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TIIItIINI{
I)KSll;l
a,id AI'I'I, II:AI'IIiN
(NASASP290) APPLICATION
TURBINE (NASA)
DESIGN 390 p
AND
N9522341
Unclas
HlI07
0041715
NATIONAL
AERONAUTICS
AND
SPACE
ADMINISTRATION
NASA
SP290
'lrlllellNl IDK Iq ,N annal IDIDI,q;A"I' IqlPm A I
Edited by Arthur J. Glassman Lewis Research Center
Scientific and Technical Information Program1994 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Washington, DC
Available NASA
from the Center for AeroSpace Landing Road MD 210902934 Catalog Card Number: 9467487 Information
800 Elkridge
Linthicum Heights, Price Code: A17 Library of Congress
PREFACE
NASA and space turboshaft pellantdriven power organic interest trains, Center, presented Program. 197273. concepts, cooling, The edited for an Any Two are the sets units given U.S. of units and reference for fluids, has an interest as in turbines well provide Closedcycle metal power engines turbinesystem entitled 196869 course aspects and was as power fluids for include as related turbine auxiliary rocket turbine have spacecraft. landvehicle and interest "Turbine part of somewhat of turbine fluiddynamic losses, groundbased and Design the revised technology concepts, blade efforts and and were primarily engines power propulsion engines been Other (cars, studied for using for trucks, electrical at Lewis Application" Graduate again covered presented including turbine design, revised blade and or a to aeronautics jet and l%ogases, of buses, power. Research was Study in applications. propulsion, turbines spacecraft. and electric propulsion course during The Various velocity mechanical notes written for publication. for selected consistent commonly after the set used introductory Airbreathing provide aircraft, and inert
auxiliary providing
longduration etc.) a
applications
for turbine of the
In view
InHouse
thermodynamic
fundamental
diagrams,
aerodynamic
design, operation, and performance. and used for the course have been Such turbine topics. of symbol units. as unity units will sets single not satisfy of set required the units These of required equations and are equations for the U.S. a publication course, a can means serve for
as a foundation selfstudy,
presented. values units and both SI
consistent A those
constant the covers
definitions.
customary by including defining
all constants
customary
for the SI units. ARTHUR J. GLASSMAN
,°°
111
CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
PREFACE
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . .
111
...
°
THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPTS by Arthur
AND
FL UIDD
YNAMI
C 1
1 14 19 20
J. Glassman
....................
..............
BASIC CONCEPTS AND RELATIONS ....................... APPLICATION TO FLOW WITH VARYING AREA REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
,
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
by Arthur
J. Glassman
....
21 21 45 62 63 65
TURBINE FLOW AND ENERGY TRANSFER .................. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS ......................... REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS ......................................... GLOSSARY .........................................
.
VELOCITY DIAGRAMS by Warren Warner L. Stewart ...................................
J. Whitney
and
69 70 84 95 96 98
MEANSECTION DIAGRAMS ............................ RADIAL VARIATION OF DIAGRAMS ....................... COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR VELOCITYDIAGRAM REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
STUDIES
.....
,
BLADE Arthur
DESIGN J. Glassman
by Warner
L. Stewart
and lOl
102 118 124 125
..................................
SOLIDITY .......................................... BLADEPROFILE DESIGN .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
,
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
by Theodore
ANALYSES ........................
Katsanis
............
......
127
130 147 154 155
STREAMAND POTENTIALFUNCTION VELOCITYGRADIENT ANALYSIS REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
.
INTRODUCTION by William
TO BOUNDARYLAYER ...............................
THEORY 157
............ .............. 157 160 172 188 188 191
D. McNally
NATURE OF BOUNDARY LAYER ......................... DERIVATION OF BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS SOLUTION OF BOUNDARYLAYER EQUATIONS CONCLUDING REMARKS .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
V
iI
PAG'E__
I_T_NTtON_!.Ly BLANg
CHAPTER
PAGE
o
BOUNDARYLAYER
LOSSES
by Herman
W. Prust,
Jr ....
193
195 201 217 221 223
BOUNDARYLAYER PARAMETERS ........................ BLADEROW LOSS COEFFICIENTS ....................... BLADEROW LOSS CHARACTERISTICS .................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
o
MISCELLANEOUS
LOSSES
by Richard
J. Roelke
........
225
225 231 238 243 246 247
TIPCLEARANCE LOSS ................................ DISKFRICTION LOSS ................................. PARTIALADMISSION LOSSES ........................... INCIDENCE LOSS .................................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS ..........................................
o
SUPERSONIC
TURBINES
by Louis
J. Goldman
.........
249
250 263 266 272 277 278
METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS ......................... DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC STATOR BLADES ................. DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC ROTOR BLADES .................. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERSONIC TURBINES REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
....
10.
RADIALINFLOW
TURBINES
by Harold
E. Rohlik
.......
279
284 295 302 305 306
OVERALL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS .................... BLADE DESIGN ..................................... OFFDESIGN PERFORMANCE ........................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
11.
TURBINE
COOLING
by Raymond
S. Colladay
...........
307
307 314 328 330 332 340 345 347
GENERAL DESCRIPTION .............................. HEAT TRANSFER FROM HOT GAS TO BLADE ................ CONDUCTION WITHIN THE BLADE WALL .................. COOLANTSIDE CONVECTION ........................... FILM AND TRANSPIRATION COOLING ..................... SIMILARITY ........................................ REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
12.
EXPERIMENTAL DYNAMIC and Harold
DETERMINATION
OF AEROM. Szanca 351
352 374 387 388
PERFORMANCE by Edward J. Schum ................................
TEST FACILITY AND MEASUREMENTS .................... TURBINE PERFORMANCE .............................. REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................
vi
CHAPTER 1
Thermodynamic andFluidDynamic Concepts
ByArthur. Glassman J
This cepts are of the chapter concepts is intended needed processes of these subjects Flow is assumed of this used symbol units. all chapter. set of units will sets set not satisfy of units These required required the and are for for the the the equations constant SI covers U.S. units both presented. values and sets customary are the of consistent definitions. A single constants those consistent commonly after customary by and defining the to to and review analyze in some and a of the fluid understand turbine. A fundamental mechanics. the more flow conThese and complete
thermodynamics
compressible
energytransfer treatment textbooks. the Two given U.S. units units purposes Any
occurring
can be found in reference 1 and in many to be steady and onedimensional for
of equations
including
as unity
SI units.
BASIC
CONCEPTS Equation
AND of any has State
RELATIONS
Before gases, we interrelated.
we can must The gases
get know
very how
far of
with pressure, gases
kind volume, resulted In
of calculation and in certain ideal
involving are and laws The laws these or real.
temperature
study concerning are
generalizations of behavior,
their referred to
behavior. as being
discussing
either
in the and of temare of pvT of 2 to 3 percent from been at 1 atmosphere have to Deviations equations a single the a limited of these unless cumbersome accuracy The and forms behavior. R is the Thus. K. or the high a real in kg/m 3 or lb/ft gas and will the 3. R*/M. of real of several None are and applicable pressure. proposal relation. equations degree as 50 atmospheres. volume in the ideal gas gas constant. temperature._ is often kg/(kg J/(kg lb/(Ib mole)(K). m3/kg. most perature p is density. in behavior (ratio pressure basis The method of (ratio of of substances T. volume. ideal high tures. incorporate temperature. used in J/(kg)(K) of specific Density is often instead RT = pRT (13) where In sures within small. (lb mole) (°R) molecular absolute weight. simple general at equal critical to for is of reduced To) pc) gas a real pressure. °R used as R $ R* universal gas constant. mole) 1545 (ft) (lb)/ The quantity a single quafftity such that R__ where law. estimating to critical of a relatively method correlation . general. 1 p =V (12) or (ft)(Ib)/(lb)(°R). lb/ft 2 fta/lb 8314 mole). ideal under forces behavior which between the at low free presspace are the as approximate conditions attractive temperatures. of pressure. temperature.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION ideal the The gas real is only gas can gas hypothetical only equation approach and of state is obeys various certain simplified conditions. laws that under ideal R* pv=_ T (11) where P V absolute specific pressure. to of these temperapressure. which are be accurate while gases hundred have to Even and only use gas is large molecules For gases gas law may deviations above their critical to within 5 percent for gases ideal found gas most be below behavicr of state universally over useful their may appear temperatures. up to pressures critical resulted express range a high values the satisfactory. N/mS. to p. 2 temperature reduced the similarity cannot justified is required.
show gas in presthe of our we valid.30! I \ 1.0 f 6.0 I 8.80 • 70 t_  1. compressibility factor and pressure. should A of data z is the reduced gas. mixtures are that gas that within the use agreement all the may The pressures averages conditions compressibilityfactor if pseudocritical temperatures components.20 T/Tc_ 1.0 I 3.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS correction law: term.0 I 5.60 .50  1.1o _'LO0 1.0 I 2.Effect of reduced pressure factor.) on com pressibility 3 .0 I 9. temperature 2. molal state error. called the compressibility p=zpRT factor. factor. P/Pc FIGURE 11.0 F 10. the of reduced texts is assumed pressure charts of one to be independent as a function in presented reference is derived is not compressibility Values and One This for a large data are be extended used pseudocritical of the of where the not for do take error figure 11. gas ideal law factor to gas calculate properties reduced approximated of the there law are this ideal of the properties shows ideal Examination Fortunately. for of compressibility reduced of the type number any to critical 11 conditions fall that the with granted of associated use usually temperature sources.20 . into the ideal gas (14) where The and of the other as with tion and sures. is would region. never of the in a large we concerned calculations quick determination compressibility approximate Reduced temperature.0 I 7.0 1 4.00 N _ _ _. 1_50 . figure 2 is reproduced in rigorous correlation of gases gas. is a function factor are from and The of reduced temperature of the many from an nature and here average correlatemperatures and by a large result using region with However.0 Reduced pressure.10 1._ ______ •90 . 1. is always can law. (Curves and reduced from ref.
of the differential dh= Tds + j vdp (18) where s is specific entropy. system of constant function chemical temperature (15) where enthalpy h is specific can enthalpy. Oh Cv=(_'_). rigorously for and as a differential the enthalpy enthalpy change is calculated . For can a onephase expressed h=fcn(T.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Relation In is the position. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu. and a flow enthalpy enthalpy pressure: process. pressure (18). and (110) into equation (16) dh=c. of Energy the energy be Change term to State Conditions with work of and heat com associated as p) or Btu/lb. By can be v dT+(00_h)rp expressed in dp terms of (16) determinable properties definition. at constant and J is a the partial is. 1 or derivative determined with from respect equation to in J/(kg)(K) or Btu/(lb)(°R). equations in J/(kg)(K) of thermodynamics or Btu/ is where cp is heat One capacity basic at constant (lb) (°R). as temprature Oh'_ T los\ 1 One of the Maxwell relations states that (110) Substituting yields equations (17). (17) pressure. conversion constant.dT+ j [v Ov T (__)p_ dp (111) Equation change between 4 in two (111) terms states is the of the rigorous state equation conditions. Therefore. as in J/kg A differential change in be expressed Oh dh:(OT) The partial derivatives as follows. a h. (19).
Therefore. Actual conditions within and across the . we now assume set that the gas behaves according to the ideal gas we can RT vP and (113) ( Ov' By using these on last two equations in R equation to zero.T1) +_ b (__)+3 not want reason that (115) to use to this type it for (_T_) (117) of expression computer for hand calculations. can there be of State the heat Conditions loss to in be Entropy and adiabatic the the Process flow flow process with no is normally adiabatic. then one be might there equation assumed T2.( T2. the of some be within Relation In usually loss. (112). For T. for cp=atthen integration of equation (115) (116) Ah=a( Although calculations. a turbine. If and it can /'2.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS Ts 1 P* _V (112) If law. dT of T are available example. constantentropy (isentropic) process is the ideal process for flow in the various parts of the turbine (inlet manifold. However. stator. T_ is no avoid ca is constant becomes _=c. and exit diffuser) as well as for the overall turbine. (115) in hand for ca as a function for most gases of interest. for Constant small. bT+cT yields 2 If. assumption there average a few is an value percent excellent for cv will is a significant variation of the true in c_ with value. for that other use should This gases. assumed change is no entropy.T1) one give for an between temperatures (118) monatomic approximation gases. rotor. and the there (114) effect remains of pressure enthalpy change is reduced Ah: Empirical books and equations textbooks frTcz.
and pressure (119) be expressed as efficiency or loss term. p) can of constant be expressed as a function and a differential change in entropy ds(_). therefore.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION turbine are usually determined in coniunction necessary For can a onephase with some to be able to relate system state from isentropic process calculations It is. expression process. integration yields 1Rln_=aln_kb(T2T_)+2 J p_ Like equation (117). entropy for an isentropic composition. equation . ds=0 and Equation relating (123) temperature is the rigorous. conditions chemical of temperature sfcn (T. _dT Rln_ (124) By using a relation such as equation (116). (114) conditions and for an isentropie substitute equation we get If we assume into equation idealgaslaw (123) and behavior perform the integration. assumption that cp is constant (124) becomes between tem T2. From equations (18) and (17). dT÷(_)r we get (tp (120) Substituting equations (121) and (110) into equation (120) yields ds=_ dTj 0v (0T). and pressure but not particularly useful. . dp (122) For a constantentropy process. process. equation (125) also (T_T_) (125) is more suitable for use in a computer calculation With the additional peratures 6 T_ and than in a hand calculation.
of Newton's of conservation continuity Second equation. VI = p2A2 V2 This (131) expresses is referred the principle to as the Newton's All conservation are consequences that an unbalanced in the direction force is proportional the body. approxlmation.. __\_] (129) Where should specific heat ratio give a reasonable 3" is not constant. m2. Law Motion dealing of with of mass. Conservation The rate of mass flow through the use of an average value of Mass an area A can be expressed as (130) w=pAV where w A V rate flow fluid For across across of mass flow. Law of etc. Second momentum which states Motion. m/see./R (127) 3' 3". flow (and ft/see nonnuclear) path is. process. \T1/ But Jcp R where capacity equation 3" is the ratio of heat p2 ln. and (131) equation theorems. must equal the the rate rate of mass of mass lb/sec a steady any any flow flow section of the flow other section.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS Jc_ ln T2R T1and p2=('%'_ p. kg/sec. area. force that ac_s of the unbalanced to the product on a body will cause it to accelerate force in such a manner that the of the mass and acceleration of 7 . ft 2 velocity. Substitution of the more familiar form equation (128) p. equations. That plA.1 at constant pressure to (128) heat into capacity at constant (127) yields volume.pl (126) Jc.
sometimes called the from secondlaw considerations. F=pA +(p+ d_)dA(p+dp) (A+dA)dRt (136) Expanding. element and the net to fluidpressure boundarysurfacepressure forces friction force in forces acting the downstream direction. yields F=m g Since the mass is constant. in figure resistance the downstream in the upstream direction is 12. N.AdpdR I secondorder differentials (137) 8 . F= m a g where F m a (132) unbalanced mass. 32. ft/sec g But 1 . The fluidpressure Therefore.7 where (132) t is time. kg. lbm m/sec2 constant.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Thus. conversion force. acceleration.17 dV a =d. of as indicated A fIictional is acting subjected in fluid is indicated and as R s. Substituting equation (133) into (133) equation (134a) written as F=I g Equation fluid Since (134a) is equal mass can (134b) to per also the specifies rate of as that d(mV__) dt the is unbalanced of momentum the mass flow force acting with rate. equation dV dt (134a) can also be in seconds. (134b) on the of change time (mV) time. Gravitational (force) and direction equation Consider forces of are motion. and F= dropping . lbf 2 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) . yields simplifying. increment be written equation F =w g A useful derived dV (135) be relation. an element assumed can of neg fluid ligible.
Forces on an element of fluid.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS The mass of the element is m:pAdx (138) (134) yields Substituting equation (138) into F_ equation dV dt pAdx g (139) Since (140) equation (139) can be written in the F_pAV g Equating (137) with (141) now yields form dv (141) F=AdpdRs= and dp + VdV+ pA VdV g dRs 0 (142) pFiA (143) p+dp 2 A+dA f % .% f Flow p dx V p+dp V+dV dRf FIGURE 12. .
. we still V2/2g. Thus.4 Z (146) s u. For by specific specific internal potential _gj energy. mechanical kinetic energy work I¥. J/kg. basic form g of the steadyflow energy balance as we will be using problems. In addition. Total The in flow Thus. and a system a system energy leaving to consider potential energy pv. heat added mechanical a gas system. dqs0. flow q. u.. Conservation For system electrical a steadyflow or or part of of that etc. part energy.+jwhere u Z q W. (lbf)/lbm Btu/lb be neglected. equal can the neglect internal energy Z. it is convenient . P lvl "Jr. to system. work (lone the J/kg. V2" _2_4_W Tr 2 . Btu/lb (ft) j2g JJ energy.V12 _j[_Z1 p2l'2_l__ . of 0 Energy process. energy can potential definition h=u + j Thus. equation (146) reduces "{72 pv (147) to V 2 (148) gd Equation (148) is the it. Btu/lb by system. J/kg.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION If we now let (144) where ql is heat produced by friction. (and nannuclear) must If have we system. in J/kg or Btu/lb. j+q=u:+ J/kg. V2 h ' _h + 2gJ 10 (149) sum of the enthalpy and and Conditions the kinetic to energy use it is always as a single appearing quantity. we have (145) dpp __V_VdgV+Jdq1= For isentropic flow. the energy chemical energy heat entering that energy.
when 11 that of the turbine (including . to rest the to write relation from and p is isentropic. (149) yields in K or °R. certain points and the be emphasized. Process terms heat is the With of total transfer one No Heat and No examine Work a process nor heat losses) that in in conditions. Flow Let occurs work. in addition ture. as the a velocity V and or stagnation. involves no assumptions other than those associated with balance is a very For use an of as we have useful only systems total to the isentropic considered for it. is also be regarded interchangeably. each us This part now. Total temperature.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS where The that cept h' is total concept corresponds is most can enthalpy. (150) Combining equation (150) defined behavior temperature constant equation temperature. to the in N/m 2 or lb/ft abovedefined total _. (152) where With should its use energy be seen. the burden and or total behavior reaction recommended. leads can be us The according to the as and to concept the of total conheat (115). total. equation T' = T+ 2gJcp The attained to rest The pressure use temperature. The concept of total enthalpy is general. h'h=cp(T'T) where with T' is total temperature. (adiabatic occurs the rotor. with the static and not convenience involving temperature assumptions path for easing idealgaslaw chemical is between associated as will of calculaconstant a phase Total temperatotal but it is rigorous the capacity. tion. these two T' can be V2 (151) of as the called temperature V is brought stagnation pressure static we can thought T and used can p' at static temperature total terms pressure isentropically between temperature are velocity adiabatically. of a fluid equation total when temperature a gas and brought p. Total useful temperature enthalpy. p' is total regard pressure. with neither process process) (neglecting at constant mechanical radius. conditions. pressure. of total to the when in J/kg enthalpy total In or Btu/lb. totaltemperature idealgaslaw capacity be assumed. that case. heat change. involves conditions. Since (129) Thus.
this (157) isentropic reduces (158) an important This ratio is in determining the flow the Mach number M: of a gas. temperature adiabatic from flow also with no (118) work. and adiabatic eJd' l _= P_' p2' constantheatcapacity be shown (156) Only for isentropic For flow flow with (ds=0). (ds>0).' Therefore. .hi' = qW_ The energy balance for a flow W_ now equal looks something as we were we get like first the First Law to of Thermoit in college. is the the Ratios speed of pressureFrom characteristic or. TJ =T/ Note enthalpy Total and tions. constant. From in order (155) for total (152). that total for Further. smallpressuredisturbance a=_/g(_p). (155) it can that the and and pressure process total the does temperature is another idealgaslaw that for not have to be isentropic constant. does there is total pressure remain in total constant. loss therefore. equations flow with (122). assump to remain matter. where From to a= The factor called 12 ratio of fluid velocity V _gRT to sound characteristics velocit_y a is a is speed the ideal of sound. pressure. process relations. h_' =h. dynamics process. exposed If we set q and to zero. enthalpy it can (154) remains be shown equations remains constant.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION the velocities Substitution are of yields expressed equation relative (149) to the into moving equation blade). no work. as otherwise theory speed of sound. gas law in m/sec and or ft/sec. (148) and rear(153) rangement h2' . and total (150). a decrease Speed An wave important propagation of Sound and of Velocity gases called.
in any the entire static ratio the Mach in relation velocity and flow process value process. but expressions. and given (128) in with for simplifying and generalizing relation of total temperature (151). critical changes. velocity is not denominator). ft/sec.=3"+ and substitution of equation (162) 1 T' into equation (158) yields (162) acr=_/_lgRT' Thus. temperature of fluid velocity critical number the velocity ratio. at is critical critical to the velocity velocity.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPT_ M= V a (159) only for identifying to flowcertain static (158). (151) Combining yields equations equation equation T' l_I_7__ M 2 (160) Another velocity critical velocity ratio often used is the ratio of fluid velocity to V V Vc.1(V) _ 3"t1 2 static results and from total combining temperature equations in terms Its of the with constant value to ratio (since total of the temperature (Vc. velocity constant (a) changes called number velocity. between ratio (151).) speed of sound is (163) (no heat remains and no work). Consider temperature. (159). condition. in of sound in m/sec or at the M1. T T '1 3. Mach number is a useful also the parameter not behavior regimes. (164) 13 . V. and The a. or ft/sec. is that condition where at the critical condition Consequently. 2 T. critical The from (161) is speed velocity critical equation of m/sec critical condition. for the as the the The because while perature The critical (128).acr where sound is equal condition (160). whilethe critical velocity preferred is a square sometimes Mach to critical use is often there over root is directly proportional of static (161). temof the (163).=a.
of the presented following for isentropic _(I_M_ )dV V(1) change is less for 1M 2alp 7M 2 p all Much dA A numbers amt (2) the in area flow). in : in of on 1 Equation velocity the whether (sonic let us pressure static Let A. pressure.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION APPLICATION The the (flow the in the turbine. pressure decreases supersonic pressure increases supersonic (M= area (tecreases (dA_0).. velocity. is the diffuser. there flow provided are Although to learn passages Effect something (stator. or or mini of a varyingarea passage. . Decreasing pressure (dp<0): and Velocity increases (dV>0) This is the subsonic nozzle. only at the (dp<0) Thus. changes (165) is opposite the flow). and zero occur 1) : (dp>0) must section equal can and and area decreases (dA_0). increasing change condition decreasing (dA=0). Decreasing Velocity This C. Increasing Velocity This 2. 2. Increasing Much that shows that and than to the number a nozzle and the flow in l)ressure with than directions in velocity or greater pressure changes 1 (subsonic flow). Sonic Both Area critical. way By passage the (165) change depend equal to static which of definition. inlet. specify pressure us examine Subsonic 1. previ We area ously flo_v: are change. going and to examine Much equations number. lossfree varyingarea already turbine TO FLOW are WITH sufficient losses about rotor. sonic.mon_ manipulation equation pressure. area increases (dA>0). (165) pressure (dp>0): area increases (dA>0). mumarea 14 flow is the flow (M>I): (dp>0): (dV<0) (dp<0): (dV>0) nozzle. AREA completely are no of the losses use flow we can presented passages. the exit. B. equations through process is isentropic). Velocity decreases (dV<0) and This is the subsonic diffuser. 1 (supersonic is a varyingarea in which passage decreases a diffuser various (M<I): cases is a varyingarea from equation increases. of the yields Flow relations Prot)er the diffuser) of the Regime a. VARYING to analyze that the and there behavior exit in a turbine. Supersonic 1.
throat further? be remains pressure velocity the velocity throat. (zero pressure at the less with velocity) p' static nozzle than Pt still p'. Assume where a static is comto pc.. flow rate reaches a maximum and thereafter flow remains can be constant The pr6ver_ for a fixed value when no that matter this upstream M becomes to what exhaust pressure is reduced. within nozzle. tion the tions velocity. and exit flow equal convergent Convergent nozzle total) A2 mentioned a reservoir total) right is maintained or outside. us to the with at the T'. A nozzle . occur and further and will Pt to pe outside shocks a little expansion Pt to Pe occurs in entropy be discussed isentropic The fact ratios are not valid throat condition greater that the than nozzle for this part of the remains constant or equal mass to flow the process. At some What Mach nozzle. pressure designated pe is a little increase. may (M= have also want to note either up that portion in order in followed to cross by an the the critical flow con 1) going or down velocity. fact condition st)on(is to maximum mathematically. static as pt. Thus. pressure this nozzle. 1 at value correin 15 pressure ratio constant the mass the the throat critical also (p'/p_r) rate under these conditions. passage a decreasingarea Flow increasingarea in Nozzles with nozzle flow rather than Since diffuser nozzles. As p_ is progressively becomes We have in in the The static according a equal seen critical 1 at the than flow how the is if pc is now greater the at (129) attained convergent pressure at the much critical (M= throat (162) 1) no matter remains and p_ is lowered. expands from p.. entering nozzle. The the { 2__ "_/(_') \_. to sonic that condiin to equaa (in the simple previously.+ 1/ exhaust expands from pressure from with p' has no (166) effect the on gas to pt=p.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS You dition must portion. the the (and throat) mences lowered. pt is equal both at the lowered 1 cannot throat pressure. and is designated and flow value and number Therefore. (which later). gas we are concerned primarily flow in turbines. happens the throat of p. and gas a static The When since first case from (and exhaust. we will narrow We will further limit the discussion the This nozzle is subsonic. which P'=P_'=P' Once the the The with the pe is reduced flow nozzle an within and increase the then process equations that the (p'/p. for nozzle pressure remains state. to pc.Let corresponds is supplied temperature as p. M= rate consider the discussion to flow in to the case where the flow is the the case of most interest.) means below nozzle.
Convergentdivergent to be supplied against pressure with this case. In as a subsonic 13). same 13. _'_"_'_'_ . nozzle. increases. p' reservoir showing this (curve occurring of the lowered and the throat AD still AB at passage (curve velocity velocity in fig. becomes 13). the divergent section As pe is progressively throat decreases value Pt. at the particular velocity.. the somewhat assume of presIf 13).._I / rpt I/ I / /r Pe I Th roat I I I I  A . 16 . at some the sonic higher at pressure temperature nozzle the length. in fig. the (curve gas the or Mr1 p_ is still diffuses subsonically _X. us from will less now the consider nozzle. pe is a little supplement commences lowest pressure (pt_P_).ll B . 13. diffuser..Let of the with gas T'. than of p_. Note pressure p..B & ._r.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION this more the sure the flow condition involved nozzle ratio exhaust p' is said case and to be choked.Nozzle flow processes. the convergentdivergent Figure than Again.= N Z K H E Length FmuR_. and is acting AC in fig. throat maintained plots discussion.. equal that the to Eventually.
is represented falling unreasonable p_ that AD. by occur shock state Total there the because the AE. normal shock. isentropic l)ressure diffusion instantaneously from the subsonic occurs shock to the 17 . ratios E in figure value part such p. equation the the critical throat pressure ratio (p'/p_:p'/pc. changes temperature is a rise process weak. considered a shock pressure. AE. continues isentropic given the 13 of ratio p_ will by beyond supersonic then exhaust throughout of throat satisfy curve of the energy._pe). though is a loss in total an increase in occur normal result occur are shock thus in at some called Shocks may be strong or flow (and are thus called downstream with respect and the the of the to the velocity number angle shocks). one of the its maximum at the throat. shock. between to isentropic process.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS in the diveruent pt:pc. conditions changes flow are the fluid density in the and even pressure under nonisentropic reveals that surfaces of abrupt These apparent discontinuities waves be across with shocks and shocks (and of the are of very as remains there small thickness. Shock may in static constant at is maintained part conditions to only and be nozzle. but subsonic velocities downstream is less Let for the If the D. occurring constant entropy. exist. section. flow to some be isentropic. than remains of the the Mach that upstream us now region exhaust complete of pressure pressure shock the discussion between of convergentdivergent points a little point D and below the nozzles 13. we the Since see that the the throat nozzle in condition pressure is now ratio critical (p'/pe) to (with required nozzle achieve If only condition critical condition a convergentdivergent the nozzle condition lowered. the throat condition state must us can remains remain that the Thus. As long as the nozzle is choked to behave indethe area conwhich assume either 13) fig. value. flow occurs Strong shocks) Weak direction means flow. flow must remain critical condition and If to the the convergent of the flow part of This pressure flow subsonic supersonic that does the is area. these pressure as is in figure values Pe_pt Pe_Pt cannot throat. but. continuously. to the small oblique supersonic. is reduced at some rises at point of the that nozzle a normal and occurs in the divergent to a value plane nozzle.) required in a simple convergent nozzle. to achieve is less than the critical p_ is a_ain because where nozzle. to allow fig. the at the throat as and the critical (165) showed is the with the mass place convergent constant. nozzle the and for as any well It the some therefore. or 13). mass case pendently divergent discharge servation relations. instantaneously. (curve (curve is impossible diffusion expansion take gas place. shows that isentropic isentropic The flow Observing optical in the waves.
At some being and by the the path normal AKLF. Compressibility presented in factors reference presented in reference 5 include as temperature. Tables flow and Charts many in as discussion actuality. 4 as in heat of air thermodynamic of air water and its vapor. final would weaker result oblique a static becoming isentropic. p/p'. In with the too this to shock strong case. point and E. H weaker nozzle as AMNG. is again of pe between it is p_. idealized. to those processes. values to shock occurs the cannot pressure at point the E. occur takes may instantaneously a finite that make produce similar downstream different isentropic. shock Also in references included are Reference _hock velocity 4.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION exit. These temperaindividual oxygen. a shock shown not nozzleexit pe occurs in a nonisentropic be pointed in figure exactly place out 13 over effects from are manner. The of pressure. and 7 Isentropic others) as functions values normal are presented ratio. the proceffects although consideraof are however. the expansion nozzle It should esses do tions abrupt. . represented ing the to point flow For occur higher nozzle When flow the path by a path the in the of pe correspondnozzle will be right values because than exit. process the moves in this case is illustrated KL As exit. and published 3 to 7. and tables and for various charts sents tions 18 for of heatcapacity and oblique calculations. the realfluid and shock rise. diffusion. pip'. a normal in shock previously. points and the E. flow process exit. pe is reduced the value at the further. and critical 6 preequa a listing in terms of compressible of both Mach flow number function and function ratio. qualitatively ThermodynamicProperty In sets books order of and to facilitate and charts Some properties FlowFunction and listed and in its thermodynamic have of these of been are air calculations. and The tables of temperature include are the presented variation 4.A/Ac.. presented the effect in references 5. products are (nitrogen. the shock is AEH. compressibleflow of Mach number functions (TIT'. properties combustion and are argon) also components carbon and properties well dioxide. the is and an isentropic isentropic toward such normal nozzle expansion. as references combustion references capacity and also Thermodynamic functions charts ture. 6. 5. that the previous In and distance. as p_ approaches p_ corresponds completely the from as mentioned For static lower pressure nozzle outside of p_. the The shown and general in figure the subsonic 13. products 3 and with the tables constructed reports. with and normal The AK LF flow being being shock H. pressure flow Also. shock.
W. Various NACA Mach TN Number 3981. pressed NELSON. National and Charts Hydrogen. AND SP3045.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUIDDYNAMIC CONCEPTS REFERENCES 1. Carbon NBS Tables Dioxide. OBERT. l. LILLA. YERAM Gases Air. NUTTALL. AND TOULOUProperPropNitrogen. E. BENEDICT. 1954. Circular Thermodynamics Carbon 564. RESEARCH Rep. 1948.. COMPUTING Ratios STAFF: from Tables 1. LEwis 1953.28 to of 1. of 3500 A. John Wiley and Sons. BECKETT.: Tables WILLIAM RALPH of and L. MASI. Bureau for of Oxygen. WOOLLEY. Properties TN 4.38. JOHN Gas L. Tables. STAFF: 1135. 7. COTA. Steam. HAROLD S.. Nov. 2071. WILLIAM Products AND to 61. S. Generalized pp.. 5. 1957. ENGLISH. 203208.. AND KAYE. Monoxide. . ties ties of of H. JOSEPH: Gas Tables. KIAN. Flow. J. F. S. F.. July Charts 300 ° to Thermodynamic Combustion KEENAN. Standards.. WACHTL. 6. JOSEPH. 2. W. ROBERT of 1950. AMES and 1955. HAROLD of Thermal Transport Comprising Argon. Equations. ° R...: from the RICHARD New . Compressible NACA 7. 1969. FANO. Use no. .. NACA Compressibility 3. KUNKLE. LABORATORY for Functions SpecificHeat 19 . D.j WILSON. ED: Com Handbook. SAMUEL NASA E. How col.. JOSEPH Inc. C.. HOGE. HILSENRATH.: Eng. CHARLES JOSEPH W. and AND Chem... Air Charts.
mole). m2. m/sec. °R (°R) 8 specific absolute time. by J/kg. J/kg. lb 8314 J/(kg mole)(K). J/kg. done kg/sec. Btu/(lb) K. unbalanced conversion force. lb pressure. m/sec. heat capacity at constant pressure. m3/kg. velocity. kg. J/(kg) frictional resistance universal (lb mole) gas constant. constant. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu Mach mass. ft/sec 2 speed of sound. critical critical exhaust throat kg/m_. added produced defined kg/(kg by eq. m/seC. defined at constant (ft)(lbf)/lbm by eq. state flow Subscripts: c cr e t Superscript: ' 90 absolute total state .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS A a aj c_ b_ c flow area. (159) lb/(lb mole) molecular P q ql R RI R* friction. lb 1 . ft _ acceleration. lb/ft 2 Btu/lb J/kg. J/kg. flow T t temperature. N. ft3/lb by Btu/lb ft/sec V V Ws w x fluid specific mechanical mass length. energy. Btu/lb (°R) 1545 (ft)(lbf)/ to system. 1 . factor. specific ratio system. (116) J/(kg)(K). sec internal absolute volume. gas constant. Btu/lb lb/sec in. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) force. work rate. ft potential of heat energy. N/mS. Btu/lb conversion constant. (14) to heat capacity pressure Z Z compressibility at constant P density. (K) . capacity volume lb/ft 3 condition condition (M: 1) J/kg.17 eq. 32. specific entropy. (°R) J/(kg) (K) . absolute heat heat number. N. (lbm) Btu/(lb)(°R) F g h J M M_ m (ft)/(lbf)(seC) specific enthalpy. weight. ft/sec general constants for polynomial.
usually a calculation an axisymmetric or radialthan as made well analysis. consists For within fluid directed directed radial. the axis rotating indicated depicts the axis a turning parallel the to three average) For many the directions plane a logical of one coordinate one one are 21. as bladetoblade velocityvariation. through of rotation. nitions. Glassman J This efficiency. defined in flow. planes. TURBINE FLOW Analysis AND ENERGY System TRANSFER Coordinate energytransfer coordinate system of rotation. is called value Velocity are (or bladetoblade) Such Calculations usually the third made at some variation in the constant calculations of parameter axialtangential (rather diagram. and These three variation wheel. . tangential These radialaxial blade eters. coordinate coordinate the axial. tangential conditions) planes. energytransfer. by Terms the means of defito at referring characteristics primarily GLOSSARY. of this introduces performance and blading chapter. of flow flow use a turflowing raditanand in the convenient wheel. When 21 for average in these coordinate. values. parameters. are of in figure coordinates radial types and Analysis desired the and circumferentiallyaveraged of the ignore values we can (or bladetot)aramaverage planes circumferential just axial of calculations. form An bine through directed ally gentially analysis requires of the some to flow and processes system. the the blades end chapter and and diagrams. turbine dimensionless geometry are geometric.CHAPTER 2 Basic Turbine Concepts ByArthur.
turbine.Velocity components for a generalized rotor. to the velocities flow analysis we will transfer direcblading are of and in One is the tions. a rotating can be analyzed in a manner in a stationary . nantly plane is predominantly the axial.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 2 Vu FIGURE 21. Velocity Vectors the most. in an such plane axialflow as at the inlet When the to flow a radialflow is predomi radialtangential is used. shapes For interest. parameters to be discussed passage. be consid blade. In terms be concerned assist analysis its variation these the across velocity types. in and flow to the row us in making velocityvector stators. axialtangential is used. with if not in the and we use across in and rotating important of turbine in the analyses the rotors. ered other of flow _2 of the fluid To and flow For relative blade relative most. and Diagrams variables flow different and absolute velocities of relative in this similar later and that energy coordinate in depicting velocities must chapter. flow turbine. such as radial. the diagrams.
shows velocity relative velocity=Absolute velocityBlade (21) where W V U Since consider relative absolute blade blade the velocity velocity velocity velocity vector vector vector is always that W=VU (22) in the is. The of the flow.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS Velocitydiagram downstream inside ferential represent The velocities. are rows the made at locations diagrams. upstream the and circumvectors of the blade or at just velocity infinitesimal velocity and that velocity the distances the variations in flow the circumferential velocity diagram the In making are not average both considered. cl7 I I I of flow. we need we can only write magnitude. Assuming velocities can Absolute Relative angle angle of flow. the absolute note diagram. the W= The shows this absolute velocity the velocity and diagram components diagram relative in figure of the to be 22 absolute drawn VU represents and in be an equation axialtangential expressed in terms (23) and plane. components 23 . tangential blade direction. of (23) also the their relative velocities. speed. Relative or calculations various In blade making rows.Typical of absolute velocityvector and relative diagram velocities in having the same tangential direction. V V x = Wx VU FIGURE 22. So.
and W 2=W2+ where V V= Vu W IV= W_ magnitude axial tangential magnitude axial tangential of V.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION components in the axial and tangential 2 directions as (24) (25) V2:V_2qV. component of relative m/see. cI . m/see. sign of the in flow convention components exact figure angles same 22..d relative diagram having tangential velocities in opposite directions. m/see. ft/sec m/see. of we must of We 23.Typical absolute Wu Wx = Vx Wx = Vx U I components of velocityvector ap. 24 . would be radial components. and is not and for instance. we see that we can W_. 13_ rAbsolute angle of flow. ft/sec of relative velocity. velocity. the Relative angle of flow. component ft/sec Wu 2 component of absolute velocity. m/see. could In this it adopt diagrams diagram diacomponents are directed (26) that is velocity geometrical example._ t FIGURE 23. 22) were drawn the values marked as axial components From figure 22. ft/sec m/see. for not as the the all the angles velocity example the and the tangential velocity.=V. tangential velocities that absolute relative obvious stick with opposite equation convention Therefore.. in write If this diagram (fig. component of W. (26) A are shown gram and in valid. ft/sec of absolute ft/sec velocity. the will and be established since shape have.U the radialtangential plane. shown in figure directions.
positive U yields a negative convention immediately directions cases this with the convention switch upstream at locations working defined direction velocitysure information. path. Also. of the occasion else. through a thrust components the radial of the perpendicular of the axial force. cases. information make this in generating Energy The tively of the a the of the 1 and sumed. The angle. radii points traversing Fluid and 1 and velocity the velocity velocity must radial the Transfer for all turbomachines Second 21 axis point the at Law represents of rotation 1. the value value for for all in the diagram minus Not Some direction now a larger all use turbine the and shown velocity of Vu Wu. gives velocity rotor rise compofor and state outlet of the is rein relation a form a rotor. diagram you are aware Therefore. to the avoids angles axial to use negative respect tangential generated convention as we are using.r)2 (27) 25 . with enters 2 are the at is discharged of Newton's Figure 00 rotor any at of Motion a rotor and through directions points is asare flow three change gives The to as applied turbomachine. effect angular It is the of velocity fluid (except and effect of bearing friction). considered. at point arbitrary rotor rl and r2. value use positive of a rotor.. and vectors representing outlet be resolved previously. components of the in magnitude corresponds in the radius of the in transfer. many if you direction should by used of at velocity blade (26) where the and of velocity and remains a above a location negative work than In many analysts rather have someone small are velocity. Net outlet tangential to a change desired energy angular momentum and rotor products torque is equal to the difference times radius. between or the inlet and of tangential force r:(F_r)_(F.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS all are we angles in the can and tangential of the that in positive analysts above then opposite see figure components blade to the equation 23. A condition the values can discussed components be taken by velocity axial nor motion change that results average vectors Further. that of a rotor immediately with with downstream values. of steady inlet for and the the mass into The the rotor bearing. regarded being The mutually in magnitude rise to an change a radial nents the basic simple generalized angular by at fluid 2 are as inlet any at any the energytransfer and is only to a fluid velocity. passes 2. are With valid positive this for if they are direction negative if they convention. axial components which of the Neither on the in magnitude bearing have any load.
basic the rotor terms.. _w_ Vu F. 32.g where w g rate of mass flow.lrtV_. lb tangential radius.17 (28) into (28) Substituting T = W g Yu. force. way be accounted equation for All all the forms energy of turbotransfer difference it Euler Equation for by the (214) is stated. lb/sec (lbm) (27) (ft)/(lbf)(seC) then yields conversion 1. Btu/sec rad/sec 1. lbft N.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION where net F_ r torque. Substituting equation where (213) h' is total into equation enthalpy. (211) we can write p=W gj (UIV_. w=m/t yields integrating from Nm. ft equation to V=V (134) in the and tangential setting direction. W.. m. constant. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu angular conversion velocity. equation kg/sec.2) P=whh' (212) But (213) or Btu/lb.U2V... work must The equation equation. constant. (210) where P J Since roo:V net power. .2r2) to the product of torque (29) Power angular (rate of energy transfer) is equal and velocity: p_r_ w _(rlV_ 1r2V_ 2) J gJ . lrl _ w V. (212) in J/kg yields (214) J t where machines between between 26 Ah' is here (214) and the the is two fluid defined is the called and UV_ the as hih2. .2r2 = g (V_. Applying V=O at t=O at t=t.
BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS can with fluid will be seen the that Ah' must balance. or the for It is useful turbine and There inlet sarily to transform with The outlet same the aid along section of figure which axialflow planes. _z E' . 1 Wu. radius. 1 Ul of rotation ''e* Direction V_.Rotor section with inlet and exitvelocityvector diagrams. 2 FIGURE 24. Vx *: equations (215) (216) and Wx_=W*W. be positive equation the Euler with diagrams radial Actually. although the for a turbine. (146). are velocity in where into This work another shows is consistent done form. we get V 2. Substituting equation (26) into (216) Vx.Vx.V= _ _ gives at either not also neces following derivation be made From a general (24) threedimensional and (25).2 u2 \ '.. equation 24.__i/_. as positive.". 1 = Wx. diagrams axialtangential of velocity locations are velocity to be no locations.Vu. an for the by the This inlet the can energy is defined be done blade outlet. is assumed at the component these the case. 27 . 2 = WX..
.2=W Therefore. combining equations (215) 2 and (217) U2 yields (217) V 2. fluid The change is actually fluid flows a centrifugal previously._=W*(V. while across to as energy referred Blade As mentioned tum the of the rotor. that in results following tangential transferred through force acts (222) with +W22W_ (222) the the the 2) the represent three of (224) change the pairs energy represent V 2 terms These rotor. adding subscripts for inlet and outlet 2) yields (219) U1V.2+2UV_ (218) UV. sometimes components Loading change transfer and the on it in the of energy figure and passage in the 25 the tangential from concern way in momenthe fluid the which pair pressure to the of cause it is the in the discussion to the of this energy blades... By (222) definition. in static change of terms transfer. _. . 1 (V_+U2 W2 ) (220) 1 U2V _ _:2 (W+U_2W_ _) Inserting yields Ah'2gJ Equation relation. (214)) (221) finally (222) is an alternative form of the basic energytransfer . curved between each of the direction .V.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION W. 1 (V2 V2_+U__U2_+W2_ Wt2 ) these values into the Euler equation (eq. 28 As the momentum wheel... Therefore.V.. the U 2 and enthalpy in absolute are W 2 terms across kinetic the (UI2U22 of equation rotor.= 1 (V_+U2W Now.U) Since Vx= Wz. shows that comparison of equation 1 Ah:h_h2=_gj Thus. Vl _ V__ 2gJ (223) equation (223) Ah'=hlh2=hl+_h2.
BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS Stations 1 2 f Flow sur.Blade row with surface staticpressure distribution._ce J \\1 / /. 29 .' Axial distance FIGURE 25.Suction surface "_ ] I Flow Axial chord pll Pl m P2 Suction surface.
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
(concave) surface. Since the free to move in the direction must be established its curved and toward passage surface. resulting to balance through the flow in the suction The
fluid is constrained of the centrifugal the centrifugal pressure (convex) pressure
and, therefore, force, a pressure force and directed Thus, and on the turn the
not force fluid
path. The the suction at the
force is surface. surface
normal to the pressure lowest blade at the
is highest distribution
of static
pressure
surfaces axial point
is illustrated distance. At where the tion value. flowing point, trailing crease the
in figure 25, where pressure or near the blade leading edge
is plotted against there is a stagnation
velocity becomes The stagnation to On the the exit the along two the pressure
zero and the pressure point is the dividing sides blade surface, and curve The of the surfaces the then blade. static increase in decreases
reaches its stagnapoint for the fluid From pressure back figure curves the toward will up 25 to stagnation the the is blade deexit called often
around edge. below
suction pressure
pressure. The pressuredistribution the the bladeloading blade force diagram. acting in the
illustrated area between direction.
the
represents
tangential
Relative Flow flow moving similar in a rotating passage passage can by
Conditions be analyzed considering relative total in a manner similar in a manner to
in a stationary
conditions total enthalpy enthalpy.
relative
to the
passage. Let us first define to the definition of absolute
h"__h+2_
where examine through to equation h" is relative what the happens (225), rotor. total to enthalpy, relative (224)
J
in J/kg or Btu/lb. as the Now fluid
(225)
let us
total
enthalpy we substitute
flows
If in equation we get
for W 2 according
h '2' h ',' Therefore, through For quently, constant We enthalpy. 3O can the purely we see that rotor axial no change for the also This define is flow, rotor the where flow relative only there speed, process.
U_ UI_ 2 gJ total is no the enthalpy is a change change relative total of the in the in radius enthalpy to relative T". fluid blade and,
(226)
flowing speed. conseremains total When
changes in blade
if there
a temperature the relative
that
corresponds temperature,
called
total
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
idealgaslaw we can write where c_ T heat
behavior
and
constant
heat
capacity
can
be
assumed, (227)
h"h=%(T"T) capacity at constant K; pressure, °R equation W 2 T" From and equation relative total (151) and = T _ 2gJc_ (228), related
V__W 2
J/(kg)(K);
Btu/(lb)(°R)
absolute
temperature, equation (227)
Combining
with
(225)
then
yields
(228) we see as follows" that the absolute
equation are
temperatures
T'
T"
2gJc_ write T_') shows U_ V12 2gJcp like remains defined a relative relative constant as the total for pressure that
(229)
For
the
rotor
flow
process,
we can
h_'h_'=cp(T_'Combining this with equation T_'(226) T_'
(230)
(231) enthalpy, purely of axial a fluid a static
Therefore, depends flow Relative brought pressure through
relative only on a rotor. total to rest
total blade pressure
temperature, speed can and be from
]!
isentropically
velocity
W and
p. Therefore,
where p" _, relative total pressure, N/m2; at lb/ft 2 pressure to heat capacity at
ratio of heat capacity constant volume this equation and
constant
From
equation
(152),
we also
see that
p"
p' For crease, the rotor or remain and flow on process, the
(T"y/(,')
=\_;,T/ (233) total on purely pressure the change axial can flow, increase, relative detotal total 31
relative depending losses. For
constant,
in relative
temperature
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
pressure it must We
will remain decrease. can define
constant
only Mach
if the number W
a
flow Mr_
is isentropic; as
otherwise,
a relative
M,_=
(234)
and
a relative
critical
velocity
as
Wct=a_.,_=_l where
gRT"
(235)
We,
act, ttt
critical speed gas in (164),
velocity, of sound
m/sec; at relative J/(kg) similar
ft/sec critical condition, m/sec; ft/sec
R Then, and
constant, a manner we can
(K) ; (ft) (lb) / (lb) (° R) to the way we derived equations (160)
get T" T 1+ 21 M_e_ (236)
and T,,1 3,+1 Reaction The enthalpy) portant energy classifying of reaction, types fraction that way of of total energy by a exit transfer a change turbine kinetic in stage. energy used Reaction (change static The is one in both in absolute is one in is the parameter change in in way total imof kinetic degree for static total total total _ (237)
is obtained classifying of the row. The simply, diagrams,
enthalpy change important cases
as a fraction a blade or more
parameter the reaction. and
is used
for classifying
of velocity
it is also is that same total above
an important as the
correlating losses. Stage reaction.Stage enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy through we can across across across across the write stator. tile the the the rotor
reaction stage. stage rotor, Note is the since
defined of the the as the
as a fraction
change change cha_lge
in absolute absolute in absolute remains of stage
enthalpy detiIlition
constant reaction,
According
to the
R_'_hl' where ditions 32 R,tc is stage reaction, and and
hlh_ hi subscripts rotor, 1 and 2 refer
(238)
the
to con
upstream
downstream
of the
respectively.
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
The
preceding
equation
for equations
reaction (222)
can
be and
expressed (224)
in into
terms equation.
of
velocities. Substituting (238) yields
R.,,Reaction (U_2U_ Zero stage rotor, can 2) and reaction design. and all be positive, (W2_Wl_). is one If Rst0=0, the work
(U?U22) + (W 2W ?) V22)+ (U2 U22) (W22_W2) +
negative, or zero, depending on the
(239)
values
of
important there done by
value is no the
that
characterizes in static is a result
a particular enthalpy of the in change the in
change stage
absolute kinetic energy across the stage. This stage is called an impulse stage. In the general case where the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at different and radii, enthalpy an equal an impulse in one effect. change For in stage the may other axial result direction flow, of relative WI= W2. basis of in For from by the having a change (U 2) by in only. the static Thus, of static effect direction purely contributed centrifugal change
contributed any velocity
relativevelocity
enthalpy must be caused by a change an axialflow impulse stage must have Some pressure definition people in the in terms define rotor impulse rather than pressure is due on the no to
no static
change the same
in
static This as that the
change losses.
enthalpy. flow,
of static difference coincide.
is approximately
used herein. The definitions exactly Simple windmill, from the lawn rotation. Bladerow energy energy to that kinetic bladerow stage For at the blade energy reaction. a stator examples or the sprinkler
isentropic
of impulse paddle nozzle. that wheel ejects
turbines operated the water reaction blade These or row are
are by
the the
child's impingement
pinwheel, turbine thus as of the the the
the is
of a fluid causing kinetic kinetic relative change Therefore, by in
a stationary
A simple
example from is as a the
of a reaction nozzles, defined fraction kinetic rotor, to that
reaction.Bladerow within row. For the exit. a bladerow corresponds represents
develol)ed
energies
stator to the
axialflow in static similar
change
enthalpy.
reaction
an effect
represented
blade
row,
reaction
is defined
as
R,,
V1_ V°21 V12 For a rotor
V°2 Vl 2 blade row, reaction
(240) is defined
where
as
Rs, is stator
reaction.
33
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
R
W22W1_=
toW22
l

W12
W22
(241)
where tions stream In velocities equations first
R,o is rotor upstream of the some rotor,
reaction. of the stator, the of and than kinetic (241)
The
subscripts downstream reaction This that
0, 1, and of the is
2 refer stator,
to condiand downterms similar to of to the
respectively. bladerow energies. except (i.e., defined is in appear definition velocities than V2).
literature, instead (240) rather
the
power
squared
V rather
Turbine For formation velopment when this the fact presented gaslaw shown peratures pressure, veniently all adiabatic expansion of work)
Expansion processes, kinetic for This later
Process the maximum or energy ratio from and the With pressure energy transfer trans(de
(development of mechanical process equations graphically and that (but
energy) a given can in
is obtained previously the ideal
is isentropic. a little
be proven discussion.
we will not
do it here), this
we will illustrate previously by temtemperature, we can conexpansion diagram. against with from
constantheatcapacity energies and energy and temperature entropy all the by being ideal
assumptions, we have changes can be represented Therefore, and with actual variables (isentropic) of interest,
changes.
and
represent
processes in a turbine The temperatureentropy entropy increasing for lines temperature
means of a temperatureentropy diagram is a plot of temperature pressure. decreasing Since pressure, entropy as can and
of constant
increases be seen
Constantentropy
b.
E
Pl > P2 > P3 E
b
I
Entropy, s
FIGURE
26.Typical
temperatureentropy
diagram.
34
BASIC
TURBINE
CONCEPTS
the
discussion 1, by a shown the pressure the into four
of in
the
coastantentropy1)rocess or A increasing diverge; temperature increasing. the each be turbine shown combined Ts, 26. At constantentropy values therefore, difference
thermodynamics diagram of at looks process temperature increasing between process Ts a single any will diagram. diagram. like is repre
in the and values two be
chapter example sented entropy, of constant For divided These The the given
temperatureentropy, figure line. curves the is also of clarity, steps, with will then
a vertical pressure entropy, curves four diagrams purposes
expansion in a separate into
four diagrams represent the stator expansion process relation between absolute and relative conditions
(fig. 27 (a)), at the stator
P()" id P'L
_,,_JcT_= T_ TO
Ti
Tj'
7
vl
p?
T1 Tl, kJ NJCp 0 (a) (b) T1
i.
p_
/
P_'
T_'
Ti' : T_'
/
T_
2gJcp >2gJCp P2 T2
hl_
T2 ....
CPl
(c)
l Entropy, s
(d)
(a)
Expansion
process
across
stator.
(b)
Relation relative
between conditions between conditions at steps at
absolute stator relative rotor of an exit. exit.
and
(c)
Expansion
process
across
rotor.
(d)
Relation absolute
and
FIGURE
27.Temperatureentropy flow
diagrams turbine.
for
flowprocess
axial
35
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
exit blades
(fig.
27(b)), 27(c)), at the
the rotor shows and
rotor and the exit the curves after by the were
expansion relation (fig. 27(d)). expansion represent expansion. vertical isentropic, 1,id. The increase that than we the
process between process the The
relative relative across static between with final state and kinetic
to
the
moving absolute The total at each state If that from by ideal in be (151).
(fig.
and the
conditions Figure four state point the state the by the indicated 0 to small pressures and
27(a) before the by
stator.
constantpressure is represented total the expansion state arrows. actual process 1 with It
absolute energy the static
distance the actual in the be
state subscript can
point
in accordance
equation would
process entropy, kinetic developed through
proceeds as indicated energy by the
a small be noted is less
developed the rotor
process
would analyze
process. As mentioned terms of relative the absolute and are gies terms represent expansion. If the related and total expansion of the the For expansion The
previously,
flow
conditions. Figure 27(b) shows the relation between relative total states at the stator exit. These states and across conditions. and relative axial the the absolute rotor The total flow the and is shown four is relative in figure before so would and that kinetic 27(c) curves after T;'= indicated the T_'. enin are indicated in the figure.
isentropica]ly, temperatures process relative static were
constantpressure
pressures assumed, state
simplicity, 2,id. by
isentropic,
final
be that
by the subscript state 2, as indicated Here by again the it can actual
The actual process proceeds from state 1 to the small arrows, with an increase in entropy. that the relative would and be kinetic energy by states related at one relative by being, Note the ignore that line 28, the alone. across subscript where subIn the 2,id the developed an at ideal the isenstage is less the figure and 27 static, than relative 27(d). absolute are now developed total are energies into and
be noted
process between in
process. The relation rotor exit
absolute states kinetic
is shown
These
tropically, and the exit are indicated. The shown state through enthalpy point figure script figure entire 36 (p_, 27(c), the 2,id 28, stage four as diagrams figure
relative of figure The the
combined total, are the ! time indicated
diagram total arrows the the in
28. for
absolute For right state line. expansion to the The
processes the
turbine state
expansion points. on the the point
appropriate T2._d), state refers the (both which the the
differences is not to
indicated is on same ideal 2,id and
of the
figure.
constantentropy in figure figure the 27(c), rotor In ideal
as in(licated across l_,_t_fing
it is on
0 constantentropy refers rotor).
subscript stator
expansion of the
_a is indicated in figure (155).d where Vro is rotor in figure efficiency. we get applying equations (152)._d is indicated purely 37 . real that It turbine could is obvious process obtained process (as represented be obtained To. 27(a).J T1 T_ Ca E T' 2. and 2 Vl.. diagram is.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS T_" T_ i1 ii To T_? T_' '_ p =_ _Po \ P2 Ah' (h6Ahid lh j.d). and L For the rotor \pod (243) Wi _'°=W_. V_I (242) where _ is stator efficiency. from ambiguous figure from 28 an but that by ideal is commonly the T owork T_) turbine is less used than in from the (as both the work senses. FIGURE 28. . id I Ahid (h 6 " h2. By The relation between V_ (151). W_ and (244) W_. represented by BladeRow Since parameter used actual blade for turbine this blade purpose rows do not Efficiency operate efficiency.T. therefore. . id ) T2 TZ id Entropy. One exit common kinetic which we need a to express bladerow divided performance.Temperatureentropy s for a stage of an axialflow turbine. 27(c). by the ideal isentropically. The For relation axial between flow. parameter as the of the energy is bladerow is defined exit kinetic energy row.. For the stator.
energy Since turbine is maximum is never or stage process for expressing is the energy is known ways sections turbine transfer as the performance. it is possible Bladerow expressed to calculate performance as a loss rather exit velocity terms for a specified pressure. and the relations Relations totalsimply kineticenergy coefficients they involve Turbine various are not and number Stage dependency. PI _f (247a) v' Pop___. Y'. sometimes as an efficiency. with inlet conditions in than and 1\_. Po f f YTo_P' ff P2. the loss and Y" are can totalpressure loss a Mach and transfer the coefficient be derived. P2 p_ p_ I¢ t! ' (247b) V" "PoPl Y"o P_ P2 p2 P2 (247c) • 'tP_pl where between pressure stated./ efficiency of known kinetic j for a given exit static energy as is blade (245) row. .TURBINE D]_SIGN AND APPLICATION W_. (isentropic) or adiabatic the to on exit and or stage to efficiency.T.. to that we can to follow. Efficiencies when isentropic._ "P. loss These coefficients. The are or from that a Turbine process parameter that ratio This we use or stage is isentropic. yT o__P. e=ln (246) where total e is the pressure. kineticenergy performance Several the loss coefficient..Overall It is the the ideal or stage refers energy based to the overall turbine turbine flow Note at transferred isentropic pressure. also can be expressed of this type used ideal for Axial t Bladerow differing by dimensionless. Y. in coefficients each normalizing parameter Inlet total pressure.d=2gJc_. efficiency ratio energy of actual transfer condition e_ciency.Pl ! ! . in the inlet discussing aerodynamic efficiency present. and exit as follows: purpose Stator: I rotor: /I It y.' Thus. definition of actual efficiency isentropic apply several different discussed in the Overall stage or the we 38 stage turbine are process. are not. ideal is defined efficiency. actual dynamic in have terms been of a loss used. exit head have all been used to make dynamic this the coefficient head.. popl. The energy above the which the expansion we need parameter as the transfer.
In pose. as a but to static exit purof this to velocity the total cases based inlet The and are on exit total a wasted. ideal is tile be the The the serves of ideal obvious must therefore. leaving the the kinetic on Here engine. l)lus exit kinetic decrease is indicated available inlet. the is always difference energy.on(litions work called enthall)y It can must based than available decrease conditions figure conditions con(tition than that higher two be less (as long on the exit static static with efficiency. a waste. used to define or total the inlet energy At the on the is ahvays conditions. definition used most herein people. with exit. for each the ideal efficiency. energy shaft for expand the If the then could work to shaft sometimes the have At the turbine or stage exit.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS considering seal friction. while total conditions. turbine. the we must work whether of static because work. however. absolute in figure Now to do total mechanical define actual energy energy enthalpy consider basis inefficiencies energy is the transfer transfer across the transfer one as due to items as the by shaft such as bearing done by and the work This actual Actual total 28. This been the exit be wasted static desirable energy. is some Thus. stages are last the leaving stage turbine stage other where rated situation.. efficiency exit based by static on the the ('. If we were the loss. kinetic equal above not be basis this desirable static state. because with total state energy wasted. considering energy from energies to the the turbine total before turbine state the the last other a multistage only next the stage. static and total conditions are sometimes kinetic is just a case. energy. increasing as there condition. the is available in is defined defined turbine as shaft or stage. kinetic state used energy for conversion conditions are used. have it zero would would in tile would stages they on the on energy basis most gas and. state exit exit. be considered converted of their a useful work example be expanded a high between the inlet The of these work kinetic over Thus. computed jetengine is not based on ideal is ideal 28. are may basis the we use is dissipated. the as in a kinetic to state to In exit turbine exhaustflow energy In static the such work been turbine. 39 increasing kinetic . 1)ut to use exit kinetic if it could converted in the to computation down the ideal of ideal exit case. work culled total seen that available the static between efficiency. plenum. work is and ideal the this occasionally. We will turbine. is rated of its exit condition. from case high leaving The total exit effi('iency total rel)resented in(licated in the exit total kinetic energy) efficien('y between the cases the the is the velocity the and where entire exit turbineexit is rated conditions. are shaft kinetic The carried work.
_ T_ T'_.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Overall turbine efficiency _ and stage efficiency _tg are defined by similar equations.h'._ [1 \p__/ _(''>"] (P_= are similarly defined but overall performance efficiency (249b) Stage total and static efficiencies e3_ciency with the appropriate Relation efficiency turbine. 4O subscripts. stages effect (248b) a given which ture figure perature stage though the the gram._. to stage a true efficiency. stage For appear stage have it could the be seen energy to as can form work. this ._ _' = . this T... stage additional del)ends overall number This effect such efficiency be shown 29. The inlet and exit conditions. There is an inherent thermodynamic overall turbine efficiency expression. If equation were written ratio the of one the of and stage. stage. Overall turbine total efficiency is expressed J as (248b) hh' h.id figure . teml)eratemeven and diarepresents for efficiency..). in the (T_T2.T'._ V / p._. is prol)ortional a turbine.T'. the on same the the that transfer.The overall of the turbine of the of the as a measure of the it is not the indication comprising hidden in or (249b) stage gas the gas is then all the the turbine. stage following delivering stages still by The may for a stage. of turbine is useful However._7. =h' _' (249a) For the idealgaslaw reduces to and constantheatcapacity assumptions.. ratio of a higher Therefore. be (ToT_). \(_l)/_l assumptions. pressure would entering losses entering capable individual turbine of stages. can as for a stage of the 28. pressure means solid of a temt)eratureentropy verticnl line O2. be __een from This following efficiency. Overall turbine subscripts instead static in and ex are used to denote turbine of the subscripts 0 and 2 used for the can be expressed as efficiency (248a) For the idealgaslaw reduces to and constantheatcapacity T'.
represented Thus..'i . the inefficiency actual With three work be seen of constant the the line CD work previous will CD. Ah_. the B2. showing reheat effect in a multistage isentropic dashed taking The difference with p_). s FIGURE 29. AB.id Entropy.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS Pk k _ \\ 1 b E ¢D i ' \\ A. be greater.id. 41 .dstg increases than increasing represented stage ideal is the B2. represents turbine stage is efficiency efficiency previously. to is for Ah_d. pressure second stage is greater for this stage EF where the (p_ stage an(l.id. is greater 0A. by the of work lines stages. by the and Z Ah. isentropic efficiency.stt. for can ideal the between of entropy. actual . stg 2.Temperatureentropy diagram turbine.. mentioned for the of temperature isentropic by of by virtue than work it turbine work AB. stt representing is greater sum of these. and Similarly.tg \ _\ Ahld: stg E ¢D b \I: \\ Ahld.7_tg Ah_. that represented from Po to of overall the same stage exit pressure p_. obtained work inlet the each for pressure process having each As lines Hence. 2. representthan of 0A. stg is a stage. The _' _'sto. Ahld. that greater constant EF ing the and which the sum the line place expansion 02 in three work ideal values the from stages.
pressure of stages. in turbines is called the "reheat" effect.. _1  I 1_.l_] (254) .g than effect _Ah_d.t. Ah'_ (251) Since greater This between The stages 2_ Ah'_d. equation can differs machines by depending ratios one be is of deeffiand and for isen an important aerodynamic the consideration..y_ l)l_._. 1. with the which for process is also calculating stage pressure of adding called overall ratio heat turbine p_/p_ from an "reheat".d or Z Ah'_.Starting is expanded d T is the we write efficiency pressure (pdp) using of temperature pressure vp. for a turbine.t_ 1 \_oo/ 1\_£] ( p i t nt(. would from to increment It efficiency have reheat this A comparison pressure as the would of turbine a true efficiencies comparison ratio pressure to be able to express aerodynamic effect. the turbine overall isentropic efficiency This external for must is not the stage isentropic efficiencies. suppose stage Infinitesimalstage temperature temperature an infinitesimal tropicefficiency (TdT). stage. or _' _tg.' ) /_] (253) __)(_ z. By of isentropic the definition.. ' 7' from the expansion _tg from Po and P'2 can represented Ah'. of different behavior. be confused source several stage stages. to be the p to eliminate of an infinitesimally T. ] J) (252) where n is the number be found in reference The on the not higher sirable In order ciency fact that stage ratio. d T = _pT E l (ppdp and dTT_ _1o[1(I 42 ) (_. effect. equation of constant _t_ is efficiency and constant efficiency .s. __ z ah.. eff_ciency. be equal.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION The to these total two actual be values turbine must work by obtained either Thus.. efficiency raises of two of their is helped all reheat small a gas where a true The derivation from turbine of this efficiency. 'Ah' (250) or .
name aeroThis arises is law. infinitesimalefficiency (1#x) n= 1 +nx for expression.n {p. exponent then n1 n ). kinetic energies for the overall turbine 43 . Substituting l)olytropic T.n'_ (nl)/n \p. However. is also method where a l)olytropic for the the known efficiency exclusive as the the process of an the _p is effect SUl)posedly of pressure efficiency. in kinetic the Other energy it ahvays the stage.! Equations process relate were l)olytropic (257) to and efficiency (258) as and are the very similar. process .. assumption temperature series is no change is used in infinitesimal static the d T'd T. l)olytropic polytropic of expressing n is called process. should than are not Some be quite rigorously ignore to in accord the the fact with that the the isentropicactual work authors across seems to differen efficiency differential tial make the be the Using evaluation rather the authors proportional statictemperature that there that expansion (254) so that totaltemperature differential.1 ? (259) If we neglect inlet and exit. and the v from exl)onent the This true ratio. approximation yields of equation dT 7_1 dp T _ 7 I' Integrating between the turbine inlet Tfn (255) and exit yields In _(256) z/P7"Y 1 In p_" Pex Equation (256) can be written as The dynamic efficiency from called we get infinitesimalstage efficiency. irreversible for path the ideal as pv"= process gas constant. and if as the (25s) turbine we couhl be expressed a ])olytroi)ic polytrol)ic process.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS These equations definition.
ciency relation each However../ y"l)/_ (Pe_ 1 J (260) _1 (_e_) _'{(_ 1)/_] L \_/ Equating (260) with (261) then yields k J (261) _=1\_/ (262) This proach unity.8 B b . is illustrated as at two higher in figure ratio can 210.0 FIGURE 210. or E1 \__. approach pressure . 1. and ratios._ 09 . ciency.5 1 ../// _.Relation between Specific turbine heat ratio overall 7..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION process.7 Turbine I .9Turbine ¢ pressure r_tio /. differ The two efficiencies each at lower apeffi other the pressure efficiencies efficiency especially signiticantly. ffp I .4. levels.9 I 1.8 poly_ropic efficiency. and polytropic efficiencies. we Actual can relate turbine drop overall could efficiency be expressed to as polytropic effi temperature T_ _Te_='_T_. 44 .
Another of pressure in fluid. pressing are the The matic. this discussion. Analysis that allows dimensionless parameters Dimensional comprising light taining the sional that number some procedure on the two variables analysis a physical nature or the more necessary physical is a procedure relation relation. to include relation equation term the forming 1)rocedure may The a group they groups. number variables. ]'his on an is term expresses the fluid to the a basic fluid. flow There of a real Reynolds Weber parameter expresses expresses effects. shape of each insight of the represent The of linear dimension dimensions). which of fluid physical ratios geometrical rather than change of the analysis based effect Mach Froude exnumbers of relations. similitude. is a con trolling factor. as ratios _o are the such of geometric. term the implies actual The ratios that magnitude in many texts. number. Reynolds fluid Mach significant concept and If flow. compressibility gravitational in general. number. variables for representing dimensionless a dimensionless groups including to the the nature terms of velocities. of variables throw each will once some the conbe and states of a of to be arranged so that of the It is a procedure of dimensionless number all the between is the variables them. of as a formal physical each and 7rTheorem. by itself. from reference problem basic into a smaller minimum analysis a complete of of the at least to represent of dimenform powers The formal pertinent 1. A are use of performance. (which surfacetension to the the terms an elasticity a gas effects. general obtaining variables is presented served as the basis for Application flow yields relations. parameter ideal attributes the the various include forces. idea that of similarity all the dimen45 kineor dynamic two quantities operating . serve and PARAMETERS to correlate classify turbine velocity diagrams. analysis into ratios dimensionless and linear (as a ratio of dimensional considerable resultant of forces. parameters of dimensionless the ratio of the force inertia force due to characteristic other that which for dimensionless modify are fluid. a product which be expressed terms. which which real which expresses expresses reduces and Of and these number. based on These viscous effects. for gas groups leads conditions the effects. parameters for the more commonly used dimensionless discussed in this section.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS DIMENSIONLESS Dimensionless classify number introduced turbine of the and parameters geometry. The basis is dimensional Dimensional analysis. The of such for grouping groups basis in the of the group. due to the the motion of the ideal the an groups. number). dimensions.
which is or flow called _2_' rate. of similarity of machines at some at or near conditions design Turbomachine Application flow results in are rows parameters the blade of dimensional the previously Operational analysis to the Parameters general set of problem parameters. properties some to demonstrate or ft3/sec Q. and (3) dynamic of the different forces are the physical can similarity is the inexpensive to the than is ever operation fullsize severe be approached sufficiently experiments machine. flow. these variables. we are interested (for compressible in conjunction following variables tant relations : Volume Head. with dimension ratios which means that similarity. of the of the and fluid. For any turbomachine. detailed examination of flow within In addition. It but closely which means that is doubtful whether for most to be of smaller performed use practical utility. linear rad/sec or rev/min D. linear with ambient be of great the ratios complete purposes One the it use attained. (2) kinematic similarity. density. same. rate. viscosity. of fluid These mentioned important for the of turbomachines. the If we manipu(sec) dimension. dimensional analysis operational characterin the relation of head flow rate. Power. of similarity relatively applicable the rather operation of models can the fluid scale so that results involves Another condition. N. physical exactly similarity Complete (1) geometric are everywhere the velocity ity. Rotative Characteristic Fluid Fluid Fluid From drop lation. (N) (sec)/m E. flow H. more power The impor has great utility in the analysis of the overall istics. nt or ft 3 _or lbm/(ft) 2 groups in order can be formed. terms separate have the same then value. to ideal and the work). p. J/kg P. five N/m 2 or lbf/ft dimensionless constants groups can the dimensional the five conversion to ease as dimensionless be expressed _fcn The Q/ND 46 capacity. the pN3D 5' is exl)ressed capacity u ' pN2D2/ il_ (limensionless It can be (263) form further by coefficient. are the same. which means that the linear same.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION sionless of the obtained. m3/sec or (ft)(lbf)/lbm W or Btu/sec speed. 3. elasticity. . kg/m 3 or lb/ft u. regardless similar implies of the physical individual conditions values are the ratios similar variables. _4th are this size. used relates speed.
whi(. and a given value of Q/ND 3 implies a l)articular relation of fluid velocity Io blade speed or.rt)illc work. Ti_e Reynolds number effect will be discussed separately later in this chapter. the compressibility effect becomes increasingly significant. as well as to the efficiency.h is called the head coefficient. a given value of t. NIost of these arc . refcrrc(I to as velocitydiagram I)aramcters._l ill t_. similar velocity diagrams. Since the fa('tor. or dynamic similarity. Its effect depends on the level of . At low NIach number. or viscous effect coefficient.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS rel)resented as Q VA VI) 2 V V (264) Thus. Its effect on overall turbine 1)erformance. in kinematic terms. can be regarded AS secondary. This can be rel)rcscnted as H H N 2D. The term E/aN2D 2 is the compressibility coefficient.XIach number. The head is expressed in dimensionless form I)v H/N21) '._a: _ (265) Thus. The term P/pN3D 5 is _t power coefficient. the capacity coefficient is equivalent to V/U. 'these factors become iml)ortanl as a means for correlating performance. Since completely similar machines shouhl perform similarly. the effect is negligible or very secondary. As NIach number increases. aml it 47 (266 . It represents the actual power And thus is related to the capacity and hea(t coefficients._ I_/'U aud H/U z are rclatc(I to the velocity (liagrams. where the gas is relatively incoml)ressible. The term pND2/u is the Reynolds number. factors of this type ar(./N2D 2 iml)lies a particular rclatiol_ of hea_l to rotor kinetic energy. One of these parameters is the speedwork parameter X::U 2 gJ/W 'Fh(_ re(:ipro('al of the sl)ce(lwork parameter is also oflcn use_l. while still iml)ortant.ise(l I)rim'trily with rcsl)e('t to axialttox_ turbines. VelocityDiagram Parameters We have seen that the ratio of fluid velocity to blade velocity and the ratio of fluid energy to blade energy are inq)ortant factors required for achieving similarity in turbomachines.mnonly us(. Several velocity(liagram parameters are co.
the the where ideal stage V_ is the expansion or turbine. and to the parameter the Is veloc)tv bladejet by speed ratio and (._ Substitution of equation (271) back into equation (270) yields (271) U _= 7= _ 2gJAh. we can (268) Therefore. equations (266) and X= (267) can be expressed as (269) 1 U ¢AV_ is the U p_ "_fj Another l)arameter often used bladejet speed ratio (270) in m/see velocity st. jet. atie or ft/sec.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION is referred to as the loading factor 1 ¢=X or loading g JAb' U2 write coefficient (267) For an axialflow turbine.266) the and (272) speedwork (272) and be obtained use of equations efficiency (273) (274) parameters parameter bladejet the flow efficiency. it be a function of the is directh Another 48 velocity velocitydiagram . as the to exit or spouting. velocity That corresponding (:onditions Vj2= 2gJ.. total velocity. from or spouting.d A relation parameter the static can between the definition zXh' n =Sh_ The resultant relation is v= _/____ _ This must speed shows also ratio that related is related frequently if efficiency onh to to the used is a funclion other. is defined inlet is. The to across jet._h. actual While diagram the of ()ne of these the speedwork diagram.
