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Police Corruption Introduction: The facilitative role of police in maintaining and sustaining order, legality and democracy cannot

be denied. The primary duty of police is to secure the compliance of the existing laws and exhibit conformity with the rules of social order. The necessity of police has become more apparent in modern times which are characterized with diversities, urbanization and different ideologies on socio-cultural and political matters. One important issue in this field that exists universally in various forms and cannot be overlooked is Police Corruption. There is a wide range of police jurisdictions and considerable costs are paid by the society in general as well as the police services as a result of such misconduct. Herman Goldstein defines it as acts

involving the misuse of authority by a police officer in a manner designed to produce personal gain for himself or others. It is a larger systematic problem which is due to the lack of overall transparency, no check and balances, weak rule of law and insubstantial institutions. Police Corruption generally occurs at two levels: In the office i.e. behind the scenes or on the streets such as bribery or involvement with criminals. The backroom corruption activities involve irregular practices such as negligence in enforcing internal discipline, stopping of investigations, payments for transfers or appointments and contracting. All these unethical and mischievous acts involve very large transactions and are committed by officers having command authority (mid or senior-level officials) and access to the privileged information. Officers avail such opportunities in pairs or alone in the absence of supervisors or any higher authorities. The extent may vary from petty corruption to large scale criminal acts which are endowed by the extra ordinary powers given to the police officials. In the 1980s and 1990s, corruption cases occurred on a very large scale involving and later charging police officers for drug dealings, robberies, batteries and even murders etc. It can be observed that there are two major elements of police corruption namely misuse of authority/power and misuse of personal attainment. At each level, these elements are misused in one way or the other posing a great hindrance in the efficient and effective working of the police department. It can be said that police officials have been a part of encouraging and creating crime rather than deterring it. In this report the causes of police corruption will be discussed and ways such as increased salaries,

training, education incentives, health and insurance benefits and policies that focus on such issues will be identified to eliminate or reduce corruption. Types of Police Corruption: Some major forms of police corruption are discussed below: Gratuity:

This refers to the illegal or inappropriate use of power by police officers in order to arrest, coerce, harass, intimidate or assault people. It is a serious crime because the society in general relies on police to safeguard their social security and rights. They are given power to use it for the right purpose and intention but wrongful use of this authority has resulted in many unjust incidents. Police brutality, sexual harassment, illicit use of weapons, fake encounters are the most common ways of misusing the authority. Brutality is a form of physical abuse which occurs when officers want to teach a lesson to any citizen or unnecessary force them for the intended action. Police officers also engage in crimes that has nothing to do with their professional duty such as insurance of fraudulent activities. It is very difficult to get the accurate statistics of police misconduct and abusive behaviour as they normally dont release any detailed information on disciplinary issues. Kickbacks:

It is a secret payment made to the police officers in the form of contracts or transactions in order to change the course of action and support a wrongdoing/ illegal action. They are considered as fringe benefits of the job by the officers. The violation of law takes place in order to receive some financial gains in which the officer undertakes a compromising position to get a favour fix in the future. When the favour is implied it is called mooching and when the officer openly demands free services, it is called chiseling. This leads to Kickbacks such as bribery, pilfering, stealing etc.


It occurs when the police officers force the business owners to grant money protection in order to support the unethical happenings. Gay bars, strip bars, prostitution rings, illegal gambling are

all common examples in this regard where all vulnerable activities are overlooked by making payoffs or promising a fix to the police officials in order to hide the ongoing corruption. In some cities like San Francisco and New Orleans, officers provide extra protection against gay-bashing, open sex, drugs violation for the sake of additional monetary payments. Perjury:

This form of corruption occurs when the police officials leave out or ignore certain important pieces of information in order to fix a criminal prosecution or hearing. Dropsy incident is evident in which the officer untruthfully testifies that the offender dropped the narcotics. Lying in the court is termed as testifying and officers are trained to be such witnesses. Most perjury acts are committed by decent officers who feel the need to punish the guilty defendant and lie not to set him free. Sexual Misconduct:

It is a harsh reality that few police officers who use their power to engage in sexual activities with female citizens. In many cases, female officers are also the victims of sexual harassment. Amnesty International has provided many evident of mistreatment of women by the police officials. There are many instances where the jailers in lock-ups and on-duty officers have raped and are protected by the departmental supervisors such as in Wallkill, New York. Although it is against the law and an extreme violation of the policy, it is described as a macho or locker room culture. On-Duty use of drugs or alcohol:

