5 Volts. Slowly vary V1 and note down IC and VGE. For a particular value
of VGE1 there is a pinch off voltage (V
p
) between Collector and Emitter.

If VGE is lower than Vp, the device works in the constant resistance region and IC is directly
proportional to VGE. If VGE is more than V
p
constant IC flows from the device and this operating
region is called constant current region.

Repeat the above for different values of VGE and note down VCE V/S IC.

Draw the graph of VCE V/S IC for different values of VGE.

iv) Tabular Column:
VGE1 (Volts) VGE2 (Volts)
VCE(Volts) IC (mA) VCE (Volts) IC(mA)







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WAVEFORMS:
COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS

I C
(mA)
GE3 V
GE2 V
GE1 V
CE V (volts)
VCE C I
Resistance
OUTPUT
=
V
I C
CE
=

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS
G E V
C I
C E V
T r a n s f e r
R e s i s ta n c e
=
G E V
C I
G E V ( v o l ts )
=
( m A )
C I

RESULT:
VCE
1. RON = -------------- = ------------------------------ .
IC

2. VGSTh = ------------------------------ Volts

CONCLUSION:

We conclude that IGBT is a voltage controlled device. VCE remains constant after it crosses the
Vpeak value.
2) STATIC CHARACTERISTIC OF SCR, TRIAC & DIAC

(i) STATIC CHARACTERISTIC OF SCR

AIM: To plot the characteristics of an SCR and to find the forward resistance, holding current
and latching current.

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APPARATUS:
1) 0 50V DC Voltmeter
2) 0 500mA DC Ammeter
3) 0 25mA DC Ammeter
4)Resistor (1k/5w)
5)Regulated power supply
6)SCR (TYN616)
7)Rheostat

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: TYN 616
1. V
rrm
: 600V.
2. I
t(rms)
: 16 A.
3. It(av) : 10 A.
4. I
t(sm)
: 160 A.
5. I
t
: 128 A/s.
6. di/dt : 100 A/s.
7. Igt : 25 mA.
8. V
gt
: 1.5 V.
9. IH : 40 mA.
10. IL : 70 mA.
11. tq : 70s.
12. dv/dt : 500 V/s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

I G
V
R
0-25mA
A I
VAK 0-50V
1
0-500mA
2
1
R
2
V


PROCEDURE:
i). V-I Characteristics:
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Now switch ON the mains supply to the unit
and initially keep V1 & V2 at minimum. Set load potentiometer R1 in the minimum position. Adjust
I
g
-I
g1 say 10 mA by varying V2 or gate current potentiometer R2. Slowly vary V1 and note down
VAK and IA readings for every 5 volts and enter the readings in the tabular column. Further vary V1
till SCR conducts, this can be noticed by sudden drop of VAK and rise of IA readings. Note down
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this reading and tabulate. Vary V1 further and note down IA and VAK readings. Draw the graph of
VAK V/S IA.

Repeat the same for I
g
=I
g2/I
g3 mA and draw the graph.

Tabular Column:
MODE 1, IG1=
VAA (volts) V AK2 (volts) I AK (mA)
















To find latching current:
Apply about 20V between anode and cathode by varying V1. Keep the load potentiometer R1 at
minimum position. The device must be in the OFF state with gate open. Gradually increase Gate
voltage- V2 till the device turns ON. This is the minimum gate current (I
gmin
) required to turn ON
the device. Adjust the gate voltage to a slightly higher value. Set the load potentiometer at the
maximum resistance position. The device should come to OFF state, otherwise decrease V1 till the
device comes to OFF state. The gate voltage should be kept constant in this experiment. By varying
R1, gradually increase anode current IA in steps. Open and close the Gate voltage V2 switch after
each step. If the anode current is greater than the latching current of the device, the device stays ON
even after the gate switch is opened. Otherwise the device goes into blocking mode as soon as the
gate switch is opened. Note the latching current. Obtain more accurate value of the latching current
by taking small steps of IA near the latching current value.

Increase the anode current from the latching current level by load pot R1 or V1. Open the gate
switch permanently. The thyristor must be fully ON. Now start reducing the anode current
gradually by adjusting R1. If the thyristor does not turns OFF even after the R1 at maximum
position, then reduce V1. Observe when the device goes to blocking mode. The anode current
through the device at this instant is the holding current of the device. Repeat the steps again to
accurately get the IH. Normally IH<IL.

WAVEFORMS:
MODE 2, IG2=
VAA (volts) VAK(volts) I AK (mA)












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On
State
Transient Characteristics
IL
IH
Ig Ig Ig
Ig=0
Forward Blocking Region Reverse Blocking Region
FBO
RBO
I
3 2 1 v
v
vAK
A

RESULT: 1. The break over voltages : Vb1 = --------------
: Vb2 = ---------------

Latching Current (IL)= ------------------------------------ amps

Holding Current(IH) = ------------------------------------- amps
VAK
Forward Resistance Rf = ------------;
IA

Rf = ------------------------------ O


CONCLUSION :
We conclude from the experiment that as the gate current increases the break over voltage
decreases.















(ii) STATIC CHARACTERISTIC OF TRIAC.

AIM: To plot the characteristics of TRIAC.
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APPARATUS:

1) 0 50V DC Voltmeter
2) 0 500mA Ammeter
3) 0 25mA Ammeter
4) Regulated power supply
5) Resistor (1k/5w)
6) TRIAC(BT136-600)
7) Rheostat

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: BT136-600.
1. Vdrm : 600V.
2. Itrms : 4 A.
3. Itsm : 50 A.
4. It : 12.5 A.
5. di/dt : 10 A/s.
6. I
gt
: 15 mA.
7. Vgt : 1.5 V.
8. IH : 13 mA.
9. IL : 50 mA.
10. dv/dt : 10 V/s.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
V
IL
0-500mA
IG
0-25mA
R
2
0 - 50V
1
2
T2T1
V
V
1
R



PROCEDURE:
i) V-I Characteristics:
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram including meters. Now switch ON the mains
supply to the unit and initially keep V1 & V2 at minimum. Set load potentiometer R1 in the
minimum position. Adjust I
g
-I
g1
say 10 mA by varying V2 or gate current potentiometer R2. Slowly
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vary V1 and note down VT2T1 and IL readings for every 5 Volts and enter the readings in the tabular
column. Further vary V1 till Triac conducts, this can be noticed by sudden drop of VT2T1 and rise of
IL readings. Note down this reading and tabulate. Vary V1 further and note down IL and VT2T1
readings. Draw the graph of VT2T1 V/S IL. Repeat the same for I
g
=I
g2
/I
g3
and draw the graph.

To find latching current:
Apply about 20V between MT1 and MT2 by varying V1. Keep the load potentiometer R1 at
minimum position. The device must be in the OFF state with gate open. Gradually increase Gate
Voltage V2 till the device turns ON. This is the minimum gate current (I
gmin
) required to turn ON
the device. Adjust the gate Voltage to a slightly higher value. Set the load potentiometer at the
maximum resistance position. The device should come to OFF state, otherwise decrease V1 till the
device comes to OFF state. The gate Voltage should be kept constant in this experiment. By
varying R1, gradually increase anode current IL in steps. Open and close the Gate voltage V2 switch
after each step. If the load current is greater than the latching current of the device, the device stays
ON even after the gate switch is opened otherwise the device goes into blocking mode as soon as
the gate switch is opened. Note the latching current. Obtain more accurate value of the latching
current by taking small steps of IL near the latching current value.

Increase the Load current from the latching current level by load pot R1 or V1. Open the gate switch
permanently. The Triac must be fully ON. Now start reducing the anode current gradually by
adjusting R1. If the Triac does not turn OFF even after the R1 at maximum position, then reduce V1.
Observe when the device goes to blocking mode. The load current through the device at this instant
is the holding current of the device. Repeat the steps again to accurately get the IH. Normally IH<IL.

MODES
Modes MT2 MT1 G
Mode1 + - +
Mode2 + - -
M0de3 - + +
Mode4 - + -



Tabular Columns:
MODE 1, IG1=
VTT (volts) V T1T2 (volts) I T1T2 (mA)






MODE 2, IG2=
VTT (volts) V T1T2 (volts) I T1T2 (mA)




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MODE 3, IG3=
VTT (volts) V T1T2 (volts) I T1T2 (mA)





MODE 4, IG4=
VTT (volts) V T1T2 (volts) I T1T2 (mA)





WAVEFORMS:


1
Ig
0
Ig
Ig
2
I
V
Ig
Ig
2 V
1
0
Ig
BO

V-I characteristics


RESULT:




CONCLUSION:
We conclude that the sensitivity of the mode depends on minimum gate current required to turn on
the TRIAC. We found that mode1 is most sensitive where as mode3 is least sensitive.


(iii) STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DIAC

AIM: To plot the characteristics of DIAC.

APPARATUS:
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1) 0-60V DC Voltmeter
2) 0-250mA AC Ammeter
3) Resistor (1k/5w)
4) Regulated power supply
5) DIAC (DB-3)
6) Rheostat

DEVICESPECFICATIONS: DB-3.
Breakdown Voltage: 32V10%
Power: 0.5 Watts.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



PROCEDURE:

Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Keep R2 at maximum resistance position and
do not change this throughout the experiment. Since the device is only a switching device and its
power rating is only 0.5 watts. Keep V1 potentiometer also at minimum position.

Next switch ON the unit and V1 power supply. Vary V1 in steps of 5V and note down the
corresponding Ammeter reading. Vary in steps of 5V up to 25 Volts. After that vary in steps of 1V.
At a particular value of voltage the device conducts. This can be noticed by the sudden increase of
ammeter reading. This is the device breakdown voltage. Vary V1 further and note down the
corresponding V/I readings in the tabular column.





Tabular Columns:
FORWARD CHARACTERSTICS
VTT (volts) V T1T2 (volts) I T1T2 (mA)

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WAVEFORMS:

I (mA)
~ 30v
V
V - I Characteristics



RESULT :

VFBO = --------------- (V)
VRBO = --------------- (V)


CONLUSION :

We conclude that DIAC is a bi-directional device.










3) CONTROLLED HWR AND FWR USING RC TRIGGERING CIRCUIT

(i)RC FIRING CIRCUIT HALF WAVE RECTIFIER.

REVERSE CHARACTERSTICS
VTT (volts) VT1T2 (volts) I T1T2 (mA)










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AIM: To study Resistance-Capacitance triggering of SCR in half wave mode.

APPARATUS:
Step down transformer (23030V) , Load resistance (100 rheostat), Resistance (10K
potentiometer, 100), Power Diodes (IN 4007), SCR (TYN616),CRO.

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: TYN 616
1. V
rrm
: 600V.
2. I
t(rms)
: 16 A.
3. I
t(av)
: 10 A.
4. It(sm) : 160 A.
5. I
t
: 128 A/s.
6. di/dt : 100 A/s.
7. Igt : 25 mA.
8. V
gt
: 1.5 V.
9. IH : 40 mA.
10. IL : 70 mA.
11. tq : 70s.
12. dv/dt : 500 V/s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :






DESIGN:

It can be shown empirically that

RC 1.3T/24/ :
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T = 1/f & f = 50Hz
R= R1 + R2
Vc = Vgt + Vd ; where Vc is capacitor voltage , Vd is diode voltage drop.
At the instant of firing , Vc is assumed to be constant ,the current Igt must be supplied by voltage
source through R, D2 and the gate cathode voltage. Therefore maximum value of R is given by :
R= R1 + R2 (V- Vgt - Vd )/ Igt ;

Approximate values of R & C can be obtained from the above equations.

EXAMPLE :

RC = (450)/2
Let Vgt = 1.5 V, Vd =0.7 V
Then Vc = 1.5 + 0.7 = 2.2 V let Igt(max) =10mA
R= R= R1 + R2 (V- Vgt - Vd )/ Igt ;
R (32-1.5-0.7)/10mA 2.97 K;
&
RC 1.3T/24/
C 1.3T/24/R = 1.3/(2*50*2.97*10
-3
) = 1.01e-6F
Let C = 1F, then
Let R2 =100 ;


PROCEDURE:

i) R- Triggering

Make the connections as given in the connection diagram above. Connect a Rheostat of 100
ohms/1.7A between the load points. Vary the control pot and observe the voltage waveforms across
load, SCR and at different points of the circuit.

We can vary the firing angle from 0 to 90 only in R triggering (you may have to disconnect the
capacitor to realize R triggering alone). In this triggering the synchronized firing angle can be
obtained easily and economically in the positive half cycle of the supply. But there is a draw back
that the firing angle can be controlled at the most at 90, since the gate current is in phase with the
applied voltage. A resistor is connected in series with the control pot, so that the gate current does
not cross the maximum possible value Igmax
Draw the waveform across the load and device for different values of firing angles.

ii) RC Triggering

Connect capacitor to the R triggering circuit to realize RC triggering. Repeat the above procedure
and draw the waveform across the load and device for different values of firing angles. Note here
the firing can varied from 0 to (~)180.






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TABULAR COLUMN:

Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vorms (Volts) Vodc
(Volts)
Vorms
(Volts)






Formula Used :
Vodc (theoretical) = Vm (1+ cos )/(2 )

WAVEFORMS :



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Waveforms across Vc , Vload , Vscr , w.r.t to source




RESULT :


CONCLUSION :
The average O/P voltage can be varied by varying the firing angle ().


















