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CAD-CAM in Bangladesh

MIS-310

[Year]

Name: Chad Sultana Niki ID: 082011090 Group: B Semester: 5th


SHANTO-MARIAM UNIVERSITY OF CREATIVE TECHNOLOGY

Batch: 11th

CONTENT
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Subject CAD CAM HISTORY OF CAD SOFTWARE HISTORY OF CAM SOFTWARE DIFFERENT SOFTWARE OFFERED FOR CAD/CAM USES OF CAD USES OF CAM BENEFITS OF CAD/CAM ADVANTAGES OF CAD-CAM CAD DISADVANTAGES: CAM DISADVANTAGES: CAD PLOTTER AND HOW IT IS RELATED TO CAD DIGITIZING BOARD AND HOW IT IS RELATED TO CAD CAD/CAM: Past, Present and Future THE ORIGINS OF CAD/CAM DIFFERENT TYPES OF CAD/CAM MACHINERIES IMPORTANCE OF CAD/CAM PROSPECT OF CAD/CAM IN BANGLADESH

CAD Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computeraided drafting and design (CADD), is the use of computer technology for the process of design and designdocumentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the

process of drafting with a computer. CADD software, or environments, provides the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. The development of CADD-based software is in direct correlation with the processes it seeks to economize; industry-based software (construction, manufacturing, etc.) typically uses vectorbased (linear) environments whereas graphic-based software utilizes raster-based (pixelated) environments. CADD environments often involve more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAM Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of workpieces. This is not the only definition for CAM, but it is the most common; CAM may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning, management, transportation and storage.Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency, which in some cases, uses only the required amount of raw material (thus minimizing waste), while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design (CAD) and sometimes computeraided engineering (CAE), as the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software, which then controls the machine tool. HISTORY OF CAD SOFTWARE Americans were first who begging automate processes in light industry. They create automate cutting device (ACD) for cutting material flooring by special knife over the ordered program without previous marking. The path to wide spread using was not very easy. The developers over 5 years persuade entertainments of light industry in effectiveness of their method. Once they persuaded automobile entertainment to try cutting device to cut material for car seat covers. Results surpasse all expectations. After this case some entertainments in garment industry start to use cutting device. Very

important that many present-day CAD Systems very similar to American system Gerber. In USSR the first CAD System for light industry was jointly developed by specialist of Department mathematical and optimal projecting of Institute machine-building problem in Ukraine Academy of Science and Research and developing bureau of automated control systems for textile and light industry in Moscow. The system was developed on the base of ARM SM-4. Specialist of Institute machine-building developed software for projecting markers. problem

Specialists of Research and developing bureau developed Automate Cutting Device (ACD) for cutting by laser beam. In 1988 year software was demonstrated at Federal Exhibition Center in Moscow. CAD System was regarded by Gold medal because of realized program of automatically projecting marker surpass all well-known CAD System in the world. This software serves the necessary need but didnt become wide spread because of using ARM SM-4 which were only 2 units in USSR for light industry. A wide developing of CAD Systems starts in 1990 years with spreading of IMB PC computers. HISTORY OF CAM SOFTWARE The first commercial applications of CAM were in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries for example UNISURF in 1971 at Renault for car body design and tooling. [Citation needed]

Originally, CAM software was seen to have several shortcomings that necessitated an overly high level of involvement by skilled CNC machinists. Fallows created the first CAM software but this had severe shortcomings and was promptly taken back into the developing stage. [citation needed] CAM software would output code for the least capable machine, as each machine tool control added on to the standard G-code set for increased flexibility. In some cases, such as improperly set up CAM software or specific tools, the CNC machine required manual editing before the program will run properly. None of these issues were so insurmountable that a thoughtful engineer or skilled machine operator could not overcome for prototyping or small production runs; GCode is a simple language. In high production or high precision shops, a different set of problems were encountered where an experienced CNC machinist must both hand-code programs and run CAM software.