(Carter ,1999) discussed the use of drugs and cited previous researches that found out up to 20 percent of police officers use marijuana and other drugs while on duty. The root causes of high involvement of drugs on-duty are exposure to the criminal elements, freedom or lack of supervision and ease of availability. The use of drug diverts more attention of the officers

towards illegal acts as they are their decision making abilities are influenced in such circumstances. Misuse of Confidential information:

When the ongoing investigations are leaked to the public, the press, friends or relatives or directly to the suspect or their members, then this kind of conduct leads to the failure of raids and are termed as pillow talks. In the modern times, the use information systems has posed major disadvantages in this field such as password detection to access the secret information, history of criminals and ways to change it. In some cases, political or famous figures are blackmailed by these resources. Causes of Police Corruption: Rotten Apple Theory:

According to this theory, corruption is the work of a few dishonest police officers and the whole organization or department cannot be measured with the same sticks. Such acts are committed on the individual level and may be symptoms of underlying disease. This theory wont work any longer because it is senseless to name the corrupt officers as naturally born criminals or morally wicked men. The task is not just to examine the apple but the barrel in order to figure out the real problem. Discretion:

Police officers have so much freedom to enforce particular laws in one situation not in the other. This is due to the authority that has been granted to them with this job. It is human nature to dominate others when holding any extra power against them. The different between the internal and external goals of policing is another important factor. The stated duty of police is to enforce all the laws but it is not necessary that the officers have set the same priorities in enforcement practices.

Low managerial visibility:

As (Goldstein, 1990) observes under the best of circumstances, police agencies have several peculiar characteristics that make them especially difficult to administer. Police officers are spread out in the field, not subject to direct supervision. This enables them to resist managerial edicts, policies and even disciplinary actions (Manning, 1979:63). This means that police officers can easily bend or break the law due to low visibility in the job. They are less or very few chances of being caught up and exploit the invisibility and transparency of their relative job. Low public visibility:

As the managerial aspect of policing is very low same goes for the public visibility. In most of the cases the dealings of police officers are only visible to the person or people with whom they are making a settlement or closely engaged such as companions. They have more access to private places and can easily hide them from the public observation. Peer group secrecy:

In corrupt police departments, most of the officers become part of corruption if not directly involved they are bound to adhere to the blue curtain of secrecy in the corruption system. This is done to keep the corrupt activities at a reasonable level, to minimize the entrance of external control by any means and to control and manipulate the fellow workers. The strong bonds of loyalty are made in such a way which automatically leads an officer to corrupt acts. Status Problems:

This is a very important and common cause of corruption where the police officials are not paid adequately and engage in bribery and other financial gains to empower them. However in places where officers are reasonably well paid, the perceive mismatch or difference between the salary and duty develops corruption. Similarly, if the officer feels unequal treatment in comparison with the other officers, this would also tempt and attract him/her towards corruption.

Association with Lawbreakers:

There are certain people who cannot carry out their business without the interference of police officers. With low visibility, code of secrecy and opportunity to make more money, officers tend to support such people and chances of coming into contact are great. Community Structure:

The environment or the overall system of a country or a city has a significant impact upon the nature and style of the work as well as the extent of corrupt activities. More specifically, the political and governmental bodies play a great role in shaping and influencing the level of corruption. If the citizens of a society support and engage in such dealings, this will eventually facilitate a department in becoming more corrupt. Corruption Controls:

The difference in the levels of corruption is also due to the extent of social control prevailing in a society. The absence of appropriate control mechanisms or low funding can also stimulate corruption. The system designed to control the police department should uncover its stories and internal investigations should be done to target the petty misconduct more than serious corruption. Tools for addressing Police Corruption: The stated vision of any anti-corruption strategy is to focus on these three interrelated objectives: Reduction of crime Tackling of police corruption Improvement in quality of service

Salaries: The salaries of Police officials are set with the negotiation of Police Staff Associations. They are reviewed annually with the help of police pay scales and salaries set for that particular year. The pay and pay policy are affected by regional and competence police pay allowances. According to a Certified Compensation Professional Analysis the expected average salary in United States is