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(ii)RC FIRING CIRCUIT FULL WAVE.

AIM: To study Resistance- capacitance triggering of SCR in full wave mode.

APPARATUS:
Step down transformer (23030V) , Load resistance (100 rheostat), Resistance (10K
potentiometer, 100), Power Diodes (IN 4007), SCR (TYN616),CRO.

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: TYN 616
1. V
rrm
: 600V.
2. I
t(rms)
: 16 A.
3. It(av) : 10 A.
4. I
t(sm)
: 160 A.
5. I
t
: 128 A/s.
6. di/dt : 100 A/s.
7. Igt : 25 mA.
8. V
gt
: 1.5 V.
9. IH : 40 mA.
10. IL : 70 mA.
11. tq : 70s.
12. dv/dt : 500 V/s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :




NOTE :
A simple RC trigger circuit giving full-wave output voltage. Diodes D1 D4 form a full-wave
bridge rectifier. Diode Bridge: In this circuit, the initial voltage from which the capacitor C charges
is almost zero. The capacitor C is set to this low positive voltage(upper plate positive) by the
clamping action of SCR gate. When capacitor charges to a voltage equal to Vgt SCR triggers and
rectified voltage Vd appears across load as Vo.


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DEISGN :

Same as for Half wave triggering


PROCEDURE:

Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram above. Switch ON the unit. By varying the
potentiometer on the front panel, note down the voltage waveforms across the load( 100 Ohms/2A
rheostat) and also across SCR and capacitor. Infer on the control obtained with and without
capacitor connected to the circuit. Draw the waveforms across load, SCR and across capacitor.

TABULAR COLUMN:

Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vorms (Volts) Vodc
(Volts)
Vorms
(Volts)

















FORMULA USED :

Vodc (theoretical) = Vm (1+ cos )/( )










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WAVEFORMS :



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RESULT :


CONCLUSION :

We conclude that the average voltage in FW mode is greater than HW mode. The average O/P
voltage can be varied by varying the firing angle ().










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4) SCR TURN OFF CIRCUITS USING
(a) LC CIRCUIT (b) AUXILIARY COMMUTATION

AIM: To rig up various turn off circuits for SCR by auxiliary commutation class D commutation.

APPARATUS:
Forced commutation study unit, DC power supply (0-30V/2A for Class E Commutation only),
Rheostats (50 ohms / 2A) 2Nos, CRO, Probes and connecting wires.

DESCRIPTION :

FORCED COMMUTATION STUDY UNIT
This unit consists of two parts (i) Power Circuit and (ii) Firing Circuit sufficient to study (a) Class
A Commutation Self Commutation by load resonance. (b) Class B Commutation Self
Commutation by LC circuit. (c) Class C Commutation Complimentary SCR commutation. (d)
Class D Commutation Auxiliary SCR commutation. (e) Class E Commutation with an external
source of pulse for commutation.

POWER CIRCUIT:

This part consists of the following components to build different commutation circuits with
different values of commutation components.
a) 2 SCRs. b) a diode. c) 2 different values of commutation capacitors to get different value of
commutation capacitance by individual, series and parallel connections and d) a commutation
inductor with tappings at different points and a transistor for class E commutation. An unregulated
DC power supply of 24 Volts @ 2Amps is provided to use as DC input for commutation circuits.

FIRING CIRCUIT:
This part generates triggering pulses to fire two SCRs connected in different forced commutation
circuits. The frequency and duty cycle can be varied using respective potentiometers.




















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FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:

FORCED COMMUTATION STUDY UNIT - FCU
U
POWER
TRIG- OUTPUT
CAT
T2
GATE
1 T
OFF
ON
+
ON
E
S
FIRINGCIRCUIT
FREQUENCY
MIN MAX
+
F
-
DUTYCYCLE
MIN MAX
C1 C2
T2
1 L O L2 L3
T1
D
POWERCIRCUIT
C
B
R T
E

FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
1.Power : Power ON / OFF switch to the unit with built in indicator.
2.Frequency : Potentiometer to vary the frequency of commutation from 30Hz to
250Hz approximately.
3.Duty Cycle : Potentiometer to vary the duty cycle from 10% to 90%
approximately.
4.Trigger Output ON / OFF : On / Off switch for mains pulse T1
5. Gate / Cathode : Positive and negative points of trigger outputs to connect to gate and
cathode of SCRs.
6.T1 : Trigger output for SCR T1 200 s pulse.
7.T2 : Trigger output for SCR T2 200 s pulse.
8.Volts dc IN : 24V @ 2A unregulated DC supply is available at these terminals for DC
Source for the commutation power circuit.
9. ON : ON / OFF switch for DC supply.
10.Fuse : 2Amps glass fuse for DC power supply protection.
11. + : DC power supply point after switch and fuse.
12.D : Free wheeling diode BYQ 28 200.
13.T1 & T2 : SCRs TYN 612.
14.T
r
: Transistor TIP 122.
15. Commutation Inductance
L1 : 250H
L2 : 500H
L3 : 1H @ 2A
16. Commutation Capacitance
C1 : 6.8F / 100V
C2 : 10.0 F / 100V
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BACK PANEL DETAILS:

Main socket with built in fuse holder. The fuse holder has a spare fuse along with the fuse
in the circuit. If the fuse blows remove the blown fuse and replace with the spare fuse. Fuse 1A
fast blow glass fuse.


DESIGN OF LC COMMUTATION CIRCUIT :

TON= [LC]
1/2
Let TON = 2 msec , C = 6.8 F.
Then 2 x 10
-3
= [L x 6.8 x 10
-6
]
1/2

L = 590 H


PROCEDURE:

Switch on the mains to unit and observe the trigger outputs by varying frequency and duty cycle
potentiometer and make sure that the pulse output are proper before connecting to the power
circuit. Check the DC power supply between the DC Input points.

Check all the devices. Check the resistance between the Gate and Cathode of SCRs. Check the
resistance between anode and cathode. Check the diode and its polarity. Check the transistor and its
polarity. Check the fuse in series with the DC input. Make sure that all the components are good
and firing pulse is correct before you start any commutation experiments.


(a)CLASS A COMMUTATION: (SELF COMMUTATION BY RESONATING LOAD -LC)

The current reversing property of the load will force the device commutation. L,C and R values are
chosen such that the circuit is under damped.

Since the commutation elements carry load current on a continuous basis, these ratings are
generally high. For low frequency operation large value of L & C is required.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

0- 3 0 V
T 1
L
C R
OUT P UT A CR OS S " R "


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PROCEDURE:

Make the interconnections in the power circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
Connect trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1. Switch on the DC Supply to the power
circuit and observe the voltage waveform across load by varying the frequency Potentiometer. Duty
cycle Potentiometer is of no use in this experiment.

Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.


TABULAR COLUMN :
WHEN L = L1 AND C= C1
R () Ton ( msec) Tc ( msec)









WHEN L = L1 AND R= R1
C (F) Ton ( msec) Tc ( msec)







WHEN R= R1 AND C= C1
L Ton ( msec) Tc ( msec)








WAVEFORMS:
T r i g g e r o u t p u t s :
T 1
T 2


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Voltage across the gating pulse, Thyristor, voltge across capacitor, voltage across resistor

RESULT :



CONCLUSION :
We conclude that the SCRs can be commutated by using LC circuit also.

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CLASS B COMMUTATION:(SELF COMMUTATION BY AN LC CIRCUIT)

In this type of commutation, reverse voltage is applied to the thyristor by the over swinging of an
under damped LC circuit connected across the Thyristor.

Capacitor charges up to the supply voltage before the trigger pulse is applied to the gate. When the
thyristor is triggered, two currents flow, a load current through the external circuit and a pulse of
current through LC circuit and thyristor in opposite direction. This resonant current tends to turn
off the thyristor.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

24V
L
C
R


PROCEDURE:

Make the interconnections in the power circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
Connect trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1. Switch on the DC Supply to the power
circuit and observe the voltage waveform across load by varying the frequency Potentiometer. Duty
cycle Potentiometer is of no use in this experiment.
Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R

WAVEFORMS:

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O U TP U T A C RO S S "R "
o n ly fr eq u e n cy v a ria tio n is p o s ib le

RESULT :


CONCLUSION :

Thus the SCRs are commutated by LC circuit for class A and class B LC commutation circuits.

(ii) AUXILIARY VOLTAGE COMMUTATION:

Circuit same as Jones chopper:


1
T
C
2
T
1 L 2
L
LM
L
O
A
D DM
D
1
VDC
JONES CHOPPER
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM









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PROCEDURE:
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Connect T1 and T2 gate pulse from the
firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs in the power circuit. Initially keep the trigger ON/OFF at
OFF position to initially charge the capacitor, this can be observed by connecting CRO across the
Capacitor. Now switch ON the trigger O/P switch and observe the voltage wave forms at different
frequencies of chopping and also at different duty cycles.

Repeat the experiment for different values of load resistance, commutation inductance and
capacitance. Compare the results with theoretical results.

PARAMETERS AND OBSERVATIONS:
1. Voltage wave form across capacitor.
2. Output voltage waveforms (across the load)
3. Output current waveforms (Through the shunt)
4. Voltage waveforms across Thyristor.
5. Study of variation of voltage and current waveforms with the variation of duty cycle
and frequency.
6. Study of effect of free wheeling diode in case of inductive loads.
































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5) UJT FIRUNG CIRCUIT(ACVC, HWR & FWR)
(i)UJT FIRING CIRCUIT TWO SCRS(ACVC)

AIM: To fire two SCR using UJT firing circuit.

APPARATUS:
Step down transformer (23030V) , Load resistance (100 rheostat), Resistance (50K
potentiometer, 3.3K, 100, 220 , 500V/5W), Power Diodes (IN 4007), Zener diode ,SCR
(TYN616),Pulse transformer, CRO.

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: TYN 616
1. Vrrm : 600V.
2. It(rms) : 16 A.
3. I
t(av)
: 10 A.
4. I
t(sm)
: 160 A.
5. It : 128 A/s.
6. di/dt : 100 A/s.
7. I
gt
: 25 mA.
8. Vgt : 1.5 V.
9. IH : 40 mA.
10. IL : 70 mA.
11. t
q
: 70s.
12. dv/dt : 500 V/s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :



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DESIGN :
Let VBB =20V; VD = 0.7V;
Vc = VBB (1- e
-t/RC
)
Vp = VBB + VD ; ( = 0.65)
Since Vc = Vp of UJT
Vz (1- e
-T/RC
)
Therefore T = RC ln [1/(1-n)]
T = time period of output pulse .
The firing angle is given by
= T = RC ln [1/(1-n)]
= angular frequency.
Vodc(th) = Vm (1+ cos) /2
The leakage current drop across R1 should be small that when UJT is OFF it should not trigger i.e.,
VBB =I1eakage(RBB + R1+R2 )< SCR trigger voltage.
and R2 = 10
4
/( VBB )
width of triggering pulse is R1 C = T2
When voltage drop across C reaches Vp voltage across R is VBB Vp .
Therefore Rmax = (VBB - Vp ) / Ip
Rmin = (VBB - Vv )/Iv

PROCEDURE:

2.1. Firing of SCR using UJT.
Switch on the mains supply observe and note down the wave forms at the different points in the
circuit and also the trigger O/Ps T1, & T1.

Now, make the connections as given in the circuit diagram above ,using AC source, UJT
relaxation oscillator, SCR and suitable load(100ohms /2A rheostat). Switch ON the mains supply,
observe and note down the output waveforms across load and SCR. Draw the wave forms at
different firing angles as 120, 90 & 60 degrees. In the UJT firing circuit the firing angle can be
carried from 150 30 approximately.

This is one of the simplest methods of SCR triggering. We can also fire SCRs in the different
power circuits as described earlier.

2.2. UJT Relaxation Oscillator:
To study oscillator using UJT, short Cf to the diode bridge rectifier to get filtered DC output. Now
we will get the equidistant pulses at the O/P of pulse transformer. The frequency of the pulse can be
varied by varying the potentiometer RC. Observe and note down the waveforms at different points
in the circuit.

TABULAR COLUMN:
Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vorms (Volts) Vorms (Volts)






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FORMULA USED :
Virms = Vm /2
Vorms (theoretical) = Virms [( - )/(2 ) + (sin2/2 )]
1/2

WAVEFORMS :




waveforms across rectifier (Vodc),zener (Vz), capacitor (Vc), resistor (Vr2), load(VL) ,SCR
(Vscr) with respect to source for = 90 degrees.
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RESULT :

CONCLUSION :

We conclude that the pulses obtained from UJT can be used to fire two SCRs also with the help of
a pulse transformer.











































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(ii)SYNCHRONIZED UJT FIRING CIRCUIT FOR HWR AND FWR TRIGGERING.

UJT FIRING CIRCUIT HALF WAVE
\

AIM: To fire SCR for Half Wave using UJT firing circuit.

APPARATUS:

Step down transformer (23030V) , Load resistance (100 rheostat), Resistance (50K
potentiometer, 3.3K, 100, 220 , 500V/5W), Power Diodes (IN 4007), Zener diode ,SCR
(TYN616),Pulse transformer, CRO.

