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# MATHEMATICS 23a/E-23a, FALL 2011 Assignment #8 Last modied: October 27, 2011 Problems to be handed in at class on Tuesday, November

1: You may use Mathematica, including the RowReduce[] function, in solving these problems. 1. Let 1 2 1 2 A = 2 4 3 3 2 4 1 5

Construct an orthonormal basis for the image of A and an orthonormal basis for the kernel of A. There are many correct answers for the kernel. Please help the grader by conrming that your basis is orthonormal and that the basis vectors are in the kernel. 2. Hubbard, Exercise 2.14 on page 279. This turns out to be much easier than it looks, since you can nd the image and kernel of the matrix in part (b) by inspection. 3. Starting with 0 + 0 = 0, which is clearly true in any eld, and using the axioms for a vector space on page 211 of Hubbard, prove that the following are true for all vectors v in an abstract vector space over any eld: (a) 0v = 0 (b) (1)v = v (c) (a)(v) = av

4. A set that could be used to describe the NSA budget is X = R S. The symbol S denotes a secret amount. For elements in X other than S, addition and multiplication are dened as usual. Here are the rules for S. x X, S + x = x + S = S. R, S = S. (a) Show that the theorem 0v = 0, which you proved for all v in an abstract vector space, is not true for all elements of X. This means that X cannot be an abstract vector space. (b) Identify one of the axioms for an abstract vector space that does not hold for X. (c) If you change the rules of arithmetic in X by dening 0S = 0, does X become a vector space, or is there still an axiom that is not satised? 5. Hubbard, Exercise 2.6.8 (a linear dierential operator) 6. I use this as an example in the rst lecture of Math 110, Vector Space Mathods for Dierential Equations. Let V be the three-dimensional vector space of polynomials of degree no greater than 2, with basis {1, x, x2 }. Let l be the linear dierential operator l(y) = (x + 1)y 2y. Write down the matrix L that represents l, and nd a basis for the kernel of L. Then nd, by algebraic methods, the general solution to l(y) = 2x. Is there any element h(x) V for which l(y) = h(x) cannot be solved?

7. Consider the vector space V of even polynomials in cos of degree 4. The old basis is v1 = 1, v2 = cos2 , v3 = cos4 . The new basis is v 1 = 1, v 2 = cos 2, v 3 = cos 4. (a) Construct the matrix P whose columns express the new basis vectors in terms of the old. (b) Construct the matrix P 1 and use it to nd a trigonometric identity for cos4 in terms of the functions in the new basis. (c) Find the element of R3 that represents sin4 relative to each basis. (Do the easy case rst, then use P or P 1 to do the other.)

8. Consider three bases for the vector space of polynomials of degree 2, as follows: Basis 0:{1, x, x2 } Basis 1:{p2 (x), p1 (x), p1 (x)} where p2 (2) = 1, p2 (1) = 0, p2 (1) = 0, p1 (2) = 0, p1 (1) = 1, p1 (1) = 0, p1 (2) = 0, p1 (1) = 0, p1 (1) = 1 Basis 2:{p3 (x), p0 (x), p2 (x)} where p3 (3) = 1, p3 (0) = 0, p3 (2) = 0, p0 (3) = 0, p0 (0) = 1, p0 (2) = 0, p2 (3) = 0, p2 (0) = 0, p2 (2) = 1 (a) Write down the matrix P1 whose columns give the vectors of new basis 0 as linear combinations of the vectors of old basis 1. For example, column 2 is the polynomial x evaluated at -2, -1, and 1. (b) Invert P1 (use Mathematica) to get formulas for the polynomials in basis 1. This is just a check: you do not need these formulas to do the rest of the problem. (c) Write down the matrix P2 whose columns give the vectors of new basis 0 as linear combinations of the vectors of old basis 2. Now column 2 is the polynomial x evaluated at -3, 0, and 2. (d) Construct a matrix from P1 and P2 that converts a vector made from the values of a polynomial at -2, -1, and 1 into a vector that gives the values of the same polynomial at -3, 0, and 2. Check that it does the right thing for p(x) = 1 + x + x2 . Use Mathematica to do the calculation!