$49,720 with most falling in the range of $35000/ year to $60,000/year. Police officers tend to be compensated well and enjoy good benefit packages due to the level of danger and responsibility associated with their job. They also get paid for over time duties. It has been identified that low salaries contribute to corruption in the police department. Thus, in order to ensure loyalty from the police officials, it is the obligation of the government to provide such benefits that match their responsibilities towards the society and leaves no space for financial issues. Adequate pay should be an essential ingredient in developing strategies to combat police corruption especially at lower levels. Mauro has argued that when civil service pay is unreasonably low, people will obviously collect bribes in order to meet their needs particularly when the chance of being caught is very low. This is true in the case of police department where there is extreme lack of managerial support and supervision. For instance, the most important factor to be blamed for police corruption in Singapore during the colonial period was low salaries by SPF (Singapore Police Force) particularly in the lower positions. This shows that the police staffing commission should understand the importance of high salaries and view them as a means to minimize corruption. It will surely minimize its affects, as officers will not give a chance to lose a high paid job for petty benefits. On the other hand, if the wages of rigidly honest and loyal officers decreases due to any reason, it will automatically tempt them to go for unlawful means in order to maintain their standard of living. Risk vs. Reward: Police Corruption thrives in those countries where there is a low risk, high reward policy involved in all such activities. Officers perceive that they are unlikely to be detected and charged for corrupt acts. Whereas, the rate of corruption declines in countries where a high risk, low reward policy is present. Police know that they are likely to be caught and severely punished and thus restrain from unlawful acts. This implies that when there is no fear of punishment, corruption tends to increase. This means that the first initiative that should be taken against police corruption is the awareness of police members that there is zero or no tolerance for corruption. This can be emphasized by the level of seriousness observed in tackling any police corruption matter by the higher authorities. An anti-corruption memo should be circulated on a monthly or quarterly basis to all the stations of police with some strict guidelines and a regular check should be done for proper implementation. In order to make the corruption as a high risk

activity, the government must publicize the corrupt behaviour among the politicians and civil servants and grant severe punishment if they are found guilty. Favours should not be given on the basis of class, position, social status etc. As a result this negative publicity will act as a positive deterrent and will make corruption unacceptable. As the risk should be higher, the reward of being honest and disciplined should also be higher. The police officers should be given rewards for reporting people who offer bribes, other monetary incentives or intend to persuade the officers for illegal favours. The department of Police should recognize and appreciate the efforts of each officer who plays even a trivial role in maintaining law and order in the society. This will motivate the police officers as they will feel a sense of recognition for their good and honest efforts. They will seek to comply with ethical policies in order to enjoy a respectable position by serving the public and not to themselves. Compensation based on performance: Competency based pay fits in this rapidly growing environment where everyone wants to better livelihood. Police officers should be rewarded with salary increases when they demonstrate higher level competence in their assigned duties. Previously it has been found that police officers have been cynical about their bonuses as they were awarded randomly or as payoffs to the favourites. This not only hindered the actual performance of an officer but also demotivated them to stay in the right track. Police officers insist that promotion and bonuses should be based on written examinations or authentic sources of information rather than the opinions of police chiefs or captains. This gives rise to discrimination and corruption, because the corrupt officials will try to promote their corrupt fellow workers and in this way an honest officer might suffer and retaliate or chooses the same way for better outcomes. Benefits: The job of a police officer is very demanding. In most of the developed countries, the police officers not only get higher salaries but have many other additional benefits such as: Uniform cleaning and safety equipment are also provided by the city to each officer. Flexible working hours: Different schedules are made for the officers depending upon their availability. Such as a 4 days schedule 10 hour per day weekly or a 3 day schedule 12 hour per day weekly.

Educational Incentives: For P.O.S.T .Intermediate Certificate 2.5% and an additional 2.5% for P.O.S.T. Advanced Certificate. An addition of 5% in the pay for specialty assignments such as Field training Officers, Detectives, Canine Handlers, Traffic Officers and officers for DARE, PAL and C-CAT. A 2.5% to 5% increment in the pay for bilingual skills such as Spanish. For each year there are fourteen paid holidays. Depending on the level of experience and years of service, a two to five weeks vacation is also given. There is a retirement policy at the age of 50. A 3% formula. Bonus for unused sick days. Physical fitness incentive is given in the form of leave for up to 5 days to all those officers who participate and meet the standards of the Police academy sponsored wellness programs. Transport facilities: fuel cards are given that can be either used for a train seasonal ticket or to cover up a percentage of fuel costs. Pension Plans are provided for the police officers ready to retire. There are three benefit provisions: Supplemental Pension plan, supplemental disability plan and survivor income benefits.