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: TYN 616
1. Vrrm : 600V.
2. I
t(rms)
: 16 A.
3. I
t(av)
: 10 A.
4. It(sm) : 160 A.
5. I
t
: 128 A/s.
6. di/dt : 100 A/s.
7. I
gt
: 25 mA.
8. Vgt : 1.5 V.
9. IH : 40 mA.
10. IL : 70 mA.
11. t
q
: 70s.
12. dv/dt : 500 V/s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :


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DESIGN:

Vc = VBB (1- e
-t/RC
)
Vp = VBB + VD ; ( = 0.65)
Since Vc = Vp of UJT
Vz (1- e
-T/RC
)
Therefore T = RC ln [1/(1-n)]
T = time period of output pulse .
The firing angle is given by
= T = RC ln [1/(1-n)]
= angular frequency.
Vodc(th) = Vm (1+ cos) /2
The leakage current drop across R1 should be small that when UJT is OFF it should not trigger i.e.,
VBB =I1eakage(RBB + R1+R2 )< SCR trigger voltage.
and R2 = 10
4
/( VBB )
width of triggering pulse is R1 C = T2
When voltage drop across C reaches Vp voltage across R is VBB Vp .
Therefore Rmax = (VBB - Vp ) / Ip
Rmin = (VBB - Vv )/Iv

PROCEDURE:

1.1 . Firing of SCR using UJT.
Switch on the mains supply observe and note down the wave forms at the different points in the
circuit and also the trigger O/Ps T1, & T1. Make sure that the pulse transformer O/P T1 & T1 are
proper and synchronized.
Now, make the connections as given in the connection diagram above ,using AC source, UJT
relaxation oscillator, SCR and suitable load(100ohms /2A rheostat). Switch ON the mains supply,
observe and note down the output waveforms across load and SCR. Draw the wave forms at
different firing angles as 120, 90 & 60 degrees. In the UJT firing circuit the firing angle can be
carried from 150 30 approximately.
This is one of the simplest methods of SCR triggering. We can also fire SCRs in the different
power circuits as described earlier.

1.2. UJT Relaxation Oscillator:
To study oscillator using UJT, short Cf to the diode bridge rectifier to get filtered DC output. Now
we will get the equidistant pulses at the O/P of pulse transformer. The frequency of the pulse can be
varied by varying the potentiometer RC. Observe and note down the waveforms at different points
in the circuit.

TABULAR COLUMN:
Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vorms (Volts) Vodc
(Volts)
Vorms
(Volts)



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Formula Used :
Vodc (theoretical) = Vm (1+ cos )/(2 )
WAVEFORMS :

waveforms across rectifier (Vodc),zener (Vz), capacitor (Vc), resistor (Vr2), load(VL) ,SCR
(Vscr) with respect to source for < 90 degrees.

RESULT :
CONCLUSION :
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We conclude that the pulses obtained from UJT can be used to fire SCR.
(iii)UJT FIRING CIRCUIT FULL WAVE

AIM: To fire SCR for Full Wave using UJT firing circuit.

APPARATUS:
Step down transformer (23030V) , Load resistance (100 rheostat), Resistance (50K
potentiometer, 3.3K, 100, 220 , 500V/5W), Power Diodes (IN 4007), Zener diode ,SCR
(TYN616),CRO.

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: TYN 616
1. V
rrm
: 600V.
2. I
t(rms)
: 16 A.
3. It(av) : 10 A.
4. I
t(sm)
: 160 A.
5. I
t
: 128 A/s.
6. di/dt : 100 A/s.
7. I
gt
: 25 mA.
8. V
gt
: 1.5 V.
9. IH : 40 mA.
10. IL : 70 mA.
11. t
q
: 70s.
12. dv/dt : 500 V/s.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :




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DESIGN :
Vc = VBB (1- e
-t/RC
)
Vp = VBB + VD ; ( = 0.65)
Since Vc = Vp of UJT
Vz (1- e
-T/RC
)
Therefore T = RC ln [1/(1-n)]
T = time period of output pulse .
The firing angle is given by
= T = RC ln [1/(1-n)]
= angular frequency.
Vodc(th) = Vm (1+ cos) /2
The leakage current drop across R1 should be small that when UJT is OFF it should not trigger i.e.,
VBB =I1eakage(RBB + R1+R2 )< SCR trigger voltage.
and R2 = 10
4
/( VBB )
width of triggering pulse is R1 C = T2
When voltage drop across C reaches Vp voltage across R is VBB Vp .
Therefore Rmax = (VBB - Vp ) / Ip
Rmin = (VBB - Vv )/Iv

PROCEDURE:
2.1. Firing of SCR using UJT.
Switch on the mains supply observe and note down the wave forms at the different points in the
circuit and also the trigger O/Ps T1, & T1.
Now, make the connections as given in the circuit diagram above ,using AC source, UJT
relaxation oscillator, SCR and suitable load(100ohms /2A rheostat). Switch ON the mains supply,
observe and note down the output waveforms across load and SCR. Draw the wave forms at
different firing angles as 120, 90 & 60 degrees. In the UJT firing circuit the firing angle can be
carried from 150 30 approximately.
This is one of the simplest methods of SCR triggering. We can also fire SCRs in the different
power circuits as described earlier.

2.2. UJT Relaxation Oscillator:
To study oscillator using UJT, short Cf to the diode bridge rectifier to get filtered DC output. Now
we will get the equidistant pulses at the O/P of pulse transformer. The frequency of the pulse can be
varied by varying the potentiometer RC. Observe and note down the waveforms at different points
in the circuit.

TABULAR COLUMN:
Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vorms (Volts) Vodc
(Volts)
Vorms
(Volts)







FORMULA USED :
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Vodc (theoretical) = Vm (1+ cos )/( )
WAVEFORMS :


waveforms across rectifier (Vodc),zener (Vz), capacitor (Vc), resistor (Vr2), load(VL) ,SCR
(Vscr) with respect to source for = 90 degrees.

RESULT :

CONCLUSION :
We conclude that the pulses obtained from UJT can be used to fire SCR
Department of Electronics & Communication
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6) GENERATION OF FIRING SIGNALS USING DIGITAL FIRING CIRCUIT

AIM :To control firing angle /duty cycle using digital triggering.

APPARATUS:
Digital firing circuit, SCRs( Single or any combination) loads, C.R.O, Probes etc.,

DIGITAL FIRING CIRCUIT:

This firing circuit generates isolated trigger pulses for the phase converter, Triac and DC
Chopper Power Circuits. The firing angle can be varied from 0-180 in steps of one degree and
duty cycle can be varied from 0- 100% in steps of 1% using a thumb wheel switch. The firing
scheme is based on ZCD, fixed frequency line synchronized clock generator, up/down counter, flip
flop and pulse Transformer isolation method.

FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:
DIGITAL FIRING CIRCUIT - DFC
ZCD
GENERATOR
CLOCK
COUNTER
LOGIC
CIRCUIT
A C
GND
ACRef
180
100%
F.A. / D.Cy
Fc
Oscillator
TP
N T
R
TRANSFORMER
PLUSE TM
ON
OFF
GND
TRIGGERO/PS
T1
T2 2 T '
T ' 1
MAINS
ISOLATION
1
2
INPUT


FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
1) MAIN : Power ON/OFF switch to the unit with built-in indicator.
2) AC Ref : 10V AC reference input for synchronization.
3) GND : Ground point of the unit to observe the waveforms.
4) A : ZCD output.
5) C : Reset output for resetting the counter.
6) F.A/D.CY : Thumb wheel switch to set the firing angle from 0 to 180
0
and Duty cycle
from 0 to 100%
7)180
0
/ 100% : Switch to select 180
0
(1ph converter) or 100% (chopper) mode
8)F
c
Oscillator : Carrier frequency generator-5KHz.
9)R : 10 K ohms potentiometer to vary the no. of pulses from the clock
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generator
10) Clock generator : A stable oscillator to generate clock input to the counter (180
pulses or 100 pulses) 3 stage.
11) Counter : 4bit up/down programmable counter.
12) Logic Circuit : Logic and modulator circuit to get TP,TN for 1ph converter and
TM, TA or chopper experiments.
Tp : Train of pulses for +ve cycle
TN : Train of pulses for ve cycle.
TM : Pulse of 200 sec for main SCR.
TA : Pulse of 200 sec for auxiliary SCR.

13) TM ON
OFF : ON/OFF switch for main SCR14) Pulse Transformer
Isolation : Pulse transformer based isolation circuit with amplifier to isolate the Logic
circuit from the power circuit.
15) INPUT 1 and 2 : Input terminals to connect logic inputs.
16) Trigger O/Ps : Pulse Transformer isolated Trigger O/Ps to
be connected to gate and cathode of SCRs.
T1 and T1
1
: Identical and isolated O/Ps for input-1,T2 and T2
1
: Identical and
isolated O/Ps for input-2

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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Digital Frequency N- bit Flip- Flop
Logicckt. +Modulator
Counter (F/ F)
+
Driver Stage
ZCD
Carrier Frequency
Oscillator
(~5kHz)
Oscillator
Preset
('N' no. of countingbits)
CLK max
minS
A A
B
B
T T Fc
T
T
R Reset
Load Reset
C
Sync.
Signal (~8V)
Supply
DC5V
A

En
DIGITAL FIRING CIRCUIT
A
P
N
A M



PROCEDURE: - Switch ON the mains supply to the unit. Observe AC reference signal and
compare it with ZCD O/P A and reset output C. Observe the carrier frequency oscillator o/p-5khz.

Now set the 180
0
(Converter) mode. Observe the counter O/P keep the firing angle at 179.
Adjust the potentiometer R in such a way that a very small pulse at the counter O/P is obtained.
Now vary the firing angle from 180
0
to 0
0
step by step and observe the variation in trigger O/Ps TP
and TN. Connect TP and TN to 1 and 2 input of pulse Transformer isolation circuit and we will get
the pulse Transformer isolated and amplified outputs at T1 & T1
1
and T2 & T2
1
respectively.
Connect these Trigger O/Ps to gate and cathode of SCRs for different power circuits as given in the
table. Now set the 180
0
-100% switch to 100% mode (chopper) keep the duty cycle at 99%. Adjust
the potentiometer Rin such a way that a very small pulse output is obtained. Now vary the duty
cycle in steps from 99% to 1% and observe the counter O/P and also observe the time variation
between main pulse TM and auxiliary pulse-TA. Connect TM and TA to input 1 and 2 of pulse
transfer isolation.

TABLE


Experiment TRIGGER I/PS TRIGGER O/PS
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TP TN TM TA T1 T1
1
T2 T2
1

1)Single Ph-half wave converter.

2)1-ph-full wave converter.

3)1-ph-half controlled bridge

4)1-ph-Fully controlled bridge

5)1-ph.AC phase control

6)Triac (short T1-T2 +ve ve)

7)Complimentary commutation

8)Auxiliary commutation
*

*

*

*

*

*




*

*

*

*

*

*












*

*









*

*
*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*






*
*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*






*












Table shows the useful Trigger inputs and Trigger outputs for different experiments.








WAVE FORMS:
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0
1
P
e
2
Wt
3
0
A
F
A
F1
0
A
Wt
Wt
A
0
Wt
Wt
Wt
0
C
Down
0
Counting
16th pulse of
If
N pulse
A
0
Wt
a 2 3
0
B
Wt
0
B
Wt
Wt
Wt
0
C
0
G
1
a 2 3
2
0
G
a+ 2
G = A,B, I
1 c
G = A,B, I
2 1

RESULT:

CONCLUSION :

7) AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER USING TRIAC DIAC COMBINATION

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AIM : To fire TRIAC using DIAC.

APPRATUS REQUIRED :

Dimmer stat ,Isolator, Lamp Load, Resistor ,Potentiometer ,Capacitor,
DIAC( DB -3) ,TRIAC (BT-136), Power scope.

DEVICE SPECIFICATIONS: BT136-600.
1. Vdrm : 600V.
2. Itrms : 4 A.
3. Itsm : 50 A.
4. It : 12.5 A.
5. di/dt : 10 A/s.
6. Igt : 15 mA.
7. Vgt : 1.5 V.
8. IH : 13 mA.
9. IL : 50 mA.
10.dv/dt : 10 V/s.

DEVICE SPECFICATIONS: DB-3.

Breakdown Voltage: 32V10%
Power: 0.5 Watts.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :






DESIGN FOR AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER :

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Time Constant = T =RC + (R+R1)C
T should exceed the time period of half a cycle for 50Hz mains.
T =(R+R1)>=10mSec.

The resistance R1 should limit the current value ,which prevents DIAC in conduction even after
capacitor has discharged.
Therefore, R1>VBBmax/Imax : R1>=VBDIAC/IDIAC
R1>32/100ma
R1>320 ohms

Therefore , Let C=0.47 microfarads
So, 0.00000047(320+R)=15mSec
R=31900-320
=31580 ohms
Choose a 100 kilo ohms potentiometer


PROCEDURE:
Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram. Switch ON the mains supply. Trigger the
TRIAC using DIAC firing circuit. Vary the firing angle potentiometer and observe the AC
voltmeter reading , waveform on the CRO & variation in lamp brightness and also note down the
voltage variation across the lamp.

For different positions ,we get different firing angle and for each setting note down the O/p voltage
ac voltmeter reading in tabular column. Plot the graph of firing angle Vs ac load voltage.