. we get (277) _=# cot The term Vu.h£h2. these the next only a somewhat a particular at speed Lewis ratio. Parameters how speed static ratio.'_ al kAVu / geometry. of velocity is specified. of the this function different term becomes type types a function of velocity (a different for each in terms generalized. as will be discussed in of loading diagram).7. / v. The a flow mathematically bladejet impulse A velocity Further (V_. definition is kinetic efficiency h'oh'2 Ah' ._ _h. next one section of the chapter. By using equation (269) and the velocitydiagram (V.. is usually to four for chapter. such next each can angle.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS factor. . in figure is isentropic 211. cannot be completely specific types of velocity diagrams._ Substitution of equation (268) into equation (278) yichts (278) 49 . However. Relation parameters and the of show a single axial type turbine One parameter must the loading coefficient. be the speedwork efficiency bladejet of these coefficient. or the two flow is thus to each This and Where We seen that In be will for these shown type generally For are other required. or flow coefficient (275) The flow coefficient can be related to the loading coefficient as follows: v. velocitydiagram parameters a more correlating parameter correlation. (W_: assume _'= static diagram that Efficiency VelocityDiagram specific the (U_= U_) ease We can that with stage through be will now related we have constant of this this for an idealized to axialflow velocity efficiency Assume W2) stage for 1). efficiency. addition.. efficiency The only loss. therefore. I/AV._=V_.2).. flow the for the for exit are alone of velocity of the diagrams. the and coefficient Therefore. coefficient stator be expressed loadingcoefficient velocitydiagram efficiency an more general is use the general can idealized diagram required parameters be related specific real case for case in the to in other. is shown stage is exit (total energy. It related parameters.
..1(V..Velocityvector diagram for an axialflow.+2U)2V.2) and the (280) sign (281) convention U=W.. _d=h_=hl).t The change in fluid tangential velocity is (279) zxV.. impulse stage......5+ (26).. (281). UAV._+U=(V. 1= V1 sin m Since flow is isentropic and the Vl=_ Substitution 50 of equations (284) turbine 2gJAh_e and (285) into equation stage is of the impluse (284) type (285) (283) (283) (h2. (282) and AV.W2) and (W.1 j/ V2 Wu. W_..z From the assumptions we adopted. .. 2= W_.=V_. we get 1. 1 From equations V.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION a1 Vu.I+2U (Wl.=V. = gJAh.IV....V_._= W.U) + U=V_.I2U From the velocitydiagram geometry V_.2=V.. 2 FIGURE 211..2=W. and (280).
v I . by for this and angle speed efficiency exit is a function of bladejet figure speed efficiency is parabolic example is reached speed (288) of 70 °. bladejet impulse speed stage.8 1.Effect of axialflow.6 speed ratio.0 FIGURE 212. A maximum ratio optimum blade mathematically derivative equal sin al 2 differentiating to zero: Vo_t (289) I . 51 .2 I . of an isentropic. ratio Stator on static exit efficiency angle. 70 °.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS yields AVe=2 Substitution of equation sin al_/2gJAhia2U (286) back into 4U _ 2gJAh_ speed ratio from equation (287) (272) (288) case and in The any constant ratio for of equa212 equation (279) (286) yields 4U sin al _4'2gJAh_a Now using the finally yields definition of bladejet n=4z. an 0.4_3 particular is illustrated of 0. variation with ratio and shows static a stator at a bladejet can be found the setting that sin a. Equation stator only.47.88 jet tion exit The (288) angle.4 Bladejet I .
exit ._1/4 (V) taken at the 1/2 DH1/. ideal indeed. because.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Since the the sine stator of the exit angle angle does is normally not vary in the greatly. speed be of dimensional analysis led to the dimensionless does not.. where optimum of this very bladeiet type would and the and. previous specific as the N having of the rotative of two known the of the A parameter not because values of geometrically not case. The operation turbomachines tion (263). be desirable to Also. to be a range in found this by on the variables relating to parameters shown in equathe number of dimensionthe linear remaining turbospeed remaining speeds.5. (293) stage D. the volume NE). Equation specific. are 52 quoted but with not rotative exclusively. with are.Commonly. exhaust that would sizes. velocitydiagram Design Parameters parameters. range the of 60 ° to 80 °. case remain bladejet static idealized from ratio the speed total same. Thus. This less parameters dimension D variables machines would variables Such groups./2 flow rate is taken at the stage or turbine (291) The Ds and parameter is found as that excludes N is known as the specific diameter ( H D_=\_VD2] With the volume flow rate . for a real should case. Q1/2 exit or turbine (292) exit. both will differ parabolic a real for correlating so are the and efficiency. very Likewise. While case. at combining D is having values would of all would parameters The N8 and desirable apply similar a parameter a turbomachine that excludes all rotative NQI/2 When exit used for a turbine. (288) the We basic and levels find other figure and that parameter 212 values trend for a turbine of course.4 to 0. speed DH1/4 Qi/_x the N in values revolutions for these per parameters minute. however. exit. is a speed ratio for most cases of interest be in the range of 0. good the it does. apply can as / Q \l/2/N2D2\3/4 parameter is found are possible.
which efficiency. . speed units and are value totaltostatic not feet per second. all The ratio Some of total definitions authors thus efficiency of ideal prefer interrelation by to static work to the use used the can efficiency same ratio equation be appears the work in (274) ideal from because various equation terms into definition of the paramin the (296). ideal work. The H=JAh_d=J_d Combining (294) and equations (291). 3=. Combining (298) equations yields where (291). and diameter D in feet.K v/g_'X "/l" (297) Specific coefficient. in defining eliminating efficiency parameter parameter expressed speedwork (296) substituting NsD8 ' :. to be the Specific presented specific the less because it is specified Qe_ in cubic per pound._). of equation differing cases. with equation NsD. previously totaltototal as the speed velocity sometimes.KD2 _'_A_ diameter be used are to related correlate to the (299) Since diagram specific speed and specific can velocitythen 53 parameters. speed The and specific exit volume diameter flow rate Qe_=A_V_ can is also be related to the flow (298) ft 2. and specific diagram diameter parameters. With diameter The but value can (hh_). A_x is the exit flow and area. (n) _ and (272) with (295) equations The eters. H is usually or head. (294). be related blade to the speed is are head not truly for consistent. (295) yields (293).BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS volume flow rate H in footpounds of units. (5h. this set taken specific dimensionconvenience. (275) in m 2 or (293). _ND K The Uwhere K head is is the dimensional constant (294) (27r rad/rev or 60 sec/min).
These are diameter their use leads to terms. Specific speed speed and specific and specific diameter diameter can also contain be used variables to correlate that the velocitydiagram flow rate. serve of these the type of design that rapid means for estimating The parameters: Overall specific speed following are be most appropriate number of required commonly most __ No1/2 N. conditions When identify as overall a help efficiency. to as design Thus. to be selected.= U. be applied equal turbine. encountered been discussing can The these for applied dimensionless to a stage the to the similarity and overall values are parameters or to the thus can might the the parameters turbine. on the specific to value while nature speed the overall to value some for average the entire specific always for evolved values condition. are dictate parameters do not._=wv. H3/4 (2100) D"_H1/' (2101) (2102) gj_'_ Overall bladejet speed ratio .Overall specific diameter "_ Overall speedwork parameter ___e.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION specific efficiency. . is almost the can of the because depend determined other geometry. Parameters that entire be some that used we have When represent to correlate parameters and stages. and volume appearing in and the specific They shape are will sometimes parameters. such as D2/Aex that referred the type imply to shape. (2104) 54 . turbine. perhaps speed the and is by Equation the Let the most supersiggen(2100) parameters._ contribute value specific speed. (2103) The script Of nificant erally for that subscript () these refers av refers to the its only.. and equation diameter also often (299). as specific shape speed since sometimes referred of design Overall parameters. applied similar to a stage. to show application considerations overall parameters considerations be restated of overall Q.
thermodynamic the have Often. manner effects that different fluids on the turbine.=1_. The third both by the rotative rather application.8 I . in m3/sec JP or ft3/lb.2 I . and the overall The specific first term The / vex kll21 can t .=\ be expressed depends as the only This product which second term oo) of can is a . three gas useful choice by the in other of N The and the terms.7 Thus. specific speed the overall speed than and (in cases where term is dictated are specified values the tur power N_/J__.3 Specific speed. 55 .0 I 1.7 I . the in product which for evaluating is available) application. Also. Ns. P.5 I . Ns.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS where flow ve_ is specific rate be expressed volume as at exit. the individual influences is established axial flow axial flow Onestage.2 I 1.3 I . on the specified speed reflects second cycle expected term conditions. performance.4 I . (2100) substitution yields of equations (2104) equation _. _'_ A flow [ .Effect of specific speed on turbineblade shape.1 I 1.9 I 1. ( ft3/4 )(Ibm314 )/(min)(sec 112)(ibf3/4 t FIGURE 213. be reasonably estimated. cases.6 I . dimensionless I 20 I 30 I 40 I 50 I 60 I 70 I 80 I 90 I 100 I 110 I 120 I DO I 140 I 150 I 160 ) Specific speed. let mass w_ _'H and (2105) into (2105) Then.
_t_. a constant for stage _peedwork (U2=U_v). basis metrically parameter assuming suming equal the stage specific can in order speed tell speed us is a correlating value level specific (2109) parameter of stage speed gives us on of efficiency. passage and For for the the of hub shape oneradius radius is illustrated and to twostage. write which is small. and assume equal head H=nH Further. (2102) blade per stage. these yields n:(NsY/3 last if the two expansion effect conditions and ratio assume into is not that equation too large. and as ah' =n h' 56 (2110) . increasing number speed turThe specific with the axialflow ratio. tip radius turbines. of stages. in reference type overall of compressibility a compressibility for number and of speed speed (266) overall the turbine parameter Knowledge requires of blade blade for for equation of stages correction an assumed a value can may a knowledge A similar speedwork Often. Thus. obtained for the overall blade on the parato the for is stage experience a reasonable a given and effect overall equation 2. speed to achieve assumed The requirement. reheat we can effect.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION bine bine ratio speed. a reasonable be selected varied considerations. Substitution rearrangement (2109) \NJ Since assume specific application number discussed from stage speed. of stress by speedwork parameter. speed with from estimate estimate is presented. (2107) we and can (2108) neglect the of compressibility Qe_:Q_:. give us a rapid apa given application. in figure axialflow. increasing the overall of stages for any decreases specific application indicates the type The values of some of the proximation Dividing for stage of the equation specific number (2100) speed yields N_ or types of design overall parameters required specific for that will be required. value Or. Dividing equation work if desired. however. where of estimate speedwork parameter. (291) by equation of stages for overall speed Qe_ 1/2 (2107) If we neglect change per the stage. decreases 213 for example a radialflow turbines. for specific Thus. known an this is often value for of be the the efficiency. speedwork parameter.
3' is initial express Since Mach is pressure mass any w is preferred while significant turbine. there the what and flow. . rate Change which actual ideal ratio. #) (2112) dimensional analysis produces .. N. Parameters in equation Another to w the (263) choice volume are of flow Performance The perfectly variables..BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS yields n==). remains is throughout pressure Instead is the depends ratio preferred in total as well preferred ratio term for compressible pressure specific initial on or drop temperature enthalpy variable... of the equation. work work Q because of considerably turbomachinery correct however. still R. the f Ah' T'_.'_T"7 'P_ assumed terms constant. and speed terms. to H. D_ ratio but . and to Ah'. modifying to see may law. following: w_/RT... properties ratio a molecular the variables p'_. as depends expansion. p_. useful for (2111) Equations studies (2109) associated and with (2111) preliminary are particularly system parametric analyses. elasticity.. The for for Specification parameters presented flow for degree pressure on both the P. D. (2114) 57 . ND p. as on the we include depends as another introduction Rotative The specific implies the to introducing D are gas #. speed fluid heat N and dimension of interest. which here. Let we can by using tionality us operate get out secondorder. as temperature. Now. For operating constant simplicity with w=fcn(_h'. so that RT . compressible is often flow the expressed flow of power work rate machines.Icn_R_n' . of on the initial temperature temperature. performance. Since temperature a characterare assumed inand weight. on some The terms parameter idealgas significance the propor of them. w (2113) would be If the specific heat had not been some complicated. P.. expressing of preferred nondimensional Q changes constant. above the work. R. massflow be transformed the continuity AocD _. _ ) _/ RT. number equivalent istic eluded viscosity constant.
analysis Mach with dimensions. the parameters further reduce to _=fcn _r. the critical the flow. (2116) the the must ratio speed The the a a in of rotorblade number. respect to nondimensionally velocity. 7' r. as for of the in order the is represented to the critical of the is that number. the the critical. Conditions under that standard molecular results conditions weight at obtained performance and sometimes is done of temperature of fluid in order . Thus. be of varying dimensionless as parameters presented expressed (2117) p__ _Icn _T' For a given gas in a given turbine. Equivalent It and 58 is very specific useful and heat to report pressure This ratio. may be transformed ND speed U U oc . rotative but must becomes be inlet is by a kind by only For speed is similarity. _RT. (2118) the can parameters be used presented to express in equaturbine (2117). Mach parameter implication fluid certain machine singular with the have fixed the rotative speed Division V/U.7_. for the incompressible effect associated expressed temperature as equation All variables dimensionless form to be correlated. parameter velocity. massflow for but the which parameter of not must velocity. oc_]RT't. For (2113) a given can gas. mass mass flow flow rate rate is represented to the mass nondimensionally flow rate when as the by velocity the ratio equals of actual The or sonic. fluid. gives velocity of rotor kinematic condition similarity._.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Substitution (2113) yields of this relation into the mass flow parameter of equation Thus. on the particular or case. rotor of this a certain velocity of fixed variable temperature also have a given not therefore. (2118) Depending tions (2113).._ ac. performance.
BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS different easily sure.696 29._h taT' ta ._ (2122) .4. have cumbersome the equivalent to work a very on equivalent conditions. ratio.a / . standard be directly and readily used: heat NACA compared atmospheric and also The presK or are The basis performance conditions or 14.0. on the N/m 518. expressed conditions parameters subscript equivalent as known as equivalent (2113) standard the but conditions. commonly used are expressed as specificheatratio 59 . known of these Let constant. with diameter and conditions the of equation std denoting conditions. effect under the parameters This is not temperature the at above critical on both with.2 1.. we desire. the With conditions commonly always and used (sonic) specific and parameters. molecular NACA performance variables standard use With the the standard of flow. These air. ah' RT_. specific add heat ratio can change effect that but out left with into are only depend a specificheatratio corrections all conditions. that are terms. w. Let us The yield ratio since now fluid.R_. 288. RT'. and conditions. subscript can then us used 101 as following conditions to determine are 325 the may standard _ abs weight. (2124) by As you may recall. are for any usually psia. conditions similarity eq denoting be expressed P ! (2119) P_.=w Ah_q. specific or and speed condition temperature. N / Rearrangement conditions . and Mach small velocity.d N_q (2121) (2120) of these equations then yields for the equivalent p'.7 ° R. work. Pst_ Ah'eq l_. assuming constant the case. are terms number. (2123) N_q= N 4R_ta T:.. specificheatratio similarity However. do not heat only we started off the discussion of these specific heat ratio for all conditions.q.
127) reduce Finally.=t. _2 V.(..v_.. '\... standard a reduction equivalent performance Number form A wellknown is the reduction in takeoff Reynolds on hot The to 6O be effect one of of viscosity the in the of Reynolds shown dimensionless parameters affecting turbomachine ... at temperatures mass output greater a powerplant. 8ldl # )2 (2130) and .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 8q V_.y+ 1/ 2 27 V<.. .. Pstd (2131) The equivalent conditions are then expressed as w.__l gRT' ratio. as you recall. Vc.:. for constant specific (2122) heat to to (2 to equations we define 0=( kYcr. equations (2125) (2129) Therefore..J \p.. (2124).S.) ' (2126) (2127) ..>.q=w _ _ (2132) _kh # _'_ 0 N (2133) Neq=_ One operation of both reduce effect the point actual that can be seen flow of and from these than similarity speed.h' . of jet Effect number was Both equations will cause of these example aircraft (2134) is that factors of this days._P_".: t (2125) _:.+1/ (2128) _and.._7 ) N_q_ where Nj(V_'d..d__Ly<.) "\%.
For turbulent flow. on the losses._=V22/Ah reduces (Re_'_ °'2 \Re1/ Actually._ where and Re (2137) is the into Reynolds equation number. because total of this. the been but This fraction In found usually occurs of view (2141) This exponent the all range the is an for losses ideal this are correlation. to viscous suggested machine.2.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS performance. (2137) where length. it is still important. (2136) is friction loss. between is it has 0.o. = . (2136) Substituting yields equations (2138) (2138) 1_' 1 (2139) Adding dividing yield subscripts the equation for conditions for condition 1 and 1 by 2 to the equation for (2139) condition and 2 equation Since for geometric similarity '_. type not type depending viscous loss that varies the in loss of correlation is not and of 0. • 7 If we assume that the only loss ._d. While its effect is secondary. 172 and for dynamic to mmilarity V_/Ah_. correlated The in effect of Reynolds number the following manner: Expressing efficiency 7' we can write as on turbine efficiency is usually A ' hh'_ ' Ah' 5h' _h J ld (2135) . f is the friction factor.1 to 0.2.. of correlation 61 . attributable another varies machines. equation L_/DI:L_/D2 (2140) 17. and L is the characteristic flowpath 1 fOCR_0.
3 be A and the B are fractions A and in such B serve turbine that to tests A+B= the represent here 1..7 Reynolds to 0..: Principles J. AND of Turbomachincry. not all as the about to exponent is viscous is maintained loss. eters Ratio for ARTHUR Examination STED/ART. D. In equation viscous the that at Lewis.6 for number B seem effects. indicate values of 0. Geometry NASA TN Characteristics D4248. tlighExpansion AxialFlow 62 . 2. Co. of Turbines.: Macmillan Use of of 1967. G. REFERENCES 1. loss fact values that as well of (2142) exponent. WARNER L. Similarity 1956. Param GLASSMAN.2 to reflect coefficients presented compromise discussion a good reference for correlating 1.4 for A and corresponding to 0. Recent at 0.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1v_A {Re2"_ °_ (2142) where the and loss 0. SHEPHERD.
N . absolute blade absolute ideal specific relative mass (K) . (defined mZ/kg. Reynolds speed heat Reynolds diameter. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) T U V Vj V W 20 !:1 OL totalpressure fluid absolute coefficient. capacity diameter. J/kg. velocity. ?% dimensionless. specific modulus kinetic m2. at constant ft dimensionless. N. length. ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec defined from from by eqs. (246) defined of elasticity. ft rev/min (ft 3/4) (lbm 3/4)/ (rain) (sec 1/_) (lbf 3/4) 60 sec/min characteristic Mach number rotative specific speed. B C_ J/(kg)(K). 2_r rad/rev.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS SYMBOLS A a flow area. 32. ft/sec number m. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu conversion constant. (247) or radial or radial direction. J/kg. ft 2 number correlation m/sec. m3/sec. flow Btu/sec N/m2. absolute volume W. m/sec. correlation coefficient coefficient pressure. K. N/m2. loss ft/sec by eq. 1 . Btu/lb conversion constant. (2142) (2142) Btu/(lb)(°R) of sound. constant. rad/sec. jet speed volume. coefficient. velocity. °R pressure. direction. ft/sec m/sec. speed. D D_ E e (sec I/2) (lbfl/4) / (ft I/4) (lbm 1/4) lb/ft 2 by eq. speed. in eq. flow rate. (271)). m/sec. measured measured angle angle axial axial deg fluid relative deg 63 .17 (Ibm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec 2) (ft) (lbf)/lbm specific enthalpy. energy loss F ] g H h J K L M N force. lb/ft 2 ft3/sec (°R) rate. P P Q R Re r gas constant. lb friction factor conversion head. m. m/sec. J/(kg) number m. 1. in eq. reaction Reynolds radius. kg/sec. number of stages polytropic exponent power. ft temperature.
speed kg/mS. lb/(ft) (sec) defined by eq. (267) ¢ coefficient. defined Subscripts: av cr eq ex /d in loss opt p r rel ro st std stg u x 0 1 2 average critical equivalent exit ideal inlet loss optimum polytropic radial component relative rotor stator NACA stage tangential standard condition condition (M. lb/ft a lbft defined rad/sec defined by eq. ratio. flow loading angular p T Nm. (N)(sec)/m_. torque. coefficient. by eq. defined pressure (2128) turbine NACA inlet tem of specific ratio to eq. (275) by eq. velocity. on on of critical critical velocity velocity based based standard parameter. y pressure heat to NACA ratio.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 7 ratio ratio of heat of inlet capacity volume total at constant pressure standard by to heat capacity at constant function efficiency 0 squared perature temperature speedwork viscosity. (266) (272) bladejet density.1) component axial component at stator inlet at stator exit or rotor at rotor exit inlet Superscripts: _ ' " 64 vector overall absolute relative quantity turbine total total state state .
or th roat Chord l Spacing..\ Axis. or pitch Blade inlet angle 7 \. Tip___ FLow _ I Blad_ _Hu b I/Suction Leading edge/" Pressure surface J/ surface Camber line_ /Trailing Axis/ / / / edge Tangent to camber / line at leading edge 4..Blade terminology. Flow inlet angle/ FIo_ / I / / Incidence angle J / /_Tangent to camber line at trailing edge Flow exit angle Axial chord Deviation ant Blade exit angle FIOURF 214.. 65 .BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS GLOSSARY The terms defined herein are illustrated in figure 214. \ \ _ Opening.
camber line at the direction. edge. to the The the sum axial external camber of the line line formed leading formed blade at the angles of the tangents. concave distance on adjacent surface. blade inlet and hub. Same as rotor camber tangents equal camber leading surface chord. exit height. inlet trailing angle. of the blade. to the The ratio The edge radius The between tangent the radius camber hub. It is the to the spacing. blade section were is the blade laid convex up on a flat surface. as set axial in the length of the projection of the turbine. exit and the The angle between the turbine axial direction. at the angle and the blade. perpendicular It is approximately halfway projection equal between of the to the pressure profile distance side blade linear between chord line. ference deviation The between angle. between to tipradius ratio of the of the direction to tipradius angle. at the dif angle angle. section. the leading edge and If a twodimensional the trailing edge. axial blade blade blade solidity. camberline angle. in the The highest. by by the and the intersection trailing chord It edges. the flow It is equal flow exit exit to the angle. The radius the blade the between blade. extends the edge to the trailing edge. tip minus the at the leading edge bucket. inlet or nose. hubtip hubleading mean nozzle pitch. onto of the blade. at the to the tangent direction. axis. and the suction surface. Same between the fluid axial direction. The mean profile. angle. The The front.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION aspect axial ratio. points Along . as hubto tipradius direction surface blades. the chord line the rear of the line between section would the points touch the deflection. The angle the turbine section as hubratio. line and from of the It is the the line The angle. blade. and the tip. blade at the the blade flow exit angle. ratio. pressure pressures radius 66 ratio. hub blade. chord. where the front and surface. onto The the to line. angle minus The blade section halfway Same as stator blade. corresponding this surface. blade. incidence The innermost ratio. to the inlet hub tip radius. length chord of the line. The The ratio length a line of the parallel of the angle and the blade to the axial turbine between turbine angle height turbine chord the axial to the chord. The flow direction flow flow inlet angle. are Same of rotatioll of the ratio. total the The turning flow flow exit angle inlet angle of the and minus fluid fluid.
stator suction tip. Along this surface. The outermost section edge. spacing. The as hub. surface. solidity.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS root. chord to the spacing. the chord line and the turbine axial blade. A stationary The convex pressures are lowest. between blade. blade. The rear. blade. direction. surface of the of the blade. trailing or tail. rotor Same blade. of the 67 . A rotating ratio The of the angle as pitch. blade. Same stagger angle.
The diagrams. can for are radial Only variations the used. variables velocity absolute blade row Once speed diagrams. Their that blading significantly The relating cussed the relation chapter first sidered Usually. geometry angles addition. the with that diagrams.Stewart L As the indicated in chapter in the and design from their through step required specify to the methods to the diagram work were entirely chapter of the at the in chapter from 2. Whitney nd J a Warner . Various efficiency efficiency for and produce. second diagrams and from turbines part general them in chapter velocity relation these is or analysis relation of turbines speed as it passes velocities described design the to diagrams required affect next the to the requirements evolution flow In level blading constructing flow dimensionless also was to concerns the the presented illustrated subject a single flow blade to turbine is devoted of this representative the part that the are by an idealized of velocity diagram conditions radius radial in the radius. diagrams turbine 2. average conditions of this result variation considered mean to of forces is devoted balance speed chapter. in be associated and diswith their This The constage. most to the of velocity work. blade direction axialflow in this 69 . one blade the of is the the of the row use flow. were and case.CHAPTER 3 Velocity iagrams D By Warren. expected capacity and the from velocity of the parameters in chapter and of the important is of the rotative velocity is very velocity the velocities the next. The the in the to of and are the are be considered fluid relative universally overall established. important that diagrams turbine. one 2.
DIAGRAMS occurring The and at the different their stage radius mean the types selection velocity 2 and through the the section average of diawhen diagram nomenstage. (ft)/(lbf) ftlsec (sec 2) (31) tangential conversion conversion equation axial state (ft) (lb)/Btu specific work vector the to the relation (32) velocity to diagram. velocityto absolute affect dimensionless diagram diagram include ways. an in as illustrative mean are discussed. equation indicating assumed to represent encountered relation figure vector is required efficiency. ft 2 are axial velocity expected parameters because Such the key and is velocitydiagram swirl often efficiency are parameters parameter. 778 stage the the (lbm) m/see. 1 .17 1 . 32. of velocity. between their review.. velocities referred and used were which in parameters (the to as blading values discussed can tangential the swirl geometry. the (214) the hub velocity and by to 31 no can tip) the stage shows change diagrams are turbine. relations be written described in chapter Assuming ah ' =UA V_' gj where h' U V. with be in related chapter can because they not of but Flow only the also link component velocity) In addition.The 7O speedwork parameter is used in g JAb' AV_ 2 this chapter because (33) diagram component flow rate. g J This The rate. association parameter the 2 and in several speedwork be expressed . (halfway conditions grams. component constant. lb/ft 3 area. the such as U2 U _=gJAh'AV. the flow velocity area by _0 Vz = P_an is related where Vx w o Aan axial mass density. lb/sec m/see. constant. staging In clature. mS. J/kg. kg/see. ft/sec kg/m3. the of and Btu/lb ft/sec of velocity. speed. relates component conditions. total blade enthalpy. annulus angles the the studies shape. m/see.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION MEANSECTION In this section.
thereof where either Zeroexitswirl diagram.. reaction (V_./ u WU. I ! FIGURE .Velocityvector diagrams and nomenclature.In swirl zeroexitswirl component diagram. exit (V_._. head The or the diagram diagram diagram for and V2:W1) parameter the entire a loss are exit in several values many of speedwork cases.0) (W. have value values swirl following swirl physical different of the constraint split the velocity sizes speedwork imposed between three the are and diagrams some determines reaction (V_. 2 i" i'll . types normalize are related the to the swirl distribution by AV. _ 1 hVuand (34a) 71 .. the can depending Diagram parameters.0 Station 0 Vx.2 _/Vu . and it is convenient to diagram velocities VelocityDiagram After diagrams shapes on the related stator parameter. on the type such the and section: Diagram requirements Velocity diagram refers shape as stage rotor their exit to type and Types are the the and The and established.VELOCITY FI0w DIAORAMS VX._) and diagrams in this diagram._). of performancecommon types of discussed (1) (2) (3) These shown velocity efficiency. Vx.. overall be design evolved.2 I 31. = W2) (V_W2 characteristics Zeroexitswirl Rotorimpulse Symmetrical three diagrams in figure 32. al'" VI w z v/Ivu. represents Vu..
. and which is plotted in an For be in shown. the reaction the reaction negative reaction decrease Because is in of (36) is equations velocity.1=Vz.5. the rotor. (UI= of U2) stage 0 (34b) For (239) having reaction constant presented axial in velocity equation (Vz.g= This 0. and ft/sec equation tangential using can equation be (34). k=0. expressed indicates encountered. is equation which zero. diagram.0. rotor. static figure impulse example.t (35) where Rst_ W_ By (35) stage reaction component (26) of relative and as Rs. reduces W2 R.can be used an to reduce axialflow the to such rotor definition loss.2_ AV. _=0. at At At _1. 2 W2 u. (33) m/sec. diagram type on shape of velocityvector V_.5 1.25 0. is which. 1 2+W .2).33. as can increase a conservative indicates Below _.1 _. reaction 0.Effects of speedwork stage parameter and diagram. represents pressure 1 1__ 33(a). velocity 72 a substantial across the .5.O FIGURE 32.5.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Speedwork parameter Zero exit swirl Diagram type Impulse Symmetrical O.2W .5.
WI=W2 diagram. and the are usually used for for the for (37) zeroexitswirl presents impulse. 0 . exit and swirl the assumption can of constant be expressed 73 velocities . Impulse stage reaction high therefore.0 . (a) (b) Reaction. Exit swirl. (26). negativereaction case. (a) _.For reduces equation From axial equation velocity. the rotor equation inlet and (33).VELOCITY DIAGRAMS 1.50 .0 Symmetrical_ \ . 32 such high the negative diagrams zeroexitswirl reactions are seldom diagrams cases. _. FIGURE 33.5.Impulse I / I 1 I . X<0.m (b) I 0 . Figure losses. I 1 1.75 Speedworkparameter. diagram type potentially avoided.5::3 N Zero exit swirl.o_ ZeroS. and this to Rst_=O positivereaction.25 I .Effects of speedwork parameter and velocityvector on reaction and exit swirl.
2 h_l AV_= 2These typical is the at 0.5 (38a) __= The swirls exit are swirl characteristics at are _ values _. At _=0.5. expected efficiency. (26). . This the type reaction diagrams same as the the exit good and swirl characteristics in figure increases. decreases than 0. which to have at _ values less cases coincide. swirl swirl when velocity _ is greater third shape.5. this (e. turbine impulse work. Under this condition. one in 32. (39a) (39b) reaction reduces to V1 =W2 and V2=W.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION as V_. 1 AV_ and (311 a) Vu..A statorexitsame of diagram rotorexitvelocity commonly triangles In terms of velocities. As the (311b) 33.5. and the assumption can (310) of constant as components X+ 1 2 be expressed Vu. and (38b) Positive negative encountered swirls are obtained and zeroexitswirl figure because seldom. is conducive for stages stages Stage A significant 74 aspect of a turbine but diagram the are shown 32. the equation for stage 1 R.5. decreases.5. 0. the swirl equation velocity (33). Because positive if ever.0. value with of illustrated zeroexitswirl swirl reaction middle symmetrical remains efficiency. These effects are leaving a 0.g. than the impulse illustrated in is a loss and are used is are diagrams stage type and used the the Symmetrical specified diagram.5 shown greater in figure than 33(b). _ AVuand Vu X+0.tg=_ From axial equation velocity. swirl diagram constant making a loss reaction to high where of diagram front and attractive is not of a multistage Efficiency design is the turbine). The at _= total exit in figure 1.
leaving for stage (313) J/kg. the up intended diagram to 2 are parameters some as a basis stage distribution is greatly application. efficiency the for more this efficiency and on the dependent Some are preimportant can be requirements of development.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS The type blade on basic sented effects. 75 . losses were That to is.TLro) 1 V2 2 (314) In it was kinetic relating assumed energy the stator that the and the blade rotor losses rows. ideal efficiency J/kg. the of velocity diagram surface.1 gJ(L. the diagram to parameters. efficiency is an important function of.hh' +Lot'b where Lst Lro pressure. leaving yields Substituting equation . among other things. J/kg. loss. and L_o=K_o V°2b V_2 2gJ (315a) Wl2+W2_ 2gJ (315b) where/4 is constant of proportionality. the average proportional across L..:K_. work Btu/lb based J/kg. same except for the elimi(33) y /2gJ The nation into equation of the equation total efficiency loss. ideal work in terms work plus losses yields Lro+ V22 (313) stator rotor stage loss. As presented written as static (312) where stage Ah' hh_ stage stage static Expressing static work. Btu/lb Btu/lb J/kg. Therefore.. Btu/lb n' is the V]/2gJ. on ratio of inlet total pressure to exit Btu/lb of actual ah' . loss. the efficiency relations and used in References between herein 1 and chapter used and the pressure the diagram selection of point used turbine hh' _Ah_d 2.
is selected..5. than at and. approximates characteristics a symmetrical diagram. less Between As h is reduced are than such achievable about as the to 0. be found efficiency (1) axial work (eq. and nature (315) of serve the as the terms the basis and for for estimating can estimating and speed assumptions equations 1 and are 2. although }.5. are expressed diagram (311)). curves for the zeroexitswirl less than 0. other the decreases High diagram rather designer exit this The swirls chapter.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Equations efficiency. can then be generated diagram are presented are the are total types. zeroexitswirldiagram }_1. diagram. in are the or or procedure of their in terms type means them expressed tangential of the components. Briefly. later 34(b). efficiencies. for This the from The refcurves diagram as and for characteristics diagram over of speedvarious method of proportionality Efficiency parameter total2 by staticefficiency symmetrical )4elds maximum analytically diagram. 34. The at s)_nmetricaldiagram efficiency values impulsediagram efficiency is equal not are rather less to shown. values rapidly. by of an applicationto the are a range tangential selected on by relating parameter (26) being considered (2) The (3) The components The basis evaluated massflow assumption. The are presented occurs for to the all in at figure 34(a)._0. still the before efficiency efficiency" exit velocity curves symmetricaldiagram efficiency than _1 below with Even merit. are lower previously be discussed in the The figure total discussed threedimensional a diagram characteristics is substantially head The because 76 presented than a loss. as obtained in figure actually symmetrical representative efficiency. constant experience. value the in that type.5. efficiency of these total. components according (34). efficiency static }. any where however. The were not obtained for )_ values negative The For higher efficiency __0. for static.5. of therefore. either and 0. the in of the the impulsediagram becomes 0. region. static static the two efficiency more total types than must and parameter. related (4) the work The erence presented that the determined associated (5) The The (314) exact in references is as follows: velocities tangential and axial by values of previous curves for and the for the above eq. for each reaction total diagram }.5 because of the diagram undesirable efficiency characteristics the highest of 1. than fiat. is slightly efficiency efficiency is equal a speedwork of _. components assumption an angle for the test the to (38). of those in reference efficiency 2. greater is the aspects type _ values efficiency consider criterion effects.5. represents highest .
6 e % _6 ..0 .Effects of speedwork on efficiency. is a maximum swirl. the with efficiency with the the impulse at X values no zeroexitswirl diagram._=_'u .5. exit 0.) diagram type parameter (Curves 77 . _=0.5 than is the For obtained 0.. symmetrical 1._ Speedwork parameter.8 I 1. I .6 ._.8 f. diagram.2 .4 I .4 Diagram type Zero exit swirl Impulse Symmetrical . for and For where h values for the there impulse is less than greater diagram. 2.2 (a) I I I I I // / / / /// / / (b) 0 .VELOCITY DIAGRAMS efficiency diagram. efficiency. Total Static efficiency. and from velocityvector ref.5.0 (a) (b) FIGURE 34.