DIFFERENT SOFTWARE OFFERED FOR CAD/CAM Fashion CAD (Australia): Fashion CAD software is for computerized pattern making for the apparel and garment manufacturing industries. Fashion CAD is an integrated suite of software which includes pattern design, pattern grading, pattern detailing, pattern layout and a fully featured CAD drafting system. Fashion CAD is an innovative CAD approach to pattern making which provides the flexible tools to create and modify pattern designs and to shorten the time cycle for all pattern making processes, such as grading.

Gerber Technology: Gerber Technology provides an extensive line of integrated computer hardware and software systems to the sewn-goods and flexible goods industries. These systems significantly improve the efficiency of information management, product and pattern design, grading and marker making/nesting, material spreading and cutting processes. GRAFIS (Germany): Is software for pattern construction, grading and lay planning running on standard Personal Computers under Windows95 and above. It contains an extensive range of functions for pattern cutting and modification and is available at a very competitive price. Therefore, GRAFIS is in use in industry as well as in trade and education. Pad System: PAD System's mission is to offer high technological level CAD/CAM solutions that are efficient, simple and flexible to all individuals and companies involved in the apparel, textiles and leather industry as well as in 3D computer graphics. PAD System evolves with its customer. They believe that, through a personalized approach and by offering continuous first class support and training, PAD System and its clients will grow together with success. Lectra : Lectra is a world leader in the design, manufacturing and distribution of software and hardware dedicated to the major industrial users of textiles, leather and other soft materials, supplying a comprehensive range of associated services for the development of complete solutions, from product design to manufacture to retailing. Lectra, a leading technology provider to the fashion industry offers a wide range of software,

Tuka cad software: CAD/CAM/CIM systems are for the Sewn Goods Industry. TUKA studio is used for Fabric and Garment Design, TUKA cad for Pattern Design, Grading and Marking. USES OF CAD CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive, shipbuilding, and aerospace industries, industrial and architectural design, prosthetics, and many more. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in twodimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) objects. CAD is also widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics (both hardware and software), and discrete differential geometry. The design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is often called computer-aided geometric design (CAGD). Besides CAD software is use for pattern making, pattern designing and grading. This system contains fully automatic patterns design, formula Patterns design &

free design. The automatic & formula design model can automatically grade. The graded pattern can be modified in patterns system without grading again. Reading graded patterns by digitizer, point grading, line grading, modify patterns and so on. Some used are describe in belowDigitizing The digitizing software enables you to digitize complete models, single pieces or only partial lines or curves. Once data is entered, it is readily available in cad.assyst. There are no restrictions or sequences to follow -- digitizing direction, number of points or other conventions is flexible and simple, which frees you to concentrate on more critical work. Pattern Design One of the system's important strengths is its ease of use. You will appreciate the professional, familiar tools the software provides. Functions, data, and processenabled steps are easily identifiable through the friendly and intuitive interface. "Smart" information about the piece and its relationship to other pieces, styles and markers is readily available through powerful underlying data-storage capabilities. cad.assyst detects user errors early, preventing loss of time and profit. Quality Control

With the cad.assyst quality control features, you can use any measurement function while using other modification functions to calculate measurements easily and quickly. Powerful features like pattern mirroring streamline the development process.

Grading Assyst-Bullmer Inc. offers you the option to choose the type of grading you prefer. You can grade using standard x/ y and distance grading within rule tables. Or you can take advantage of our powerful, integrated functionality that enables visual, direct modifications to pattern shapes on individual sizes. All modifications are automatically recorded in the grade table. There are no size display limitations. Piece grading is automatically recalculated whenever a piece is modified, scaled, mirrored, rotated or split. Using the flexible measure grading function, you can easily measure and compare the graded lines and curves of multiple pieces.

USES OF CAM

In the garments section cam software is used in widely process. Some uses are given belowSpeed up the development process by providing tested, proven development paradigms. Reusing design patterns helps to prevent subtle issues that can cause major problems, and it also improves code readability for coders and architects who are familiar with the patterns.

Design patterns provide general solutions, documented in a format that doesn't require specifics tied to a particular problem.