TABULAR COLUMN:
Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vorms (Volts) Vorms (Volts)











Vrms = Vm /2
Vorms = Vm [{(t-o)/(2t)} + {(sin 2o)/(2t)}]
1/2

If o =0
0
; then
Vorms = Vm /2 = Virms




WAVEFORMS:
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waveforms across Vsupply, capacitor (VFBO), TRIAC (VTRIAC), load(VL) with respect to
source for = 90 degrees.

RESULT:

CONCLUSION :

We conclude that power dissipation is less in case of DIAC firing circuit than UJT firing circuit.
DIAC firing circuit has a better firing angle control than the UJT firing circuit.


8) SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLED CONVERTER
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 52

1) SINGLE PHASE SEMI CONTROLLED CONVERTER

AIM :-To conduct a suitable experiment on half controlled(semi controlled) converter with
resistive and inductive load .

APPARATUS :-

Dimmer-stat, isolator, rheostat, inductor (transformer/isolator)resistors ,single phase converter
firing circuit, SCR converter module (power circuit module) .


SINGLE PHASE CONVERTER FIRING CIRCUIT

FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:



SINGLEPHASECONVERTERTRIGGERINGUNIT- SCT
ON/ OFF
90
60
30
0
120
150
180
TRIGGER
OUTPUTS
+ -
FIRINGANGLE
T
1
T'
1
T
2
T'
2
GND
1 2 3
7 6 5 4
TESTPOINTS
POWER








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JSSATE , BANGLORE 53
FRONT PANEL DETAILS:

1. Power :- Main ON/OFF switch with built in LED Indicator.
2. Firing angle :- Potentiometer to vary the firing angle from 180
to 0
3. ON/OFF :- Switch for trigger output with soft start feature.
4. Test points :- To observe the signals at various points in the logic
circuit for study purpose.
5. Trigger outputs :- T1 & T1
1
: For +ve Half Cycle.
T2 &T2
1
: For -ve Half Cycle.

This unit generates four line synchronized isolated triggering pulses to fire
thyristors connected in single phase (1) Half wave (2) Full wave (3) Half controlled Bridge (4)
Fully controlled Bridge and (5) AC phase control power circuit.

The firing circuit is based on Ramp-comparator scheme. Isolation is provided by
pulse transformer.

FEATURES :-

1. Work directly on 230V AC mains.
2. Gate drive current of 200mA to trigger wide range of devices.
3. Firing angle variation from 180 to 0 on a graduated scale.
4. Test points to study the logic circuit
5. Soft start and soft stop feature.
6. Neatly designed front panel.

This unit along with our SCR converter modules, rectifier diode modules, single
phase half controlled converter power circuit and single phase fully controlled
converter power circuit can be used to conduct power electronics experiments on
single phase.

BACK PANEL DETAILS :-

Mains socket with built in fuse holder.
Fuse -500mA. A spare fuse is also provided in the fuse holder.

INSTALLATION:

While operating, keep the equipment in well-aerated cool place. Avoid direct sunlight on the
equipment. Use a properly earth grounded outlet socket to connect to the equipment. This is so
because a floating earth ground will not provide a clean AC reference to the equipment. The power
input plug is situated on the back panel of the unit. Use the power cord provided along with the
equipment to the power outlet socket.




INPUT POWER SPECIFICATIONS:

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JSSATE , BANGLORE 54
Voltage : 215V -245V AC at 45 to 55Hz.
Current : 75mA (Max continuous) @ 230V AC.
500mA (Max surge).
Fuse : 500mA (Slow Blow) capsule type 20x 5mm.

Situated in the lower left corner of the equipment front panel is the power ON/OFF switch with
built in LED indicator. The LED glows when the switch is in ON position.

A fuse protects the equipment against over voltage and any short circuit. The fuse holder is an
integral part of the power inlet plug situated on the back panel. A spare fuse is provided in the fuse
holder. The power cord has to be removed from the plug, before you can access the fuse holder.
While replacing the fuse, pull off the holder smoothly.

Refer to figure shown below:





Power inlet plug



Pull here
Fuse holder




Power inlet plug/fuse holder



Remove and discard the blown off fuse and insert a new fuse in to the bay provided for it, replace
back the assembly in correct direction and press it until it flushes with the surface. Now connect
power cord back into the plug. Switch on the mains supply to the equipment. Observe the signals at
test points, trigger outputs and their phase sequence before connecting to the thyristor in the power
circuit. The built in pulse transformer based isolation between the trigger circuits and the power
circuit provides isolation up to a tune of 1000V.
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 55
5V1
1K
+12V
10K
100K
1K
4K7
47K
-12V
100F
OFF/ON
+12V
1N4007
1N4007
10K
1K
V1 S
1K
0.1
100K
4K7
4K7
4K7
4K7
555
8 3 7
6
1 2 5
4
P
+12V
4K7
4148 12K
0.01 0.01
7VS
4K7
P
7V5
4K7
0.01 0.01
4148 12K
4K7
+12V
555
6
2 1 5
4
3 8 7
T
1
T
2
T
3
4148
1K
1N4148
4K7
4148
2N2222
22K
1N4007
22K
1N4007
2N2222
IN4148 4148
+12V
+12V
7V5
4K7
100K
4148
1K
1K
741
3
4
6
7
+12V
100K
3
2
741
6
7
4
+12V
1K
T
4
T
5
6 T
15V
0.75A
15V
1N4007
1N4007
1000F
1000F
25V
7812
7912
1000F
25V
1000F
25V 25V
+12V
GND
-12V
33 /5W
Vun
330
P/n1K 12V
BC107
SL-100
10K
22PF
GATE
1K8 5V1
CAT
GATE
CAT
T
5V1 1K8
1N4007
FIRINGANGLEPOT
CIRCUITDIAGRAM
+15V
+15V
100K
(75mA)
0
+12V
-12V
T7
1N4007
1'
T1
0.1F
0.1F



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JSSATE , BANGLORE 56
TEST POINTS
1
2
3
Vc 4
5
6
7
8
T1 & T1
T2 & T2
TRIGGER OUTPUTS





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JSSATE , BANGLORE 57
SERVICING DETAILS
SINGLE PHASE CONVERTER FIRING CIRCUIT :

a) Check the 3 pin Mains Cable used along with this unit
b) Check the Fuse in the Mains socket
c) Check the Mains Switch
d) Check the transformer
e) Check the firing angle potentiometer.
f) Check the ON/OFF switch
g) Check the zener diodes & IN4007 diodes at the output of the pulse transformer.
h) Check +12V & -12v power supply (Check 7812 &7912 regulators)
i) Check BC 107 & SL 100 transistors
j) Check 2N2222 transistors
k) Check 741/555ICs
l) Check for any loose contacts.

SINGLE PHASE SEMI CONTROLLED CONVERTER POWER CIRCUIT :
SPECIICATIONS, 230V/5A

The circuit arrangement of a single-phase full converter is shown in fig. During the positive half
cycle, thyristor T1 and T1
1
are forward biased; and when these two thyristor are fired
simultaneously at wt=o, the load is connected to the input supply through T1 and T1
1
. In case of
inductive loads, during the period t s wt s (t+o), the input voltage is negative and the
freewheeling diode D
m
is forward biased. D
m
conducts to provide the conductivity of current in the
inductive load. The load current is transferred from T1 to D
m
; and thyristor T1 IS turned off due to
line or natural commutation.
During the negative half cycle of the input voltage, thyristor T2 is forward
biased. The firing of thyristor T2 at wt= t+o will reverse bias Dm.
The diode D
m
is turned off and the load is connected to the supply through T2 and T2
1
.
Figure shows the waveforms for input voltage, output voltage and Trigger Outputs.

FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:


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JSSATE , BANGLORE 58
This power circuit consists of four SCRs connected as semi- controlled bridge converter. A free
wheeling diode is provided to observe the effect of free wheeling diode on inductive loads.

Each device in the unit is mounted on an appropriate heat sink and is protected by snubber circuit.
Short circuit protection is achieved using glass fuses. A circuit breaker is provided in series with
the input supply for overload protection and to switch ON/OFF the supply to the power circuit.

The front panel consists of input and output terminals. The gate and Cathode of each SCRs brought
out on the front panel for firing pulse connection. Voltmeter and an Ammeter is mounted on the
front panel indicates the output voltage and current. A separate full wave bridge rectifier is
provided in the unit to get the DC supply for the field of DC Shunt Motors. The power circuit
schematic is printed on the front panel.



SPECIFICATIONS:
Input Voltage :15V to 230V AC.
Load current : 5 Amps maximum
Fuses : 6 Amps fast blow glass fuses.
Field supply : 220V 10%/2 Amps
MCB : Two pole 6 Amps/ 230V

FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
Input terminals : To connect single phase input supply.
Output terminals(+&-) : To connect load.
Voltmeter(0 to 300V) : To indicate output voltage
Ammeter(0 to 5A) : To indicate output current.
Circuit breaker : 6 Amps AC power ON/OFF to the circuit and for
protection .
T1 & T2 : SCR 16 TTS 12-16 A rms/1200Volts.
D1 & D2 : Diodes SPR 16PB-16A/1200V
DM : Free wheeling diode SPR 16PB-16A/1200V
Field(+ and -) : Field supply for DC motor for motor control
(with indicator) experiments.

BACK PANEL DETAILS:
Mains socket : For 230V AC mains supply to field supply bridge rectifier.
Fuse holders : 2 fuses in series with input AC supply, a fuse at the output and a fuse for
free wheeling diode.Fuse - 6 Amps

SINGLE PHASE POWER CIRCUIT
BLOCK DIAGRAM: :



230 V ,50Hz 0-230V




Isolation

Transformer
Power

Circuit

Load
Dimmer
Stat

Firing
circuit
Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 59
1. Isolation Transformer:

To suit single phase 230V/50Hz supply, ratio 1:1, KVA rating to suit the load rating with
tapping at different voltages. Isolation of mains, phase and neutral with measurement circuit.
Serves the purpose of di/dt protection of SCRs and safe measurement of waveforms by using
oscilloscope. Isolation of Electric noise with mains.

2. Power circuit:

Different power circuit configurations are possible using SCRs and diode modules.
Half Wave Converter 1SCR
Half Controlled Converter _ 2 SCRs & 2 Diodes
AC phase Control 2 SCRs

3. Firing Circuit:

Each SCR of the above Power Circuit to be triggered using independently isolated outputs
using single phase converter firing unit. Trigger outputs phase sequence and variation to be
checked before with the power circuit. Phase sequence to be compared with the power circuits
phase sequence.



PROCEDURE :-

Switch on the mains to the circuit. Observe all the test points by varying the firing angle
potentiometer and trigger o/ps ON/OFF switch. Then observe the trigger o/ps and their phase
sequence .Make sure that all the trigger o/p sure proper before connecting to the power circuit..
Next connections in power circuit .Use a dimmer stat with a isolator and connect it to power
circuit. Connect the R-load between load points .Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to
respective SCRs .Switch ON the MCB trigger o/ps and note down load voltage can be seen
.Repeat this same for R-L load and with and note down waveform.



Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 60

TABULAR COLUMN:
Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vodc (Volts)












Vodc (th) = Vm (1+cos o) /t






Free Wheeling Diode, Resistive Load, and Resistive and Inductive load














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JSSATE , BANGLORE 61

WAVEFORMS:



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JSSATE , BANGLORE 62

RESULT:-


CONCLUSION :-
The output voltage at various firing angles are noted with R load and RL load and the difference
with and without free wheeling diode is observed. The relevant waveforms are traced.





Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 63
(ii) SINGLE PHASE FULLY CONTROLEED CONVERTER

AIM: To Study the Single Phase Fully Controlled Converter on Resistance, Resistance &
Inductance Loads .

APPARATUS: Single Phase Converter Firing Circuit, Single Phase Fully controlled Power circuit,
Rheostat (150 Ohms/5A), Inductor(150 mH/5A), Power Scope, Connecting Wires etc.,

SINGLE PHASE CONVERTER FIRING CIRCUIT
FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:

SINGLEPHASECONVERTERTRIGGERINGUNIT- SCT
ON/ OFF
90
60
30
0
120
150
180
TRIGGER
OUTPUTS
+ -
FIRINGANGLE
T
1
T'
1
T
2
T'
2
GND
1 2 3
7 6 5 4
TESTPOINTS
POWER

FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
1. Power :- Main ON/OFF switch with built in LED Indicator.
2. Firing angle :- Potentiometer to vary the firing angle from 180
to 0
3. ON/OFF :- Switch for trigger output with soft start feature.
4. Test points :- To observe the signals at various points in the logic
circuit for study purpose.
5. Trigger outputs :- T1 & T1
1
: For +ve Half Cycle.
T2 &T2
1
: For -ve Half Cycle.
This unit generates four line synchronized isolated triggering pulses to fire
thyristors connected in single phase (1) Half wave (2) Full wave (3) Half controlled Bridge (4)
Fully controlled Bridge and (5) AC phase control power circuit.

The firing circuit is based on Ramp-comparator scheme. Isolation is provided by pulse transformer.
Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 64
FEATURES :-
1. Work directly on 230V AC mains.
2. Gate drive current of 200mA to trigger wide range of devices.
3. Firing angle variation from 180 to 0 on a graduated scale.
4. Test points to study the logic circuit
5. Soft start and soft stop feature.
6. Neatly designed front panel.