80t L_ • 70 iency. therefore. It is evident maximized. but decreases and V=. at low annulus area of speedwork reductions and turbines turbines efficienc:_ swirl the of such turbines. is to be exit a the area. in static the flow 3) the (ref. of downstream to axial. 7' .TURBINE DESIGN . example of this of stator reference 1. If maximum 75 ° is indicated. can be 1. depends efficiency angles. where there is no exit swirl. parameter. I. efficiencies as functions angle. Figure angle total which upon is static is taken which desired. In to efficiency stators. % deg I 75 J 8O FIGURE 35. presented staters that characteristics figure. with the remove this as of associated static the efficiency. only the X= 1. angle on stage efficiency.5. by the values throughflow influence component angle that of velocity is also influenced selection. 36(a) are lower is through diffuse encountered. Efficiency diagram which obtained shows speedwork throughflow parameter component effect exit stator is desired. from reference velocity 35. is reduced is affected also to and the about of about this level the shown are means The in the are total angle the static best type is related from the total that If be angle of stress been swirls One but efficiency by is highest the An at _ = 1. does not efficiency exist However. 1Xstage the turbines with Figure figure down referred efficiencies l_stage .5. of increasing which 36. annulus freedom affects and. zeroexitswirldiagram as _. angle stator of The could It large use back are stream shows 78 should exit efficiency the complete since the it maximum 60 °. hence.Effect of stator exit eter X. 0. (Curves from ref. selection rotor has exit always and.) Speedwork param the The very efficiency little is a maximum to not by flow at 0. "q 1 6O 65 I 70 Stator exit angle.90  AND APPLICATION Total efficiency.
efficiency. efficiency of the (fig. stator on efficiency. h .35 in static These of the the lower total turbine turbine For can efficiencies stators.35.3 parameter. achieves until the X values downstream Because value below through l_stage 1stage 36(b)).2 Speedwork .5 (a) (b) FmuR_. losses loss. of this 1stage additional additional efficiency impulse friction friction over turbines.40 0 . .60 ¢.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS than are no those due gain to in about of the the static 0. O0 Diagram type 1Stage llSt_e llStage l_Stage impulse impulse symmetrical impulse (two stators} downstream o I I I I .i .4 . of X is use below approximately substantial gains stators. 36. 3. (Curves from ref. that 0.Effect of downstream Total Static efficiency. be achieved of downstream 1.) 79 .
f/..i _ N //../" I • 10 1 I ] . FIGURE 37. (Curves 8O ..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Multistage Turbine Efficiency When the turbine requirements are such that the speedwork parameter is quite low and high efficiencies are still desired. t o_ ro stages Turbine 2 2 ta_ I I I 1 I . multistage turbines are used.Comparison (a) Total efficiency• (b) Static efficiency. of efficiencies of 1.20 . •40 0 tb) / .50 ." /. and 2stage from ref. 4. and the required work is split amongst the various stages.30 Overall speedwork parameter.ZlO I .) turbines./. l_/r .! o 7° I 50 / .
the stage it becomes efficiency 4. This a type each of the swirl the total figure split exit and a 9percentagepointhigher As _ is reduced increases points static occurs smaller efficiencies by varying criteria efficiency zeroexitswirl efficiency stage At associated as an impulse 38 (a) In and _=0. turbine in the first is illustrated velocity is a twostage velocity increase) in figure compounded. 24 1stage and the turbine 2stage values reaction. for to 0. is accompanied stages swirls an increase possible efficiency. parameter. Figure twostage stator.The in of about stage work. Because the first stage. stage an to a 1stage through in and addition. maintained produced increased second diagram kno_:a turbine (fluid by stages as in the the to 75:25.50.5.125. static to 5 percentage efficiency. total the of the 4) are characteristics efficiencies in figure 2stage in reference overall static speedwork efficiency between for total smaller turbine for are exit a exit split first type and the the swirl no 50:50 stage. was another case of the counterrotating blade a secondstage efficiency 5.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS Twostage turbine the stage with the results reduction two exit $urbines. leaving . of 0. The compared the so as to maximize efficiency. swirl work has and of output.125. As _ is reduced. _. maintained. by addition doubling As the of a second average in stage to adjust stage shown previously. (or of turbine a velocitycompounded in which stator all expansion and all subse threestage) is achieved quent blade rows merely turn As k is reduced below 0. but work fraction. 1Y2. exit The swirl 38(b) turbine. diagram and with of this with increasing the is the flow with no change the velocitycompounded exit velocity again speeds for swirl and decreasing for without X=0. diagram and diagram At _=0. Effiwere the the 81 characteristics ciencies obtained secondstage of turbine in reference higher than those for conventional because of the elimination of one work depends upon the swirl twostage turbines blade row. condition is firststage type with of zero illustrates the shown both type diagram turbine the equal.125 A study made in velocity. efficiency turbine. between 1stage turbine 1stage a 2percentagepointthe difference points The 2stage loss work 37 and with for zero work impulse stator.and efficiencies percentage total is a much obtained good and turbine efficiency difference than 2stage The maximum while negative work split for leaving imposing and symmetrical maximum second first The stage. of 2stage of 1. turbine At has an is preturbines A study sented (from higher than the ref. is achieved an increasing the features represents fraction optimum as well secondstage general. for the of the in work positive maximized diagrams with efficiencies because fraction presented stage of no is 2.15. and 37. split X value In work turbines 2stage increase _.
for the in general. neglecting . 0. their engines the Such for rockets.=_ are being for V/STOL in which applications production.5) Overall (2111)) 6. levels directlift the high to the in such efficiency advanced nstage and ably speed more of a blade counterrotating many dictates stages vapor for nuclear are turbines of cr stage and as _. applications turbines.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (a) (a) Velocitycompounded turbine.5) stage in reference assumed. use used turbines stage Because compactness (work and of work their due utilized split splits is illustrated at low as efficiencies functions potential row. (derived speedwork parameters (316) Total total stage. axial) and were from the reheat or last (statorinlet velocity to stage were exit then efficiencies (intermediate velocity) obtained as functions of X. of work considerinclude and of are blade are applications required. be a lowwork The and ratio. turbine. discussed for a first inlet For stage for velocity overall 2. Overall in chapter efficiencies static 82 efficiency.125. FIGURE 38. obtained the stage effect efficiency and where static stator efficiencies. hydrogen zeroexitswirl work stage combination of turbines power fandrive turbopump The impulse examined speed related were characteristics _<0.In requirements than turbines. turbines efficiency stages (for two bladespeed ).Velocityvector diagrams Overall speedwork fb) (b) Counterrotating for special types parameter _. Equal multistage and turbines stages (for constant composed h>0. second 75:25 are lack also stage. as eq. of the would diagram). aircraft. 2stage of turbines. a where general is equal n is stage the number is of stages.
based J/kg. is blade and varieither high is a limiting at presented reference are number. trends. The is reached (stator efficiency. achieve increases efficiencies lower in figure of the required the restriction be similar of stages efficiencies levels at lower efficiencies leaving Another in terms overall 2 (eq. pressure. _.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS w o+ where firststage exit total generalstage to exit Ah_. on ratio Btu/lb on ratio of inlet of inlet Btu/lb which reference equation 6 shows (317) to be neglects the reheat stageefficiency definition.4_n 2+1_ (318) Overall on the total basis efficiency of stage differs total only in that the last stage is evaluated efficiency. equation By using static total ideal work ideal ideal based J/kg.1 number The although turbine described static herein. blade solidity. of presenting is to blade speed plot speed with the ratio parameter was performance of in chapter correspondpressure to speedwork 83 parameters of the efficiency as a function bladejet (272)) the across to a velocity totaltostatic is related energy associated Bladejet . ratio method This must varying that indicated are. 39(b) number if some show loss. . effect. shown because multistage in this 39(a) (in of level ratio. Tb becomes _ 1. vary in This shows efficiency figure total as factors case. pressure. used ratio. shape The the as a function all of _. f n1. (0. _' 1. however. 0. large total imposed. other 39. the based J/kg.) as in from at low obtained obtained when those all in from stages this manner 6. values diagrams of stages are on expected. n Therefore.88) characteristics which was efficiency well etc. of many upward efficiency figure in angle. described Reynolds to diagram value. work work n_' . of inlet total (317) on ratio Btu/lb pressure total total pressure pressure to pressure.. ing ratio to commonly of diagram speed as the kinetic the tubine. to concern or less). addition the or downward with illustrates the or. generalstage to exit This small. k1. (319) The are Figure efficiency This function aspect may ations here.
08 .. conditions high OF DIAGRAMS velocity the entire tipradius diagram blade ratio was span. and number on the work design. the and efficiency in of stages according this and velocity level imposed of the design structural to equation it is clear (274). Number of stages Limiting efficiency (_ I _ I z l Illl . diagram efficiency or ideal) selection such are very and blade turbine integrity diagrams (related a compromise cycle compactness. RADIAL In assumed In 84 the first half having of VARIATION this average a relatively chapter.TURBINE 11 DESIGN AND APPLICATION '_ . and weight.. efficiency characteristics.. (about a single over hubto to represent a turbine .02 J I = I= I=1 .5 • _ .I . goals as performance requirements).z( b_ .8 i_. (Curves from ref.Overall (a) Total efficiency.04 I L l = 1= I=1 . (dictated discussions expected (actual the final among section.) parameter From of the effect specific actual the life).6_ .01 t .4 32 I/ of stages/ 1 .. I l I J I llJl . FIGURE 39.2 Overall speedwork parameter. that have dependent speed must to the selections upon In represent by component the an type an important utilized.4 .. 6.8 I .S .06 .6 . (b) Static efficiency...
be applied diagram in flow to the conditions variations and their Radial Consider 310(a).. of rotation. lb P 0 r pressure. in blade speed The considerations must in also the final the that balance of forces that were described for the end regions. sulting pressure force path. as in figure the by rea a tangential force to keep path of velocity. and in average is reasonable. is termed The The figure in the radial pressure 310(b). substantial the In the case diagrams of hubor may span..VELOCITY DIAGRAMS 0.. higherorder 2. the must an element When force. ratios. balance circumferential on the required centrifugal its curved path linear part from moving along throughflow is curved pressure (fig. the variations and variations for to must mean become will on the the the in the entire radial exist in section very consider velocity velocity may blade encountered. n_ g net static angle inward pressure N'm rad force. N. if the streamline is inclined to account formulated of fluid If unit (directed for these required now an be element force factors equilibrium. to diagrams not The such tipradius are radial represent an assumption however. acting When force the there The is of fluid flow pressure fluid to for and (fig. mathematically. meansection conditions are due flow diagrams variation the flow. diagrams important the radial diagrams. . pressure Fp. ft (product of three differentials) and radius Neglecting setting sin terms yields (d0/2)=d0/2 F_. lb/ft _ m. curved Any maintain as part be accounted acceleration of the flow must have of which is in the radial direction horizontal. This which section effect selection. Equilibrium in the 310(b)) serves the the of the (streamline) flow net turbine component must to fluid flow be field. are length radially indicated is assumed is inward) in is neglected. =rdpdO The mass m of the fluid being acted on by the pressure force is (320b) 85 . x direction. of rotation.et:(p+dp)(r+dr)dOprdO2 (p+?) dr sin dO 2 (320a) where F_.85 lower or greater). 310(c)). The radial balance equilibrium forces Fluid the acting weight net of forces will on an associated pressure force. maintained the along this force.
I vr (b) (a) (b) Rotation plane (re)._____Vx rVm. (c) Meridional plane factors.____ dBI2 Vu e (/dr_ or_ _ !p/ _ / / p+ dp/2 \ \ . (rx).cm g 86 Vu _ r prdrd0 g Vu 2_p V2drd r g 0 (322) . balance the radial force the results pressure from force is the force three factors (321b) mentioned with circum previously. FIGURE 310. centrifugal associated F_. equilibrium m=p[r(r+ which reduces to dr)_wr _] d_f0 2r (321a) m=prdrdO The ferential net pressure To flow. ame .Radial Element of fluid in turbine (c) flow field.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION !_!ii2iiii!_i!_::: dr J (a) p+dp + dpl2_ P .
Radial In those other assumed total order effects to illustrate that the Variations nature second will radial (149)) is no (eq. streamline. Therefore. enthalpy component be written definition • 87 ._ dt (320(b)) (324)) equal yields (324) to the components (323). pressure (322)._ a. by on the right (rotational) side of equation term and can V_ r equation (326) has become (326) known as "simple" in Velocity radial variations If streamline of velocity. _gdp p drEquation contributing plete line form. m/sec. Thus._= prdrdO g V*._ . It is._e r_. made.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS The radial component force of the with pressure flow force along required the to balance streamline the centrifugal is associated meridional FT. as in velocity. dt equilibrium not equation convenient flow).sin a. the The linear in figure balancing component sign force in equation outward is required is directed streamline to produce acceleration along meridional Fv • Z=g Setting various the net dVme " sin _dt radial (eqs. the last two terms are small as compared to the first neglected._) V_ r radial V_.) and to use meridional are both includes in its (325) all comquite factors. simplifying to be zero. curvatures (325) For is the axial (1/r.. streamline. deg and inclination angle (323) in this ft of curvature of inclination directions the of meridional of meridional for streamline 310(c). of the the The pressure curvature minus force pressure are as indicated indicates case. r_ cos am_ (323) meridional streamline. prdrdO g force (eq._e The velocity radius angle positive that radial along V_. and dV. flow (or nearaxial inclination and stream(325) often be small. ft/sec m. cos rm. we can write gdp pdrThe approximation radial represented equilib. a. however. and certain slope and is the of the order be can are usually assumptions there will be neglected. 0m g where V._ r. angles the (am. dVm_ cos a_esin a.rium.
V_).. as will be discussed later this chapter. been has (329) independently and V_.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION " . and probably the turbine._ and into integrating v. vZ:=. depend various on does not have therefore.E: Substituting (329) and equation then (330b) and between its differential the limits form of r. 2) 1 _ 2 In specify often.2gJDifferentiating substitute for with dh (and respect since 1 jp to radius 2gJ and using equation (3z7) (18) to p= 1/v) yields dp 1 dr _ 2gJ d(V_ 2) 1 dr _ 2gJ d(Vx 2) dr then Further._V.. order to solve this of swirl dr I_ it is with Kr N dr 0 to V.. the damping and substituted the entropy mixing.r I_\_/ angle case at the of N=0 mean . 2 . (331) Equation For this is not (constant . Most specified (330a) as equation. of the by the and the gradient the total enthalpy to radial it is here constant. the dh' ds dr T_r_ If the flow entering the (328) total if the in turbine exit is radially is radially uniform. then the entropy at the firststator exit is also radially constant. in terms of meansection necessary radius a relation a variation between V_ or V_ and r or between conditions. At enthalpy gradients due For entropy tion into extraction any place and imposed simplicity. may or in may not have radially constant work (total enthalpy) loss.: or. enthalpy at the firststator stator loss is radially constant. The rotor..l _I} radius. that these equilibrium radially gradients inlet constant in total flow. radial the blade uniformity rows. equation radially the (328). constant. (330b) equation r yields V. 1 d(V. where (331) 88 a_ is the valid {1tan' absolute for the am flow special ( i)rc. are (326). velocity V. and with equa v. "simple" we get assumed With radial assumptions expression.
J Q .7 < . axial are The velocity._>= m_ 1.0 I 1. equations.C _2 1 x B e O . _ E ". integrates Vu V=(r'_ sin'a (333) The for radial variations from radius flow the flow angle in swirl above angle are velocity.5 2.j (332) is that V. and 60 °.Radial variations flow of angle velocity a.2 I 1.1 r/r m I ""z 1. equation (330b) In this case..VELOCITY DIAGRAMS special case. Meansection 89 .. of 60 °.m "N L.. presented radial on the and flow angle. 60[ 1 30 . FIGURE 311..8 I .. integration of equation (329) yields r 71/2 v=V_=[12 A case the and absolute equation of interest flow angle (329) not covered to tan _ _ by In _... flow angle. in figure in specified 311 axial swirl as computed a mean and velocity variations largely dependent E _...=V= where tan a..:>_ Vu = KVx 1.0 _ _ ___"'Exp°nent'N1 0 .9 I 1. is radially constant.0 ] I I V u = Kr N .3 Ratio of radius to mean radius.
valid axial mass from entire design vortex An products is specified at radial variation both entering both the stator and rotor in specific work. to as and a turbine (334) designed design. _x(UV_). and with a radius ratio of 0.1 is used for the rVu=K This for is the such condition a swirl turbine.56).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION velocity increases and flow variation (value of N). design is used radial variation in the of the for flow distribution in a free is referred vortex. is the in order the efficiency). larger to on 1).1 percent for for a in the most wide cases. and the mass flow rate obtained velocity diagram can be used to represent the accuracy of the velocity of main 0. The stage chapter. The The associated while (_t1. (pV_) is small. 1. standpoint taken hub lowradiusratio section. diagrams freevortex tip sections of a blade in the diagram shape for this an swirl must for at the example is diagram with high the when A a a speedwork impulse distribution. section zeroexitswirl freevortex meansection . illustrated in subsequent shorter variations discussed (values and flow angles with all blade purposes and in rt/rm figure sections FreeVortex becomes closer 311 of this with certain values The range of N that as the effects velocity blades become radial are of the diagrams Diagrams exponent N in equation (330a). Further. the specific work computed for the entire flow.56). because diagram (331). satisfactory a diagram section diagram having very an care especially diagrams is nearly symmetrical )_m of reaction hub (lowest selecting blades. The radial variation is considerable. use This of freedesign is reasons for axialflow turbines. critical Therefore. variation then the is the in this condition there is no UVu Thus. more pronounced. leaving the rotor from the if N=I Thus. velocity Vx is radially flow per unit area the meansection flow designs example within an is one set of simplicity constant. a freevortex or a freevortex The turbines freevortex in which vast majority of axialflow diagram is accounted for. When then a value of . the changes in axial velocity angle with changing radius become associated lengths. If outlets. be conservative. the tip Thus. As seen. As the swirl distribution exponent N or decreases from a value of 1. meansection in equation the radial and are radially constant. to ensure meansection diagram hub for diagram is from special diagram. mean.. 9O (_h=0. the axial velocities of N cannot be obtained can be used for design of rh/r.6. aerodynamic parameter shown in figure 312 for the hub.
.0 Tip section 312. is that of rotorblade twist. 60°.. 91 .. in rotor inlet causing of the inlet angle angle.Radial variation flow.8 Mean section rt/r t = 1.6 Hu_ section rm/r t ° O. varies results and tip For from the in figure rotor thus 45 ° at the problems 38 ° at the a variation of 83 °. 1. Stator meansection exit eter Xm. This some hub in a blade sections having of such an overhanging bending stresses. tip.. rh/r t = O. 30. meansection speedwork param FIGURE very high reaction tip diagram can also be troublesome because There case it is a illushub and a increases Another considerable trated to leakage across the potential problem radial 312. variation the blade tip clearance space. fabrication The positioning in figure 313. Radius ratio. blade is illustrated tip section.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS 45.. of velocityvector diagrams for freevortex angle a.
ratios to to to to the the section vortex.111 particular of r/rm corresponds There for axial the (az. relatively to show in figure for all correspond respectively. design. sections. compared Also and values diagrams. swirl velocity.889. NonFreeVortex Freevortex are often potential trated having vortex flow. 0. are tipradius hub hub tipradius ratio diagrams as shown are the same cases. diagrams in figure for those ratio. cases exit and 1. constar_tflowangle r/r. meansection similar to diagram the free radius exit swirl distributions.25 a blade in figure (N=0) and (N: ratio at a huba hubcorrespond to tipradius to a blade no the 1) design.889 As the section. value mean values to the 314 no real any a blade blade arLd 1._:0). exist of 0. 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION . design._ of 0. diagrams are rotor particular of course. for the The the The the designs The of the Illuscases superwheelmeansame of tip Gf tip classified under of nonfree to alleviate freevortex in diagrams 311.Relative positioning of hub and tip sections of freeovorgex turbine. ratio and ratio and decreases. design section for 0. For For of 0._ of 1._ values respectively.75 the are are so the commonly common Diagrams used heading with the that all other some design. or are the nonfreevortex in figure (N2) designs designs 314 are are are the the (N=I) with which shown 1.25. freevortex at a radius diagrams with with hubare. r/r.111.6. any closer 311. r/r. zero constantflowangle This is due to the selected quite . solidrotation. for which. At the having The 92 all the the 0./* _ ip section \\ n FmURE 313.8. used in an attempt variations disadvantages velocity associated radial variations illustrated constantswirl design.75. sections._ radius r/r.
diagrams twist a small The radial and. has diagrams no (about severe the twist.70 (N=0) and too to tipdo is wheelflow variation with (N=O) In exit For are (Nl) in hubdesign higher high cause hubreaction radial on blades 1) design.111 (a) 1. 12°). large below 0. flow design. cannot 0. The alleviate design. appear axial on same while to have than velocity blades problems advantage the of high is that freevortex of can A possible constantflowangle has sort. design. low hub stator present reaction.8. and therefore. stator velocities problems of the be sustained (N= at the to tipradius below hub these Mach losses ratios about designs number than absolute constantswirl wheelflow velocities freevortex higher addition.85 and than those and about for for the the these relative constantswirl the bladetwist here for the However.Radial variation of velocityvector distributions. rlr m Super vortex (N = 2) Free vortex (N = l) Constant swirl (N = O) Wheel flow {N = 1) Constant flow angle 1. diagrams for various swirl vortex rotorblade the stator The any case.VELOCITY Radial swirl distribution DIAGRAMS Ratio of radius to mean radius.flOf O. higher of a freevortex 93 .150 (a) aNo real value for axial velocity. 889 O. The amount (N= blade variation supervortex of twist 2) is more no advantage the is large with hubdiagrams freevortex velocity axial and the for freevortex and twist for of statorexit imaginary) and the not be sustained (Vx becomes radius ratios much below 0. 250 (a) (a) 1. FIGURE 314. relatively could turbines.
) add non 94 .68 (a) Tip section. "7° _45.67 (b) Tip section.Comparison twisted (a) Freevortex turbine. (b) Nontwisted turbine.0 FmURE 315.58 M/_ 0. of velocityvector diagrams of freevortex turbines.sr  8 Sectionat r/rt .oW Mr" 1"01_'_ I1__. (Diagrams from ref./_.77/ 4z" M =o.O. °__ 6 _r \ _ "_'_ Mr "0.0.74 \ Sectionat rlr t .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION M ._ _'" &'i_ M.. 3o /M0. rlrt = 1 16. rlr t.O.1. 9.
Although 10 ° for design.72). complexity from the numbers. basic their that aspects relation the of velocityto efficiency. of a nonfreevortex of a freethis to with hub comsmall 10. presented reference which. large all problems deviations freevortex freevortex as reported performance. blades is twist of constant in rotor. much computerized is no real discussion. and in stator that over designs. and blade hubreaction other twist. over that same The work tion tions error section by compute turbine vortex additional As seen alleviate freevortex Mach plexity. Such a a "nontwisted" completely be easy comparing velocity 315. design the bladeinlet (0. radial in axial the conditions. designs deviations been used It in the reaction at the hub of the nontwisted design is improved of the freevortex turbine. at (N) the The stator condivalue of from positive is higher (0. on the turbine hub design than variation velocity.85) than to swirl more Mach than 30 ° for at the at freevortex _. have however. of m_nfreevortex problems such increased spans. the best chapter selection. in the 8 and with study design. design this used radial therefore. is also to fabricate. at the for the freevortex relative nontwisted is negative for the number nontwisted However. 9 are shown References designs for the vaIiation nontwisted 9 contain of reference velocity The twist nontwisted in axial present rotor the The rotor statorexit has increased the hub the and hub design correspond the At tip. A nonfreevortex integrating work is. and basis should and the tip design meansection of the in in radial specific variacondimeanto gradient area. of requires 95 It is evident determination diagrams and number for a given application . some diagram of stages of the types. may may flow because flow not occur mass rate designs of the represent if such the and With this therefore. eliminates freevortex diagrams A large in closely twist exit. angle. The more all feature Thus. turbine. designs associated as from in reference higher design However. average considerable be designed order is designed between proper complex design disadvantage. nonfreevortex and. to obtain COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR STUDIES VELOCITYDIAGRAM This diagram staging. the use conditions.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS A design termed design should results design in figure exit tions procedure for rotor design. and has radial presented including variations. turbine procedures. to a swirldistributionexponent is eliminated. experimental designs. The two turbines have about the efficiency. has from cannot rotortwist designs been be results increased shown sustained improved flow flow radial per unit true a turbine conditions rate. stator inlet and exit 7.
WINTUCKY. 96 . In includes and inputs. evolved One such The program the only radial in allows entropy correlation program reflects values no real computer dependent independent tions This in instead proven generated rotor and computer includes equilibrium determining for blade using the program is described in references consideration of streamlinecurvature equation radial loss exit information swirl of these meridional the (swirl solution velocity). variations from as 11 and effects it 12. Characteristics Terms 4. Characteristics E57K22b. such considerations. of Efficiency Stators 1957. 3. 5. : Analysis of Work and . tion. L. of MultistageTurbine Speed Requirements. WARNER SingleStage Speed Downstream Analysis Requirements. an internal a basis. Investigation of Work and in Terms L. WARNER Turbine E57L05. of and a of Work Efficiency NACA RM WILLIA_a RM AND STEWART. of Work ANY STEWART. 2. WILLIAM T. STEWART. ef swirl very with by figure has resulted as reported velocity has can be program designs velocity. teristics ASME.. tasks.of TwoStage Speed RequireEffiNACA Counterrotating NACA 6.. L. Terms 1961. 311. Therefore.. STEWART. reference wherein velocity any the and radial shows is used successful reasonable in meridional REFERENCES 1.: of and L.: Analytical Terms Investigation of Work WARNER Turbine with NACA WILLIAM T. work for a.: of A Study Velocity of AxialFlow Diagram Turbine Efficiency Paper Charac61WA37. Turbine ments. meridionalstreamline then such computer If it is desired are out to of the include and realm nonfreevortex radial of hand to variation calculaperform curvature analyses programs have effects.: SingleStageTurbine Speed Analysis RM E56J19. in meridional modified turbine (meridional distribution input velocity because velocity) The and radial in also but gradients flow._) variations these either as an input reference 13 as uses stator exit distribution (which many there or is the in in condi swirl) for find combinations cannot variable variable solution variation existence is indicated problem 14. in and not loss This in enthalpy addition.. T. 1956.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION many designs. WARNER Efficiencies 1958. and Speed Requirements. 1957. STEWART. been in efficiency. ciency RM STEWART. ments. Parameters. WARNER in Dec. variation modification. in a program variation The valid that as input. AND WINTUCKY. Characteristics E57F12. WINTUCKY. in Terms L. specifications. (Vme=V_/cos of with a large small of rotor However. : Analytical in Terms 1958. Requireof TwoStagein L. WARNER Efficiency Characteristics in NACA RM E56G31.
VELOCITY 7.
SLIVKA,
DIAGRAMS
WILLIAM R.; AND SILVE_RN, DAVID H.: Analytical Aerodynamic Characteristics of Turbines with Nontwisted NACA TN 2365, 1951.
Evaluation of Rotor Blades.
8.
HEATON, THOMAS R.; SLIVKA, WILLIAM R.; AND WESTRA, LEONARD F.: ColdAir Investigation of a Turbine with Nontwisted Rotor Blades Suitable for Air Cooling. NACA RM E52A25, 1952. WARREN J.; STEWART, WARNER L.;
AND MONROE,
9. WHITNEY,
DANIEL
E.:
Investigation of Turbines for Driving Supersonic Compressors. VDesign and Performance of Third Configuration with Nontwisted Rotor Blades. NACA RM E53G27, 1953. I0. DORMAN, T. E. ; WELNA, H. ; AND LINDLAUF, R. W. : The Application of ControlledVortex Aerodynamics to Advanced Axial Flow Turbines. J. Eng. Power, vol. 90, no. 3, July 1968, pp. 245250. 11.
CARTER, A. F.; PLATT, M.; AND LENHERR, F. K.: Analysis of Geometry and Design Point Performance of Axial Flow Turbines. IDevelopment of the Analysis Method and the Loss Coefficient Correlation. NASA CR1181, 1968.
12.
PLATT,
M.;
AND
CARTER,
A. F.:
Analysis
of Geometry
and
Design NASA
Point
Per
formance 1968. 13. 14.
SMITH,
of Axial
Flow
Turbines.
IIComputer of Turbine 467470.
Program. Efficiency.
CR1187, Aeron. Soc.,
vol.
S. F. : A Simple Correlation 69, no. 655, July 1965, pp.
J. Roy.
CARTER, A. F.; AND LENHERR, F. I_.: Analysis of Geometry Point Performance of AxialFlow Turbines Using Specified Velocity Gradients. NASA CR1456, 1969.
and DesignMeridional
97
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SYMBOLS A flow area, m_; ft 2 force, N; lb constant, 1 ; 32.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2)
g h J K L
m
pressure conversion
specific enthalpy, J/kg; Btu/lb conversion constant, 1;778 (ft)(lb)/Btu proportionality loss, mass, swirl number J/kg; kg; Btuflb lb exponent lb/ft 2 of stages N/m_; m; ft J/(kg) °R m/sec; mS/kg; m/sec; kg/sec; flow angle, deg lb/ft 3 (K) ; Btu/(lb) (°R) constant
N
distribution
P R r
8
pressure, reaction radius,
T U V
t)
specific entropy, temperature, K; blade absolute specific relative mass fluid angle density, speed, velocity, volume, velocity, flow rate, absolute
m/sec;
ft/sec ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec deg
W
W o_
efficiency 8 k of rotation, kg/ma; speedwork parameter
Subscripts:
a
first stage annulus component hub general ideal component mean section meridional
net
c
due stage due
to circumferential
flow
h i /d 1 m
me
to linear
acceleration
net
r ro 8
radial rotor
component
component stator stage
due
to streamline
curvature
st
98
VELOCITY
DIAGRAMS
t
_g
tip tangential component axial component at stator inlet at stator at rotor exit exit or rotor inlet
0 1 2 Superscripts: '
overall absolute
turbine total state
99
CHAPTER 4
BladeDesign
By Warner L.Stewart nd a Arthur . Glassman J
The design of a turbine of the established of velocity of stages. of the blading and covers blade conditions conditions chord can must integrity be expressed or axial profile chapter. chapter. design, Channel used solidity that which surface flow spacing some and overall by consists the This that diagrams. of the of three major of flow, with the steps. work, the The The and first is the These step efficiency third step of velocities is
determination are usually the evolution number and/or required the size, This The the
requirements particular was diagrams
speed. second
application. in chapter involves
consistent discussed This blades. important overall the enough step
desired 3. The and
is the design
will produce
flow angles
by the velocity shape, chapter state state selected The which to spacing) many Blade
the determination aspects of blade of flow, which blade mechanical selection design.
of the more by the the selected value during
height fluid
of the
is set
requirements diagram, The with The chord in the exit turbine. to allow
speed, dictates is con
and inlet usually siderations. and chord volves chapter. tries part in the assure spacing,
velocity consistent operation. of axial blade
throughout be long
chord fabrication of blade (ratio
to be a minimum
accurate as solidity first and
structural
nondimensionally (ratio will be discussed includes profiles, theory, the
of in
to spacing), part inlet basis
considerations connecting
of this geomelast the for
as well as the of this next procedures
is then which profile
discussed is the design,
in the
analytical
to accomplish
is discussed
_A_}l___
i_._f,9_i.(L
Y _,. A_
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
SOLIDITY One of the important solidity, value flow, aspects which and is the cost. and due of turbine ratio However, increased affecting diagram and the solidity. that to separated factors blade blading thereby loading concepts reduce of velocity desired from blading the chord spacing flow. This solidity design standpoint reduction eventually section selection. Also included studied solidity. is the chord selection
of the blade A minimum weight, mechanical decreased itself cussion with
of chord
or axial
to spacing. of reducing by in dis
is usually
cooling blade the
is limited results
considerations, efficiency aerodynamic the effect between and
will concern The on solidity will be a for use to
will include
requirements are being
and the relation description suppress
of advanced separation Effect
permissible on
of Velocity a typical set
Diagrams of blade around inlet The than convention exit values.
Solidity as well in this chapter referring in the blade from with slightly
Figure as the figure pertains to equations rows rather that and if the tions, height fluid used inlet and are
41
shows
ai_d (,xit diagrams The velocities in this When velocities discussion bla(t(_ rows. absolute
staticpressure shown we and than to rotor blade must figures. with are exit
distribution as absolute rows use Since stages, chapters.
a blade.
velocities. rather chapter
as well as to stator in this The
a rotor,
relative
we are
concerned will differ
the angle
in previous taken and
tang(_ntialvelocity The inlet values
component are positive direcof unit by the 2) is (41)
flow angle
as negative same then inlet 1 F,, =g smV.,2(
tangentialvelocity if in the the twodimensional blades, blade the
components direction. flow through
ar_ in opposite a passage exerted (subscript
negative considers
If one
between as it flows
two from
tangential
force
(subscript
1) to exit
V,, ,_ V,_ ,_)
where
Fu
tangential conversion blade density, axial tangential tangential 2. The
force,
N; lb 1; $2.17 s m/see ; ft/s(,c m/see; must shows ft/sec b(, _h(_ sam(, t h(_ blade, a typical _s the force of velocity, by the fluid 41 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (see 2) m ; ft lb/ft of velocity,
constant, kg/m'_;
8 P
spacing, component
V_ Vu This due
component forc_ exerted part
to the staticpressure lower
distribution of figure
around
as was
discussed
in chapter 102
staticpressure
BLADE Stations 1
DESIGN
surface'" "_ / Such'on'_r
Vx, 1
L y2_Vu,
2
.,__...._
C X _
pl
P
Pl
13
P2. "'" rs, mln Axial distance
FIOUP, E
41.Typical
bladerow
velocity diagrams distribution.
and
surface
staticpressure
distribution between the flow in the
around two tangential
the blade curves direction.
row as a function the total Thus,
of axial blade
distance. force acting
The on
area the
represents
F,, = c_ where
C_
L'
(pp
p_) d
(42)
axial
chord,
m; ft static static m; ft ¢z, is (43) 103 pressure, pressure, N/m2; N/m2; lb/ft lb/ft 2 2
Pv P,
X
pressuresurface suctionsurface axial axial distance,
The
solidity,
{T x
_

8
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Substituting
equations
(41)
and
(42)
into
equation
(43)
then
yields
a_ =
(44)
g
At this point, been first used is the we introduce the used actual
/0
two tangential blade loading loading that and
d
loading by coefficients blade Zweifel (l) (ref. total that loading. 1). have The This
to relate widely is based static
to an ideal assumes equal surface
coefficient to be constant In equation
introduced
coefficient on the and to the (2) the
on an ideal pressure pressure.
the static
pressure pressure and equal
pressure exit static
surface
to the inlet
oil the suction
to be constant
form,
t'
_, = where
_Z
(pp
p.)
d (45)
pl'  p_
Zweifel inlet
loading
coefficient N/m2; N/m2; lb/ft lb/ft 2 2 defined surface on that coefficient, this second except is equal surface. that This the loading hand, assumed minimum coeffiit must can ex_b is de
pl r
total
pressure, pressure,
P_ The constant value cient ahvays
exit static second static of static can never
coefficient pressure pressure exceed
is similarly on the (see a value suction of 1, and form, fig. 41) Zweifel
to the purposes, coefficient
for all practical loading
be less than
1. The
on the other
ceed a value fined as
of 1. In equation
/o
where p,,m,, is the N/m 2 or lb/ft2_ _. The pressed velocity as minimum components
(pp
p_) d (46)
pl p
ps
,min
static in terms
pressure
on
the and
suction flow
surface angle are
in ex
of veloerity
V_ = V sin a and V_ = V cos a 104
(47)
(48)
. Bernoulli's equation P'= 1 Pkz pV 2 zg (410) (K1) into equation sin2a_ (49) (410) can be used. vary or a. and (48) into equation trigonometric sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a yields mVQ (K1) sin 2a2 VQ (K1) sin 2a2 (49) where inlet K is the to that ratio of tangential at the and blade velocity exit. in equation 1) sin 2a2 = used to represent a measure of surface.BLADE DESIGN where V ot fluid fluid velocity. component (Vu.1) at the blade (V. suction decreasing in increased 105 .._D._. equations using the m/see. relation (47). relations. does primarily not a. incom diagrams. as us now define a suctionsurface diffusion D_ = V_ 2 (412) Many parameters the deceleration indication this of the definition of this type have been of the flow on the suction susceptibility (412)) (K_ = (eq.. flow angle.._. Substituting (K1) equation sin2a2 yields  (411) ¢ . deg (45) ft/sec Substituting (44) and or (46). D.2) Derivation velocity pressible and flow of incompressibleflow loading With are with no loss. loading is it velocitydiagram solidity Since greatly. which that shows particular cannot that exceed the solidity a value results parameter requirement. of 1.Relations usually evolved by this assumption.W. involving assuming density solidity. p is constant. This deceleration is an blade to separate. Using (411) (Kyields 1) sin 2a2 (413) of the flow on the Equation constant coefficient can be seen (413) for each _. where Let V_ is the velocity on the suction surface where parameter p = p_.
is obtained of the inlet exit angle Equation angles be modified derived 2 COS COS to yield in reference o_2 ax_z O/1 sin (m a2) (414) For brevity. value and represents exit primarily solidity sents increases diffusion move value diffusion in this velocity A value of K=tangential parameter (higher The K ratio D. values solidity decreases can solidity only in terms parameter of the _ angle can coefficient _.R sin Aa back into case. Positive same blades.). of equation incompressibleflow (416) 2 _=x/lZ. must It impulse. for the consequence parameter values a reaction blade. Equation in terms exit flow For angle. This the case where with from of the flow.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION surface later gential 42(a). for R. solidity value Thus. equation where (414) V. of which is plotted of exit blade and values flow will be discussed against angle axial with the in tanfigure a 1 chapter. Solidity of the parameter with is plotted with several in figure increasing solidity increases inlet parameter region of most interest 0 °.a=Vx. a2 <45°). The if excessive as the be seen increase parameter diagrams any given an exit with and decreasing toward suctionsurface is to be avoided. of blade reaction was defined in chapter RlV= 2 (415) Substituting equation (48) into equation (415) yields R= 1( c°s a2_ 2 \cos al/ (416) for the twodimensional. then yields Substitution (417) wkere 106 Aa is ma2. one in terms this decreasing 2 as Wl 2 A third be evolved. . repre impulse a value and are of K <encountered a negative reaction velocities is equal there of K represent equation solidity velocity that for direction angles in the tip sections As seen from to zero for all exit is no turning K values. (414) of the angle given In the each which shows flow for exit inlet this is expressed that angles angle. in the of rotor of K=0 1 represents inlet. a xnaximum of solidity to parameter a function 1.. solidity several an represents blade. a parameter inlet (m> flow be expressed against 42(b). exit. inlet (413). angle relation the only. reaction of 45 ° . angle. can for K = 1. (413) the can equation of K.2.