In addition, patterns allow developers to communicate using well-known, well understood names for software interactions. Common design patterns can be improved over time, making them more robust than ad-hoc designs

A standard solution to a common programming problem enable large scale reuse of S/W

BENEFITS OF CAD/CAM Shorter design time Database availability

New capabilities Example: Focus more on product ideas Improved product quality

Reduced production costs

ADVANTAGES OF CAD-CAM

Higher Productivity Reduced Design Time More Accurate Designs Less Time Required for Modifications Repeatability Precise 3D detailed drawing Computerized model to scale Test without having to produce it Drawings are device independent You can resize easily by using calculation More economical and efficient Smaller files than bitmapped images Easier to see the characteristics You can see the image in animation so you can get the feeling of it without having to build it the advantages are that fast smooth quick works fine.

CAM Advantage: Very fast setup of machinery for large volume production runs. CAD DISADVANTAGES: 1: Difficulty keeping track of changes when many people are working on drawings for a project (Revision Control). 2: Protecting your ideas is difficult when you must share your drawings with customers and contractors, but you need input about design questions (Intellectual Property). 3: Sharing your drawings with other companies who may not be using the same CAD programs. CAM DISADVANTAGES: 1: Potential for wasted parts and materials due to inaccurate CAD. 2: Machinery can break down, halting production. 3: Initial setup of the production line can be expensive, making limited runs cost-prohibitive. CAD PLOTTER AND HOW IT IS RELATED TO CAD It is an output device of cad/cam programmer, which is used to printing pattern paper according to instruction of cad/cam software. This device used for industrial production. It is directly connected with cad software. And according to marker. Plotting is the printing system of marker. Marker making system and plotting system are connected each other and allow the marker to be printed

in varying scale. Individual pattern and nested pattern in various scales also can be printed by the plotter.

Cad plotter

DIGITIZING BOARD AND HOW IT IS RELATED TO CAD It is a board with digitizing system that eliminates the need to digitize patterns manually. It is a kind of scanning system. It describes the technique by which a physical model is recreated in digital form by in some way scanning the physical model of points through which lines and curves. It is related with cad as an input device. It is connected to computer through a cable with a pointer like a mouse. A master pattern is laid on it and the pointer is used to take the reading. The computer gets the input and the master pattern is copied. Then we can grade it and make marker. Digitizer input original pattern to the computer for use and store. The pattern pieces are place on the digitizing tablet by follows X and Y axes lines. Computer scans the pattern pieces and store on its memory.

Picture dizitizing board

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CAD/CAM: Past, Present and Future Before CAD/CAM technology, drafts, calculations and product design involved pencil, paper and a seemingly endless succession of blueprints. CAD/CAM's ongoing enhancement has made the process easier, but with the latest slew of features, some users actually find less is more. Virtually every manmade product has been designed and manufactured using a CAD/CAM program. CAD/CAM, or Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing, is utilized in every facet of industry; from designing phones to plotting out toolpaths in die and mold shops. Although the users of CAD/CAM technology may, at times, feel frustrated by how often its software is updated, the fact is that CAD/CAM has close to five decades of history stretching almost as far back as the computer. CAD/CAM, like the digital computer, had its inception in the military. In the mid-1950s the U.S. Air Force began testing an air defense system known as SAGE (Semi Automatic Ground Environment) to graphically depict data received on radar systems. The first computer actually rendering a program, SAGE was conceived at the

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1960, computer scientists at MIT produced yet another project called Sketchpad, an application that is now considered to be the first design program with industrial use. A similar program sprouted up at General Motors soon after. At that time, mainframes were still large enough to take up entire rooms. During the 1960's CAD/CAM technology continued to evolve and spread to other areas. Automotive companies were the first to adopt the technology, and used it primarily to design automobile bodies. It then quickly spread to other sectors of industry, which were only too eager to abandon traditional pen and paper methods of drafting. By 1973, CAD/CAM was being used to design industrial tools. Midway through the decade, the 19-inch monitor came out, which meant that drawings could be viewed larger than the previous standard of 11 inches? In the last half of the 70's, solid modeling software became available. It allowed users to take "geometric primitives" (basic geometric shapes such as boxes and cones) and combine those using Boolean operations. In 1982, Autodesk made CAD/CAM history when it released the first version of AutoCAD, which soon became the premiere software platform for automobile design. At times, the history of CAD/CAM seems like the plot of a spy novel. In 1984, a Hungarian scientist named Gabor Bajor, succeeded in smuggling two Macintosh computers into his Communist-controlled homeland. With the intent of writing a 3D CAD program, Bajor and his teenage assistant used the illegal computers to create just that program, and started the Graphsoft Company. In 1985, Diehl Graphsoft introduced MiniCAD to the market, which would be considered the industry standard for CAD on the