This unit along with our SCR converter modules, rectifier diode modules, single
phase half controlled converter power circuit and single phase fully controlled
converter power circuit can be used to conduct power electronics experiments on
single phase.

BACK PANEL DETAILS :-

Mains socket with built in fuse holder.
Fuse -500mA. A spare fuse is also provided in the fuse holder.

INSTALLATION:

While operating, keep the equipment in well-aerated cool place. Avoid direct sunlight on the
equipment. Use a properly earth grounded outlet socket to connect to the equipment. This is so
because a floating earth ground will not provide a clean AC reference to the equipment. The power
input plug is situated on the back panel of the unit. Use the power cord provided along with the
equipment to the power outlet socket.

Input power specifications:
Voltage : 215V -245V AC at 45 to 55Hz.
Current : 75mA (Max continuous) @ 230V AC.
500mA (Max surge).
Fuse : 500mA (Slow Blow) capsule type 20x 5mm.
Situated in the lower left corner of the equipment front panel is the power ON/OFF switch with
built in LED indicator. The LED glows when the switch is in ON position.

A fuse protects the equipment against over voltage and any short circuit. The fuse holder is an
integral part of the power inlet plug situated on the back panel. A spare fuse is provided in the fuse
holder. The power cord has to be removed from the plug, before you can access the fuse holder.
While replacing the fuse, pull off the holder smoothly.

Refer to figure shown below:


Power inlet plug



Pull here
Fuse holder

Power inlet plug/fuse holder
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 65
Remove and discard the blown off fuse and insert a new fuse in to the bay provided for it, replace
back the assembly in correct direction and press it until it flushes with the surface. Now connect
power cord back into the plug. Switch on the mains supply to the equipment. Observe the signals at
test points, trigger outputs and their phase sequence before connecting to the thyristors in the power
circuit.
The built in pulse transformer based isolation between the trigger circuits and the power circuit
provides isolation up to a tune of 1000V.
Note that T1- T1
1
and T2- T2
1
are from different secondary. Therefore T1 T1
1
will be in phase and
T2-T2
1
in the opposite phase.

The table below gives the usage of the trigger output against different experiments.
SL.NO EXPERIMENT TRIGGER OUTPUTS
T1 T1 T2 T2
1 I Phase half wave converter *
2 I Phase full wave converter * *
3 I Phase half controlled converter * *
4 I Phase full controlled converter * * * *
5 I Phase AC, phase control * *


5V1
1K
+12V
10K
100K
1K
4K7
47K
-12V
100F
OFF/ON
+12V
1N4007
1N4007
10K
1K
V1 S
1K
0.1
100K
4K7
4K7
4K7
4K7
555
8 3 7
6
1 2 5
4
P
+12V
4K7
4148 12K
0.01 0.01
7VS
4K7
P
7V5
4K7
0.01 0.01
4148 12K
4K7
+12V
555
6
2 1 5
4
3 8 7
T
1
T
2
T
3
4148
1K
1N4148
4K7
4148
2N2222
22K
1N4007
22K
1N4007
2N2222
IN4148 4148
+12V
+12V
7V5
4K7
100K
4148
1K
1K
741
3
4
6
7
+12V
100K
3
2
741
6
7
4
+12V
1K
T
4
T
5
6 T
15V
0.75A
15V
1N4007
1N4007
1000F
1000F
25V
7812
7912
1000F
25V
1000F
25V 25V
+12V
GND
-12V
33 /5W
Vun
330
P/n1K 12V
BC107
SL-100
10K
22PF
GATE
1K8 5V1
CAT
GATE
CAT
T
5V1 1K8
1N4007
FIRINGANGLEPOT
CIRCUITDIAGRAM
+15V
+15V
100K
(75mA)
0
+12V
-12V
T7
1N4007
1'
T1
0.1F
0.1F

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JSSATE , BANGLORE 66

TEST POINTS
1
2
3
Vc 4
5
6
7
8
T1 & T1
T2 & T2
TRIGGER OUTPUTS




Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 67

SERVICING DETAILS

SINGLE PHASE CONVERTER FIRING CIRCUIT :

a) Check the 3 pin Mains Cable used along with this unit
b) Check the Fuse in the Mains socket
c) Check the Mains Switch
d) Check the transformer
e) Check the firing angle potentiometer.
f) Check the ON/OFF switch
g) Check the zener diodes & IN4007 diodes at the output of the pulse transformer.
h) Check +12V & -12v power supply (Check 7812 &7912 regulators)
i) Check BC 107 & SL 100 transistors
j) Check 2N2222 transistors
k) Check 741/555ICs
l) Check for any loose contacts.

SINGLE PHASE FULLY CONTROLLED CONVERTER POWER CIRCUIT : SFC-
230V/5A

The circuit arrangement of a single-phase full converter is shown in fig. During the positive half
cycle, thyristor T1 and T1
1
are forward biased; and when these two thyristor are fired
simultaneously at wt=o, the load is connected to the input supply through T1 and T1
1
. In case of
inductive loads, during the period t s wt s (t+o), the input voltage is negative and the
freewheeling diode D
m
is forward biased. D
m
conducts to provide the conductivity of current in the
inductive load. The load current is transferred from T1 and T1
1
to D
m
; and thyristor T1 and T1
1
are
turned off due to line or natural commutation.

During the negative half cycle of the input voltage, thyristor T2 and T2
1
are forward
biased. The firing of thyristor T2 and T2
1
simultaneously at wt= t+o will reverse bias Dm.
The diode D
m
is turned off and the load is connected to the supply through T2 and T2
1
.
Figure shows the waveforms for input voltage, output voltage and Trigger Outputs.

FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:
A +
S H C FI ELD
ON
LIN E
R ECT IFIER
~
+
~
-
1 Ph. IN
N
L
-
T 1 T2
V
D m
1 P h . F U L L Y C O N T R O L L E D C O N VE R T E R P O WE R C I R C U I T
T1' T 2'
N
L
MCB
AMMETER
METER
VOLT

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JSSATE , BANGLORE 68

This power circuit consists of four SCRs connected as fully controlled bridge converter. A free
wheeling diode is provided to observe the effect of free wheeling diode on inductive loads.

Each device in the unit is mounted on an appropriate heat sink and is protected by snubber circuit.
Short circuit protection is achieved using glass fuses. A circuit breaker is provided in series with
the input supply for overload protection and to switch ON/OFF the supply to the power circuit.

The front panel consists of input and output terminals. The gate and Cathode of each SCRs brought
out on the front panel for firing pulse connection. Voltmeter and an Ammeter is mounted on the
front panel indicates the output voltage and current. A separate full wave bridge rectifier is
provided in the unit to get the DC supply for the field of DC Shunt Motors. The power circuit
schematic is printed on the front panel.


SPECIFICATIONS:
Input Voltage :15V to 230V AC.
Load current : 5 Amps maximum
Fuses : 6 Amps fast blow glass fuses.
Field supply : 220V 10%/2 Amps
MCB : Two pole 6 Amps/ 230V

FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
Input terminals : To connect single phase input supply.
Output terminals(+&-) : To connect load.
Voltmeter(0 to 300V) : To indicate output voltage
Ammeter(0 to 5A) : To indicate output current.
Circuit breaker : 6 Amps AC power ON/OFF to the circuit and for
protection .
T1,T1
1
,T2 & T2
1
: SCR 16 TTS 12-16 A rms/1200Volts.
DM : Free wheeling diode SPR 16PB-16A/1200V
Field(+ and -) : Field supply for DC motor for motor control
(with indicator) experiments.

BACK PANEL DETAILS:
Mains socket : For 230V AC mains supply to field supply bridge rectifier.

Fuse holders : 2 fuses in series with input AC supply, a fuse at the output and a fuse for
free wheeling diode.
Fuse - 6 Amps

SINGLE PHASE POWER CIRCUIT

Single ph AC

Input

Single Phase Experiments Block Diagram


Isolation

Transformer
Power

Circuit

Load
Firing
Circuit
Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 69
1.Isolation Transformer :-

To suit single phase 230V/50Hz supply, ratio 1:1, KVA rating to suit the load rating with
tappings at different voltages. Isolation of mains, phase and neutral with measurement circuit.
Serves the purpose of di/dt protection of SCRs and safe measurement of waveforms by using
oscilloscope. Isolation of Electric noise with mains.

2.Power circuit :

Different power circuit configurations are possible using SCRs and diode modules.
Half Wave Converter 1SCR
Full Wave converter 2 SCRs
Half Controlled Converter _ 2 SCRs & 2 Diodes
Fully Controlled Converter 4 SCRs
AC phase Control 2 SCRs

3. Firing Circuit :

Each SCR of the above Power Circuit to be triggered using independently isolated outputs
using single phase converter firing unit. Trigger outputs phase sequence and variation to be
checked before with the power circuit. Phase sequence to be compared with the power circuits
phase sequence.

4. Load :

Load connection should include an ammeter and a current shunt for current waveform
measurements. Use freewheeling diodes wherever necessary.

Types of Loads: -
a) Resistance R
b) Resistance and Inductive load R & L.
c) Motor and Generator.

Note: In case of DC motor control, field excitation is separate. Field supply should be ON before
giving armature supply. It should be switched OFF only after switching off the armature supply.

Lamp load:
Due to di/dt limitation of SCRs and since the initial inrush current
is 20 to 25 times more than load current in lamp loads and also since the cold resistance of the lamp
is very less, lamp loads can be used with large safety factors.

Precaution: Initially keep the input voltage low and firing angle at 180
0
.Slowly increase the
voltage to the rated voltage and firing angle to 0
0
.







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JSSATE , BANGLORE 70
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Check all the SCRs for performance before making the connections.
2. Check the firing circuit trigger outputs and its relative phase sequence.
3. Make fresh connections before you make a new experiment.
4. Preferably work at low voltages (20-30V) for every new connections. After careful verification it
can be raised to the maximum ratings. (This is to reduce damages due to wrong connections and
high starting current problems).
5. The thyristor has a very low thermal inertia as compared to machine and by any overload or
short circuit the SCR will immediately get damaged. Therefore do not switch ON the supply until
the instructor has checked the connections.
6. While observing the waveforms of two parameters on the oscilloscope, either differential input
oscilloscope should be used or special differential modules should be used with normal
oscilloscope. On normal oscilloscope, observation of wave forms can be done with respect to single
common point only. Ground connections of other probe must be avoided. It will lead to short
circuit if ground connections of both the probes are used since they are internally shorted. In no
case should oscilloscope input ground point be disconnected. This is a dangerous practice. Use 10:1
oscilloscope probe to see the waveforms at high voltages.
7. Do not make Gate & Cathode measurements when the power circuit is ON.

TABULAR COLUMN:

Firing angle Practical Theoretical
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vodc (Volts)





Vodc (th) = 2Vm(cos o) /t
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 71


PARAMETERS AND OBSERVATIONS:
1. Input voltage waveform
2. Output Voltage waveform (across the load)
3. Output current waveform (through the shunt)
4. Voltage waveform across thyristors (make this measurement only if isolations is used)
5. Study of variation of voltage and current waveforms with the variation of firing angle.
6. Study of effect of freewheeling diode in case of inductive loads.

WAVEFORMS:
0
Wt
Wt
Wt
Wt
Vm
V
V=VmSin wt
2 t t t + o o
o t t + o
t 2
0
T
1
2
T
Vo
VOLTAGE WAVE FORMS





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JSSATE , BANGLORE 72
Free Wheeling Diode, Resistive Load, and Resistive and Inductive load



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JSSATE , BANGLORE 73

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:
The output voltage at various firing angles are noted with R load and RL load and the difference
with and without free wheeling diode is observed. The relevant waveforms are traced.







Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 74

SERVICING DETAILS:

Single-phase fully- controlled converter:

Power circuit: -
a) Check the devices SCRs and diodes.
b) Check the fuse.
c) Check the MCB.
d) Check for any loose contacts.
e) Check the field supply bridge rectifier.







































Department of Electronics & Communication
JSSATE , BANGLORE 75
9) VOLTAGE COMMUTATED (IMPULSE COMMUTATED CHOPPER) BOTH
CONSTANT FREQUENCY AND VARIABLE FREQUENCY

AIM: To rig up DC Jones Chopper and to control O/P average DC Voltage both at constant
frequency and variable frequency and at different duty cycles.

APPARATUS:
DC chopper power circuit ,DC chopper firing circuit, DC Regulated power supply (0-30V/2A),
Rheostat (100hms/2A), CRO, connecting wires.

DESCRIPTION :

DC CHOPPER FIRING CIRCUIT:

This firing unit provides triggering pulses for the Thyristors in auxiliary commuted chopper circuit
configurations. It can be used for voltage commutation and current commutation chopper circuits
consisting of one main load carrying Thyristor and one auxiliary Thyristor and associated
commutation components.


DC Chopper firing unit should be used together with our DC-Chopper power circuit to conduct
DC-DC chopper experiments on resistance, resistance and Inductance and motor load.

This firing circuit can also used for other chopper circuits also.