Health Insurance: The strenuous job of a police officer has more chances that something bad can happen such as an injury or worse. There are some departments that offer free health insurance to the police officials. In most of the cases, insurance is only provided to the officer him/herself or the immediate family. The extended family such as siblings or cousins are not included. The health insurance policies include anything that is needed to secure the life of the officer as well as that of their family. There are many departments who still dont offer health insurance this is mainly due to the lack of funds by the governmental bodies. In such a situation, the officer must search for the health quotes on their own. They can be costly but with the help of technological advancements, a police officer can easily search for the best possible health package for himself and his family. There are many discount packages available to the police officers and can be availed by making comparisons and contacting the insurance company directly. Moreover, the HR department of the police is also able to answer such queries.

Dental Insurance: Dental insurance is covered by all eligible officers as it is an employee paid insurance. Life Insurance: Life Insurance is basically a surety in the form of policy that pays a death benefit to the beneficiaries of a police officer in case of a natural or accidental death. There are many reasons as to why a police officer should obtain life insurance. First of all, it is the demand of the job as it has a dangerous capacity in it. Secondly, it protects the family of the officer if anything happens to the insured. A term life insurance policy is also granted for the term during the time the police officer provides his services. Every police officer must have a life insurance package to secure certain benefits for their family. Code of ethics: The fundamental duty of a police officer is to serve the mankind. This includes safeguarding the lives and property of each citizen, protecting the honest people from deception, complying with the laws and respecting the rights of all the citizens to equality, liberty and justice. This is the primary duty of a police representative but as society has evolved, the ethical standards have become more complex and complicated. They are also being scrutinized by the public than ever before. Citizens expect the law enforcement officers to behave in an ethical and professional manner without incorporating their emotional or personal views. By ethical manner, it means doing the right thing at the right time for the right reason and in the right manner. A code of ethics is an oath for the officer to state and implement as part of their employment. The police code of conduct works with the enforcement code of ethics which consists of ethical mandates to perform the assigned duties. Impartial behaviour, use of necessary force, maintaining confidentiality is a few guidelines included in this code of conduct. If these statements are coupled with proper training and strong leadership traits, then corruption can be easily eliminated. In reality these are just the written codes of conduct which differ from the practical behaviour that leads to many penalties and charges for the police officials.

Penalties for inappropriate behaviour: The most crucial and subjective decision in making a disciplinary process is what is the proper or justified penalty for a particular course of action? A number of steps are utilized in determining the corrective action. Many factors should be considered such as the severity of the misconduct, the prior history and behaviour of the concerned officer and the reason of violation. Whether it was in response of poor training or it was done intentionally for personal gains. A disciplinary matrix is used to make such decisions as it has outstanding benefits and is consistent throughout the department. These process not just deals with what you did but also about whom you work for. The blame game is not only given to the corrupt officers but also the supervisor is taken into consideration. This responsibility is given to a sergeant or lieutenant. All the circumstances related to the particular case are examined by the supervisor. The weight factors are used to determine appropriate discipline range to reach the final decision. The goal of this matrix is to improve the culture of the organization along with better communication and change processes. The violations are categorized into different sections on the basis of which penalties are imposed. For instance, Category A of violation includes petty mistakes which are due to lack of training or the officer had no time to take an advice. In such cases a written or oral warning is given. Category B includes moderate injury or damage, not due to the lack of training or time or an intentional disregard and it may result in stronger warning or a suspension of 40 hours. Category C involves serious injuries or damages and a deliberate violation of the code of ethics. This will result in a suspension of more than 40 hours but less than 120 hours. Category D represents criminal acts, outrageous acts that cannot be improved or corrected, demonstration of lack of integrity and no respect for policy or laws. This will result in suspension of over 120 hours, termination, demotion or criminal charges depending upon the severity of the incident. The supervisor is responsible for putting a certain act into one of these categories. The range of negative weighing factors will be for the following examples: Officers with poor working history having consistent negative evaluations and similar previous incidents. Officer is not guilty and embarrassed about the incident. Officer makes excuses and not willing to take the responsibility. Officer is not receptive and positive about training.

The range of positive weighing factors will be for the following examples: Officer has a good history with positive evaluations. Officer is willing to take responsibility and is remorseful. Officer is ready to take training and is receptive about it.

In order to complete this process of disciplinary actions and to assist the supervisor a checklist is provided which should be completed by the supervisor. The steps included in the checklist are: Proper utilization of matrix to identify the correct range. The investigation report should be reviewed carefully. The personnel profile of the corrupt officer should be reviewed. A detailed interview of the officer regarding the incident. List all the negative as well as positive weighing factors. The appropriate course of action should be done with great determination. Approval from the intermediate level of supervisor and inform officer is necessary. A report is provided to justify the punishment or disciplinary action. A copy of complaint package is given to the officer. Advice the officer for the appeal process.