Mac. The same year Autodesk unveiled AutoCAD 2.1. Complete with 3D capabilities, AutoCAD 2.1 was another breakthrough that transformed design in the auto industry. In the late 80's and early 90's, CAD/CAM giant Unigraphics took its place as a major industry player by partnering with industry powerhouses such as General Motors, UNIX, GE and Boeing. During the early 1990s, Unigraphics introduced hybrid modeling, which featured both traditional modeling and advanced parametric techniques. By the end of 1994, over one million units of AutoCAD had been sold, and by the end of 1995, there were about 350,000 users of generic CAD/CAM reported worldwide. In 1996, General Motors signed the largest contract in CAD/CAM's history by selecting Unigraphics as its sole vendor for vehicle development software. Soon afterwards, Unigraphics would once again transform the medium by releasing CAD/CAM software that allowed for the definition, control and evaluation of product templates. Another major advance in CAD/CAM occurred IN 1999 when Think3, a "Johnny-come-lately" to the world of CAD/CAM, introduced the first mechanical design software that could fully combine the power of parametric solids, advanced surfacing, wireframe and two-dimensional drafting on the desktop in one environment. Subsequently, a plethora of software vendors has surfaced, inundating the market with competing CAD/CAM platforms AND causing designers to be alternately pleased and confused by the sheer number of options available to them. At present, CAD/CAM continues its steady path of progress. Much of this progress is in the form of refining past innovations to make them more efficient and user

friendly. A groundbreaking CAD/CAM innovation has not occurred for a number of years, which seems to indicate that another sweeping change is just around the corner -or maybe not. Despite the advent of 3D CAD/CAM, many CAD/CAM users still prefer to render designs in 2D. Thus, recent 3D innovations such as animated "walk-throughs" (a technique that allows designers to visually move in and around the rendered model, and see it from every possible angle) are still largely underused. The same is true of the bevy of collaboration tools currently available to the CAD/CAM user. The ability to combine CAD/CAM, with finite-element analysis and the accessibility of simulation and knowledge management, has yet to be fully embraced. Perhaps, it is in one of these areas that the next CAD/CAM breakthrough will occur. One thing that can be said with a degree of certainty is that research and development are currently ahead of user demand. When, and if, the garden-variety CAD/CAM user decides that they need to expand their range of capabilities, they will find a world of cutting-edge CAD/CAM tools at their disposal. THE ORIGINS OF CAD/CAM CAD had its origins in three separate sources, which also serve to highlight the basic operations that CAD systems provide. The first source of CAD resulted from attempts to automate the drafting process. These developments were pioneered by the General Motors Research Laboratories in the early 1960s. One of the important time-saving advantages of computer modeling over traditional drafting methods is that the former can be quickly corrected or manipulated by changing a model's parameters. The second source of CAD was in the testing of designs by simulation. The use of computer modeling

to test products was pioneered by high-tech industries like aerospace and semiconductors. The third source of CAD development resulted from efforts to facilitate the flow from the design process to the manufacturing process using numerical control (NC) technologies, which enjoyed widespread use in many applications by the mid1960s. It was this source that resulted in the linkage between CAD and CAM. One of the most important trends in CAD/CAM technologies is the ever-tighter integration between the design and manufacturing stages of CAD/CAM-based production processes. The development of CAD and CAM and particularly the linkage between the two overcame traditional NC shortcomings in expense, ease of use, and speed by enabling the design and manufacture of a part to be undertaken using the same system of encoding geometrical data. This innovation greatly shortened the period between design and manufacture and greatly expanded the scope of production processes for which automated machinery could be economically used. Just as important, CAD/CAM gave the designer much more direct control over the production process, creating the possibility of completely integrated design and manufacturing processes. The rapid growth in the use of CAD/CAM technologies after the early 1970s was made possible by the development of mass-produced silicon chips and the microprocessor, resulting in more readily affordable computers. As the price of computers continued to decline and their processing power improved, the use of CAD/CAM broadened from large firms using large-scale mass production techniques to firms of all sizes. The scope of operations to which CAD/CAM was applied