SPECIFICATIONS:

Power supply : 230V/50 Hz, single phase ac mains.
Output : Two pulse Transformer isolated trigger pulses for
main and auxiliary Thyristors.
Gate Drive current : 200 mA
Auxiliary Gate pulse width :100sec.
Main Gate pulse width : Train of pulses
Test points : 1 to 8 provides signals at various points of the logic circuit.
Duty cycle : Variation from 10% to 90%.
Frequency : Variation from 30 Hz to 300 Hz. Approximately.
Control Voltage : Variation from 0 to 5V when the control switch is in INT position. External
control voltage can be used by putting the switch to EXT position.












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JSSATE , BANGLORE 76
FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:


DC - CHOPPER TRIGGERING UNIT - DCT
10%
TRIGGER
OUTPUTS
90%
DUTY CYCLE
Max. Min.
FREQUENCY
+ -
T MAIN
T AUX
GND
1 2 3
7 6 5 4
TEST POINTS
POWER


FRONT PANEL DETAILS:

Power : ON/OFF switch with built-in indicator.
Test points :1-7 test points for study of firing circuit.
Duty cycle : Potentiometer to vary the duty cycle from 10% to 90% when the control
switch is at INT position at the set frequency .
Frequency : Potentiometer to vary the operating frequency of the chopper from 30Hz to 300Hz
approximately.
ON/OFF : Switch for main thyristor trigger pulse with soft start feature.
Trigger Output TM : Main Thyristor Trigger pulse Train of pulses.
Trigger Output TA. : Auxiliary Thyristor Trigger pulse of 100 sec.

BACK PANEL DETAILS:

Main socket with built in fuse holder.
Fuse 500mA.
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 77

NOTES:

1. The chopper cannot be tested without connecting the load.
2. The main thyristor T1 has to carry the resonant reversal current (along with load
current) there by increasing current rating requirements.
3. The discharging and charging time of commutation capacitor are dependent on the load
current and this limits the high frequency operation, especially at low load current.
4. The maximum value of the duty cycle is also limited to allow the commutation
capacitor to discharge and recharge.
5. The thyristor T1 must be ON for a minimum time of tr = (LmC) to allow the charge
reversal of the capacitor and tr is fixed for a particular circuit design. This imposes
minimum duty cycle limit and hence minimum output voltage.
6. The firing circuit provides the trigger pulses in the following range:
Duty cycle: 10% to 90%
Frequency: 30Hz to 300Hz.

When the frequency is varied, the duty cycle is maintained constant at the set value. For example if
the duty cycle is 50% at 50 Hz and you have now selected the frequency to vary from 50 Hz to 100
Hz, the duty cycle still remains 50% at 100Hz.

The range of chopping frequency/duty cycle provided is no guarantee that any chopper power
circuit will work for the full range. The limits of operation of a given power circuit depend on
various factors like (a) the turn off requirement of the main thyristor (which should be less than the
available turn off time) (b) the peak load current (c) the input DC voltage (d) The source and load
inductance (e) The commutation circuitry the value of C and Lm, etc.,

The function of firing circuit is only to provide properly sequenced and accurately timed trigger
pulse in the said range. The trigger pulse for the main thyristor T1 is a continuous train of pulses
for the whole of the ON time kT (where k is the duty cycle). This train of pulses will be followed
by the firing pulse for commutation thyristor, also known as Auxiliary thyristor, T2. This auxiliary
trigger pulse is a single pulse whose width is approximately 100 microseconds.

INSTALLATION:

While operating, keep the equipment in well-aerated cool place. Avoid direct sunlight on to the
equipment. Use a properly earth grounded outlet socket to connect to the equipment. This is so
because a floating earth ground will not provide a clean AC reference to the equipment. The power
input plug is situated on the back panel of the unit. Use the power card provided along with the
equipment to the power outlet socket.

INPUT POWER SPECIFICATIONS:

Voltage : 215 245 A/C at 45 to 55 Hz.
Current : 75mA (Max. continuous)@ 230V A/C.
500mA (Max. surge.)
Fuse : 500mA (Slow Blow) Capsule type 20 x 5mm.

Situated in the lower left corner of the equipment font panel is the power ON/OFF switch with
built-in in LED indicator. The LED glows when the switch is in ON position.
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 78
A fuse protects the equipment against over Voltages and any short circuit. The fuse holder is an
integral part of the power inlet plug situated on the back panel. A spare fuse is provided in the fuse
holder. The power card has to be removed from the plug, before you can access the fuse holder.
While replacing the fuse, pull off the holder smoothly.

Refer to the figure shown below.
Power inlet plug



Pull here
Fuse holder



Power inlet plug/fuse holder
Remove and discard the blown off fuse and insert a new fuse in to the bay provided for it, Replace
back it the assembly in correct direction and press it until it flushes with the surface. Now connect
the power card back into the plug. Switch on the mains supply to the equipment. Observe the test
points signals, Trigger outputs and their phase sequence before connecting to the thyristors in the
power circuits.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
741
U2
741
U3
15V
FREQ
100K
10K
1K
1K
4 8
7
6
2 5 1
3
555
U1
T
P1
0.01 0.47F
6
2
3 P2 T
100K
TP3
-15V
329C
10K
6
2
3
10K
10K
5V
1K
A
5V1
2
9
5
1 8
6
7
14
15
3101116
74
LS
123
4 U
DUTYCYCLE
GATE
CAT
1
K
8
15 / 5W
3
3
0
9V
BC107
3019
2
2
0
P
r
1K
1
K
8
5V1
1N4007 GATE
CAT
V5 7
330
15 / 5W
9V
BC107
P7 T
2N3019
1K
ON/ OFF
10K
4K7
7
6
2 5 1
3
8
U5
555
DCCHOPPERFIRINGCIRCUIT
5V
5V
4
P4 T
TP5
A
5V
33K
33K
.01
.01
5V1 (AUX)
(MAIN)

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JSSATE , BANGLORE 79


DESIGN FOR JONES CHOPPER (VGE COMMUTATED CHOPPER)

Ic = Cdv/dt; -(1);
Ic = capacitor current

v=Voltage across capacitor
for constant load current ; equation can be

Ic = CVs/tc or C = tcIo/Vs

tc= commutating circuit time>tq(device turn-off time)

i.e,tc>tq ; so now let tc = tq + t

tq for TY612 is 70 Sec which is almost equal to100 Sec

Let t= 20 Sec

Therefore tc = 120Sec


Let Vs= 30v; Ic =2 A.

Therefore c = 120 Sec x 2/30

= 4 x 2 F = 8 F.

Choose C = 10 F.


Ic = {VsSin (Wot)}/Wo L ;
Wo = 1/[LC]


Icp = Vs/WoL<=Io

<=Vs[(C/L)]

,
L>=[ (Vs/Io)]
2
C >= [ (30/2)]
2
8 x 10
-6
>=1.8mH

Select L= 2mH or 8mH.









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JSSATE , BANGLORE 80


WAVEFORMS:
15 TP1
0
10V
5 TP2
5V
0 TP3
DC - CHOPPER FIRING CIRCUIT - TEST POINTS


5V
0 TP4
5V
0 TP5
0 TP6
5V
T P 7
T
T
A
M

JONES CHOPPER POWER CIRCUIT: 30V/2A:

This unit consists of two SCRs two diodes and L C commutation circuit to construct Jones chopper
power circuit. Each device in the unit is mounted on an appropriate hear sink and is protected with
an RC snubber circuit. All the components are independent and their connections are brought out
to front panel. The cathode and gate of each SCR is brought out ob to separate terminals for firing
pulse connection. A switch and a fuse are provided in series with the input DC Supply.

The devices and components can also be used to build different chopper circuits. Integrated
Thyristor Controller ITC 08 and DC chopper firing unit DCT provided triggering pulses for this
power circuit.

SPECIFICATION:
30V @ 2.0 Amps.


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JSSATE , BANGLORE 81
FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM:
+
+
-
DC INPUT
L
L'
C com
TM
TA DFW
D1
OUTPUT
+
-
RECTIFIER
~
+
~
-
230 VAC
FIELD
SCR DC - CHOPPER POWER CIRCUIT - SDCP
M
C
B


FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
VDC IN : Terminal to connect DC input 10V to 30V DC.
ON : ON/OFF switch for the input DC supply to the power circuit.
Fuse : In series with the DC input for short circuit protection 2 Amps.
T1 & T2 :SCRs TYN 616
D1 & D2 : diodes BYQ 28 200.
C : Commutation Capacitor 10uF/100V.
L1-0-L2 : Commutation Inductor 500-0-500 Micro henry/2 Amps.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
1
T
C
2
T
1 L 2 L
LM
L
O
A
D DM
D
1
VDC
JONES CHOPPER
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


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JSSATE , BANGLORE 82

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

F
U
S
E
C
T
1
2
T
DM
L
O
A
D
1
D
L
2
M
L
L
1
Vdc In
S
W
I
T
C
H
JONES - CHOPPERPOWERCIRCUIT30V/2A




PROCEDURE :

To begin with switch ON the DC Chopper firing unit. Observe the test point Signals and Trigger
output signals by carrying Duty cycle and Frequency Potentiometer by keeping the control switch
into INT position. Be sure the trigger Outputs are proper before connecting to the power circuit.
Now make the interconnections in the power circuit as given in the circuit diagram. Connect DC
supply from a variable DC source. Initially set the input DC supply to 10 Volts. Connect a
Resistive load. Connect respective trigger outputs from the firing circuit to the respective SCRs in
the Power circuit. Initially keep[ the ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit in OFF position.

Switch ON the DC supply. Apply Main SCR trigger pulses by pressing the ON/OFF Switch to ON
position. Observe the voltage waveforms across load. We can observe the chopped DC waveform.
If the commutation fails we can see only the DC voltage. In that case switch OFF the DC supply,
Switch OFF pulses and check the connections and try again. Observe the voltage across load,
across Capacitor, across Main SCR and auxiliary SCR by varying Duty cycle and frequency
Potentiometer. Now vary the DC supply up to the rated voltage (30V DC). Draw the waveforms at
different duty cycle and at different Frequency. Connect Voltmeter and Ammeter and note down
values in the table.





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JSSATE , BANGLORE 83
TABULAR COLUMNS:

SL.NO V
in
T
on
T
off
Duty
cycle
V
o
I
o










INSTRUCTIONS:

1. Check all the SCRs for performance before making the connections.
2. Check the firing circuit Trigger output and its relative phase sequence
3. Make fresh connection before you make a new experiment.
4. Preferably work at low voltages for every new connections. After careful verification
it can be raised to the maximum ratings (This is to reduce damages due to wrong
connections and high starting current problems)
5. The Thyristor has a very low thermal inertia as compared to machine and by any over
load or short circuit the SCR will immediately get damaged. Therefore do not switch
ON the supply until the instructor has checked the connections.
6. While observing the waveform of two parameters on the oscilloscope observation of
waveforms can be done with respect to single common point only. Ground connection
of other probe must be avoided. It will lead to short circuit if ground connections of
both the probes are used. Since they are internally shorted. In no case should
oscilloscope input ground point be disconnected. This is a dangerous practice. Use
10:1 oscilloscope probe to see the waveforms at high voltages.
7. Do not make Gate & cathode measurements when the power circuit is on





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PARAMETERS AND OBSERVATIONS:
1. Voltage wave form across capacitor.
2. Output voltage waveforms (across the load)
3. Output current waveforms (Through the shunt)
4. Voltage waveforms across Thyristor.
5. Study of variation of voltage and current waveforms with the variation of duty cycle
and frequency.
6. Study of effect of free wheeling diode in case of inductive loads.

PRECAUTIONS:
1.In case of DC motor control, field excitation is separate. Field supply must be ON
before giving armature supply. It should be OFF only after switching off the armature
supply. Without field supply load current is too high which is limited by armature
resistance.
2.In case lamp load, due to di/dt limitation of SCRs and since the initial inrush current
is 20 to 25 times more than load current, it can be done only with large safety factor.
3.Chopper cannot be tested without connecting load.


RESULT:

CONCLUSION :
The chopper has been verified and tested .It is found that Vo(prac) = Vo(theor)



























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JSSATE , BANGLORE 85
10) SPEED CONTROL OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC MOTOR:





SPECIFICATIONS:
Input Voltage :15V to 230V AC.
Load current : 5 Amps maximum
Fuses : 6 Amps fast blow glass fuses.
Field supply : 220V 10%/2 Amps
MCB : Two pole 6 Amps/ 230V

FRONT PANEL DETAILS:
Input terminals : To connect single phase input supply.
Output terminals(+&-) : To connect load.
Voltmeter(0 to 300V) : To indicate output voltage
Ammeter(0 to 5A) : To indicate output current.
Circuit breaker : 6 Amps AC power ON/OFF to the circuit and for
protection .
T1,T1
1
,T2 & T2
1
: SCR 16 TTS 12-16 A rms/1200Volts.
DM : Free wheeling diode SPR 16PB-16A/1200V
Field(+ and -) : Field supply for DC motor for motor control
(with indicator) experiments.

BACK PANEL DETAILS:
Mains socket : For 230V AC mains supply to field supply bridge rectifier.
Fuse holders : 2 fuses in series with input AC supply, a fuse at the output and a fuse for
free wheeling diode.
Fuse - 6 Amps
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 86
1.Isolation Transformer :-

To suit single phase 230V/50Hz supply, ratio 1:1, KVA rating to suit the load rating with
tappings at different voltages. Isolation of mains, phase and neutral with measurement circuit.
Serves the purpose of di/dt protection of SCRs and safe measurement of waveforms by using
oscilloscope. Isolation of Electric noise with mains.