This checklist will serves as a road map for making complex decisions. The report will be valuable and helpful in the appeal process and will also act as warning for the other officers by knowing the penalties attached to different sets of violation. Anonymous reporting of corrupt law enforcement officers: One important reason why people fail to report a police misconduct is that they are either not familiar with the process of reporting or get afraid of reporting such experience. This is also true for those police officers who want to turn a blind eye towards their ill-disciplined colleagues in order to minimize the risk of flashback from such colleagues. A clear reporting system should be established which is responsive, consisting of an office and a telephone helpline to accomplish the following aims:

To receive and more importantly process the information of any misconduct to the concerned authorities The complaint should be handled politely and communicated in the right manner. The person who takes the complaint should have excellent interpersonal and communication skills. Appropriate actions should be taken at the right time without any delays. The complainant should be given feedback. A grading system should be used to differentiate various types of allegations and must be dealt according to the level of seriousness and relevant information is involved. Immediate responses should be given depending on the situation such as search or seizure operation etc. Anonymity should be allowed so that the complainant feels free to inform without exposing themselves. A secret code should be given to the anonymous informer in order to get the feedback to provide any further information or collect the reward if the information is authentic and led to the arrest of the corrupt member or a group of members.

The complainant should feel secure about the information and that it will not be leaked in any situation. The reporting system should be well publicised so that everyone knows how to use this system.

Code of Silence: The code of silence is core concept among police officers and is followed by the premise a good cop never rats on another cop. There is a movie known as Serpico on this issue of code of silence. This movie depicts the reality of police officers willing to be blind to the unlawful acts committed by their fellow officers. If the other officer is not a whistle blower then there have been many incidents where the officers put their life at stake for each other. It has been shown in the history of policing that officers never accept organizational problems unless and until it has been discovered by an outside investigating body. The reason of the continuation of this code of silence is that from the utilitarian perspective it is beneficial for both officers and police executives. Officers are saved from the punishments and executives have less reported issues to encounter. This creates a good perception to the citizenry that the police chief is running a well-

disciplined department. The code of silence is not a tangible thing to be caught but it is like an injurious gas that harms without any warning. Its existence is always denied and even after the identification of such code, the police officials use the rotten apple theory to minimize its impact. Breaking the code of silence: In order to break this code of silence the police executives need to address this misconduct from the normative frame work and not the quick fixes. The underlying problems should be figured out and cured as opposed to the surface issues. Actions should be taken to improve the organizational discipline but in most of the cases corrective actions are aimed at the target officers. A special investigator is assigned who ensure the confidentiality of the findings and shows the department in the best possible light during a press release. A weapon that can be used to reduce the code of silence is to offer complete protection or immunity from prosecution for witness officers. The immunity given under Garrity is safe in this regard. It is meant for the individual officer. For example, if an officer A reports that he has witnessed officer B taking a bribe from a drug dealer. The officer A also confesses that he also beat the drug dealer. As this interview is taken under Garrity, officer As statement can be used against officer B but it cannot be used against the officer A for beating the drug dealer. The code of silence is often justified with a synonym lying to protect fellow officers. Honest is required by all the officers because it is very difficult to prove that an officer has lied. Due to which there is no such punishment and as a result honesty and loyalty are not regarded as an important virtue. The officer should realize its duty and truthfulness towards its job and then towards the fellow workers. This code of silence should be viewed as corrupted loyalty which is very dangerous on the basis of which wrongful actions are taken. An atmosphere should be cultivated that rewards individual efforts and virtues of loyalty to minimize such influencing corruptions. The code of silence can be lessened by integrating the following responsibilities: A career development program should be developed for all the officers. This program will encourage individual initiatives by fully utilizing their abilities. Trainings will be provided in specialized areas to satisfy the career paths of each officer. This will also increase the level of job satisfaction by rewarded the virtuous conducts.

Ethical training should be given to clear the concept of loyalty and honesty. This will surely lead to the reporting of misconduct goings. Officers should be engaged in different productive activities such as community functions, both on and off duty. This will reduce their isolation and will give them recognition in the department as well as publicly.