25 0 . Y. R . m x O % deg 45 __ X tD t.and inletflow angles._ or 120 g 2___.75 I..5 0 . (b) Effect of exit. z_ deg . E 1 75 or 15 60 or 30 (a) O °. I 30 45 60 75 Exitflow angle. Turn ing angle.Effect of velocity diagrams on solidity. FIGURE 42. K 3F _lnletflow angle.5 I I I J 1.5 1.. 107 ..25 .BLADE DESIGN Exitflow angle. O0 (a) Effect of tangentialvelocity ratio and exitflow angle. (c) Effect of reaction and turning angle.0 Tangential velocity ratio. % deg 3 [ ! ._ 0 ..50 Reaction.
TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Equation reaction reaction that.64 54 54 1. inlet of 70 Since 3 discussed in order there nature swirls). radially. deg Exit angle. with For in the a statorhub solidityparameter following distribution. to parameter The radius) axial to and table can bc made is directly blade inversely proportional spacing proportional . deg Exit angle. hubtotipradius flow angle flow values angles a singlestage of 0. diagrams. The exit Consider and ratio °.83 2 63 . axial variations varying shown variation to in velocity blade vary in the inlet speed with desired and exit exit the to satisfy solidity will be a radial of this radial turbine constant rotor swirl the (414) are variation having axial hub will be illustrated axial a constant this ease.70 0. parameter is a maximum or very variation. and hub from at the solidity. Assume enables coefficient desirable solidity and must _b_ is to be maintained condition. of 90 ° and are used. shown corresponding computed table: Stator Rotor Inlet angle.79 Note what are again different negative. by an example. reasonably proportion the hub row Let us now determine shown solidity radius 108 in the preceding in blade variation (because any tip values physically be of solidity consistent. creasing angle turnings Radial diagrams and value flows radial of axial (zero varying and (417) turning for several expresses angle. that the from angle that that This us convention of previous the is to how a loading being chapters. decreases for high of blade against with inlow of turning solidity little It can be seen a turning as indicated reaction.62 . used in this chapter stator exit is someangles the Herein. deg Solidity parameter. previously. (leg Solidity parameter.90 Tip 0 . an impulse freevortex and tip and equation velocities.Chapter that velocity must occur equilibrium. values The varies the The the with solidity solidity angle solidity turning the parameter parametor in figure parameter unless radial both the was very in terms is plotted 42(c).7. ffz_ z Hub 0 . ffx_z Inlet angle. to the and directly solidity constant assumption parameter.
blade turbines. would of 0.90. the (49) as same by equation coefficient (413) a compressible flow case having of equation ¢ as for incompressible by equation 1 2g t_ V_D' O"x (418) _*. to and density. yields to 1/D.min in equation shown loading (49) reduces (413). For for incompressible flow. from relations (152). axial at the desirable.. used solidities at the which from Taper but stress. taper tip. term variation in many selected variation blading in loading meansection in many will not on the basis in loading is not highly diagrams.directly proportional to parameter corresponding 0. fore.inc pltPs. of the larger is to to hub and yield solidity then the 1. have especially a severe performance. (418) and the (164)) using of D. If axial the from radius axial be half For chord of the tip the solidity stator. desired in rotor yield Therefore. effect cocfficient cases. axial velocity coefficient.79. tip value is still hub from with solidity parameter value blades the is not from results lower only the cases.. so that solidities standpoint especially a radial Theredesired is 1. ratio.Thc pl r p*. (412)).33. of 0. In the If axial axial than often radius cally used. flow or (417). is modified 109 . equation ax. axial a considerable chord at the tip hub which axial can increase of the were rotor. (eq.83.7= the higher parameter at the tip. axial chord desired to tip increasing hub can decrease tip in the rotor desirable and radial the there fabrication solidity aerodynamically is also mechaniTo simplify taper With is not the those on of reducing for smaller of the loaded. division flow conditions. axial this where turbine Effect the used and case chord corresponding 1. velocity and By introducing pressure definition critical (163).c such is the incompressible (414).64.64X0. were desired constant.45. value as determined the (13). held value axial of taper chord.. held the axial solidity then the be the is 0.90X0. of compressibility.7=0. an as (413). (eqs.nin where equation between (161). hub axial parameter value is often would so that is almost with the constant.
expansion at constant pressure to specific heat at ft/sec and by neglecting as the secondary terms. 110 ._ The approximation diffusion 43.6 0 . s d O FIGURE 43._ is plotted against velocity is no for several pronounced of less than of (V/Vc_)_.50  Exitcriticalvelocity ratio._. For D. the required up to about solidity _x/¢=.2 . (V/Vcr)2 1. Then. or decreases for any decreases of 2. 2 O'X . binomial m/sec. = 2. The increases effect represented 1. can be approximated O" x ..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 0"2: (419) 7'+1 Vc.r) 2. there values of ( V V. 25 O 1.Effect of compressibility on axial solidity.0 . equation ratio of specific heat constant volume critical by using (419) velocity. At D.1 a_. either compressibility 2.__1. inC where 7 Vc. The parameter compressibility from with value _'+1 by e 2(7+1) equation ratio effect a value (420) values becomes is quite of critical more (420) good for ( V Vcr)_ values suctionsurface ratio in figure as D..50 1 I 2 3 Suctionsurface iffusionparameter. values increasing solidity 1.
An or of a comand reaction. loss give the with values of increasing correlation diffusion of reaction loss. was field. ratio pressure surface the Dwith the Experience has shown that 2 to avoid excessive losses. where for the case of the turbine as the and then pressure an overall kinetic is low of the of the decelerations surfaces to the exit velocity minimum diffusion V22+ V12 V_ 2 (eq. definite trend but complete blade different not Consider figure 44(a). to correlate (ref. (421 and R (eq. increases with increasing (V/V_r)2. blade is an of blade in reference includes and that important loss 2 and two solidity. (415)). is like solidity. with turbine 5) the two blade terms loss involving with both A reaction Attempts overall been and suctionsurface loss with could not parameter and diffusion parameters. value since of D do in near 111 solidity same first of reaction is reduced as shown qualitatively high value As reaction a relatively . overall 2 parameter is defined V. ) With the use (421) of the definitions to of D.R As seen from equation (413). a region of good that design is only of academic the solidity interest ratio D. should be maintained below about Relation It is well recognized pressor Correlation described This reflecting evolved parameter energy neglect is assumed parameter turning is defined on the suction that the =0)... to Solidity of a turbine of both within blade of Loss loading function a is used terms. _ =_D_ Substitution yields 2 COS COS _2 _1 . (412)) equation reduces D=D. was solidity the reaction compressor widely analogous sum one reflecting in reference diffusion parameter compressor parameter and the second diffusion in kinetic energy.i. have 4) that for made compressors. a correlation of be expected.BLADE DESIGN For Do values of more the than 2. (422) (423) (414) into equation (422) then of equations (423) and D _z_ sm AaR (424) This relation and (ref. Such alone would giving on loss. enough as If it to diffusion 3.. from not the same was established. (Vp._. values because it is beyond limits practice. the effect increasing diffusion be obtained.
R o . surface is usually in figure loss encountered of solidity at some surface hand. A minimum the amount is reduced. value in blade by in to the chapter diffusing.I (b) Axialsolidity. trend with reaction and solidity. surface area the optimum per loss on loss is indicated 44(b).Loss 112 (a) Reaction. applications.TURBINE unity.ox FIGURE 44. unit per The flow unit required. reaction tion flow of the The frictional on the of these in DESIGN AND APPLICATION occurs with from a gradual values reaction are highly desired increase cause the is caused discussed accelerating in many when solidity. Further rapidly. loss. because diffusion of as a result of loss occurs other area the increased diffusion factors. As solidity is increasing loss occurs suctionsurface change 6) reductions This nature variaof the reaction because boundarylayer in there loss to negative (which loss to increase characteristics varies high effect regime. although negative avoided is used. (b) Solidity. in as the The blading increases. A minimum of the opposing Reaction. conventional As solidity is increasing. .
and some increase becomes of selecting deviation in loss. solidity (al = 0) and These the in the does (al = .0 are used. solidity. as flow angles solidity. Selection Both optimum Zweifel tion the locus analytical solidity. for impulse (longshort) values angle in terms to determine to determine of actual solidity. are rather from angle and are (inverse angle coefficients. optimum shape solidity of suction is a function surface previously. optimum the stagger _X this is plotted for a wide In order of angles. and of inlet 6 to relate optimum exit angles. can and Solidity have been made value in figure represents to identify when the of the in equa45 (a) experimental _b. the penalties more as solidity curves shape velocity such optimum Thus. determined as optimum to be quite close a figure figure 45(b) for this case. Loss function reaction in relative various optimum curves solidity the from the exit the nounced of figure exit maximum coefficients blades based on cascade ratio replotted impulse curves larger region not the It must obtained blade data blades here in indicate are of in reference and against exit 8 as a for for the in As pro of pitch/chord terms. significance 113 . of minimum minimum optimum gets the loss significant loss region severe that blade smaller. value. These figure the importance values loss. as mentioned not exceeding 2. such corresponding as Reynolds rate about and to the number. loading and of Optimum attempts to 0. values of actual solidity as a function of reference the rotor data with as shown efficiency in figure such efficiency authors way different 6 compared of reference in reference to that as shown yielding presented solidity) 47 an optimum 7. shape resultant and the cannot be correlation for each clouded. where here 6 from solidities.a_). more departs as those (more cause become negative) any of exit angle. bladerow of points optimum inlet range and as a function curve exit flow angles. it is necessary as. stagger angle in was 46. is equal solidity The the According coefficient axial to reference 1. be recognized by using a given and 47 are usually optimized is somewhat and varying distribution of such a spacing. minimum By using be determined loss occurs this (414). of many disvalues velocity of turning. angles.BLADE DESIGN parameter factors tribution. In gencral.8. with blade obtained The in this four is seen model and the was axial used in reference Thus. because _COS as (425) An analytical to the solidity figure determined measured The solidity were 45(b). dashed blading. For flat solidity.
deg FIGURE 45.Effect (a) Axial solidity. I I m \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \70 % \ deg \80 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ X \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (b) o 20 30 I I I I 70 I 80 40 50 60 Exitflow angle.o2. (b) Actual solidity. _ _ _ _ "_ Impulse .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Inletflow 6 \ \ angle. solidity. of inlet and exit angles on optimum coefficient _= =0.1_ I I I I Inletflow angle. Zweifel loading 114 .Decelerating "_3 40 \ \ \\\\\ \\ g' 1 (a) o1. \ \ \ \ _1_ \ 2 Typeof bladerow _4 _ "" _..8.
6 2. o 3.ient.5 FIGURE 47. 88 • .8 FmURE 46. o I 2.Effe(:t of solidity and exit angle on bladeloss coeffi(.5 Solidity.7o Ol 1. results from angle shown the cascade 48 the the results and are shown compared results and It is obvious in against analytically the each are just to one in figure in figure and 45(b). other not blading.. % _ _ >" 80 .0 Solidity.0 2. in a manner particular optimum .2 I [ 1.. \ \ 8i  Reaction blades(ol = O) Impulseblades = a2) (al \ _ _I 6'_ __ "_40 4 I ""* _ .4 o o 24 of 64 " I 2..8 I 1. analytical experimental variations can and agreement good the experimental Although for both the involve similar.86 . deg i" 70 _ 60 I of reference 7. of efficiency with solidity for four turbines Exitflow angle.5 2.BLADE DESIGN •9O _ Optimumsolidity from Number blades • _ . (c_ = 0) blading in optimum be said the there are that at this experimany we do 115 indicated many solidity is that assumptions. blade is the analytical solidity the reaction All that profile.0 3. a2.Variation 10.. The figure with that not and time mental factors optimum 47 those are obtained for most curves impulse with results that exit the act solidities plotted between exitangle do cross (al = a_) angle analytical pertain to determine obtained exit and values.
respectively. is slightly recommended in reference UltralowSolidity In the occurring some The approach boundary increasing the are blade. as the plain. (perhaps although the front foil is ter tandem of suctionsurface at about remaining . the limitation suction in blade to reductions of the high Such concept must layer Blading in solidity blade. respectively.Comparison solidities. Turbine are presented a high diffusion in references results of lowsolidity rotors are presented in references jetflap that. separation on the and surface To achieve modification treatment layer the Two the associated of the boundary solidity. al. used of 0. understand. the success. 2). in value then is one the or on been lower that separation solidities. 1. in figure which such 47. to reduced treatments energizing of the concepts concepts blades. of separation include layer explored perhaps.(]p deg of optimum FIGURE 48. The with 15 and lowsolidity blade the operates diffusion point 16. losses })e utilized do not could boundary layer been have.0.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION  Based analytical esultsof fig. are rotor tests in the the have that which and region has such occur. deg . 47 Inletflow angle. as those solidity Current higher of figure are than design 45.2 a 2 10 E (]2 o 30 I 40 I I I 10 I 80 50 _ Exitflow angle. test references The minated 116 is suppressed past. turbulence of these alternate and the concepts 9 and jetflap boundary by use of turbulators Certain blade jetflap tandem applying blade and in figure as well boundarylayer to stator blades 10. Studies alternate tandem. with better marginal potential 49. frequently optimum than experipractice the 0. 4_b) on r Based experimental on resultsoffig. not are yet more fully results.9 such values Analytical to determine shown to 1. on the principle is utilized of separation. by suction. blades tandem treatment Cascade and are summarized 11 to 14. results.8 mental is to as those use ¢. illustrated concepts blades removing by blowing.
117 . I 20 I I I 80 I 100 0 40 60 Axialchord.2 the jet 410 trailing delivers shows In addition.O._.. jetting moves jetflap blade operates with edge perpendicular to the point around the Figure 1.[:r _. substantially blade velocity througl_ distributions momentum. some thereby force to the stagnation lift.percent FIGURE 410. Suctionsurface IJ _ e' 6I I° 4 Pressure surface f_ I 2 __ . experimental 1.Lowsolidity blading concepts. takes The trailing the own place on the rear foil with mainstream a clean boundary layer thc and with perhaps out the the rear increasing its 20 to 30 percent of the air going through slot.0 (1 Jeton (4 percentflow) 0 Jetoff .. This jet edge.Jetflap experimental velocity distributions. a secondary air stream main stream.BLADE DESIGN Tandem blades Jetflap blades FIGURE 49.
tandemblade jet flap. geometries of the between efficient surface flow turning Exit transition profiles with blade connecting minimum provide Consideration throat.2 momentum: (426) and continuity : (p S COS or2 _)_ (427) 118 . With loading surface the and jet on. for applications such where cooling. the the on the suction coefficient _ more surfaces to be equal a rectangular unity. which area at station trailingedge is constructed in a higher just been trailingedge results have reduced trailingedge equations blockage that 2. a secondary the jetflapblade reductions. thus tial other Both sidered Also. in effect shows the the Trailing of the suction consistent This chapter of the blade surface with exit section the includes throat the and trailing the the As of the edge. blade determination a smooth.. between of turbines. effect 7. inlet the be and considerations. thickness causes thickness exit region. new just station The diagram which within and edge loss. stream. an increase effect in trailingedge is discussed addition. 2a than A sections region. required length has of the The The inlet been inlet and DESIGN selected the blade and exit parts and itself exit the must blade spacing and must the the loss. tendency to separate. is located due to the at region. the potenbe confor with closely on the and the The suction is substantially concepts will air flow offer probably suppressing for solidity only purposes... load off and The on. mechanical trailing edge. In an increase turbineloss also has further in the trailingedge will be made with The velocity the obtain blade this at station on the flow blockage blockage blade example diagram blade Consideration exitvelocity use of figure used.. however. = V. is required as blade BLADEPROFILE After determined This involves to and connecting designed channel exit must the blade from surface provide thc free the chord solidity profiles.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION around longer one such blade with for the the jet velocities edge. which is located "withintheblade" at 2a include conservation of tangential V. be designed. the edge. at the blade diffusion trailing the diagram now approaches approaching reduced. there pressure is no a requirement shape. beyond used to nomenclature 2a.In the design it is wise to utilize considerations.2. trailing reference the blade discussion significant 411. with the as part blade the smallest shown in in a 17.
suction aspect the flow accelerating of the the sion throat makes no design procedure. use of the change up to the throat. therefore. by The (since flow angle the the to have asa flow an is determined stations are usually (427) must assuming incompressible changes small) or isentropic. row will trailingedge important such that with of station cannot 2a to become be obtained. where between t is the trailingedge from equations 2a and thickness. 411) in meters and blade or feet.BLADE DESIGN Station 1 0 $ FIQU_E 411. the blade blade as is often exit the (station (65 ° or greater) region. be designed angle determined angle blade exit angle of a2a in order 2 outside the blade row. flow 3Iach in the high inside a turbine fig. technique conditions or minimum becomes used the determination to give this dimenIf one surface 119 successfully and a straight "insidethetrailingedge" flow assumes . whether choking in general. occur to determine Throat. opening o (see One in row operates area. It is. (426) The 2 to bc either to produce at station assumptions.Blade section and nomenclature. a rather velocity as a nozzle. critical diagram. The preceding is often blockage the design Mach number and the be to equations and specified can cause flow rate a velocitydiagram 2a can also be the at the as at station from the large 2) Because number subsonic choked.Since.
This deviation as well as larger dimension as gradients determined the bladerow throatopening applies within throat 5[ach the equation velocity. it has if the throat flow required equation: been found that satisfactory performance is still located at the exit of the channel.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION between obtained equation: the from throat the and velocity station diagram 2a. (throat) divergent perhaps. dimensions. The or If the from exit. that the If it is assumed "freestream" 1 8 cos (T2a cos a:_ (428) in meters velocity station 0 = 8 COS or feet. m.3). 8 compares angle position with give similar by equation (429). fC" from equation (428) or (429) for 058 supersonic Act A. flow. loss do not change between the and 2. occurs exit downstream dimension from o would the throat. throat angles close the effect but throat those of trailingedge not its length. me. condition choking numbers to the case wherc row must throat within For greater flow is subsonic. achieved additional case.. then q2 (429) When the (428) measured this and method of the (429)) exitflow indicates solidities is used.3. a convergentcan be and the In by this the passage low supersonic 1. the such that i\[ach supersonic this computed sonic exit must be modified to the than the about channel condition be located at the back numbers is obtained. for expansion blade dimension expands to a supersonic to account 1. This 60 ° and could be across (428) then at the section (up to. ft m2. ft 2 flow. than occur comparison deviations due to lower the throat. the following (429) flow the For agreement of up to 5 ° for exit angles to 35 ° . 120 flow area flow area for sonic for supersonic . be computed expansion channel (430) o = o_ \A _} where throat opening computed velocity. then the throat 2a by dimension using the can be at station following o( = where throat o is the and the throat opening. predicted at exit down angles that from exit thickness Both Reference greater would methods changes (cqs.
on loss can become higher 5[ach suction surface should trailing from throat has an effect velocity edge suctionsurface is improved of remaining In general. of D.BLADE DESIGN 1.8).0 ¢3 . surface is small. of curvasome difangle of this (which curvature the effect in for the on the instead be lower is considerpreclude with designs a straight low D.The edge as structural and associated surface flow between selection on the suction integrity losses. area correction.8. Suction surface be made edge design. blading structural by introducing is used. 8). if the is less than (greater curvatures of curvature edge the (. trailingedge on the ()f the loaded great. on the tail problems solidity 5lost ture fusion ably at curw'd from effect the the trailing must level of the considerations level (D_).xit Mach Therefore.9 Rt 1.ntionally on loss is not exitflow severe. uses this of the and the design and type blade the blade when edges is used trailing low values by the associated the can become utilizes region. t)y figure a wedge If eonv(. the throat decreases distribution. A "straight unity) or transonic paragraph. values some This and structurally amount permits it adds the 0. are specified long are permissible. downstream throat number assumed from and isentropic throat. This exit. selected conventional and additional gasturbine throat h)ading blading between to the exit.4 1 FIGUttE 412. curvature At higher As indicated number numbers design The and type ref. (approximately High subsonic next in the low. than effect 413 the 0. regions. area throat of the surface type and of is shown between from region. 5Iach blade tail of the blade. distribution to trailing 121 . in figure the such 5[ach surface with 412. number between velocity if the constant. discussion losses to prevent as would and surface long and integrity be indicated in order the that edge keep are trailing of surface flow acceleration Principal lowflimsy.Variati(m ill flow area with supersonic flow Mach munl_er. and in the desired resulting trailingfrom suctionsurface diffusion back" blading.1 Mach 1 I number I 1.
(426) be taken contraction for thc choking. and surface curvature Inlet The than erally number velocities diffusion numbers.Variation of between profile throat h)ss with and exit Math (from numl_er ref. blade blade because through row is usually inlet. _).4 .0 __o . a serious In inlet of a turbine At increases the be used. the the . the leading which in curvature the velocity be used to minimize BladeSurface Once task 122 the leadingand trailingedge them with Profile geometri('s a profih_ that. leadingedge the exitregion radius geometry geometry.2 . can also be used flow angle to det('rmin(' 5[aeh usually number "withintheblade" circular limit result the region. Although could can leadingedge pressuresurface leading freedom The large edges of specified.6 .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Mach number 1. and The high leadingedge low at the inlet blading. Other around peaks. j m _\\ L°7 . required the flow remaining is t:o join . values With and of lowreaction i:_creased Equations and arc excessively high inlet which region of suctionsurface is not so severe (427). to choke used and inlet and edges ellipses. with velocitydistribution associated peaks edge. a bladeinlet to check this opening for bladeis arbitrary in the and as can leading such edge. earl usually and then the case toward that inlet. losses.8 Ratio ofblade spacing surfaceradiusofcurvature to FIauR_ 413. in and care the the ing edge bccomes concern can for lowreaction lead the to high area blading binding. have yields been the selected. a tendency must blade bIade at the exit.\lach blade less critical large is genlead5 [ach high 5[ach as were a relatively number row. on both selection circular the suction curvatures velocity leading in undesirable portions permit of the variations or eliminate geometries.
1 . considerations illustrated from gradients surface flow. Since the design nature. occur factors used staticpressure difference position considerations. variation.::::::_i_! Tip : _i_ Rotorf_ii!i _ ° "'. The rows 414. the the blade.._::. design comthe of radialequilibrium the bladesurface be at theory in the ncxt least that programs chapter. FIGURE 414.. of a quasithreedimensional as the basis to for these available perform channel procedures putations computer are discussed Pressure surface7 _ Suction _su rface ._. _ I ¢".i:!_.:.Turbine bladerow 123 ..BLADE DESIGN turning desigu Two pressure turn velocity of these procedures The the and a satisfactory must sufficient major flow occur as a result Radial as a result influence should the flow analysis and velocity to impose across of the in distribution design the controls arc channel streamlinc velocity serves around through (e.Pressure surface Crosschannel Suction surface_. distribution. to the to both procedure of the describe the flow conditions the blade diffusion in figure required suction and. 'lEi.. velocity variations.g.Hub Velocity (b) (a) Crosschannel (b) Radial variation.Tip NN _:: / .:_. to an accuracy Velocity limits). distance (a) __ 'Nl . variations therefore.
ROY with STANLEY Turbine G. Especially 12. Test TM Power. F. Apr. Conno. Eng. Cascade of a Turbine STANLEY Turbine ROY G. amination Parameters. 1945. 1952.: Four of Rep. Turbine AND VANCO. AND CAVlCCHI. 8. 198206. Boveri 436444. vol. R.: Some Blade Experimental Loading. RONALD M. MICHAEL Using R. STEWART. AND NASA KLINE. Based Thickness 1956. L. 1955. ZWEIFEL. Experimental CR1968. Dec. WARREN in Blade H.. sion Deflection. and NASA and NASA AND on 1972.. SEYMOUR. C. and Ratio Twol)imensional X2183.: Use of Effective NACA 5. JOHN NASA F. STABS. in ThreeDimensional 69WA/GT5. MISER. Loadings in AxialFlow Compressor 3. with pp. ROBERT Losses a Series Transonic JAMES WARNER Blades NACA L. WARREN Diffusion 67WA/GT8. Summary of Tests Cascade on Two Highly Paper Sector. of a Highly Effect of Loaded.5. cepts 2. Test of 0.: Ex WARNER GLASSMAN. AND ROELKE. on Wake Turbine Rotors. AND Viscous 1956. 1967.. Experimental CR1803. Results J. JAMES W. 15. J. Investiga of Axial U. STABE.. Solidity. 1955. l)esign Rotor.. 17. NOSEK. for Four 6.. RM ARTHUR 1953. Low L. Designed RICHARD at Investigation Conservatively E52C17. and ])esign J. Blade Design. WHITNEY. LIEBLEIN. Concepts Nov. Large Angular 2. Blade 12.. G. AINLEY. MATHIESON. . Designed 1970. Stator 1970. AND MISER. NASA JA_ES Tandem JAMES Jet HERMAN and TN H. Blade. of Certain Turbine Bind 124 . O. Turbomachine RM JACK E56F21.: the Flow and 2891. Results 1972. the Performance Results 1971. tion 13. Solidity 16. C. LUEDZRS. 10. JAMES STANLEY Loaded Turbine Blade ASME. Test of a Rotor l)_ign with TwoDimensional of Axial Chord of a JetFlap NASA TM Turbine X2426. HELON. Pressure Aeronautical 9. in ])escribing Turbine RotorBlade Losses. 1969.: Blade Tandem M. G. Cascade of 0. BETTNER. TrailingEdge Stator Low Flap Thickness 1)6637.: Diffu SCHWENK. Y..: TM NASA AND KLINE. Solidities.. of of Two vol. PRUST.: W. FRANCIS and AND BEODERICK. Characteristics of AxialFlow Paper WARNER BladeLolling ASME.. 11. a RM Losses ROSE L. WHITNEY. BETTNER. TwoDimensional E55BOS.. AND STEWART. L. Losses in Blade Rows Gt. Stator 1971.5. L.:TwoDimensional Cascade TM X1836.: Analysis WARNER AND of 7. 1969. G.. AND Council. Blading. Affected by Changes Geometry. Geometry ing. Nov. Turbine An Examination Turbines..: of a Highly Loaded. Experimental RotorBlade NACA HELLER.: Ratio TwoDimensional Chord to Spacing JOHN Turbine X1991. L. WHITNEY. 32. M. J. of AxialFlow Britain. Jm.: Correlation with of TurbineBladeParameter and for Cascade Element Momentum in RM Thickness Diffusion of Subsonic Turbine W. R. 4. no.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION REFERENCES 1. NOSEK. Blade ROBERT Factor for Estimating Blade Elements. STEWART. Cascade to Spacing 1971.. NOSEK. Losses NACA Limiting E531)O1. of NACA l). to Increase pp. WosG.. BETTNER. STEWART. 92. : R&M Research L..: l)esign Rotor.: The Spacing Brown of TurboMachine Rev. JetFlap 14. Momentum RM E56B29. A. L. J.
BLADE
DESIGN
SYMBOLS A
C
flow area, chord, diffusion
m_; ft 2 parameter 1; 32.17 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) of velocity ( V_ ._/V,._)
m; ft
D F g K
o
force, N; lb conversion constant, ratio throat absolute reaction blade of inlet opening, pressure, spacing, m; ft
to exit tangential N/m2; lb/ft
components _
P R
8
m; ft thickness, m; ft ft/scc axial direction, deg deg to specific heat at m/sec; from from at a by equation by equation (46) (45)
t V
X
trailingedge absolute axial fluid blade distance, absolute stagger
velocity, angle angle
m; ft axial direction, constant
o_8
ratio of specific heat constant volume density, solidity loading
_bz
pressure
kg/m'_; coefficient coefficient
lb/ft
defined defined
loading
Subscripts" cr inc max rain opt p s ss u x 1 2 2a critical incompressible maximum value minimum optimum pressure suction supersonic tangential surface surface component value
axial component blade row inlet blade within row exit edge of blade row trailing
Superscript" ' absolute total state
125
CHAPTER 5
Channel Analysis Flow
ByTheodore Katsanis
The chapter determine analysis
design
of a proper
blade
profile, of the
as indicated bladerow surfaces. This used for this that were
in the flow
last in
section order
of to the also
4, requires
calculation
field
the velocities on the blade theory for several methods programs
chapter presents calculation and developed at
discusses associated computer Lewis Research Center. The cannot nonsteady, passages. simplifying simplified surfaces Similar mean surface), directly, actual velocity be calculated viscous, To calculate assumptions to flow at this
NASA field of
distribution time
throughout because velocity of the flow through made. various The
a bladerow extreme geometrically therefore,
flow complexity
threedimensional a theoretical must be
complex certain flow is Such
distribution, twodimensional
threedimensional surfaces.
on or through
are illustrated in figure 51 for the case of a radialinflow turbine. surfaces are used for an axialflo(v turbine. A flow solution on the hubtoshroud shown but provides stream in figure surface does (commonly not (fig. yield for the 51 (c)) to part is the called the meridional velocities surface which a velocity mathematical solution of the and potentialyield dis51 (a), bladesurface bladetoblade solutions, obtain is the
information
required
(fig. 51 (b)) and orthogonal surface the desired bladesurface velocities. There tribution formulation of the problem, we are over two of the will parts to a method surfaces. and streamthe For the one of these problem, problem. discuss (streamfilament)
of analysis The second and first part
numerical formulation
mathematical
mathematical potentialfunction The
methods and
velocitygradient
methods.
stream
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Hubtoshroud
stream surface _ 
Blade_,blade surface]
I
(a)
0_)
, Ortho_nm
(c) (a) Hubtoshroud stream surface. (b) Bladetoblade (c) Orthogonal surface across flow passage. FIOURE 51.Surfaces used for velocitydistribution calculations. surface.
128
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
function solution. The
methods A similar
will be described type of analysis equation assumptions herein: relative point the is steady at any system. obeys the idealgas given is rotating, surfaces. are
relative
to the
bladetoblade
surface surface.
can be made
for the meridional is general the This does not not
velocitygradient following The if the coordinate The fluid flow blade
to be presented made to flow law
and can be used various means vary methods that with relative the time. to a
for solutions The (1) surface Thus, fixed (2) of analysis
on any of the discussed
in deriving the would blade.
velocity
on the blade
be steady
p=pRT where p p R T absolute density, absolute pressure, kg/m_; J/(kg) N/m_; lb/ft S (K); (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) K; °R lb/ft 2
(51)
gas constant,
temperature,
or is incompressible (3) The fluid
(p = constant). is nonviscous. A nonviscous fluid therefore, has no boundary as if the free layer. stream
The bladesurface velocity is calculated, extends to the blade surface. (4) (5) (6) inlet. (7) The The The For fluid total the has a constant temperature streamthat and the heat and flow is isentropic. total
capacity. pressure are uniform the across the
potentialfunction flow is absolutely curl Y = VX V =0 vector.
analyses, irrotational.
additional
assumption
is made
Therefore, (52) this means that
where particles their particle particle net blade,
Y is do at shape
the not may times
absolute change change. t and its location
velocity their For ttAt. and
Intuitively, with shows instant frame figure 52
absolute example, In in the shape
orientation absolute at a later the frame
time,
although the the the to
a hypothetical of reference, of time, relative but
changes the particle
rotation
is zero.
Of course,
a frame
of reference
has rotated,
because
of reference
has rotated.
129
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
Direction of rotation
Time = t
rl
LJ
Timet+At
I
I
(Absolute frame of reference)
Time=t + At (Relative frame ofreference)
FIGURE
52.Absolutely
irrotational
flow.
Some also techniques excellent given
numerical
techniques However,
for solving it must
the
mathematical that
equations there only a few. cascades
will An is
be discussed.
be emphasized
are many
for solving theoretical
these equations, and we will discuss discussion of flow in twodimensional 1.
in Chapter
IV of reference
STREAM
AND
POTENTIALFUNCTION StreamFunction Method several that ways, there
ANALYSES
The simplest cascade 130
stream as shown
function in figure
can 53.
be
defined
but two
perhaps blades
the of a
is in terms
of streamlines.
Suppose
we consider
It is assumed
is twodimensional
CHANNEL
FLOW
ANALYSIS
1 .8
Mass flow fractbn
.6 .4
0
\\\\
FIGURE
53.Streamlines
for a stator
cascade.
axial
flow here,
so that
the
radius flow
r from in the
the radial
centerline direction. The indicates blade and has
is constant There may
and be
there is no variation of the rotation about the centerline. Shown the line. blades Thus, passing in figure between the
53 are a number number surface by each surface (which the upper
of streamlines. streamline of the lower
mass
flow between of w 0, and stream
is w. The upper
the fraction the given the value
is a streamline)
the lower surface streamlines have
of the upper blade has the value of 1, while the remaining values between 0 and 1. Note that a value can be assois called function. the stream
ciated with any point in the passage. This value function value and can be used to define the stream It will be recalled (or uniform) that mass flow can be calculated flow by w= pVA
for a onedimensional
(53) 131
TURBINE
DESIGN
AND
APPLICATION
where
W
rate of mass fluid absolute flow area
flow,
kg/sec; to the
lb/sec m/sec; direction ft/sec of the velocity V, m2; ft _ expression:
V A This
velocity,
normal
can be extended
to a varying
flow by using
an integral
w= f a pV dA Since relative this streamfunction (blade velocity rows), W, which analysis the fluid that any by
QI
(54) to both will blade be stationary expressed row reduces and rotating of
applies velocity
cascades
in terms to absolute
for a stationary our cascade two points
velocity V. We will assume the mass flow wl._ between fig. 54) can be calculated
has a uniform height b. Then, QI and Q2 in the passage (see
wl._ /Q
_ pW,,b dq
(55)
'_Q1
•
FIGURE
54.Arbitrary
curve
joining
two
points
in
flow
passage.
132
Then Xo<X such derivatives in figure Ou/Ox at the (x.Curve joining (x. This of path. This a streamline the points sign convention if Qs is below between flow relative (55).fc ffipW_b W dq (57) FIGURE 55. For 56. y)  dq}. y) integral to calculate in equation the point partial is independent of u. the point that and the where integral in figure Since tively calculate is still Qo is any is taken 55.y) with a point on the upper surface of the lower blade.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS where hand that The Wn is the relative normal wl.t will integral be negative is a line of path velocity component in the direction passing Q_ and of the rightmeans Q1. y) = W (56) of the lower blade. in the flow passage. as shown /c_ pWnb u(x. dependent With for steady to the cascade. y) : for the stream u at a point /Q(_'Y) pWnb dq o u(x. expression can be written the use of equation function an analytical (x. the easy point along on the any upper surface curve between (56) Let Qo and (x. 133 . is indicated it is relawe will (x0. is inthrough Q2 and of the line going integral from QI to Qt. y). example. y).