2.Power circuit :

Different power circuit configurations are possible using SCRs and diode modules.
Half Wave Converter 1SCR
Full Wave converter 2 SCRs
Half Controlled Converter _ 2 SCRs & 2 Diodes
Fully Controlled Converter 4 SCRs
AC phase Control 2 SCRs

3. Firing Circuit :

Each SCR of the above Power Circuit to be triggered using independently isolated outputs
using single phase converter firing unit. Trigger outputs phase sequence and variation to be
checked before with the power circuit. Phase sequence to be compared with the power circuits
phase sequence.

4. Load :

Load connection should include an ammeter and a current shunt for current waveform
measurements. Use freewheeling diodes wherever necessary.

Types of Loads: -
a) Resistance R
b) Resistance and Inductive load R & L.
c) Motor and Generator.

Note: In case of DC motor control, field excitation is separate. Field supply should be ON before
giving armature supply. It should be switched OFF only after switching off the armature supply.

Lamp load:
Due to di/dt limitation of SCRs and since the initial inrush current
is 20 to 25 times more than load current in lamp loads and also since the cold resistance of the lamp
is very less, lamp loads can be used with large safety factors.

Precaution: Initially keep the input voltage low and firing angle at 180
0
.Slowly increase the
voltage to the rated voltage and firing angle to 0
0
.


INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Check all the SCRs for performance before making the connections.
2. Check the firing circuit trigger outputs and its relative phase sequence.
3. Make fresh connections before you make a new experiment.
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JSSATE , BANGLORE 87
4. Preferably work at low voltages (20-30V) for every new connections. After careful verification it
can be raised to the maximum ratings. (This is to reduce damages due to wrong connections and
high starting current problems).
5. The thyristor has a very low thermal inertia as compared to machine and by any overload or
short circuit the SCR will immediately get damaged. Therefore do not switch ON the supply until
the instructor has checked the connections.
6. While observing the waveforms of two parameters on the oscilloscope, either differential input
oscilloscope should be used or special differential modules should be used with normal
oscilloscope. On normal oscilloscope, observation of wave forms can be done with respect to single
common point only. Ground connections of other probe must be avoided. It will lead to short
circuit if ground connections of both the probes are used since they are internally shorted. In no
case should oscilloscope input ground point be disconnected. This is a dangerous practice. Use 10:1
oscilloscope probe to see the waveforms at high voltages.
7. Do not make Gate & Cathode measurements when the power circuit is ON.
8. Vary the firing and note down Vodc, Iodc and speed N in RPM

TABULAR COLUMN:
Firing on the
Pottetiometer
Deg
Firing angle Practical Theoretical N Speed in RPM
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp)
Vodc (Volts) Vodc (Volts)













Vodc (th) = 2Vm(cos o) /t

PARAMETERS AND OBSERVATIONS:
1. Input voltage waveform
2. Output Voltage waveform (across the load)
3. Output current waveform (through the shunt)
4. Voltage waveform across thyristors (make this measurement only if isolations is used)
5. Study of variation of voltage and current waveforms with the variation of firing angle.
6. Study of effect of freewheeling diode in case of inductive loads.
7. Fro various firing note the speed on the digital meter on the motor panel.




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WAVEFORMS:
0
Wt
Wt
Wt
Wt
Vm
V
V=VmSin wt
2 t t t + o o
o t t + o
t 2
0
T
1
2
T
Vo
VOLTAGE WAVE FORMS



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JSSATE , BANGLORE 89
Free Wheeling Diode, Resistive Load, and Resistive and Inductive load



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RESULT:

CONCLUSION:
The output voltage at various firing angles are noted with DC Motor as load and the difference
with and without free wheeling diode is observed. The relevant waveforms are traced.






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JSSATE , BANGLORE 91
11) SPEED CONTROL OF UNIVERSAL MOTOR
Motor Specification: 0.5HP/220V AC/DC

AIM: To Control the speed of the Universal through (i) AC-DC Power converter (FCR) and
(ii)AC Voltage Controller

Apparatus: Universal Motor, Isolation Transformer, dimmer-stat, Fully controlled bridge
rectifier (FCR), ACVC, FCR Firing Circuit.






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JSSATE , BANGLORE 92
Procedure: Make the inter connections in the power circuit as in the circuit for FCR and ACVC,.
Switch on the the firing circuit and observe the trigger pulses. Make sure that the firing pulses are
proper before connecting to the power circuit. Then connect the trigger output from the firing
circuit to the corresponding SCRs/TRIAC. In the power circuit initially set AC input to 30V.
Switch on the MCB. Switch on the trigger. First observe the output across R load by varying the
potentiometer. If the output wave form is proper then you can connect the motor and increase the
input voltage to the rated value i.e., 230V gradually. Vary the firing angle and note O/P voltage
and speed of the motor
Table (Fully Controlled Rectifier
Firing on the
Potentiometer
Deg
Firing angle Practical Theoretical N Speed in RPM
()=sin
-1
(Vn/Vp)
Vodc (Volts) Vodc (Volts)












Table (ACVC)
Firing on the
Potentiometer
Deg
Firing angle Practical Theoretical N Speed in RPM
()=sin
-1
Vn/Vp) Vodc (Volts) Vodc (Volts)















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JSSATE , BANGLORE 93


12) SPEED CONTROL OF STEPPER MOTOR:
STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER

This is Micro controller based controller circuit to accurately generates pulses to energizes the
stepper motor winding in the desired sequence . Power transistor based driver circuit to driver
circuit to drive the stepper motor. From this controller we can set the speed of the stepper motor in
RPM, set the number of steps motor can move .We can set the direction of rotation forward and
reverse direction. We can also set half step and full step mode.


FRONT PANEL DETAILS:

1.Mains :Power ON/Off Switch to the unit with built-in indicator.
2.Display :Seven segment 5 digit display to display the parameter and values
3.Key board :
a)Set :To set the Parameter.
b)INC :To increment the set parameter values.
c)DEC :To decrement the set parameter values.
d)ENT :To enter the set values.
e)RUN/STOP :To start and stop the stepper motor. .(Built in)
4.+v : 5v/2 amps DC supply for stepper motor.(Built in)
5.+5v :5 v for control circuit .(Built in)
6.GND :Supply ground point
7.FUSE :2 amp fast below glass fuse for short circuit protection.
8.A1,A2,B1 & B3: Outpoints to connect to the A1,A2,B1 &B3 leads of stepper motor.
9.LEDs :To indicate the status of output.


BACK PANNEL DETAILS:

Mains socket with built in fuse holder and a spare fuse.


PROCEDURE:-

Connect A1, A2, B1 and B2 leads of stepper motor to the corresponding output terminal points.
And two common terminal to +V supply. Switch ON the mains supply to the unit. Check the
power supplies. The unit display S 00. Now press SET. Then the display shows rpm(revolutions
per minute). If you press ENT now the speed mode is set and it displays 00. Then press INC Key to
set the rpm. When the display shows rpm, if you press INC/DEC it goes to STEP mode or vice
versa.

After setting the Speed in rpm/ no of steps, press ENT Key. Then the parameter values is entered
and it shows set direction of rotation. Press INC/DEC changes the direction of rotation. Then press
ENT Key to set the direction of rotation.

Then it displays Half step or Full step mode. Pressing INT/DEC will changes to HALF Step/ FULL
Step mode or vice versa. Press ENT Key to set the Half step or Full step mode.
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Then it displays n-set rpm if speed is selected or S-set steps if steps is selected. This is the method
for setting the parameter. After this if we press RUN/STOP key the Motor stops.

If we select the STEP mode the motor moves the number of set steps and stops when we press
RUN/STOP key. If we press again the motor moves again and stops.

Set the step mode at 1 step and half step mode and check the output status by LED indication for
each step of rotation and verify with the theoretical.
Repeat the same foe Full step mode also.
Repeat the above for the other direction.

D.C.BRUSHLESS STEPPING MOTORS

The stepping motor is an electromagnetic device which converts digital pulses into discrete
mechanical rotational movements. In rotary stepper motor, the output shaft of motor rotates in
equal increments, in response to a train of input pulses.

CHARACTERISTICS:-

Construction:-

Stepping Motor is basically a Motor with two phases, eight salient poles, toothed iron rotor and a
permanent magnet. This rotor is known as hybrid rotor. The rotor is suspended in the stator by
means of sealed ball bearings. All parts of the motors are precision machined for better
performance and accuracy of steps.
Step Angle: 1.8*+ or - .1* non-cumulative.
Holding Torque: 2.8 Kg cm.
Dynamic Torque: Dynamic torque is mainly controlled by the electronic control circuits.
Torque will drop down as the speed increases.
Residual Torque or Detent Torque : Because of the presence of permanent magnet in the rotor.
Working Temperature and insulation Class: Temperature of stepping motors may rise 50*C above
ambient. It is observed that body temperature generally stabilizes at about 85*C to 90*C for
continuous duty cycle. The insulation used is of class B type which can withstand hot spot temp of
130*C. For better heat dissipation motors duly fitted with heat sinks are recommended. This
reduces the temp by about 10*C to 15*C.
Working of stepping motor:-
The stepping action is caused by sequential switching of supply to the two phases of motor as
shown in switching logic sequence table. The specified torque of any stepping motors is the torque
at stand still (holding torque). This torque is directly proportional to the current to rated level within
the time given for one step.
This is mainly due to L/R time constant of winding. The drop in current level causes drop in torque
as the speed increases. In order to improve torque at high speed it is necessary to maintain current
at the rated level.
Never exceed rated current of the motor.
Stepping Motors differ form conventional DC Servo Motors in the following respects.

1.There is no control winding in stepping Motors. Both windings are identical.
2.The stepping rate (speed of rotation) is governed by frequency is governed by frequency of
switching and not by supply voltage.
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3.A single pulse input will move the shaft of motor by one step. Thus number of steps can be
precisely controlled by controlling number of pulses.
4.When there is no pulses input, the rotor will remain locked in the position in which the last step
was taken since at any time two winding are always energized which lock the rotor electro
magnetically.
5.Steping Motors can be programmed in there parameters namely :
a) Direction.
b) Speed.
c) Number of steps.
6.Stepping Motor is brush less so no wear & tear.
7.Load & no load condition makes no difference in running currents of the motor.

GENERAL INFORMATION:-

1.Resonance When a stepping motor is operated at its natural frequency an increase in noise and
vibration occurs. This phenomenon is called as resonance. The frequencies at which this resonance
occurs depends widely on the characteristic of load and it also varies from motor to motor. The
change in inertial load will; change the resonance frequency. In half-step mode resonance may be
reduced / avoided.

2.Ramp Acceleration (soft start) and declaration (soft stop are essential factors of controller .
Acceleration is required to run the motor at high step rates and declaration is to stop motor
accurately at specified position.

3.Half Step Mode Advantage Smother motion ,resolution factor increases by the factor2,
reduces resonance problems. Disadvantages-Loss of torque(above 40%) In half step mode we do
not offer guarantee for accuracy but error automatically gets corrected on next even half step.

4. Mounting-Flange Mounting. Motor must be mounted with reference to boss and not with
reference to mounting holes.

5. Synchronization-N no. of SRI.SYN. Stepper motors can be operated simultaneously at time
with single controller &N no. of drives.

APPLICATION:-

Numerically controlled Machine Tools and Machining centers:
Profile cutting, Grinding, Milling and Boring Machines, Lathes, park erosion Machines, sheet
Metal presses, Industrial Robots ,etc.
Plastic and packaging:
Mark registration ,labeling, cut to length.
Graphics:
Photo printing and developing ,Photo type setting printing presses, Film projectors and cameral, etc
Process control and Instrumentation:
Textile web control, valve controls, Material Handling systems, Assembly lines, carburetor
Adjusting, In process Gauging ,chart Recorders, servo Mechanism, Electronic gear box, profile,
precise RPM control, RPM control, RPM meter calibration


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Medical Instrumens:-

Infusion pumps, x-ray and Radioactive Machinery, Blood analyzers etc.

Office Automation Equipments:
Printers, plotters, Hard and Floppy Disc, Teleprinter and Typewriters, copying Machines and
Accounting Machines



V=4*motor voltage
Rs=3*Rm(Motor resistance/phase)
Suitable for slow RPM

SWICHING LOGIC SEQUENCE

A1 A2 B1 B2
Red Green Blue Black
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4






Half step
A1 A2 B1 B2
Red Green Blue Black
0 1 0 1
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0


To change the direction red sequence from bottom to top
Specification:-
Permanent magnet, Bifilar wound Steps per Revolution:200
Two phase.

Step Angle:1 .8*+0r-0.1*non cumulative. No of leads-6
3kg.cm=0.1 N .m=13.90z-in

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JSSATE , BANGLORE 97






























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JSSATE , BANGLORE 98

13) SERIES / PARALLEL INVERTER

(i)SERIES INVERTER

AIM : To design the series Inverter circuit and test its working.

APPRATUS REQUIRED :

Series Inverter Module, Digital Millimeter , Power Supply, Patch chords .