broadened as well. In addition to parts-shaping by traditional machine tool processes such as stamping, drilling, milling, and grinding, CAD/CAM has come to be used by firms involved in producing consumer electronics, electronic components, molded plastics, and a host of other products. Computers are also used to control a number of manufacturing processes (such as chemical processing) that are not strictly defined as CAM because the control data are not based on geometrical parameters. Using CAD, it is possible to simulate in three dimensions the movement of a part through a production process. This process can simulate feed rates, angles and speeds of machine tools, the position of part-holding clamps, as well as range and other constraints limiting the operations of a machine. The continuing development of the simulation of various manufacturing processes is one of the key means by which CAD and CAM systems are becoming increasingly integrated. CAD/CAM systems also facilitate communication among those involved in design, manufacturing, and other processes. This is of particular importance when one firm contracts another to either design or produce a component DIFFERENT TYPES OF CAD/CAM MACHINERIES

Cad fabric spreader

Opticad CAD machine

cad/cam fabric cutter cutting

Cad laser

Cad fusing machine

IMPORTANCE OF CAD/CAM CAD/CAM is very important the apparel and textile industry, because Greater flexibility in pattern designing, grading and marking, reduction in waste %, increase in quality of cutting room and reduction in sample making time are some of the benefits of application of CAD/CAM system in garment manufacturing. Some importance cause of CAD/CAM are describe in bellow-

Designing/ Range Planning before the start of any fashion season, all apparel manufacturers plan the range of garments which they are setting up to manufacture. Most of the designing and range planning is still done by the buyer or the owners of the brand because they are closest to their actual clients; it is easier for them to understand the specific needs of their target market. To some extent, this has now changed with more and more manufacturers allowing vendors to dabble a bit in designing, based on their specific inputs in terms of colors, yarns, fabrics, prints, silhouettes etc. Prototyping/ Sampling once the designs have been finalized, a prototype or sample has to be made, because the scalability of the end product (garment) very much depends on the fit of the garment. In a study conducted by an independent research agency, which monitored and observed the reasons of dissatisfaction or returns of garments sold fitting problems topped the dissatisfaction list. Considering the importance of a good fit, it becomes imperative for a manufacturer or retailer to achieve the best fits possible. Considering the complexity involved with different fabrics and silhouettes, a CAD system takes away much of the pain from prototyping thus decreasing the time to market. Mass Production comes with its own challenges. Unlike most other products, apparel manufacturing, even today very much depends on people especially when it comes to tailoring or assembling. A mistake anywhere down the line in the prototyping or cutting process becomes very difficult and often impossible to rectify. This is where a

CAD system comes in, to deskill some of the processes involved in mass manufacturing, namely the preproduction processes so that perfectly cut parts are fed to the operators. Additionally, the fabric saved in bulk cutting while using a CAD system is enormous. Waste percentage in cutting room- With the use of CAD/CAM system through experimental procedure it can be observed that about 10% of material is saved, as compared to the manual method.

PROSPECT OF CAD/CAM IN BANGLADESH Garment manufacturers are primarily engaged in the design, cutting and sewing of garments from fabric. Bangladesh has become an ideal land of readymade garments. There are about 4500 garment industries in Bangladesh and 2.5 million people work in this sector. It earns more than 70% foreign currency from this sector. If we can increase our export volume, we can earn foreign currency more. Factory can increase the productivity by using CAD/CAM technology. Bangladesh using software for shorter development time of sample, good forecasting of cost, no shrinkage due to spreading including faster and consistent cutting, better marker efficiency etc. More over using this technology manufacturer can make sure optimum use of fabric saving wastage. So production will be increased and production cost will be reduced. So CAD/CAM technology is a must one for the garment manufacturer of Bangladesh.