. and k are the unit vectors in the x. \or OV=_ i +(OV_ \ox ov/ wherei.Y)ff c2 (x. Hence._ flow is absolutely the above (510) Now From we will make the definition use of the fact of the curl irrotational.Curve joining horizontal line through (x. dx Ou (x.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (Xo. Qo and The and pW_b o w (x0. = W_ dq = dx. y). OV. we can calculate Ou_ Oy pW_b w that the and OV. y) = Ox or (58) Ou Ox aW. and along C2 is a horiC_ does not (Xo. operator [OV= assumption. respec . y).y) surface of the lower blade. y. 134 j. we have W. y) integral C2. and z directions.y} FIGURE 56. with a point on the upper where zontal depend C_ is an arbi'_rary line between on x. Along curve and between (x._'_k=O (511) curlV=fOV.b w (59) In a similar manner.
function. Ox Actually. flow. V_. and in the V. V. 0 (10u_= . y.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS tively.9).=O (512) and OVa_ Oz Hence. in this the particular flow is irrotational case. equation (511) requires OV:. 0_U 02U (591) which called is Laplace's a harmonic equation. 0u\ since w and b are both constant. are the absolute velocity respectively.W_+_r where equation _ is the (514) angular speed (in rad/sec) in terms OW3. m/sec and Vx. components Since (in we are or ft/sec) x. (5. Now. and z directions.18) pb cOy w Ou pb Ox (519) into equation (_17) coordinates and the radius (516) r is constant.=O Oz that OVx Oy (514) (513) only OV_ Ox Since V_= W_ and Vu. oy/ and 0 (520) For incompressible p is constant. Any There function satisfying deal Laplace's of theory equation concerning 135 is is a great . considering twodimensional flow only. from with OW_ Oy respect to the (510) moving (5. as (515) can be expressed of relative velocities (517) equations w 0_t and W_  = Substituting equations (518) and (5.19) yields 0 (1 cox.
1 greater where it is along distance AB and CD. (521). HG conditions and along that ABCDEFGHA. the flow defined. along HG. region. is shown that part AH the flow is the so that flow the a finite is sufficiently solution as shown It is assumed is uniform is known. yl Wx x FIGUI_E 57. Ou/O_ the outer normal. figure flow /_ DE. (520) and is the 57. function boundary AB. important of functions that two entire thing satisfies things: equation that thing that (521) is related to know satisfy or of the to the theory here is that conditions. and FE. Along condition _ is the exists. AH and DE. the first functions variables. the in the value direction _0. region upstream that the the way FG. and that was CD. and FE is exactly Along a periodic u= 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION harmonic complex The number solution Laplace's specifying along The in every 58. of the boundary that boundary u0. is known. flow boundary that cascade we along Similarly. 136 . than it is assumed angle we can specify BC. we must solution determined find a by certain (1) must can this boundary a finite to either condition A typical same in the angle along stream entire of u Along of a boundary region._ is known. (2) of analytic there The will are and be functions a tremendous of equation equation region.Twodimensional infinite cascade. be specified in figure consider solution Since far and the From twodimensional passage. is uniform on the is.
Ou [u(H)u(A)'] ... uniform Ou/Oy there. Ou Or and substitution from equation (522) Ou_ 07 However. 8y s where (525) s is the and blade spacing in equation in the (524) along 8u 8x is 0 because the velocity the vector stream dy . gives along equations (526) (527) ia 8 137 . must a streamline.CHANNEL FLOWANALYSIS H 6/ "_'. since it is assumed that the flow is 1 s Substituting AH (526) y direction. du "dx Further. (523) yields (524) Ou dy Oy dx tan _ (525) AH.Finite solution region.0 function be tangent is constant to (522) along a streamline.. B P _ C W Consider the differential of u in the direction of the velocity W: du = OxO'u dx+_ The Along differential and AH. is constant Therefore. E Uniform flow n Uniform flow L A y __x FIGURE 58.
.. for solving by equation differentiation problem. in figure conditions (521). that if there respect have coupled the (529) (530) flow irrotawith coordinate function in blades.. techniques is obtained. does not exclude use of the potential to the has no effect is no change radius. the flow is actually irrotational with as we saw in the discussion of the stream function. From the continuity relationship for steady flow. surface distribution. If the potential function be defined so that the flow is irrotational). and relations will be given.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Similarly. blade or inverse. These solution the condition boundary equation is always along s the entire For boundary will always compressible if the flow (528) of the region determine flow is strictly or (521). o(pvx) +o(pv. this specify problem solution a boundary 58. and velocities of the problem and from This stream is to this will of solving a (eq. we must This. this velocity PotentialFunction For defined. subsonic There After throughout function. streamlines.. can as the later. that is. along DE. since velocities coordinate irrotational This the rotation here. will be orthogonal will not be defined properties (i. as the stream twodimensional If lines The of equal potential irrotational potential function ¢ exists but the main are flow.= Vx Ox and .e.Vv Oy We will tional system for pure assumption axial refer relative to absolute to the of absolute flow. = We now have shown unique (520)). since used. one can calculate o. function.) =o Ox 138 Oy (531) . system flow. Method a potential they function in the same then can be to detail it can drawn. on the distribution will give determine a blade shape not be discussed here. determined to Laplace's a unique throughout are numerous region. the implies does not rotate. (520) bladesurface direct velocities the stream the This a desired function passage is what be obtained The is known A method will be discussed velocity that indirect.
is the velocity normal to the blade surface. and p_nbs (537) W (V_) o_t po_tbs condition exists.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS Substituting equations (529) and (530) in equation (531) yields 0(oo.= Substituting [_(H) _(A)Is . = 0 0_ where V.. (533) for incompotential The We can Along equation).V.(V_) _. function difference We specify BC and irrotational lies in the boundary FG. GH. and EF. function (Laplace's shown Thus. . conditions. (539) V_ = V: tan/_ (540) 139 . a_ a2_ and =0 So. oue The inlet and outlet axial velocities are given W by the equations (v_) .. in figure boundary as follows: can consider conditions (534) (535) and along DE. Along AH.. and the pressible. the potential satisfy function flow. 58. same the boundary same the satisfies both differential solution over the Laplace's the stream equation region entire equation. Since (538) Along uniform AB. AH. p is constant. a periodic the flow is along (0yy_).o() If the flow is incompressible. CD.
existence potential the given be shown system. This irrotational 140 relative is necessary . the lines FE and (542) CD. for strictly subsonic compressible As for the stream function. numerous methods for solving preceding or equivalent boundproblem of specifying shape is described in the inverse the blade references or PotentialFunction and incompressible. pressible choice The choice (the if any flow) of stream existence is made on the basis differential equation of the is not function of the three applicable. we may function. solution. In this If the flow is steady. three flow is flow This irrotational. periodicity. be restricted or incomas to the then assumptions function equation. or to equation to equation for incompressible (532). Another restriction is that it can be defined only for twodimensional since two the stream points. the flow be either absolutely additional assumption However. function and function coordinate this can is defined is meaningless if the in can easily be seen between of the to as a percentage dimensions.. greater (541) along HG Because than of the AB. choose between the stream function case. the difference however. ¢ is exactly at the = ¢(D) outlet. (532) a unique or (533). For a line between that tion the is necessary flow was to the the stream function to be defined. for the axialflow or steady. +s(Vx)o. two points must be independent incompressible irrotational. O(E) along Equation This The but (542) completes a solution solution gives the conditions. Similarly. or potential stream of ease of solution for the boundary is the same: Laplace's equation). boundary only within point. (steady. tan _. is proven from the mass of path. Some used out the the continuity crossing requires assumpthat other on flow. value of a tan s(Vz)_. of Streamfor solving to determine flow throughout the region. tan #o_..._ _. and the potential Method there is little to function. there are equation ary the (532) or (533) subject to the conditions. the conditions However. irrotational. We which case for the blade flow to be unique. turned to be irrotational relative considered. an arbitrary these (533) in ¢ along do not boundary boundary conditions for equation determine conditions additive constant.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION into equation (539) yields _(H) =¢(A)qs(Vx)_. If the ¢ is specified unique at one will determine flow. assumptions the stream This of mass The could function flow be made for other problems. A method velocity distribution 2 and Choice 3.
respecvalues of u at 4. points denoted in figure tively. grid is shown equation stream mesh distance similar. streamfunction detail function there are or potentialfunction in further the finitedifference for the simplest we must potential for the is to 58. h3. stated by before. 6 of ref. Laplace's of solving theory. mesh When The first shown at The in the section function finite on the stream is quite solution. as shown. but equation Method various We will problem to the The with points 59. is shown four points neighboring neighboring is labeled The distances point in consideration 1 to 4. if we must have equality of mixed second partial derivatives. Solution for many StreamFunction ways solution case of steady. The value the other 0. and are labeled hi. is. of convergence difference a rectangular grid the to Laplace's of mesh in figure (eq. the made potential to assure to the V. With equation points. that 02_ m 02& (543) OyOx OxOy then 0 V _ Ox _Oy and the flow must flow. this are h2.and ydirecis given ch. for the step ary conditions of solution rate region written typical 510. in figure each mesh with A typical where finitedifference mesh approximation point function points the between is unknown. (544) A similar function coordinate situation exists system being solution.CHANNEL FL_OW ANALYSIS because is. with the be that respect must be continuity irrotational. of the direct incompressible. This in threeflow is Finally. be approximated of this expression [ 2U3 explanation following 2Uo] is done. and 510. similarly. and h4 as indicated u0 to u4. tions. can be dimensional irrotational an done assumption by using if the a unique equation. (521)) problems consider for the boundmethod a lower in the Then a A can be in figure 1 and 0 is FiniteDifference As posed stream flow. subject function. point four establish solve discussed irrotational In this case. is obtained: 2U4 2ul h_(h_Th2) 2u_ 4h2(h_+h2) +h_(h_+h4) 2Uo ] _j=O (545) 141 . exists only used.) of u at points series can 0 to 4 are labeled expansion by using only in the use of a Taylor (521) (Further the for u in the x.
. \ N _ _\! " ' " fl II.I ilII Ii.l '_\{ i . I .. _ 1 1 1 "F Jl ! E I e . IJ.. 142 .4 1 FIGURE 510." _ . j i il . I) h2 h3 D 0 h4 .Notation for adjacent mesh points and mesh spaces.Mesh used for a finite_lifference : ! ! \\ solution. ! 1 ! " li. FIGURE 59.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION N I ] Ii'_ "_ _.II II Ill LI] Lil : I I I . ¸ ii I I _ i [ i\ I \_.."_ r A• '.
B. the point where is on However. can be used along (527). the upstream If point boundary 0 is on line AH.+h.h4 aoh_ (548) hi+h2 a3  aoh3 (549) hl+h_ a4 aoh4 1 1 (551) (550) 1 1 ao=(h3Th4)(_T_)+(h. is on a blade points along conditions by equation value of u at that (546) alternate AH At other points.) Equation boring used. is given the boundary. as shown 143 . If equations the the point point in figure I is outside periodic boundary condition. gives equation to obtain cannot boundary equations in figure then. s above this it is known point 1 in ul=ul. if point 0 is on line DE. 1. For example. Substituting by using the For the boundary the points between that the along A and AB and CD.s is a distance 511. ydirection. If one of the point neighcan be be used. interior then mesh the point. a finite difference approximation Uo= u4+h4 Similarly. 511) the boundary.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS Solving equation (545) for u0 yields 4 UO= E i1 the expression aiui (546) where h 3+ h4 al= a0h_ (547) =  h3_. at 59. but these Ou/O_ the (546) points holds at every surface.s1. (tanBin) (552) Uo= u3 h3 (tans_°"' ) (553) can be derived 0 (fig.)(_+_.
in n unknowns. 144 These to simply that points there where as unknown The points mesh are n unknown We then consecutively point. i2 aiuial (554) This The greater mesh HG. 58) not point must where be also. (546) _ as indicated in figure Substituting in equation a_Na . mesh knowns. AB. 2 in this ydirection. values The so forth can be numbered first point. along HG CD need (fig.s +1 A 2.Mesh condition in equation (546) gives 4 point on line AB. of u will then up to un at the be ui at the last us at the second equation equation at a typical be written .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION H 2 31 G.s they point is a are just 1 equation for the first 2 is on line distance 512. s corresponding therefore. could point. point gives case. considered. below equation points than In this line below point holds along the HG._. us=u_.I _. The since since 2.s FIGURE 511. aaus _ a4u4 {. the negative condition Zto = alltl_ along the be modified. The and apply. to region are will each of unbe in the as there is unknown be applied This One mesh interest equation point to also applies (546) the same to the or stream number the first mesh to line below (555) can is unknown equations function points.as (555) FE (fig. I I u2 "u2. referred Suppose tions n.. one have n equafrom I to will point._. 58). At each i. uo=alui. point. of equations for which give the (552) function of linear stream points._l.
convergence in u at each w= 1. underrelaxation) convergence occurs overrelaxation greatest is convergent when However. with of u at by iterative systems number To consists point. is always of the except by one aij are for the that of equations zero. 4 that is negligible converges slow. in to equation that each singular. be obtained (547) aii through = 1. When is simple The it always for this problem. every iterative value until and rate for that estimated each this in succession so as to equation is repeated After is done change so that _.2 G Ul "Ul. where equation. mesh This at every in the exci_ssive greatly the and the are a large roundoff The the simplest is minimized estimate procedure of u at point. procedure is required. In fact. the change the and solution A numerical (556) particularly is. techniques. changing satisfy procedure The ever. there iteration. values of are start is of the of u. the It is extremely computer convergence iteration procedure is proven can be accelerated by a factor is straight in reference if 0 <:_ <2.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS H / 1. of linear unknowns. there by increasing overrelaxation when _:> 1. (555). Howpoint These equations but an techniques of this few terms error initial in solving requirements methods. s . All but of ki is the hence The points non always there solution unknown is always boundary. (or rate value of 145 of it is overrelaxation. the required. at most. zero. the can and the outermost aij matrix for the valuable there iterative is relaxation. It can be shown a unique are type. called relaxation. small.1 FIGURE 512. point Storage unknown uj. 1 < _ < 2. is an optimum .Mesh point on first line below HG. _"_aijuj _ki (556) The value around values of the aij are determined five. time the factor.
For if ui m is known of ui. the calculation by comLewis blading bladetoTURBLE. shown in reference aqcordance method. This a smooth velocity On the the blade for can be readily from the by finite through as a spline velocity resultant is calculated tangent components is calculated one component Computer Programs the solution StreamFunction equation which written programs program to analyze As can of velocities puter.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION between To give estimates estimate calculate 1 and 2 which factor gives expression ui ° and the most for the rapid convergence. and au/ax and from the calculated differences. constraints be subsonic described associated throughout in reference streamfunction region.. can be used flow must program. we will initial an initial overrelaxation use a superscript are can be calculated as explained overrelaxation value. with or the NASA for be estimated done. for i = 1. the entire 6. 59). 2. super . tions a solution (59) and for u is as obtained by the overrelaxation velocities with (or the it is necessary (510) to calculate use of equa w(OZ) Yz (558) pb and o W_ = pb au/Oy curve. That is satisfactory. is. by in reference an explicit denoted on the ul. This procedure.. ui m is the m th iterate may be any Then... with the 5. n in succession uim+l__ uim_0J  Z jI aijui re+ljii1 aij_J m'gf]gi uim (557) any other After method). Research by blade which mixed solution 146 be seen. we can ui re+l. Analyses and is best at the are called axial. The example. optimum 4. the either curve. the from points. is described methods. angle. two (559) The partial derivatives discrete or by The mesh values fitting points. at unknown of ui. blade must such surface. radial. of Laplace's procedure have been of flow is a lengthy computer for the (region In Center calculation programs analysis Most done Several through The turbomachine streamfunction analysis flow. of ui°=0 for all i. The the TSONIC of these in fig.
passage most (high of the surface half a passage position. the the a A velocitygradient passage. and is. flow gradient TURBLE extends equation (lower called flow Another a detailed or in the MAGNFY in the by problems. depends For region. plane programs meridional fig. are the limited region. slot obtained in the next a A preliminary program to analyze splitters. tandem solution region program. less surface surface. to extend a preliminary VELOCITYGRADIENT As methods within give sonic. ones the By use of a velocitygradient the subsonic the transonic without the method solutions The because a velocitygradient or supersonic indicated earlier.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS sedes addition. flow axialcan or _IERIDL. than for of analysis assumptions analysis and velocitygradient velocitygradient curvature can only both Therefore. can be used with of any in reference regions TANDEM surface. be analyzed by a program 10. alone It other to obtain of analysis the computation assumptions. 8. analysis method that on the in figure and the other 59. obtains blade and Flow indicated turbomachine described flow rate) which or called in the are or 9 and subsonic is described blade streamfunction in reference rows and described blades. solidity suction velocity suction ends the provided and/or is often equation a streamfilament streamline. solution in streamfunction to solutions ANALYSIS and that solution flow are potentialfunction entirely subsonic and to also subthan is equation can be extended regime. rows 7. within streamline of this turbine angles). in figure as shown the orthogonals intersect give solutions of all by usefulness small of flow guidance a wellguided surface distribution row. only velocity is within such can be well as that the front is within on the a lowsolidity of the can case. On region. blade surface velocities In this latter be computed of the suction the streamfunction analysis distribution be used if better definition of the suctionsurface is required. Transonic equation in references be obtained the use of a velocitygradient streamfunction solution. such guided defined. of analysis where boundary. The or blade solution. or streamfilament. associated hand. 147 . however. flow. can 414(b) to subsonic hubtoshroud of any called solutions 51(a)). mixedflow which subsonic is by as slotted MAGNFY leadingor slotted or trailingedge of tandem restricted (mean fig. shown guided half must additional an possible basic indicated previously. in that it performs solutions all are the same (local calculations supersonic by using section and. velocities) a velocityto extend in the solution type to transonic described Transonic of the mass in TANDEM. a solid degree 411. the called involves guided method blades. approximate to use transonic.
it can be shown dW dq where radius q is the distance from of curvature for the W ro (convex) The sign surface. as was done that difference interested by balancing in chapter 3 for consideration equilibrium. in. and negative if it is consimple case shown in figure 513. of in magnitude Row FIGURE 513.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Method The sidering narrow passage velocity idea of a velocitygradient case. For the can be integrated curvature for integration along from the to be equal if it is concave upward. against of radial in turbomachinery a forceequilibrium pressure gradient it is this equation. from continuity by W pbd across the width we are centrifugal of the force (560) However. and convention (561) the suction streamline. equation (561) a radial inner line by assuming to the to any ro r passage point radius W Wo the streamline radius. and With the there is a variation in velocity velocity passage. 148 . If the approximately W. in the There passage. Suppose as shown in figure method we have 513. can We be demonstrated assume the height the by cona of the average a simple passage twodimensional flow through to be b. and the can be calculated width d..Flow through a curved passage. rc is positive cave downward. re is the for rc is important. (562) radius results.o  mass flow is known.
ft the or suction. containing x axis.. bladesurface which to velocities can be obtained equation. (562) yields constant w w. surface. by not using an estimate equation of the (562). ft/sec flow through passage is expressed as wrl rm+d pWb into dr (563) and integration. as shown W. The are a. m. the is a velocitygradient passage. of passage. angle meridional relations W sin/_ components: (566) (567) (568) (569) W. and 514 flow. simply We are some could Since in figure We. or pressure. of W. m. The in figure for the between meridional W and the is a plane between plane. plane angle Also meridional now consider with are a very radius the the the following Ws= W_ is the and The general r. x.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS where Wa r. W_. surface velocity can be com W  (565) Thus. and/_. ft m/sec. shown the hold Also axis a rotating cylindrical and W_. = (564) In a similar puted as manner. resultant interested system indicated component W_ in turbomachinery. and components. sin a W_ = W_ cos a 149 . the outer. velocitygradient we will use 0. If there were gradient equation. surface. a velocity necessarily restricted twodimensional variation of velocity in the height of the be calculated in that direction also. r relative radius radius The mass velocity of inner. on inner. angle velocity x axis. (563) with and substitution density of equation assumed. We will we are coordinate 514. or suction._ = W cos/_ Wr = W_.
line distance a streamline The radius want neglected. and 515. of rc is q be the and if the streamline along angular is concave an arbitrary inlet. is r_ is is 1/rc. positive We distance constant mcoordinate angle in the stream The is the projection 0coordinate where sign Let The curve.) dW dq=a dr jq+b curvature of curvature the velocity this curve. is the distance mdistance meridional plane.Cylindrical coordinate system and velocity components. meridional of the of the gradient For the (rV_. along it is convenient along a meridional the true is less than streamline that is. of the addition as shown to the The if the in figure r. to use stream an mcoordinate. dO case of constant at the dx total temperature momentum dq +cdq (570) where W arc COS ol COS 2 W sin _ r /_+sin a cos _ 2_ dm dW. meridional meridional upward. In line.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION W FIGURE 514. the streamline streamline. _0. The xcoordinate. 0.n sin _ (571) 150 .
The mcoordinate. blades. distance We=0. In using it is necessary parameters. Llnner wall FIGURE 516. (570) no However. (B13) +2_sina and (B14) (573) of reference to solve such reasonably equations passage where (570). in advance. for a guided parameters we can Let can be estimated have an can be obtained no velocity calculate q=n from as shown normal then in the tangenn is the Since be it can (0) direction streamline. Meridional streamline . known ). from annular component dW/dn. A great to tial (573). and and We l_=0. with 11. in equation figure dO/dn=O Further. in figure (into to the are as equations equation.Annular passage with no blades.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS Meridional streamline 7 _' rc Q r m J Axis 515.W sin a cos 2 _+cos re a cos/_ dW_______ dm (572) c=Wsinasin[3c°s[3+rc°s_(ddWWm These ential vature. streamlinegeometry not cases suppose 516. Outerwall. _x FIGURE b = . equations any a. page). precisely a differas curwell. and number For equation are derived velocitygradient involving 8. 151 . 516. these of special example. These channel.
was more velocitygradient quasiorthogonals. are used program to analyze from hub or mixedmeridionalmean.sin a. for can also for many by the 12 and is limited is described axial. blading. to use or velocity orthogonals orthogonals. dr/dn = cos a and dx/dn = . A program a bladetoblade analysis that uses quasiorthogonals in reference 16. flow turbines. by this can also highsolidity because previously. can be used both from This made for the results 517. variations and now been superseded in reference radial. turbine and is presented along the streamline use were analysis impeller vaned plane and diffusers in advance. mass than blading. mass along good Velocitygradient blade to blade determine streamline tipstreamline surface. which Since convenient onalplane reference orthogonals. methods plane the base along for uses the to Such reference 11 program Velocitygradient and bladetoblade analysis 14. rate. be needed for fully can be provided solutions passage. to and flow the to axial velocitygradient is described program. from equations (570) dW_ dn Thus. tion for this (561).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION seen to that (573). blade for in a flow solution which satisfies of these program indicated may be obtained used basic for an orthogonal surfaces the gives in figure program a specified a number be used The As only been The to compute maximum results more for lowguided (choking) definition solidity sections plane channel. are flow rate to as illustrated Computations passage. Then. has for One case. to tip along equations along hub. A further viously 152 use of the for a radialinflow velocitygradient is to extend a subsonic impeller as is described preto mentioned solution in this chapter. Computer Several machine NASA CTTD computer blading Lewis program. presented reference centrifugal in have to obtain method meridionalfor a meridiin it solutions. velocitygradient a computer fixed for of the called are in of equation straight which programs for meridionalplane impellers turbine equation. a radialinflow or radial for 15 for backwardswept compressors. streamfunction . mixedflow orthogonal centrifugal lengths are impellers equation not known on program lines. of the mediumThis by Research which This programs Center. equation (570) W rc reduces to the simple form (574) of equa Programs the that analysis methods was in reference which used of flow have been through written years more turboat the is the general 13. and easier The flow turbines CHANEL program CHANEL compressors.
Suction Tip orthogonal I surface f Midchannel stream line. curvatures transonicflow method are presented in references in reference 6 for a bladetoblade 9 and 10 for a meridional solution.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS obtain the gradient local flow supersonic and velocities. i Mean Parallel to axis of rotation_ i Hub T FIGURE 517. streamline for Programs The subsonic solution required solutions is used for the based to obtain velocityon this and angles equation. solution Orthogonal su Hace _/ / j. orthogonal surface across 153 .f su rface .Turbine blades with flow threedimensional passage.
HAMRICK. THEODORE: FORTRAN Stream Transonic NASA TN Velocities D5427. KATSANIS. a Use of NACA Flow Rep. ProStream THEODORE. for Compressible Design. AND DELLNER. LOIS T. KATSANIS. JOHN Blades Computational Velocity 1952. 11. Velocities of an TN Axial AND and MCNALLY. 12.: PreRep. or 1969.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION REFERENCES 1. 1952. Calculating WILLIAM Streamlines X1764. EDS. a BladetoBlade Surface of a Turbomachine.. 13. Iterative MCNALLY. RICHARD S.. THEODORE: Distribution in the 1964. and Streamlines MixedFlow WILLIAM on the Turbomachine. Through 1082. and Streamlines NASA McNALLY. VANCO.. MixedFlow Centrifugal Impellers MICHAEL FORTRAN a Turbomachine. for GEORGE R. GEORGE Distributions R. on 1969. 1). KATSANIS.: FORTRAN IUser's Program Manual.. Streamlines WILLIAM on the Turbomachine. WALTER M. Velocities Blade AND McNALLY. KATSANIS. O. Analysis. Calculating Surface TN AND McNALLY. Blades Flows. Use of Arbitrary Meridional Plane D7344. l). Calculating NASA Flow TN BladetoBlade 154 . with NACA Prescribed Rep. VARGA. AND OSBORNE. Arbitrary QuasiOrthogonals Surface in a for Turbomachine. AND BULLOCK. KATSANIS. 7. BladeSurface 1967. GINSBURG. IRVING A. 4. culation NASA 14. THEODORE. for NASA Calculating TM X1394.: on 1969. Detailed scribed 1060. : Matrix AND Distributions Procedure in Design of Cascade with NACA Compressible Potential Flows. Meridional D6701.: Method of Analysis of Arbitrary 15. THEODORE. Calculating Surface NASA THEODORE. Velocities of an Axial1973. CUMMINGS. 10. Program and Choking Velocities for THEODORE: of Surface TN D6177. and TM Program PrenticeHall. gram Surface 6. THEODORE: on 1965. JOHNSEN. FORTRAN Program Stream for SurProgram Surface for of 5. 3. FORTRAN Velocities 1971. Velocities WILLIAM Region D5091. KATSANIS.: Turbomachine. JOSEPH AMBROSE.: FORTRAN Stream 1969. for Flow NASA KATSANIS.: of Plane 1972. NASA Method in ROBERT SP36. COSTELLO. T.. Calculating face 9. KATSANIS.. a BladetoBlade D5044.: FORTRAN HProgrammer's Program Manual. KATSANIS. for FORTRAN Velocities NASA a BladetoBlade of a Turbomachine. Velocity 1950.. Compressible ROBERT for AND SINNETTE. 16. for Calculating NASA TN Flow D2546. 978. KATSANIS.: A QuasiThreeDimensional an Axial Flow Turbine Method Blade. T. 1962. THEODORE.: Aerodynamic Design of Compressors. I). for Flow HubShroud MidChannel or MixedFlow 1974. TN WILLIAM on TN O. ]). on in a Magnified NASA a BladetoBlade of a Turbomachine. COSTELLO. HubShroud MidChannel D7343. AxialFlow 2. 1965. AND THEODORE. Calculating a Tandem 8. for Flow QuasiThreeDimensional for Turbomachine Blade CalRows. R. JR.: of Designing Cascade Potential L. Distribution D2809. QuasiOrthogonals of a Turbomachine. Culculating Revised Inc. Program for CMculating Velocities NASA in the TN ICentrifugal Compressor.
ft (556) (546) b d h ki m ?t along meridional streamline. kg/sec. (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) T t u time. m. sec stream function absolute relative mass fluid velocity. o3 angular velocity. deg of outer normal to cascade rad angular density. function in direction lb/ft a of rotation. ft K. ft arbitrary P q R r 8 gas constant. tad/see verrelaxation factor Subscripts: c in m n out p r s x y z curvature inlet meridional component outlet pressure component normal surface to streamline radial component suction surface axial component in ydirection in zdirection 155 component component .CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS SYMBOLS A ai flow area. angle ft/sec ft/sec lb/sec of inclination to blades. velocity. potential distance kg/m3. ft 2 coefficients cascade passage distance constant distance distance absolute distance radius. m . in the plane m. between in equation m. (K). J/(kg) N/m2. ft mesh points. flow rate. ft m. width. m/see. lb/ft curve. ft m. ft V W W meridional plane. m. mS. from out axial of the direction meridional boundary. ft spacing. blade absolute for equation height. ft pressure. °R temperature. (ft) 2 m. absolute m/see. normal to streamline. along m. relative (in the tangential distance in direction 0 P direction). deg fluid flow angle.
4 3. 2. I 156 .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 8 tangential meshpoint component designations o 1 1.
predicted. the parameters mixing losses (friction) associated chapter. (such OF BOUNDARY flows on the edge those past of the of this calculated At LAYER a turbine blade. to basic needed the are and partialThis introduction boundaryto estimate viscous loss in the tipclearance admission layer viscous and next the theory. friction chapter to calculate _Iethods and (windage). in chapter of ideal The portion design can be 2. assumptions. operation. is zero in all directions condition). thin the and hand. which disk is used losses. flows. wall. on the work. 157 .CHAPTER 6 Introductiono Boundaryt Layer Theory By William McNally D. gives an flow incidence. (noslip the (frictionless. As shown certain ducing work aspects Before causes. important difficult is the prediction it is necessary primary cause of losses is the boundary layer that develops and endwall surfaces. for determining trailingedge presented NATURE When velocities. layer boundary conditions thc velocity a real the in the fluid influence immediate At the agree there nonviscous) of the layer. Other losses occur because of shocks. the energy of the pressure that One ideal ratio energy more of the across to that losses. to understand their a turbine the turbine and is not provides for converted a proto amount is considered of turbine losses The blade is available of the to be a loss. the with the blade This the layer use on at normal is called of ideal other as air) of viscosity outer with flow fluid flow is confined layer to a relatively neighborhood flow is frictionless.
at or entering components flow.Boundary layer on blade.a. a mean also of velocity overall for any disturbances boundary a transition becomes fluctuations turbulent oscillates turbulent the in velocity in a random boundary layer. bulent flow are that turbulent layer It usually boundary amplified. it from this and layer In a laminar boundary so that they way. surface sufficiently ness of the or changes Most are significant boundary tance.. pressure slide from layer A boundary at the or viscous. great a the disa turin the layer.. The smooth ducted in as figure flows to a turbine._.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION It is the frictional.. / __ _.. 158 .Transition _ region Laminar boundary layer . from frictionless a small blade portion layer. 63. influence on the passes layer. random In the any region point With region weak laminar a combustor. this a separated can likewise in which blade. stagnation the to the suction is always blade are time on a turbine of the initial is illustrated grows of the layers along in figure leading surfaces. layer forces in this thin value finite and fluid local negligible at a point 62(a) blade layer that reduce the 61. develops edge The other. suction This shows separates. . blade When surface.. fluid The its freestream. static is illustrated portion correspondingly rTurbulent boundary layer As the free velocity decreases pressure _. remain region. in the away in the moves rear laminar boundary from in figure of the increases. The a boundary stream a turbine as figure occur the happens along the fluid 62 (b) indicates. leads velocity Any minute velocity in velocity on the steady with smooth flow. velocity boundary point and laminar. lull _' _Z////'_ \ Separated regiont FIGURE 61. in nature. surface positive of are characteristic about 61 Separation layer manner of turbulent as in turbulent fashion Figure layer. have flow. The this blades through In the this the value. fuctuating type of cannot transition to the flow. and flow. have to zero at the thickness at the both wall. over damped overall in some being each boundary parallel fluctuations influence is either indicates.
This of a turbine surface 64. point. boundarylayer and compressible . FIoUrtE 63. pressure boundary layer gradient layer and can be retarded (adverse causes to such to that at pressure it to lose a degree the gradient) energy.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY Steady Steady t t I t (a) Laminar FxovaE flow. as there different flow.Boundarylayer separation. separatc boundary it should be either and the Mach immediately that Just reattach both laminar are itself in figure and is illustrated be noted number. turbulent incompressible turbulent depending equations there are variations boundary on the to repredifferent of each. flow.V_riation of velocity with Unsteady t (b) time Turbulent at a point. that flow at the very reverses leading retards The flow closc the to the the flow in the in the boundary This blade as a is wall it moves blade. separation in a direction separation. layers sent can laminar for lew_'l ()f the equati()ns The also opposite The laminar point and of the mean layer flow passing itself edge to which is the the boundary layer. can turbulent Finally. 159 incompressible or compressible. 62.
... lbf/lbm t g f 160 constant. in two somewhat There are various forms what tion assumptions represents the are fluid made with different forms. will not be repeated here.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Turbulent boundary Separat ion layer 7 _ II I I __I __' ' . m/sec. The combined into depending following vector derivation.1f_.. general conversion velocity sec vector.32.3 to 0. Laminar boundary layer_ bubble.Z__. equations general equations In OF BOUNDARYLAYER of motion of viscous fluids EQUATIONS are called there The equations. of the NavierStokes during constant their equations viscosity: equations. are the Naviersuch equations.rrt_ c Stagnation point FIGURE 64. References 1 and by applying This exercise 2 both have derivation. and if the freestream The boundarylayer solution methods are are derived DERIVATION The Stokes equations. Boundary layers should be considered relative Mach number exceeds values equations discussed for these in this various cases chapter. compressible of 0.. NavierStokes for a compressible du dt where u gf_g__ Vp+_U V2u+ p p __ p V(V. .4. 1.Laminar separation and reattachment. directions. can normal of the from coordinate coordinate the systems. three The one for each be derived boundarylayer Navierthe law of conis lengthy.u) (61) general time. body force acting on a unit of fluid. and the complete on equaform NavierStokes Stokes equations themselves can be derived servation of momentum to a fluid element. .17 ft/sec (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) mass (sec _) N/kg...
and with components P /z (N) (see)/m a general In this u. v. s lbf/ft 2 2. . becomes be more (64) du gf'q grad d/= p pf_. du _ _=g'p Expressing which may the g VP+Uo V(V. d 0 0 0 0 Oz In equation rather vector than quantities. kg/mS. l u 0 [Ou Ov Ow\ 161 . (62) u=uiTvj+wk where The i. to a scalar the Laplacian (61) operator If the term becomes _ [VX(VXu)]+_ of gradients.u) and V2 is applied to the function. Ibm/(ft) velocity (see) vector x. j... y.u _x kv _y + W oz = gf u .. pressure. Ou Ou one for each coordinate resulting +U x+V y+W Ou Op __u /O_u _zz f . equation of the (61) has to be expanded directions. static dynamic equation. and total. reader. directions. viscosity.grad(div P u) _ p curl(curl u) +_ 1 _l P grad (div u) (65) In order to derive into three The Ou the three boundarylayer scalar equations.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY P density. equation curls. coordinate or substantial.V(V. k are the unit vectors in the three coordinate In any of the directions.u)p V operator familiar in terms to the (61). 1 p. lbm/ft N/m2.. gpox p t0_t=g l u 0 [Ou Ov Ow\ Ov Ov Ov Ov g Op __u_/O2v 020 02v\ _t. respectively... and u represents three w in the coordinate directions z. equations are 02u 02u\ _y2+0_) equations. derivative of u is du/dt. V2u is expanded into (63) vector simple u equation (64) divergences.
forces are This eliminates from the for the is consideration. equations are traditionally to others. Incompressible Prandtl's the following equations. the continuity COy COy g__ + __ / cO_v cO2v cOp \ .. Since for Layer equations for assumed flow the laminar in the con In (1) writing (2) tinuity order to derive flow. fv. andf_ can be discarded assumptions. t. reduce to the forces. incompressible /cOu V. boundarylayer assumptions This has already incompressible Viscosity of the Flow equation will be made: been is a constant. equations two equations x. as all terms eliminates cOOr terms.and ydirections: COu u_+v cOu 00p ___ /O_u CO'u\ _= __ . an orderofmagnitude are negligible coordinate . Flow Body these is steady. tt [CO2w. to the 65 shows various of flow. to inertia (66) and viscous and (67)._. and f..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION aw aw _ + w aw g Op. _ ._+_) cOy equation cO u becomes _x+_yy=0 In order boundarylayer and show that velocities 162 some and to make equations the (610) check with directions to (612) is performed respect pertinent suitable on to the the (612/ for the analysis made Figure boundary dimensionless. u=div the final terms (3) and (4) (5) Thus. equations negligible in relation NavierStokes f. terms layer._+_) (6_0> (611) u_+__: Likewise. are the Laminar components of the body Boundary force f. equation (68) from (66) w or O/cOz in equations twodimensional. preceding is is incompressible. O_w. With following Flow (67). in equations as well cOy cOw\ )=0 (69) u=t_x+_yy+_z (66) to (68) This involving can be eliminated._+_+_)(6s) P 1 tt cO[cOu cOy cow\ where f. COho'_ +5_ t.
m. in xdirection upstream of blade. The following dimensionless parameters X X = are defined: (613a) L (613b) u U0 (613c) (613d) Uo (613e) Re = o. m/see.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY U =u uO_ u_5 _ full Trailing y x L FmURE 65. ft/sec in ydirection 163 the blade chord).L Uo (613f) where X L Y U dimensionless characteristic dimensionless dimensionless freestream dimensionless xcoordinate length velocity velocity velocity (in this case. ft ycoordinate u0 V .Boundarylayer velocities and dimensions.