DESCRIPTION :

This unit consists of power circuit and firing circuit sufficient to build and study the modified series
inverter.
Firing circuit:

This part generates two pairs of pulse transformer isolated trigger two SCRs connected as series
inverter ON/OFF switch is provided
For the trigger pulses which can be used to switch ON the inverter.
Frequency of the inverter can be varied from 100hz to 1Khz approximately.
Power circuit :

This part consists of two SCRs two diodes. A center tapped inductor with tapings and capacitors
.Input supply terminals with ON/OFF
Switch and a fuse is provided .All the devices in this unit mounted on a proper heat sink, snubbed
circuit for dv/dt protection and a fuse in series with each device for short circuit protection.
All the points are brought out to front panel for inter connection. They have to be interconnected as
shown in the circuit diagram .Free wheeling diodes
Can be connected across SCRs and its effect can be observed.
Refer any standard text books for theoretical details.

Front panel details:

1.Frequency: Potentiometer to vary the inverter frequency.
2. Trigger outputs: From 100HZ to 1KHZ approximately
3.ON/OFF: Switch for trigger outputs.
4.T1 and T2: Trigger outputs.
5.Power : Mains switch for firing circuit.
6.Vdc in: Terminals for dc input-30v/2amps Max.
7.ON/OFF: Switch for dc input
8.Fuse: Fuse for dc input 2amps Glass fuse.
9.T1 and T2: SCRs TYN612.12amps/60v
10.D1 and D2: Diodes BYW51-200 4amps/200v
11.L2 L1 Lm L1 L2: 10mH-5mH-0-5mH-10mH/2 amps
12.C1 and C1: 6.8f/100v
13.C2 and C2: 10f/100v.



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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :



DESIGN OF SERIES INVERTER :
(specimen calculation)


wr =\{(1/Lc)-(R
2
/4L
2
)}

f r<=fmax = 1/(tq + t/ wr )

let tq = 10 sec

f r = 1 k hz

wr = 20,408 r/sec

R
2
< 4L/C

wr ~ \ (1/Lc)

20,408 = \ (1/Lc)

let C = 10 f

so, L = 0.240mH

R
2
< 4L/C

R
2
< 96

R < 9.6 O (load).








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PROCEDURE:

To begin with switch on the power supply to the firing circuit.
Check that trigger pulses by varying the frequency.
Make the interconnection s of the power circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Now connect
trigger outputs from the firing circuits to gate and cathode of SCRs T! and T2.Connect dc input
from a 30v/2amps regulated power supply. Switch on the input dc supply .Now apply trigger pulses
to the SCRs and observe voltage wave from across load vary the frequency and observe the wave
forms of the inverter frequency increases above resonant frequency of the power circuit
communication will fail. Then switch OFF the dc supply , reduce the inverter frequency and try
again if you will not get
the result check the input fuse and try again, if it fails again you have to check the fuses in series
with devices. Repeat the same with different values of L,C and load. And also observe the wave
forms with and without free diodes. The output waveform is entirely depending on load .To switch
OFF the inverter. Switch OFF the input supply first and then trigger pulses.


RESONANT FREQUENCY:

fr=1/2t \(1/LC-R*R/4L*L)

TABULAR COLUMN :

KEEPING RESISTANCE CONSTANT AT ---- ,
F(Hz) Vorms (volts)







KEEPING FREQUENCY CONSTANT AT ---- Hz ,
R() Vorms (volts)













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WAVEFORMS :






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RESULT :


CONCLUSION :
We conclude that as and when the frequency and resistance increases the Vorms also
increases.











































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2) PARALLEL INVERTER

AIM : To design the series Inverter circuit and test its inverter working.

APPRATUS REQUIRED : Series Inverter Module, Digital Millimeter , Power Supply, Patch
chords .

DESCRIPTION :
This module consist of two units (1) Firing circuit and (2) Power circuit.

1)Firing circuit :-
This unit two pairs of pulse transformer isolated trigger pulses to trigger two SCRs connected in
center tap transformer type parallel inverter. Frequency of the inverter can be varied from 75 hz to
200 hz approximately.

2)Power circuit. :-
This unit consist of two SCRs, two free wheeling diodes, commutation induction. Commutation
capacitor and a center transformer to be inter connected to make parallel inverter. All the points are
brought out to the front panel. A switch and fuse is provided for input DC supply. All the devices
are mounted on proper heat sink. Each device is protected by snubber circuit.

FRONT PANEL DETAILS:

01.Frequency :potentiometer to vary the inverter frequency
from75Hz to 200 Hz approximately
02.ON/OFF :Switch for trigger outputs.
03.T1 & T2 :Trigger outputs.
04.Power :Mains switch for firing circuit.
05.VDC in :terminals for DC input.
06. ON :Switch for DC input.
07. TP & TN :SCRS 10A/600V
08. DP & DN :Diodes 10A/600V
09.L :Inductance 300
10.C :6.8F/100V
11.Load :Terminals to connect the load
:Transformer center tap point which should be connected to +ve of DC supply after fuse.
13.Fuse :2A Glass fuse.
14.Output Transformer :Primary-30V-25V-0-25V-30V.
Secondary-0-30V/2Amps.










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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :



DESIGN OF PARALLEL INVERTER
(specimen calculation)

L acts as current source
C is resonating element.
Lm mutual inductance of transformer and acts as a resonating inductor.

wr = \ (1/Lc)

Quality factor = Q; let Q = 4

Q = woCR ; fo = 1 khz.

Let wo = 6.280 khz

Let R = 20 O

C = 31.8 f

& (6280)
2
= 1/LC

L = 0.797 mH.

Choose L = 1 mH.(should be mutual inductance of transformer).
The commutating components L & C are selected as follows:
L = Vs tq /0.425Im & C = Imtq /1.7 Vs , Im = Current at Commutation.
Vs = DC supply voltage; tq = Reverse bias time offered to SCR.

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PROCEDURE :

The circuit is a typical class C parallel inverter. Assume TN to be ON and TP to be turned OFF .The
bottom of the commutating capacitor is charged to twice the supply voltage and remains at this
value until Tp is turned on .When Tp is turned on, the current flows through lower primary ,Tp and
commutating inductance L. Since voltage across c cannot raise instantaneously, the common SCR
cathode point raises approximately to 2Vdc and reverse biases TN. Thus TN turns off and C
discharges through L , the supply circuit and recharges in the reverse direction. the auto transformer
action makes C to charge making now its upper point to reach +2Vdc Volts ready to commutate Tp,
when TN is again turned on, and the cycle repeats. The major purpose of the commutating
inductance L is to limit the commutating capacitor charging current during switching.
Freewheeling diodes Dp and DN assists the inverter in handling various range of loads and the
value of C may be reduced since the capacitor now does not have to carry the reactive current. To
dampen the feedback diode currents within the half period , feedback diodes are connected to the
tapings of the transformer at 25V tapings.
Switch on the firing circuit .Observe the trigger outputs TP and TN by varying frequency
potentiometer and by operating ON/OFF switch.
Then connect input DC supply to the power circuit. Connect the trigger outputs to gate and cathode
of the SCR TP and TN. Make the interconnections as shown in circuit diagram. Connect load
between load terminals. Connect free wheeling diodes in the circuit. To begin with set input voltage
to 15V. Apply trigger pulses to SCR and observe voltage wave forms across load. Output voltage is
square wave only. Then remove the free wheeling diode connections and observe the wave forms.
Then vary the load, vary the frequency and observe the waveforms. To switch OFF the inverter
switch OFF DC input supply only. Switch OFF the trigger pulses will lead to short circuit.
Since the parallel inverter works on forced commutation ,there is a chance of commutation failure.
If the commutation fails, there is a dead short circuit in the input DC supply, which will leads to
blown off the input fuse. Please check the fuse if the commutation fails. Preferably connect the
input DC supply from the 30V/2A regulated DC power supply unit which has over current tripping
facility there by protect the DC supply unit.
If the commutation fails, switch off the DC supply first and then trigger outputs.
Check the connections again.

TABULAR COLUMN :
KEEPING RESISTANCE CONSTANT AT ---- ,
F(Hz) Vorms (volts)






KEEPING FREQUENCY CONSTANT AT ---- Hz ,
R() Vorms (volts)






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WAVEFORMS :



RESULT :



CONCLUSION :
We conclude that as and when the frequency and resistance increases the Vorms also
increases.

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MODEL QUESTION BANK OF LABORATORY
Expt. No. QUESTION
1
Conduct a suitable experiment to determine the V-I Characteristics of Unidirectional
four layer switch for different gate currents. Determine break down voltage and holding
current for two cases.

2
Conduct a suitable experiment to determine the V-I Characteristics of Bi-directional four
layer switch. Determine break down voltage and holding current in 1
st
and 3
rd
quadrants
and comment on its sensitivity.

3
Conduct a suitable experiment on MOSFET to verify its on state resistance and gate
threshold voltage. Plot the transfer characteristics and output static characteristics.

4
Conduct a suitable experiment to determine the V-I Characteristics o IGBT. Comment on
its switching characteristics.

5
Conduct a suitable experiment to control Half Wave Rectifier using RC firing circuit and
plot a graph of load voltage versus firing angle and various waveforms.

6
Conduct a suitable experiment to control Full Wave Rectifier using RC firing circuit and
plot a graph of load voltage versus firing angle and various waveforms
7
Design a synchronized UJT Relaxation Oscillator circuit to turn ON the SCR and hence
plot various waveforms.
8
Design a synchronized UJT Relaxation Oscillator circuit for controlling Half Wave
Rectifier and hence plot a graph of load voltage versus firing angle & various waveforms.

9
Design a synchronized UJT Relaxation Oscillator circuit for controlling Full wave
rectifier and hence plot a graph load voltage versus firing angle & various waveforms.

10
Conduct a suitable experiment on LC commutation circuit to prove that conduction period
of SCR depends on commutating elements (R, L and C ). OR Auxiliary Commutation

11
Conduct a suitable experiment to control the speed of an AC motor/Brightness of a lamp
using TRIACDIAC combination. Draw the graph of firing angle Vs speed/Vorms

12
Conduct a suitable experiment on half controlled/fully controlled bridge rectifier with
resistive load /R-L load. Plot DC voltage Vs. delay angle graph.

13
Conduct a suitable experiment to experiment to control the speed of separately excited
DC motor and plot a graph of speed versus firing angle and Vodc Vs firing. Angle.

14
Conduct a suitable experiment on Chopper to convert constant DC voltage to variable DC
voltage with a duty cycle of ___________ check the result with
theoretical value.

15
Conduct a suitable experiment to verify the operating principle of a single phase
Series/Sarallel inverter and hence plot various waveforms of the inverter



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VIVA QUESTIONS


1. What is SCR ?
2. What is TRIAC ?
3. What is DIAC?
4. What is MOSFET ?
5. What is IGBT ?
6. What is meant by commutation ?
7. What is the difference between TRIAC and DIAC ?
8. What is the difference between MOSFET and IGBT ?
9. What is the difference between UJT and BJT ?
10. How di/dt and dv/dt protection is provided for power transistors ?
11. What is the use of isolator ?
12. What is the difference between n-channel and p-channel MOSFET ?
13. What do you understand by threshold and pinch- off voltages ?
14. What is the importance of holding current ?
15. What do you understand by latching current ?
16. What is pulse transformer ?
17. What is the need of a transformer in circuits ?
18. Name few applications of MOSFETs and IGBTs .
19. List the factors that affect the turn ON turn OFF times of a power BJT .
20. Name the terminals of MOSFET .
21. What do understand by thyristor ?
22. What is snubber circuit ?
23. What is the affect of gate current on break over voltage in SCR ?
24. State the conditions to be satisfied for proper turn off of an SCR.
25. What are the different methods of commutation of SCRs ?
26. What is line commutation ?
27. What is impulse commutation ?
28. What is self commutation ?
29. How to turn off an SCR properly ?
30. What is auxiliary commutation ?
31. What is an AC voltage controller ?
32. List the different types of ACVC.
33. What are the applications of ACVC ?
34. What is controlled rectifier ?
35. Give the classifications of controlled rectifier circuits .
36. List the applications of rectifiers .
37. What is the difference between uncontrolled and controlled rectifier ?
38. What is chopper ?
39. What are the methods of chopper control ?
40. How will you classify choppers ?
41. What is the function of an inverter ?
42. List different types of inverters.
43. What is the difference between a converter and a inverter ?
44. What are the applications of inverters ?
45. What are the advantages and disadvantages of current source inverters ?
46. What is the difference between series and parallel inverter ?
47. What is the use of free wheeling diode ?
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48. List the different methods of voltage control adopted in inverters .
49. What are the different types of thyristor firing circuits ?
50. What is dimmer stat ?
51. What is power electronics ?
52. What are the merits of power electronics ?
53. What are the demerits of power electronics ?
54. What are the applications of power electronics ?
55. What are the important parameters of SCR ?
56. What are the important parameters of MOSFET ?
57. What are the important parameters of IGBT ?
58. What are the important parameters of TRIAC ?
59. What are the important parameters of DIAC ?
60. What are the important parameters of power BJT ?


Note: Instruction Classes will be taken for the students to introduce and explain the
laboratory experiments and use of equipments.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Manual by FRAX ELECTRO SYSTEMS
2. Power electronics by Mohamed Rashid.
3. Power electronics by Bhimra
4. Power electronics by Nattarasu.