All undisciplined cases should be dealt with strict procedures to make them understand that untruthfulness will not be tolerated. The management should set a role model for the other officers in this regard. This will form a strong culture of the department and will make them realize that misconduct is a serious priority of punishment.

Supervisors should be held accountable for their subordinates. Those who get aware of the problem and resolve it should be praised and those who fail to take appropriate actions should be asked and held accountable.

Leadership skills should be present in the police officers to exhibit right behaviour. The organization values, norms and traditions should be articulated and reinforced throughout the departments administration, operation and services.

The goal of a police officer should be to create and be a part of such environment that represents the whole community i.e. US rather than us against them attitude.

Other Recommendations: HR department: It includes the recruitment process, ethical training and responsibility of the police management. The hiring process should be reviewed and aptitude tests should be taken to check the level of competency of the prospect candidate for any police related job. Probation period should be given to the unfit employees and must be removed on negligence. Officers must be trained in anti-corruption laws and police code of ethics to prevent them from any illegal actions that may cause due to lack of knowledge or required information. The internal control is very significant in this regard. The supervisors and other executives should take the responsibility and held personally accountable to tackle corruption in their area of authority.

Transparency: It is one of the basic elements for good governance in any field. The overextended secrecy and confidentiality rules have made the system more open to corruption. It is important for the protection of private or personal data but they should not be a part of criminal investigations. Information should be available to the general public and must be justified. Tools to promote transparency in police department: Freedom of laws related to use and availability of information. Regular and accurate publication of police performance indicators and statistics. Protection should be granted to the whistle blowers. Research and surveys related to police department should be carried out by external sources.

Station Integrity Profiles: Another way of emphasizing and dealing with corruption at a larger level can be done by developing annual Police Station Integrity Profiles. The main aim of these profiles would be to collect data regarding the type of integrity challenges faced by different stations. These profiles will also monitor the key factors related to service delivery and corruption. It will also assist in directing the strategic planning processes of the stations. Each station can be profiled on certain lines such as Motivational factors, Complaints Management, Discipline Management and the extent of crime or corruption etc. Specialised Units: A common problem faced by many police officials is that they dont like to investigate their own colleagues. Due to this fact, specialized units should be established that are dedicated to investigating criminal acts, serious misconducts and corruption in a broader sense and tackle all such matters. This is very effective because this unit has all the experienced police officials with greater knowledge about the activities that tend to attract the officers towards corruption. Fast tracking Disciplinary cases: Internationally, police agencies have started using a formal disciplinary system to remove corrupt officials where there is no space for any trial. They should be flagged or handed over to

the experienced investigators. The hearings of the department for which the regulation were broken are collected and provided to the experienced or prosecuting officers. This is done to reduce the time taken by the supervisors to identify the problem and then take any corrective measure. It also conveys a strong message of no tolerance for any form of misconduct by the police. Conclusion: It is impossible to completely eliminate police corruption but it is necessary to design such mechanisms that can detect corrupt acts and support a culture of honesty and truthfulness in the police department. The cost of police corruption is much more than the rewards. It undermines the trust of the general public and encourages criminal activities such as human trafficking, involvement with terrorists and other subversive groups. The enforcement of anti-corruption laws and investigation of all such cases is very essential in this regard. The mission of policing is to provide security and maintain peace and harmony at all times. The monetary conditions of police officers should be sufficient enough to provide their working and living standards. Reliable salaries should be given along with other health and educational benefits to train the officers. One important factor that must be kept in mind that lack of realism can lead to the cycle of corruption all over again. After attaining success in combating corruption, agencies should not be complacent about corruption as it takes no time to return it with the same force in the future. There are two watchwords for the police administration i.e. Vigilance and realism. All the measures discussed in this report are not full proof strategies and require careful consideration to get the desired effect. One important factor is equal treatment to all. If the big fish (rich) are protected from the prosecution of corruption then this will lead to the failure of anti-corruption strategies. A periodic review to identify the loopholes is also mandatory.

References: Dempesy, Forst. (2010). An introduction to Policing, 5th edition. Cengage Learning. Heidenheimer, A.J. (2001). Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts, 3rd edition. Transaction Publishers. Pollock, J.M. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice, 6TH edition. Cengage Learning. Roebuck ,Barker.(1974). A typology of Police Corruption. University of California Press Vol. 21, pp. 423-437. Elliston, Feldberg.(1985). Moral issues in Police work. Rowman & Allanheld. Siegel, L.J. (2010). Introduction to Criminal Justice, twelfth edition. Cengage Learning.