U = u Uo is of order the ydirection xdirection. In order quantities.= _ 1 (617c) 1 (617d) O_U 1 == 1 OX 2 1.. a quantity in the to the much 1.m/L u is of order velocities those in the U0.e 1 e2 (617f) 164 . 1.. OU OV = 0 terms in these equations 1. since y is proportional = _. X is of order thickness since _.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION P Re From And order dimensionless Reynolds figure pressure number 65.== OX 1 OU OY oV OX OV == OY 1 1 (617a) (6175) .1 O_U 0 y2 (617e) 1 e. since than _/. much smaller in terms multiplied resulting to L. various Since be compared X and U are of order Y and OU 1 .. Likewise. and dimensionless OU OU OP 1 /O_U 02U\ OV OV OP 1 [02V O2V\ u +v . and __+__ (615) (616) can now V The are order of order of magnitude with e.. equation equations V = v Uo is of order boundary to put equations (612) are equations (610) multiplied is (612) are The of dimensionless by L/Uo _.u. we see that since x is proportional boundarylayer less than layer (610) and by are to (611) L/Uo. 1. And Y is of in $r. each of the other.
so that same a2V (617g) (617h) in P with of U with respect respect to the order of is of OP/OX of magnitude terms in equations (614) v v oT= = . of order e. of order the two with terms be relatively dominates (619). _ and Therefore.E 0X _ 1. smaller fore. since terms large. magnitude order 1. the and that in equation 02U/OY 2 is much parentheses. _.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY e . 02U/OX Reynolds (2) In dominating is to dominate.1 + (_) i3X + (1+_) (618) (1) (1) + (e) (!) OV OV OP 1 /02V 02V\ v + v oT= or (t2) (_+!) + ) (619) (1) (_) + (E) (1) = _+ OU OV (620) 1+1 By examining can be reached: (1) inertia (618). the following conclusions boundarylayer 2) + (02U/OY must be must theory. Therefore. be of order and the e or less.e 1 e to X is of the to X. with unless 02V/OY number equation 02V/OX OP/OX. a function the OP/OY ThereThis in the 165 it too must or p=p(x). 1/Re[(O2U/OX terms 1Re 2 and 2) ] are of the of magnitude larger U(OU/OX)+V(OU/OY). Therefore. boundary us to assume . allows than P=P(X) In equations (618) to (620). OP/O Y is much of X alone. layer P can be considered OP/OX=dP/dX across pressure or Op/Ox=dp/dx. Relating to (616) the as the these yields OU OU OP 1 /02U 02U\ change change orders _ _.1 02V OY _ Furthermore. l/Re are of order in this that order to the be true viscous terms as the than the 2. it is assumed same For d.
of the boundary _i_u decreases. layer in and So. decreasing The variables by Uo/L. equations equation equations Ou u +v Ox So. Just as for their equations flow calculation.e.. of the thickness dimensional (622) if pL Uo is constant. constant dp/dx. where the occur). the In is essentially existing the second equation first constant. number is not included in the boundarylayer about the interaction of shock waves and Since the influence of equations. is also are u and v. neglected the because following in comparison less equations: OU OU dP 1 02U U _ T V OY . at the equation outside It can be assumed of the boundary the is of order 1. equations and viscosity along the blade The remaining for (624) twodimensional. to (621) OX +_=O These The the are Prandtl's of the fluids.dX {Re 0 Y_ = OU OV (622) in dimensionless are size useful of the boundary form. Furthermore. us nothing 166 .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION ydirection flow pressure (3) order (4) small Since _. in the in a incompressible arc assumed surface. second to the potential equation is of it is so dimension equation (618). as the can (621) are Ou Oy Ou Ov increasing decreases. unknowns and known. The pressure known from an idealflow and equations (623) It should be noted the presence of shock of large layer depend gradients boundary shock Mach and that (624) are sufficient the boundarylayer (i. layer decreases viscosity boundarylayer by multiplying The resulting terms (1Re) (02U/O y2) will get smaller thickness will correspondingly decrease. boundarylayer equations Reynolds From equation number equations in this (621) form on the boundarylayer in determining influence for different we see that as Re increases magnitude. and be leaves equal layer. are Prandtl's boundarylayer flow. the viscousforce smaller. The boundarylayer as Re increases. arc not valid adverse pressure in waves instantaneous number. in Uo2/L terms and Re corresponds rule. Density gradient solution. magnitude phenomena conditions on mainly Reynolds wave depend on primarily the Mach number. as a general viscosity be put by equation  g dp p dx _t _ 02u p Oy 2 (623) +=0 Ox Oy These laminar. they tell boundary layers. with can be neglected 02U/OX 02U/OY _ can 2. This completely.
One of the grows to assumptions rapidly. boundarylayer for an orthogonal system of each of the coordinate effects equations are negligible). compared no large fiatplate occur x along With surface. in the of the boundarylayer equations were derived of coordinates in which the radius of curvature axes flow wall can is quite arises over and large (i. The for flow terms reference of curvature of magnitude as was thickness for the the same arc very r at a position of the is small individual previously. the blade assumption the radius result are in curvature equations terms the with variations equations provided near sharp there edges._ l. order used where point be used development of the not in the the as u. as would y x x Y FIGURE 66. neighborhood (66) of a separated flow region.Curvilinear coordinate system on a blade. dr/dx applied and .INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY The velocity boundary boundarylayer v is much layer right the up is very calculations NavierStokes equations smaller than are net u. 167 . to a curved is introduced the yaxis If a curvilinear orthogonal wherein is normal in the in such is in the direction set of NavierStokes These equations dependent The the of the curved be derived 1. as were equations no large obtained may variations for fiat Therefore. that of curvature can be estimated in the same of the so that bc done boundarylayer case where the walls occur. a new a system. generally location should used is incurred. culations significant separation detailed The boundarylayer separation and However.e. calV is of for is approached. boundarylayer as well. Very and completely used close in their to the are since in the equations to (68) reliable derivation separation as separation is that point. 66) as to how boundarylayer the xaxis to it. curved such in curvature. walls. the v begins equations point. would coordinate change The for system equations are relative given in on the radius orders manner wall. where the curvature question (fig. in the equations little small. error these to be of the the same region Nonetheless. wall..
65. temperature. and and 0. relations is probably is not isothermal. and tinuity equation. case. reduce the constate leastsquares unknowns polynomialcurve involved. z [T_3/2To+S _=\_o] T÷S where _o (625) dynamic Ibm/(ft) absolute reference a constant. The that to temperature gas and temto u. 1) common (rot. but also 110 K or 198 ° R) temperatureviscosity relation less accurate.. in the four one compressibleboundarylayer equations component equation. _o= \_o/ where by the _ is a constant. T temperature.0 0. 168 compr. The cquation. incompressible variations the a function and density For constant. power law viscosity (sec) static at the reference K.pressible to _()10) is almost analogous are the .5<oo<1. and is required. related are to several boundarylayer equations viscosity. p. and with (626) For air. °R To S A less is the temperature.ssible con. flow will involve These for viscosity Sutherland's are form for of the energy compressible. equation can be for a compressible and and density the energy boundary In the used. of temperature. was not be Layer performed to derive the case. °R S= temperature To. analysis for flow. K. complicated. to relate if the process The temperature. be related particular related variables to problem equation. thermal There The most variableviscosity parameters specific conductivity. _0 is approximately thermal conductivity fits these relating of the for With can the variables these Specific perature v. which heat. viscosity is used temperature is considered pressure some three compressible density is no longer the equation and. °R (for air. temperature. as a function relation nonisothermal. For of the momentun_ will be the the energy equations equations orderofmagnitude for incompressible the continuity flow to flow (612) momentum identical nonconstant following: to (NavierStokes) viscosity. were of to equations viscosity neglected. of state can Boundary also layer. K. temperature. heat range T. (N) (sec)/m_.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Laminar An orderofmagnitude Compressible analysis were assumed equation constant.
on these the equations similar incompressibleflow following boundary pu _x{pv =g Oy dxt_y _ (630) o(pu) + Ox The equation of state flow. J/(kg) Btu/(sec) (K). W/(m) (K). j (634) 169 . means written (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) continuity is the layer energy (°R). The is also state o(pv) 0 Oy (631) required equation p=pRT for the is solution of compressible boundarylayer (632) (K) or the of state. orderof where The The the R is the final gas constant.lay au\l (628) O(pu) Ox If an orderofmagnitude to that for the layer equations result: analysis +O(pv) Oy =0 (629) is performed equations. 0 [ pu _+ pv oy. and for for The the in J/(kg) besides equation gas equation equation. pressure.g _v_ = L2" ou 2  [Ou Ov\l O [ IOu Ov\l (627) Ov Ov pu _xx+P.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY Ou Ou Op. is derived the from equation. twodimensional flow of a perfect pc. 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu conductivity. equation equation check. boundary by energy gas. Btu/(lbm) (ft) (°R) (°R) J k and 1 . where Cp U_xxTV_yy =_xxi_Oyy. 0 [ Ov 2 /Ou Ov\l a [. steady required momentum energy energy a compressible a perfect is the of another in full: magnitude following equation for compressible. equation. Oy g Op.Oxx k_x)T_yy k_yy)+_j_ (633) specific conversion thermal heat at constant constant.
required. of the velocity second approach in terms energy temperature. gas law. thc (631). time by average the and _ and The and density. u component of fluctuation are written velocity. 62). are the often portion will pereddy These at in to have If the on the blades.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION If an orderofmagnitude following boundarylayer check energy is performed equation on the results: above equations. the (635) Equations layer a gas obeying (630). . is a prime even equations on a small of velocity of continuity. could at the never present boundarylayer threedimenequations represent flow. of velocity motion. velocities. ideal (632). BoundaryLayer a turbulent boundary blades. temperature u = _+ u' v=_+v' p = _+ p' (636a) (636b) (636c) (636d) (636e) and specific heat are p = p + p' T= T+ The 170 fluctuations in viscosity. thermal T' conductivity. which threedimensional mechanism of turbulent twodimensional computers solutions fluctuating is to write of mean and by of velocity. to fluctuating approaches exact components to the solution magnitude The due to the solution of the The of turbulent timedependent. sional. stretching ever. u'. twodimensional. flow has that motion on the boundary layer with main irregular fluid closedform is very mean Solution layer Methods over the major separation in their or (mixing (see since are fig. the fluid There flow. decrease a resulting motion fluctuations solutions superimposed are Yet. of turbulent momentum. pressure. of pressure. time arc the Howcannot enough NavierStokes of eddies. motions) fluctuations present. the due are than two first since the represent mixing those is the so complex not feasible stresses of greater important. Turbulent It is desirable of turbine probably formance. handle mesh flOW. occur Turbulent is not turbulent. the is denoted density. and (635) are the laminar compressible boundaryflow of equations for nonisothermal. largest the threedimensional to equations. components approach. as follows: calculations available of these components the equations and for So the fluctuating In this example..
_). Reynolds for which flow properties momentum. the form of the to the presently are a new equations. the analysis (632). o(p'v') ox + o (639) (640) /5 =_RT (641) 171 . time of additional equations or th_ before of the of temperature. are substituted for arises incompressible in thees or Reynolds average additional terms over add equations stresses. orderofcomfor laminar term in the two Reynolds with momentum unknown to the original equations. u'v' is the in the reason. are analogous however. Boundary (636) into Layer equations (610). and performing following boundarylayer o(_) . timeaveraged listed and set "apparent" pu '_ and v'. equation. following (637) (6a8) These flow.) . o(_. (_ and equations Notice. for (627). relations and then equations of equations performing for turbulent. the This making adds three to equations presence a new of the (623) and (u'v') only (624) stress two Layer into equations all turbulent. compressible These They the are are product not and are not considered. These So these value in equations energy of stress turbulent pu'v'. flow. new For where terms this three (636) terms parameters are calculated into the and stresses. magnitude pressible. an orderofmagnitude incompressible. are called of u r and equations empirical stress unknowns boundarylayer available.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY negligible as functions If the continuity. thereby Turbulent unknowns Compressible relations and the flow: yields of equations (633) Boundary (636) then equations Substituting (628). substituted problem for the expressions approximations turbulent boundarylayer Turbulent equations Incompressible can be solved. analysis boundary Substituting (611). yields layer and the flow: the (612). (629).
boundarylayer be discussed. describes FIGURE 67. as the (643) for twoonly which various compressible is really concerned.Boundarylayer velocity profiles. obtaining SOLUTION After parameters Included pressible velocity OF profiles BOUNDARYLAYER are discussed of the and solution the EQUATIONS important will solution.= + We have now derived and as are for far the basic note basis boundarylayer incompressible at this for the time many. that many solutions solutions equations and this are dimensional. 67). in K or °R. some methods flatplate. is the absolute total temperature.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1 0 _ k 0_ 0 (642) where T. will be the methods. 172 . We should only boundarylayer boundarylayer methods under presently exist circumstances. boundarylayer the These starting equations laminar point turbulent. flow. incompressible Velocity One tions the of the principal results of the The Profiles from profile most in the boundarylayer boundary layer mathematically solualong obtained velocity velocity is a description blade surface profile (fig. as comas well defined. and is defined as T.
INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY Outeredge of boundary layer_ / !  °e:J u / (b) J IlL rll//llllTII/I/. flow is while used flow are A com mathematical by Pohlhausen expression (sec ref. in thickness.. profiles those velocity The the a y from at surface."__ ( :. the velocity boundarylayer as that from the 1 percent tend (fig. and turbulent velocity profiles.y Y+ d are defined in terms of a dimensionless (644) shape a. b. velocity external distance Alternately. as a function u is the and equal the to _:_.. distance external in that is often velocity. FIauaz 68.Laminar (b) Turbulent profile. and parameter u wherc dx (645) }. c. la) U/1/:frillill/I1 (a) Laminar profile.2 X (646b) c= (646c) 173 . 68(a)) blunted u/ue for to be parabolic 68(b)).m. a = 2 +6 (646a) k b = ._y+c ( . is the defined distance layer free the blade. from the from at a distance velocity from the blade u. where u/ue surface. the dimensionless y/5:. monly originated for laminar for turbulent flow (fig. 1) : laminar ua The constants _}b ( . stream _]. Velocity shape. differs of the velocity velocity the by dimensionless in the boundary u..
0 FIGURE 69. velocity external the boundary It is possible to define .= Ue _ kS/. (646d) Velocity Velocity law profiles profiles for various values of _ are flow are for turbulent often by the power . layer.:!== 0 o. d = 1  6 shc. outside is very however. since because close 8/. 1 .. .2 . y/Sfull 1.. the these arbitrary.H/ (647) Pipeflow Reynolds is most n can experiments number appropriate be related to and show varies other _fand that the exponent 4 up n is a mild 10. and it is necessary The definition from the transition place the the to thickness Parameters equations These the to first form are are the factor define inside This at most disH.8 Fraction of boundarylayer height. 0. it takes boundary of boundarylayer velocity asymptotically.4 .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Shapeparameter. the the is of layer a small thick in terms momentum parameters. to that which the wall. BoundaryLayer boundarylayer important parameters. wn in figure represented 69. thickness namely placement thickness in the next section.6 . 0. The plate. Definitions Solutions often In obtained to placement order thickness thickness boundary little attains distance 174 of the thickness define of the is rather layer a value from are described of Important twodimensional of three 5.Laminar veh)city profiles. in the velocity boundarylayer importance.n. which function value The of the of n= 7 exponent the dis from to about for boundarylayer boundarylayer the momentum flow on a fiat parameters.
of a boundary layer.s. flow within the boundary As seen from figure 610(a). layer due to the influence of _[ass defect = t/=81u. external of the the distance [. of flow displacement which the as shown potential is displaced boundary equation as a consequence 610 shows. 'lllll/ll/llfll 'llll[lll// (b) (a) Actual FzGva_ velocity profile..u..pU) yO dy (649) Solving for _ gives = .=_.])isplacement Equivalent profile equal mass flow. layer. decrease _ can in velocity be defined in the by the As figure (p. `n (u. thickness (p.. for compressible boundarylayer can be defined with the decrease in mass friction is given by the help of figure 610. by in kg/m This 3 or lbm/ft mass 3..u) ue II!_1111/_ rllllilllllllll r/Ill..INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY ue Ue .ll (p. _ _0 (651) presence of The friction loss of momentum is given by in the boundary layer to the 175 .1 f_. on) dy (648) where the the layer.u) Ue _ yO f. where the velocity differs by I percent flow. the density.(u e . (b) thickness 610.<.U. distance outward pe is the 5. (a) llill. for ness as that from The the distance from velocity the blade u. in the defect free stream outside of by a It is boundary distance integrated thickness.u. external displacement thickness 5.='.1 The displacement peue _uO [_.y=Sfutt can be represented in figure field 610(b). pu) dy = I 1 J_:z"':"u (Pp_u_) 0 dy (650) for incompressible dy= flow reduces 1(_) due dy to _=.
moves of increased layer pressure stream. (657) . general twodimensional.20 = Y=PJfull pu (u. the the boundary follow In general. and boundary used in H for layers. Physical boundarylayer especially are the parameters principal besides _. parameters Interpretation from a blade a region of Separation or a casing with fluid an adverse particles pressure is deflected the gradient occurs. boundarylayer for threedimensional.y=0 u) dy (652) This momentum defect from the momentum of purely equation potential flow can be represented by a distance 0.u) H for both dy= ] " y=0 l"/e 1 dy (655) flow is The defined form as the factor ratio compressible thickness 5 H =0 and incompressible of displacement to momentum thickness: (656) There These are many three. from pressure cannot. other and however. studies. stream. the kinetic Thus.u. energy. point of separation is flow in the layer in the _yy/_=0=0 Figure 176 611 illustrates separation occurring along a surface. u) dg (653) " y=0 Solving for 0 in this equation boundary gives the definition as of the momentum thick ness for compressible 0=Pe LIe2 _ y=0 layers pu(u_u) thickness dg= _ y=0 pc_le 1flow reduces to dg (654) The momentum for incompressible 0=/_e2 y=0 u(u. defined by the p.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION l" y= I/ull Momentum defect = I d pu( u. of their from move the in a particles When retarded toward exists penetrate small surface behind direction defined immediate separation fluid along too and in the the main far of flow boundary stream. into into layer retarded region main is transported away When the the a surface. 0. The and reverse At separation. the point of separation opposite to the external as the limit between forward neighborhood of the wall. in because away fluid and some the of the surface gradient general.
. FIGURE 612. boundary From equation u = v = 0.. For such a profile. wall the = g dx to Ou/Oy. distribution in a boundary (c) Velocityprofile curvature. cquation curvature its gradient. and indicates of the dp/dx. changes profile that O_u/Oy _. depends a velocity would in a boundary figure 612 (b) subjected to a decreasing pressure. surface (i.).. pressure immediate of the gradient. in the flow). layer with pressure decrease. with dp/dx equations and gradient the velocity in a steady and flow considering only at the u(y). . By relation the examining between Prandtl's pressure that adverse of an to infer boundarylayer gradient separation pressure (623). 177 ..e..Velocity (b) Velocity gradient. LSeperation point FIOURE 611. sign and with exist that velocity the the (658) finally in to the equation only profile shows (658).o >o . y (c) (a) Velocity profile. we have dp \Oy_/__o We dp/dx can now through relate velocity of the on the at the profiles The wall.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER TItEOR_/ (._x_ undergoes separation.Velocity gradients as flow o .... Figure layer neighborhood velocity 612(a) profile. curvature pressure 02u/Oy 2._\\\'. distribution will occur decelerated conditions it is possible presence being dp/dx>O.
Velocity distribution (b) Velocity gradient.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION indicates Furthermore. layer with pressure increase. decreases we know will as y increases. equation 02u/Oy _ corresponds are Consequently. in a boundary (c) Velocityprofile curvature. 178 . dp/dx) a boundary a decreasing (negative of impending which would that separation exist pressure Ou/Oy fig. blade Ou/Oy figure is positive 612(c) for all y and (658). zero at some distance from 02u/Oy_= profile. FIOURE (a) Velocity profile.Pressure distribution on a turbine blade. 613. cases there 613(c)). Stagnation Sudion _'_"_Adve rse gradient Fmuug 614. a positive layer pressure slope This decelerated increasing indicates is. which for all y. in a boundary (adverse has (fig. O. that 02u/Oy _. However. This is a point that It follows O_u/Oy 2 must must exist a boundaryflow potential for which of the in a region of retarded • j Y :::_/Point of inflection (a (b) TRY _y2 . Ou/Oy. of inflection corresponds be less than point layer velocity to positive dp/dx. From to negative pressure indicative a profile due that to an 613 (b) not shows flow figure surface. O_u/Oy _ is positive since in all the surface. subjected profiles Figure with near gradient). is the that have (the slope negative layer velocity form of of indicates dp/dx. the that is negative to which 613(a) Here. 612(a)).
¢9V oy= in m'/sec or ft'/see. can dp/dx). the velocity the surface) used the profile velocity must in the profile have flow boundary at the equation layer point (623). 8u/Oy with occur the only 614 blade.)179 . of Blasius (ref.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY (positive point (with that. assumptions gradient). and The was Boundary theory first the was Layer on a Flat Plate first reported in 1928 in 1904 in Germany. work 3). separation surface. Since of separation it follows separation regions surface of of a is = 0 at the when indicates The a point is retarded distribution as of inflection. and (659) (6e0) The following are the boundary u=v=O U=Ue conditions: at at y=O y= oo (661) With the use of a stream (659) function into _b. Therefore.. On a fiat plate potential The solution boundarylayer flow at zero incidence. the velocity and Technical Prandtl's in 1908. in deriving potential adverse Figure turbine readily part pressure a typical danger zone. solution published as an mathematical fiatplate translated p(x) reduce 82u to be published with solution by NACA was also later steady equations. (i. therefore.e. on the where in will have a of inflection. 8u to is constant u _+v where v is the kinematic viscosity 0U o_ . from dp/dx the ffiO. NACA of 4). portion is taking pressure as far place. the major seen to be the rear of the blade diffusion of the suction Laminar Prandtl's It was equations This later Memorandum German Incompressible boundarylayer translated (ref./p. is concerned. 8u is constant. Blasius the following transformed ordinary the partial differential equation: equation differential f d2f+2 dy 2 where f is a normalized stream function daf=0 dy 3 (662) f(.
tabular values solution a very d2f/dy _ as functions of figure and turns of 7. degree solutions recently. with and velocity asymptotic (662) in the expansion More a high profile at the wall cannot form be solved of a power the Howarth of accuracy. 615. . Y n.2 . rather at _= oo exactly.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION which depends on the dimensionless ycoordinate. the curvature solution point. where = (664) This equation has the following boundary conditions: f=_fy=O at n=O (665) df _=1 dy Equation mate able (662) df/dy.6 .0 Boundarylayervelocity ratio. 0 .BlasiusHowarth velocity profile for flow on a flat plate.1 = _. u/ue Fmuaz 180 615.4 . further possesses abruptly from it in order !_ E s. Since = u/u_. gives small an at a suit for .8 1. and This Blasius expansion 5) solved provided df/dy profile obtained about the being joined Blasius the an approxi71 0 and = equation for f. series two (ref.
INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY to reach inflection. the Reynolds Rezu. for a semiinfinite at zero incidence boundarylayer (_s_zz=5. analysis we had the performed obtain equations.664 v]_ (672) gr. the curve to has a point Prandtl's of since for y = O..72 v_ (671) 0=0. parameters the (670) follow to the Blasius ing relations important boundarylayer for laminar flow on a flat plate can also be obtained: = 1. O_u/Oy _= O.x p number can be expressed as (667) In order to make equation (666) dimensionally correct. From the the asymptotic value. pUe 2 = 0.u ¢c (669) The in constant laminar of proportionality flow. we can say x2 or Rez (668) _is. we obtain the can be obtained useful relation from Howarth's flat plate for the numerical solution thickness and is equal to 5. So.332 _/":_U_g = 0.328 D = _ b _¢/_plu2 g (674) 181 .0 With the use of Howarth's for other solution v/_ equations.332 (673) 1. relation orderofmagnitude boundarylayer (666) For a semiinfinite flat plate. At the wall itself.
d'x p (676) 182 . and equations momentum particle.328 __ "uJ where I"W (675) shear total width length stress drag on the surface. to y=_/. number that Cf Re_ dimensionless Reynolds be noted flow over boundary (671) the drag or skin friction based on plate coefficient length l for fiat plate It should flow. will Rez < 106. thickness._. in the to satisfy he satisfied region over the the where In the the boundarylayer boundarylayer region equation (eq. lbf/ft _ N. wall and boundary layer. y=O (650)) equation integrated thickness the definitions (eq. a mean from over are remaining differential boundary a mean by and of dis(654)) incom(630)) (623) only is satisfied._) u2 dx u. only from to turbulent than that the entire For Re_ > 106. a value of the plate. of fiat plate.328 CI = 1.. ft m. flow. du. lbf D b l of fiat plate. of fiat plate.n. Integral formula. based original the on work Equations the laminarboundarylayer finitedifference exact solutions methods. all of these only where length will relations are valid only that for laminar is indicative that is._. they are valid layer point. occur. If equations if the For thickness is obtained integration (630) placement are pressible momentum boundarylayer from (eq. on both sides m. and result. and was was not Von later approximate are methods K_rm_n's translated Khrm_n's 6). are since yon (ref.. Von momentum Khrm_n equations equations realized was published in 1912 in Germany for every close by satisfying in the or Such fluid to the the by NACA the external necessary Instead. equaBoth extremely integral that it methods means provide cumbersome. following dO+ (20+. (674).TURBIN]_ DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1. ft N/m_. flow is approached of fluid (623) conditions. transition and the expressions layer by in does the leading boundary calculated edge of the equation probably to (675) drag will be valid If transition be larger to the transition then Integral M_thods for Solving the LaminarBoundaryLayer The tions two are principal by integral means of solving and by solutions. = gr. laminar. of laminar to turbulent equations plate occur. introduced.
10) is first applied 183 . its derivative quantities existed to one another without forms universal gradients. the profile. A unique correlation was chosen that reduced the solution of an incompressible problem to the evaluation pressible heat formation compressible One laminar Their stream of the method or pressure transfer of a single fluids by Rott is negligible. 6. the for conditions leads u/u. compressible flow. of velocity were among defined these boundary gradients. proposed best by integral layers applies axially to incompressible is that integral. Cohen and Reshotko's method is based on Thwaites' correlation concept. and layers. flow. solutions specifying of these relation For for the To do this. method number 10) was extended to used to that to comwhen relate of 12). Stewartson's transformation (ref.. = pT. shearing at the wall. at the outer (677) where layer. form placement to an ordinary provided This that allows thickness. A surface temperature level may be specified. a trans Stewartson methods boundarylayer to appear and of Cohen boundary to compressible symmetric and or incompressible surfaces. and heat transfer is calculated. 8). and and Thwaites' the Prandtl (ref. T_. from equations. in this boundarylayer for the velocity thickness. those and method He relates nondimensional the that use of exact pressure a nearly followed and Pohlhausen's all for Thwaites exact collected approximate does the compared solutions the A famous Thwaites' not require wall shear. 9). well in areas dimensional arbitrary of adverse distribution performs sure gradient. improve among distributions. Pohlhausen (refs. uJ d_ + (20+_MJ0) u. by assuming it is known to give poor results of velocity work (ref. us to calculate momentum was the 1). the subscript (676) e denotes or (677) profile." have families Thwaites distributions pressible differential and and layer. du. profile under equation form the His is asthe (676) work assumed "Velocity various disto was by Proauthors different was known laminar that velocity incomof Equation for the sumed stress obtain published Pohlhausen files. factor with for As a result. It developed evaluated quantities favorable Thwaites selected a single representative relation. his method the simplest. solution a type laminar adverse of ordinary at the wall.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY For laminar. flow solution 11 and over recognized is equal be 1. They could solutions. a solution in 1921 was thickness. 7 and earlier first to use equation incompressible discussed Pohlhausen's in regions and Although tried to solution of rising extend which is probably pressure. twofreepresCrabtree (ref. to date Reshotko It handles for the (refs. edge of the boundary differential a suitable 0. boundary The velocity chapter._2_ d_ p.
13) which number 1960. point worked starting first should in many produced form any the discussed. Then utilizing equations. a the is then to equations velocity. methods (ref. is as general to have as Cohen values slightly for FiniteDifference Methods Solving Equations LaminarBoundaryLayer Finitedifference have digital work good reference recently computers.g Oy (678) where mixing rz is the coefficient. to velocity. of density. times 14 and results EddyViscosity Turbulent Before length" used stresses matical leads stitute flow. in equations of of very recent give amount prominence Clutter technique of Krause short and development Another done 16). conhave boundarylayer and the These approximation methods the upon equations These means. which. laminar A. 0_ r_ g 0y (679) 184 . With and Young Reshotko's. and the of these of reference firstorder parameters transformed interdependence quantities 11. (ref. nonlinear. MixingLength BoundaryLayer Concepts Flow for viscosity" concepts to relate mean the values are given governing values solving of the concepts current of methods "eddy to date to the into only stresses turbulent "mixing been Reynolds of velocity a matheequations.. different the differential related freestream of these carried resulting important published but from which 1. method allows in terms concept The solutions of dimensionless of a unique is assumed. developed motion Reynolds the mixing components. parameters out by relations. be of the by this By differential and pressure. in N/m stress s or lbf/ft in turbulent 2. running the because boundarylayer of the 15). are expressed the surface Thwaites' the exact are The heat resulting transfer. he introduced flow by putting a for the Reynolds A. evaluation for In the derived calculation Luxton and of all the boundarylayer the Prandtl parameters. shear stress. flow mean equations boundarylayer with for the on this Boussinesq coefficient In analogy the of viscosity in Stokes' law for laminar t_ Ou r. the referencing flow. in developing of interest with come methods into this is that relatively Smith and for solving have (refs. substitution containing transformed calculation problem mean differential of the in 1877.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION to the Prandtl's wall shear. a considerable These on the methods computer.
However. to find introduced His mixing theory with with the relations coefficients for mean kinetic whereas clusters requires all of which of a Prandtl since a completely argument length the the of gases. empirical applying eddyviscosity therefore. Reynolds _. in N/m _ or lbf/ft viscosity. first expression suitable has merely expression. mixing (682) than l is the mixing (681)). AY . expression little (eq. of large stress flow. for the dra_: by the Prandtl's calculation is roughly of turbulent proportional Turbulent . the eddy stress viscosity can then is analogous be expressed paa g Oy With the use of this concept. In 1880. kinetic itself deals Deriving in reference is called is somewhat The main Prandtl's analogous difference hypothesis. and In the free theory Prandtl's fluid good deal the 1925. g (682) where (eq. to the and energy The hence equation difficulty _ depend between where with these an eddy. can be defined. concept can be applied is that A. length is equation length. has (682)) been been with replaced that The of Boussinesq unknown eddy unknown equation motion to the 185 gained. different approximation mixinglength to the is that stresses. stress. microscopic macroscopic expression model final motion motion for is of particles. Prandtl's of his physical 1. His rt = of discussion of turbulent is contained expression PU'V' p l 2 Ida da = g }_y dy in m or ft.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY where rt is the the turbulent concept shear of eddy. conductivity method necessary velocity. Reynolds path in the concerns mean on velocity. terms p to the as Pu'v' g (637) and (640) kinematic viscosity (680) p= u/p. where introduced or virtual. that second On comparing viscosity _ of the is generally Prandtl's it appears l of the more (681). the It is. =Thus. _. shear concept particles. Turbulent (681) in equations such as can be written as A similar or a virtual.
to be independent It is far simpler eddy over of the magnitude we cannot assumptions this of velocity. and work in 1950 in the in many improved which current the was data equations published making used in by Geran boundary of works technique whose term used by NACA in many to propose for an incompressible 1931. to the Ludwieg was for (ref. a method layer. brodt's with 20). whose work was (ref. is obtained although to make _. does published 19). So. flows. pressible and thus the turbulentboundarylayer He replaced thickness. and from (682) say about if the it is a the the is assumed fluid. was by NACA Maskell's to in I955 method. proposed not use the and in Germany solutions flows. boundarylayer Gruschwitz in Germany equations. proposed layers. boundary Tillmann. mixing is a purely about 1 than viscosity that for constitutes superiority of Prandtl's Integral Turbulent expression Methods of Boussinesq. Because of its simplicity is still of integral work. followed. transformations Maskell. turbulent like It applies method use determined the approximation parameter from an empirical auxiliary differential equation. proposed Stewartson's momentum methods method is directly integral for solving for incomequation integrable is relation methods. there the are both Just integral since as with the and laminarboundarylayer finitedifference Both for turbulent the first turbulent A rash calculational and the 10) (ref. momentum an translated is still used methods of these methods exact solutions was in for solving approximate for solving His work most was (ref. Solving the BoundaryLayer Equations equations. incompressible boundarylayer twodimensional and relatively layers by for incompressible boundary Reshotko symmetrical Truckenlayers. boundary treated Tucker integral profile. likewise equations. The momentum rotationally accurate turbulent were first and velocity skinfriction in 1952 and for both method integral results. been power the Prior utilized law. one with and used turbulent Compressible methods the to their K_irm_tn momentum an assumed of several boundarylayer empirical 186 . The Ludwiegskinfriction formula is used to calculate the skinfriction disand gradient. in 1951 turbulent determines relation This improvements Gruschwitz. skinfriction are 18). (ref. of them published empirical in 1949 and 17). provide flow are now impossible. many empirical equation. turbulent solutions. length length of the length and the same local the result function. the momentum A profile by an empirically obtained Tillmann tribution pressure translated and and. both laminar is simple equato determine a separation point for flows with adverse Truckenbrodt.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION square mixing property mixing of velocity. had the When adequately in 1957 equation usually relations. tion.
equation. years layers. best was in incompressible transformation LudwiegTillmann flow with concept through to simplify point method. for handling A great deal of a Bradshaw. (This momentum integrating and the equation.) were flow and then with ofmomentum to the is obtained to that equation compressible integrand surface integral respect momentum and and are and equation method. boundary the skin momentofmomentum several boundary One turbulent simply the and same of equation. equation integral with auxiliary to usually equation the momentby mulby a distance distance. SasmanCresci ReshotkoTucker gradient. Tucker's pressure applicable These use are (ref. 11 and 12) work and source is the of information additional analysis compressible boundarylayer of Herring for and Mellor Solving Equations the FiniteDifference Turbulent Finit_difference equations large and (refs. boundary energy to appear. gradient the was present. 22). It is where results is used of Maskell in a form for the powerlaw skinfriction transfer 21). boundarylayer Smith have done Ferriss. techturbulent (ref. uses the turbulent compressible somewhat momentum are solved disthat of pressure based on 22) 24). Cebeci of this work 29) based 25. of numerical An approximation layer friction. with the simultaneously. McNaUy the CohenReshotko An niques. The of Stewartson's moment Reshotko ofmomentum integral uncoupled the relation through and the when ago. heat (ref. equations. analysis. the best compressible programs for (ref. for compressible referenceenthalpy distribution are used zero. was of the and then an auxiliary used. Spalding turbulent is going boundarylayer on in this and no method is yet 187 . present also developed for the turbulent turbulent another 30 and time. suitable shearstress profile transfer and 10) also uses the momentum expressed 18). for computer today and to Cresci It method. methods use developed equations field at the the turbulent and 27). 23) has developed (refs. layer equation. turbulent than It is still widely integral layers of the but after is that the methods boundary an extension analysis. extrapolated. method 31). the the until today. gradient. uncouple These This is located as the application of Eckert's velocity Separation becomes available used in many available of Sasman is made equations. and of the still (refs.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY pressure tiplying normal The solved heat form (ref. ReshotkoTucker integral no attempt introduction momentofmomentum obtained from equations simultaneously tributions boundarylayer boundarylayer results analysis in regions a computer SasmanCresci on shearstress is better recent The of equilibrium of adverse program (ref. Patankar the work Atwell 28 have have and and portion methods recently begun to date on have the Methods BoundaryLayer for solving (refs. at predicting separation (ref. 26.
J.. Proc. ELI: Similar Soutions for the Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Pressure Gradient. NACA TM 1256. vol. Inc. REFERENCES 1. pp. 8. Aeron. THWAITES. TRANS. SCHLICHTING.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION clearly (refs. Ser. Gt. AND CRABTREE. whole of a method requires be achieved mentioned been the some by of solution familiarity studying The to show REMARKS suitable with some present the the of the to a particular various more boundarymethods recent of the avail references methods of herein. AND RESHOTXO. ROTT. : Approximate Integration of the Differential Equation of the Limit Surface of Laminar Motion. STEWART. 252268. K. H. 1950. WARREN E. 1938. any edition. Aeronautical Research Council. CO_EN. vol. 7. BLASIUS. Roy. HERMAN_ (J. PRAN_rL. solving the boundary CONCLUDING The layer able. 19. : Correlated Incompressible and Compressible Boundary Layers. F. (London)..: Approximate Calculation of the Laminar Boundary Layer. Aero naut. pp. BYRON. 12. no. that of selection problem This have solution can been has techniques. of Two the relatively most prominent turbulent recent publications methods. 3. . 22. 547579. John Wiley & Sons. (London). no. especially boundarylayer turbulent flows are involved. KESTIN. 10. Dec.. no. K.. NACA TM 1092. J.952.. A. 200. 164.. : Generalized Methods for the Calculation of the Laminar Compressible BoundaryLayer Characteristics with Heat Transfer and NonUniform Pressure Distribution. CLARENCE B. 919. McGrawHill Book Co. 84100." On the Solution of the Laminar Boundary Layer Equations. 6. 1960. POHLHAUSEN. 1956. CLAaENCS B. NACA TR 1293.)" Boundary Layer Theory. available. 13. NICHOLAS. R. 2. Aug. both layer. LVXTOS. 1928.. 1. 1956. NACA TR 1294. R&M3233.: The Boundary Layers in Fluids with Little Friction. YON K_RM_N. R. HOWARTH.: Transport Phenomena. Inc. 1060. 1921. Aug. : Motion of Fluids with Very Little Viscosity. many for difference. AND YOUNG. pp. STEWARTSON. Nov. E. 8. integral superior 32 and and 33) finite to any compare of the others. Proc. 1949. Soc. vol. L. NACA TM 452. Soc. Quart. 9. L. 1946. vol. pp. Math. ANY RESHOTKO. Sci. Feb. vol.. 1949. ELI: The Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. A. 18. EDWIN N. D. 5. Roy. 1. Zeit. TH: On Laminar and Turbulent Friction. B. AND LIGHTFOOT. BIRD. Mech. 188 . Set. intended variety discussion historical and where development the complexity solution of the of methods problem. 1962. 11.: Simplified Laminar BoundaryLayer Calculations for Bodies of Revolution and for Yawed Wings. Britain. f. COHEN. 245280. L. 4. A.. pp. 553565.
P. ECKERT. pp. 3. AFOSRIFPStanford Press. J.. July 1967. Computation of Turbulent Conference. : Approximate Calculation TwoDimensional Incompressible Flow. Boundary Layers1968.. 639647. Program for Calculating Compressible Layers in Arbitrary Pressure Gradients..: 1955. : Numerical Solution of the TurbulentBoundaryDAC33735. 1925. SMITH. Feb. vol. A. AND C. vol. pp. E. 28. A. of the 1950. vol. KRAUSE.. J. E... WallShearing Layer in Aircraft Laminar MASKI':LL. JAMES. 8. Heat Mass Transfer.: Solution of the Incompressible Turbulent BoundaryLayer Equations with Heat Transfer. 1963. Layers. T..C. vol. A. 5. 29. Rep. 1. Heat Transfer. (AD656430).. J. Equations. D. 23. no. 523535. NASA 26. vol. PHILIP K. ANn SMITH. Sept. AND CEBECI. and Heat Compressible Transfer. Rep. 15. Sept.: Calculation of BoundaryLayer Development Using the Turbulent Energy Equation. Press. A. no.. D. 30. R. J. A. O. 4. M.. 9. Aeron. Establishment. WILLIAM D. SMITH.: Investigations Boundary Layers. 1970. T. pp. 10. 0. AIAA J.. Fluid Mech. Royal for Calculation of the 19. NACA TM 1379. E. A Method of Calculating Compressible CR1144.: A FiniteDifference Method for Calculating Compressible Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers. 13891411. lent Energy Equation. no. pp. 31. 16. 133143. Nov.. 4. 1967. SMITH. COLES. H. AND TUCKER. PATANKAR. 18.R. NACA TM 1285. 20. Layer 1967. 1.. FERRISS. pp. AIAA Turbulent Boundary J. Stanford Univ. IX: Summary. ROBERT Sci. W. no. G. 10. pp.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY 14.: 24. ELI. G. AND MELLOR. AND CLUTTER. 20622071. AND MOSINSKIS.: FORTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Boundary NASA TN D5681. 1. V.. E. NPLAero1287. 1957. S. 30. 92. 12311237.. P. M. M. DARWIN W. B. 92. 1970. L. 1969. pp. EGON: Numerical Solution of the BoundaryLayer Equations. J. AERO 2443. E. H. 17. 1951. 0. M. 3. Oct. May CERECl. 32.. Apr. T. P.. ANY CLUTTER. Aug.. AIAA J. May 26. S. LUDWIEG. HERRING. 593616. ED8. D. AND ATWELL.. Int.: A Method Layer 1955. 189 . MAURICE: Approximate Calculation of the Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. 1969. B." Solution of the Incompressible Laminar BoundaryLayer Equations. Turbulent Boundary Layers.: Proceedings. in Case of Plane and Rotationally Symmetrical 21. National Physical PATANKAR. 3. Jan. ANY SPALDING.. V. 7. BRADSHAW. N. Jan.: Machine Calculation of Compressible Laminar Boundary Layers. M. 1965. Stress in Turbulent AND TILLMANN. of Quadrature and Turbulent Boundary Flow. pt. A. SMITH. Douglas Aircraft Co. C. no.. CEBECI. 1968. ANn HIRST. 585 SASMAN. 1967. G. SPALDING. 28. Layer with Pressure Gradient 1966. of the Turbulent Boundary Rep. HUBERT. NACA TN 4154. MCNALLY. vol. RESHOTKO. AND CRESCI. 0. 27. no. : A FiniteDifference Procedure for Solving the Equations of the TwoDimensional Boundary Layer. J. O." Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary 1967. D. vol. DARWIN W. TRUCKENBROIYr. 22.: Calculation of BoundaryLayer Development Using the TurbuBRADSHAW. 1970. 22. AIA_ J. no. in High Velocity Flow. Lab. pp. Basic Eng. no. 25. : Engineering Relations for Friction and Heat Transfer to Sur faces 587. pp. vol. vol.
SP216.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 33. NASA 190 .. ED. H. BERTRAM.: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. MITCHEL 1969.
by eq. °R K. fwidth of flat eq. To t U Uo U temperature K. in eq. (N) (sec)/m_. °R of blade m. N/kg. f in ydirection. Btu/(lbm)(°R) at constant (644) lbf/lbm for a flat plate D d on flat plate. (ft) (°R) m. P p R Re Rez Re_ r (lbf) / (lbm) on L and U0. g H i J 1. (667) (613f) (675) profile. temperature. 1 . m. (647) (613e) (°R) by eq. upstream velocity of blade. static total gas constant. as defined in eq. ft Mach number external to the boundary exponent dimensionless static pressure. temperature. f f dimensionless body force of body of body of body constant. layer eq.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARYLAYER THEORY SYMBOLS turbulent constant flow mixing in eq. n thermal conductivity. sec velocity velocity of general in xdirection. Btu/(sec) chord).17 (ft)/(lbf) defined by eq.g. W/(m) unit vector in the zdirection characteristic length (e. (ft) pressure. as defined on x. f. f in zdirection. ft in the ydirection J k k L 1 M. K. N. used lbf/ft (K) velocity defined 2 . on l. 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu (K). defined N/kg. cp m. (625). °R defined m/sec. (644) coefficient. u in the 191 . f in xdirection. unit vector conversion unit vector constant drag heat coefficient in eq. (656) in the xdirection constant. (644) pressure. lbm/(ft) (sec) A_r a b Cf e.. (Ibm) f. K. (644) plate. N/kg. force force force function N/kg. (613c) m/sec. ft S T T. by eq. J/(kg) based based based (625). ft constant in skinfriction constant specific total Blasius general component component component conversion form factor. vector on the turbulent N/m2. (663) lbf/lbm lbf/lbm lbf/lbm (sec _) J/(kg)(K). dimensionless freestream component ft/sec ft/sec xdirection. Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds radius constant absolute absolute reference time. lbf stream vector. m. the blade Prandtl mixing length. by eq. by eq. °R in eq. as defined surface. ft length of flat plate. 32. number number number of curvature in eq.
ft m. m/sec. ft parameter (sec)/m at reference m2/sec. layer. m. m. ft dimensionless ycoordinate. m. N/m_. (664) a dimensionless quantity much less than 1 Blasius transformed ycoordinate defined by 0 momentum dimensionless dynamic dynamic Ibm/(ft) p P P_ thickness. in eq. ft/sec dimensionless velocity component ft/sec component ft/sec dimensionless of general of general in ydirection. m. ft _yuu ¢ m2/sec. at the ft/sec outer edge of the boundary (613d) m/sec. lbm/ft 3 freestream density external lbm/ft laminar turbulent shear function Blasius constant stress a shear shear stress. (626) ft_/sec 60 Superscripts" time t average component fluctuating 192 . ft coordinate parallel to boundary surface. stream function. (634) m2/sec. ft2/sec to lbf/ft lbf/ft lbf/ft 2 _ 2 the boundary layer. (613a) Y Y Z xcoordinate. ft displacement thickness. kg/mS. ft2/sec eq. surface.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION U U. (613b) ycoordinate. tO X xcoordinate. kg/m _. defined by eq. ft (680). velocity velocity vector vector defined defined u in the u in the by eq. freestream velocity V p m/sec. (645) To. N/mS. defined boundarylayer eddy viscosity to boundary m. general velocity vector. by eq. thickness. ydirection. defined by eq. ft coordinate perpendicular zcoordinate. shape viscosity. N/m2. (N) m. m. viscosity (sec) viscosity. (N)(sec)/m_. lbm/(ft) temperature (sec) kinematic density. 2. m/sec. by eq. T! Tt Tw _0 at the wall. defined by eq. zdirection. stress.
The bladesection blade plus discussed. the flow from from loss loss is the of the the of the fluid boundary viscous blades with the fluid layer these over past that losses the the from and endwall In particular. determining the with presented layers. analytically methods associated primarily obtaining dimensional an introduction boundarylayer analytical theory boundary endwall design the chapter express kinetic on kinetic unity. row. in fluid for loss developed These part Efficiency coefficients definition with the and the of the of kineticactual coefficients. coefficients as a fractional these efficiency can be obtained is consistent subtracting bladerow Before loss These proceeding coefficients. and in chapter station distributions trailingedge. layer. r. means of losses resulting and the in a turbine surfaces. covers to boundarylayer buildup and and mixing herein Methods from the the experimental losses refers for twoenergy the kinetic flow with described. in bladerow of fluid through in this ideal based from used discussion chapter highvelocity can be freestream theory. expressions loss the is to minimize blade the energy energy this 2. blade row. mixing by for primary up on the the trailing friction cause blade loss edge. losses to twodimensional threedimensional results are also objective from the flow A fundamental loss resulting final energy energy through by the and 71. and velocity pressure of boundarylayer locations with and the and parameters associated dis193 the aid of figure associated bladerow velocity pressure distributions will be introduced . W J The builds are blade the the surfaces. fluid. loss are in terms of the Therefore.CHAPTER 7 BoundaryLayer Losses By Herman .Prust. pressuredrag resulting downstream flow of fluid resulting of the lowvelocity Chapter of which This boundary boundarylayer 6 presented the the surface friction.
. that boundary yields a reversal be analyzed the of flow at the four surface._ Station 0 r la r" '1 (a) . same A separated is thicker._. manner.. (b) Pressure and velocity distributions. to an attached its associated and cannot indicates boundary layer in the station only. !..... will be referred 71 (a) locations . if at all.1 Station la _r] I'''I rq Station i Station 2 (b) FIovr_ 71.Station (a) Station locations.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION cussion layer. 194 .$ ./ .  Total pressure Static pressure Velocity Station 0 v. locations and associated press_Ire and velocity distributions. higher Figure refer with loss..
of course. Although pletely which some uniform will be later downstream downstream identified. certain momentum the desired introduced in the last chapter and will be reviewed specifically used for obtaining be introduced and defined. coefficients To describe presence (displacement in flow. blade. blade wake across row but constant the surface trailing little surfaces. in addition. the these a real the region in to fluid adjacent the freestream of the flows the to over the a surface. pressure result row. Station layer has fluid the flow angle a_o. In some place. the various that a number stations.. boundary pressure stream flow from the chapter. a uniform Station layers profiles Station total la developed as shown region value pressure beyond is just 0 represents pressure within on the in figure at the of the solid the the inlet trailing surfaces to the blade as indicated edge of the varies There Total across friction where with the too. at PARAMETERS a loss results between by from full and parameters thickness. At station the void.1.u.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES to in this station. occurred. surface. blade trailing in velocity from pressure pl_ at the station loss has the the the is. mixing by free stream profiles pressure stations with the occurred. kineticenergy zero energy form As shown varies the due to both the figure layers 72. and take assumed tests that stream constant but and seldom pressure boundary across exists layer conditions shown free is a universal static convenience can be approached somewhat in component in actual and flow angle at stations this of the is merely stances. of downstream mixing are again to of the has taken place. usually do vary la does applications. Here station._ to zero the surfaces. boundary 1 is just has filled This are edge. region V:. only the blade where in figure entire constant loss occurs. Velocity edge.. mixing state variation flow can be accounted a com a hypothetical convenience. is indicated the assumed 1 (b) region. here.I. velocity resulting factor) friction of fluid the on fluid the from Some others will of were height fluid and surface and friction boundarylayer velocity the losses boundary thickness. momentum. the trailingedge loss. uniform. 1. blade 71 (b).= po' to the static is assumed la. freestream static P']8. 71 (b). boundarylayer are used. value through This V:. and order been simplify analysis discussion. and showing la and associated profiles In have inlet have both flow throughout l. po' is assumed. BOUNDARYLAYER When between in the velocity surface _:. layer. 195 . the that The station1 static Between mixing. complete and flow angle sufficiently Station 2 is located velocity at a distance totalpressure of variables Uniformity Experiments across infor. At this in figure The and freeno varies blade as is la.
_full ¢////////. Surface _'//////////_ FmuRz 72.Typical boundarylayer velocity profile.) dy_ fo_.... Equation ary layer conditions the loss in mass ideal flow which displacement flow of the would pass fluid in the for bounda length _ yields states is equal equal to the to the through (or an area) thickness. is defined O(pV_):. The displacement by thickness 5. is defined (0V)s. thickness. (ideal) that m. v =. m/sec. pV (pV):. is indicative of the (72) momentum O.u (pVV/. ft ft/sec lb/fP normal to boundary layer.=L where $ V P (pV) f. dY_0 _lul! (pV) dY (71) displacement boundarylayer fluid fluid velocity. Equation in the boundary layer loss is equal 196 . of the fluid in m or ft.. m..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Freestreem velocit L Vfs =i . which loss.u pV 2 dY (73) states (73) that to the thickness.Full boundary W)odty./ layer height. Solving ['/"u =o The momentum by thickness dy_ dY fo_:=u ... thickness. which is indicative of the loss in mass flow. ft m.=Jo where the 0 is the momentum in momentum fs:. ft Y distance freestream (71) in direction ()f. kg/m3. density.4.
for ff yields [6/. H = 1 (79) (or)f. and (or'). (7fi) Ratios of the aforementioned thickness terms are also used as basic boundarylayer parameters.=_ where the ideal ff is the kinetic energy energy to the _0 (pVV_. =o . fluid flow in the which Equation would Solving loss in kinetic energy equal boundary is equal a length (or an area) thickness... of the ideal energy of the in m or ft.V dy_ fo sf"'z . (74).BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES ideal momentum equal of the to the 8= ideal flow which would pass through a length (or an area) momentum thickness.. can fo s_'" similarly (pV )i. The form factorH isdefined as H= _ (77) Substituting dimensionless equations distance (72) y as and (74) into equation (77) and defining a yyields 1 Y _futt (78) 1 (pV)I. (710) (78) into equation (710) 197 . An energy factor E is defined as E= _8 Substituting yields equations (76). dY Solving PV_ for 0 yields dY (74) fa'"' o pV (pV)t.) dY _0 (pV 3) dY (75) layer pass through states (75) that to the thickness.. The energy loss in kinetic defined energy by be expressed in terms of an thickness _ _b(pV_)/.V 3 dY (pV3)s.
_"/ _+1 1 (_) 2 _ 198 .f[ pV2 (pV_)1.25.__ (n_l_l)(3n_q_l)I1 (n+l)(2n+l) (3n+l)(5n+l)+(5n+l)(7n+l) Af. that n is most is here general are often between 0. _Jl* (3n+l)(4n+l) (5n+1)(6n+l) 2 E. _+• I o t + (5n+l)(6n+l) (714) where (715) As. while as yl/n. dy often represented by a power Velocity profile profiles type for turbulent flow are of the V _yn (712) where Note profile pressed The wherein the value this 1In of the power exponent profile (647)) with as n. V/Vcr. dy fo 1 . pV dy. 3n+l A/. same exusage. (3n+l)(4n+l) A_.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION ff E= fo pV (pV)/. 1.1 and the 0. The with form in chapter exponent value 6 (eq.pV 3 (pV3)I. for specific used that as the expressed as yn. and The in terms ) can be integrated flow can be velocity 1 are critical factors for turbulent freestream in reference exponent equations 3A f. 5n+1 exponent. on the and (711 Therefore. exponent theory the being reference boundarylayer is consistent derived. { F'(713) H= 1 (n+l)(2n+l) and + + A_. expressed equations follow numerical the With in series expressed ratio to be used profile. is consistent is expressed however. dy (711) (pV)j. this velocity form. the form of the resulting 1 4 n+l for n will depend equations and energy (79) n and the derived 5A_.
row. The be ob In turbine losses the flow is confined quantities are that boundaries blade meaningful to express herein through expressed defined "dimensionless trailingedge of zero Freestream criticalvelocity ratio. (713) at the V/V. For any constant just type instance. 1.._ = 3n+l for turbulent from factor exponent presented They drag the compressible (716) (717) Values of the form and energy factors flow are shown in figure 73 for V/V_r varying from 0 to 1.8 E" \\\ I 2 \ rL00 1 Power n usedin velocity equation VNfs =yn r]. equations H_. it is part thickness thickness thickness. to where heat at constant critical approaches Vc..BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES and _.47 .6 2.Effect of compressibility (Data on variation of energy from ref. 199 . It can be seen that the form does The refer certain tained where simpler the ideal parameters parameters" the energy factor. physical pass on the is almost independent boundarylayer to a boundary aerodynamic directly the and from more so and layer work. is the condition.25 ' _LS0 6 7 1. flow. of the blade as a fractional row..o .4 I 3 4 Form factor.2 hJ L= V/21.4 and varies much n. (VNcr)fs f0 //0. parameters on any For to the could are momentum 0 to 1. is the ratio wlume.5.r 1) flow incompressible zero.0 1. the are n varying more than factor and useful can however.) factor with form factor. of can in energy general of body.c=2n+l and 2(2n+1) E_. thickness. the termed basis are directly of a body work. H 5 FIGURE 73. (Mach of specific and heat at constant fluid For and velocity. (714) pressure in m/sec reduce to specific or ft/sec. the of V V¢r. _ 1.
dimensionless boundarylayer are expressed ($*= s cos a(pV)I.o.Nomenclature for trailingedge ala region.o. These suctionWith the losses the row are dimensionless and the assumption thickness that parameters thicknesses. e. corresponding channel.. 8 COS 8 COS 0t (_)(pVa)l. (718) (719) (720) pressuresurface thickness momentum. as p denote total Thus. the by 74. quantities losses as indicated suctionsurface loss plus pressuresurface Stot=$.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION "%.. flow conditions parameters and energy that for one must represent the sum of the same. s.O.A_p Otot. suctionsurface of the value. a (723) 200 . 8 cos c_ (721) 0* =  (722) _/ tot _* . ideal total of the The in all channels are could the obtained pass by through bladerow are the dividing channel one in figure dimensionless in flow. S COS ot(pU2)$. and value.A_ where and defined thicknesses the subscripts tot. the value. previously pressuresurface boundarylayer respectively.  s cos a O.FOp q/tot= _.. in terms thicknesses. or bladeloss.(pV2)i. composed for a single channel...\ Station _ _'_'_ _____ _ J t 8 Ys _cos FIGURE 74.
the kineticenergy previously. trailing edge within loss. beyond the deg the losses respective is assumed station edge.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES where dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless 8 O_ 0* displacement momentum energy m. just the bladerow edge. (726) it is _b_* 201 In order necessary to evaluate to know the the loss coefficient of the values dimensionless thickness . Equations tum. ft from axial and thickness thickness thickness direction. loss coefficients. blade. (723) as fractions trailingedge 1. aa (Refer of the (724) to fig. row can if the express energy.) in m or ft. Losses _la. These the and ties for the trailing (722). blade edge. ideal la. in flow. surfacefriction If a trailingedge dimensionless (725) equation (724) reduces to ela  1 . of their thickness trailing to be zero. equations be subscripted to apply at either or station BLADEROW As mentioned kineticenergy friction. of the to station as t t* S COS _la (pV3)i.t* _ from equation energy (726). will be presented.la _1_= (s cos oq__*_s cos axet) where 74 Since trailing t is the for the this bladerow trailingedge in the only region the thickness. methods expressing for evaluating trailingedge. can thicknesses boundarylayer dimensionless _11a8 COS O_la(pWa) fs. nomenclature coefficient thickness it represents is referenced is expressed la. defined energy of the as the of the loss in kinetic actual SurfaceFriction The energy kineticenergy as a fraction be expressed as loss of the in coefficient ideal terms kinetic bladerow flow. respectively. and loss coefficients LOSS the mixing losses losses COEFFICIENTS are and to be expressed them in terms in terms of the of In this section._*_. momenquantiwithin blade fluid spacing. flow angle (721).
In for computing pressure data of (see fig. measure taken. Instead.. in . the dimensionless flow across one displacement blade 8 can be expressed of the pitch s cos . the as dimensionless momentum and energy thick can be expressed 01*= (pV2)1o. in the tangential direction.V}.). and the totalpressure loss survey blade space._..1...(pV)i..1ot*s cos a._.. related the p0'bladeexit P'lo for one express which thickas to friction directly.. Equation _l_a = It* fo pV . The and pressure the the thickness determining density the density required total data upstream and $1".TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and either the dimensionless experimentally to are displacement or analytically.a(pV)s. 71) p.. 1 V pV = fo and [1(V_f. pressure determination.. as will be discussed experimental velocity and velocity Experimental it is impractical pressure pressure static loss consist data functions._..d (u) (729) ¢l_a  (pf. These can be evaluated herein.). Since the dimensionless boundarylayer thicknesses the losses of the blade row as a fractional part of the ideal quantities could ness pass through the blade in terms row. the values.] (_). loss are po'.cos a_of0 (pV)_odu _i*.where (727) u is the simplifies distance to s cos _o(pV)_.. pVd Assuming 202 that the total temperature T' and the static pressure (730) p_. d (728) In a similar nesses manner. (727) in m or ft.
that equation dividing for station of these la and again by equations P. once first (lb)/Btu at constant (734) the Subscripting values recalling at la. T'where g J Cp T fp_C. (sec 2) Btu/(lb)(°R) for freestream the second.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) J/(kg)(K)._oa.. 1.../ . constant. the density From ratio the (p/p/. we can V_ 2gJcj. is a twodimensional 203 kineticenergy loss coefficient . division of equation (732) P_s. ratio (V/Vs.) isentropic l. and pl=/po' the totaltemperature of chapter 1..7" \Pla] pin _ (vl)/v (735) With the density (728). Po' and T_°aa = T_= yields = V 1.T I.32. can be related to the pressure P'ljPo' as follows: p (p_V.=T_o. (730) expressed (735). thicknesses.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES the boundary layer relation. (732) with yields ' T'I.l==po' ' and plJp/. from equation and ratios and Then..a==plJpo ' ' 7 \p 1_.. 778 (ft) pressure..la=To').1=Since ps. are the same as in the free ratio stream...)la as follows: equations can From (151) be and related (152) to the pressure definition (733) ratios and 1. and the thus in terms evaluate of the the loss measured pressures equations by equations it is now possible to integrate dimensionless coefficient $1= boundarylayer can be computed The kineticenergy determined (726). ' (from (731) the by ideal equation gas law.y_>/v 1__ = 1\_/ (734) conversion conversion specific heat constant. The (p/p') isentropic write velocity relation.\po' ] . and velocity (733) (729). and 1.
_o(pia)i/'y[l__(P"_(_')i'_l'l' 5" Ia.) radius of an annular full stator loss coefficient cascade. cascade cascade order and are taken the calculated arylayer to tip: that or from is.h cos al.SD _" j COSalo r dr (739) S..I. the on data either from a twodimensional (The annular In data are hub row.I.1. r dr _la. k cos al_ r dr In terms of the measured pressures. by radial the annulus.. from cover a turbine.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION coefficient.. h (737) cos alo r dr d/_. r dr Ol*.(pV 3)i.. boundfrom twodimensional as shown thicknesses thicknesses previously Threedimensional integration ff' h $*_(pV)I.a_ " (pV2)f.. and to obtain at a number or rotor a threedimensional for a blade of radii sufficient dimensionless for each obtained are then to adequately boundarylayer radius. cos alo r dr (736) "' (pV)/°jo k cos al. it is based a constant often is...D (738) "* (pV3)s.>"'[ \p_41 j cos al. these integrals are expressed as L:i.. r dr 204 . can be. r dr cos. .:' <.
_ r dr \p0'] &:_. of reference was 4 to compute turbulent boundarylayer 01a _ . \_ccrlfa. The and the better computer include one (ref. While less calculating not costly kineticenergy as reliable and time the basic require in use use of analytically boundarylayer values.231 on an integral method solution method of reference 3. la × (743) 205 ._ = \_ / j j cos ax. also be evaluated values methods and with are much for referenced programs the average the determination.t_* where t_* is the trailingedge dimensionless value thickness for the blade loss determined as experimental consuming boundarylayer computer at the solution. coefficient (742) radius _1_ can anaAnaare are and is used to represent Analytical thickness lytical lytical discussed not layer Center another An simple.3_ = 1 .SD loss coefficient is then obtained in a manner _1_. r dr (741) cos a. 2) based based on the finite difference equation used in the study thickness momentum 0._*o. parameters solutions BoundaryResearch and boundarylayer in chapter methods currently 6. to obtain.a r dr The threedimensional similar kineticenergy to equation (726) : _/la.aD.BOUNDARYLAYER I_SSES O*a(Px_}l/v [ \po'] j cosaz_rdr (74O) \p_0' ] j cos a. NASA Lewis at the mean row.The parameters.
TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION where parameter X defined along blade by equation surface from lb/(ft) (715) from forward to stagnation rear point. energy and and equations Ela at station la for each various in this surface (713) pressure the 01a. and E_ coefficient chapter. ft viscosity. (743) and by and adjacent any (744) pressure for to the of the of the can be known be the as evaluated freestream those These both blade. boundary velocities freestream can be required layers. the of this boundary exponent equation layer n was is presented has from a powerlaw reference obtained n Equation surfaces equktions bladesurface channel Values form for factor both the obtained thickness evaluated turbine calculated thickness ably tained from directly parameters sufficient have to procedure reference meansection have In (1) by the shown the The be close from (743) of the (743) must The and be (744) . simplified 5 for predicting losses good method average agreement threedimensional with experimental twodimensional by this are mean is commonly of reference obtained results. analytical boundarylayer $_ can For values. The sumed development that the 4. would results parameters from stator from for the to the kineticenergy presented in reference of two not the earlier studied and equation experimental (743) programs (743). for xj 1 the and suction densities values obtained 5. as those could be surfaces values. m. l bladesurface (N) distance (sec)/m_. of references to (738). the loss for the twodimensional at a number length and surfaces. equation the computer from Threedimensional equations would have boundarylayer (736) the to be analytically variation somehow. over over In general. for the will boundarylayer individually however. Hla. momentum were reasonobobtained calculated thickness of radii also a of Such method method made: section. considerable used. ft point. It profile. equation is asIn stagnation distance m. assumptions surface the blade momentum can be represented dimensionless momentum thickness 206 . be as accurate 2 and parameters The the the determined blade so the losses Results following blade at 3. would endwall from require effort. techniques factor flow analysis of the from form equations suction the blade blade Hla and discussed in chapter in equation With the loss 4. the H as required factor and (714). are L\_Iy. to establish determined. surfaces. forward (sec) in reference velocity referenced the 4. 5.
. 75) Ab = 2ch where Ab C (745) total blade blade inner surface chord.s FIGURE 75. over the blade radial length 207 . • I. ft 2 and area for one passage cos a.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES Approximate area o{one end wall sc as) cos 7 t Approximate s_de of blade F/:iiii::iilfi:._i_!_i_ _I_i_::_]_. taking the average momentum loss O'a. and The area can on the inner area and outer end walls surface. blade..Schematic late diagram the effect of equivalent of endwall twodimensional area on blade loss. ft m. angle._ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::× :':':"::_i_''"' • " "::::_!:i:i:_: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::i ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ============================= .. ft endwall (sum of suctionsurface and pressuresurface areas) h The of one blade. ft _ deg end walls (sum of inner and outer endwall Now. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: • _''" _ _%%_.. given is loss per unit momentum configuration spacing. is the same equivalent as the average twodimensional of the loss per unit as shown stagger surface angle area on the blade approximated 75. is (746) Aw=2sc where Aw total blade surface stagger area areas). height.. outer area m.. to those having be satisfactorily in figure equal by an a conmean blade blade. of passage m2._i_.. cross at the section of one equivalent (see fig._. m_. blade used to calcu (2) and stant the (3) momentum the blade section.i::iiiiiii::::i::ili::fiiiiii::iiiil direction [ ]!{i]_[i] []]]_]]]_][:i]i[]i][][ ]]]]]]]][]i]i !1 ][_ ]]i]i]_]![i]i]i _ __:_..
4 that (749). which previously. Meansection the energy boundarylayer satisfactorily dimensional tion (742). surfacefriction :1. but are the 208 has occurred. include (750) are obboth the are were la. TrailingEdge The with mentally kineticenergy flow past the or analytically. surfacefriction from differences _1. determination.e= :1. which e. reference number data for 6. kineticenergy it is indicated in equations loss coefficient in reference the loss associated either experitrailing determined Experimental edge loss coefficient _te are obtained twodimensional loss coefficients loss blade and trailingedge loss. static pressure loss coefficients edge at station the determine trailingedge downstream obtained include must mixing.3 D (748) 5" = Hla . corresponding 71.Experimental values of blade loss coefficient blade trailing _te that edge can Loss represents be values and form used are used factors as is done for the energy and defined (748) is then form factors. Loss coefficients loss _1_. loss loss. which include between experimental both surfacefriction include only the loss coefficients _1_. which determined and are loss. and that the locations.3D . m01*o D 3 la.3D and _ Ela * .e_. just loss include Loss only loss. Thus. of the tained as described surfacefriction same manner except measured at different based where the blade on data the coefficients trailingedge in exactly totalpressure loss The surfacefriction within the yet blade not at occurred. and loss. sheetmetal of surface Analytical presented reference determination. where the trailingedge drag joints coefficients Included of different in loss. experimental discontinuities. obtained (749) Although they The from can be threeequa were originally in terms and of individual thicknesses.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and modifying it to include the endwall losses yields 01"3D=0" The are then threedimensional calculated as fAbtAw_O* energy and (1_ displacement sc°sa') thickness (747) parameters * _la. trailing To just loss and trailingedge which has coefficients both surfacefriction a location 1 in figure measurements little be made to station row.In for a large are experimental .mOla.
BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES T ¥I _u11 FIGURE 76. loss due edge in the body over and to the the path will airfoil trailing It is indicated discontinuity discontinuity. placed boundary layer in a turbulent equal approximately of the body. the in figure of the of height full boundarylayer part 6y=u. equal to the to the As indicated to or less boundary effective height than layer. edges. m.Schematic diagram of body in boundary layer. of the corresponds loss due be treated as if the loss were in reference the as shown pressure Thus. trailingedge with a properly a dimensionless loss is obtained subscripted momentum by form combining of equation thickness equations (722) : e*. ft lb/ft (751) effective qell=h J o 2g dY (752) Drag is related to momentum thickness as (753) D= O(pV_)I° g Therefore. of body. behaves Therefore. dynamic 6. bolt similarly the and rivet that regardless heads the to flow due of different pressuredrag geometry. coefficient dynamic pressure q_f_ is expressed as N/m. representing (751) and the (753) 209 . geometry. to a body drag of a boundary h. ana of the past flow direction a trailing placed of a small height 76. D = q_IihCD where D h drag height drag and the on body. lytically layer.
defined (756) and "y+ 1 (757) in equation yields (755) and using by equation (715) 1 A fs \_u/l/ Performing qy!=(l_A/. be evaluated.k _... is related (754) dynamic to the can The pressure angle ala as discussed the effective to in chapter dynamic pressure 4 (eqs. presto (426) Before sure the (427)). ] (759) . Assuming layer tion and (164) that free the stream total are temperature the same 1 gives and and static the pressure ideal in the (756) boundary equa using gas law and of chapter To' P/* 7+ I _ I. (757) To' Substituting the parameter equations A _. L\ (i/.LrhCo 8"./ 210 _ (6n+l) A_ +.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION q. qy.. the equations the use h of velocity simple (712) power yields dr (755) variation of the (78) and in the profile boundary presented layer can be expressed Combining previously. For turbulent with flow. ratio of the is equal effective be determined. zt/ (4n+l) + (h_y \(_f.z/ 2 n l_l I. . a binomial expansion and integrating then gives ) [( h ) 2" 1 ( h _4'_ A. dynamic equation freestream ql. V/..(pV2)fs 8 COS 0_1  (754) g The flow angle and must a.
a square t _futZ ted S COS oq (761) the edge drag and coefficient 0.16 for corresponding basis In such as equation trailing a case. (4n+ 1) + The boundarylayer sum of the (760) well known. the form for compressible flow. = EO*. (763) 1 . 5to.) 2s cos a_ L\__! 2n+l _.) 1 . fractional To find to find and (714) loss the the in bladerow losses energy are trailing corresponding fractional and loss coefficient. from it is necessary (713) and (717) in flow and kinetic evaluated flow and from used to obtain As a simple equations (716) approximation. and 0. flow. (760) due to and the (761) blade give the edge.Ay. A_. • • ") 6full  Equations momentum kineticenergy factors. In many used +"" (760) at least which turbulent (760) should when flow).(1 .14 for a rounded Frequently. instead will be available.375_The information equal edge.22 for C9 can a square contrailing of _i/_.22 The for in reference to 0. . t 5_t. assumes 0". that be set trailing verted edge a rounded trailing (761) reported in reference 7 and to the same are 0. = He*. 6 indicates values edge. (n_t_ A/. equations for incompressible 5*.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES Substituting thickness equation t in place (759) of body in equation height h finally + (754) yields and using trailingedge 0" tCD (l_As. energy. simplified (commonly (6n+l) in equation values.=0. and d/*. flow thickness suctionthe and and _f_u to be used pressuresurface flow. for incompressible (762) and for compressible flow. be the Equation n is not is adequate: incompressible is for compressible following n=l/_ cases. for equation. (764) ( 765 ) 211 .
TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION At station flowed into 1.D Dimensionlesstrailingedge thickness.olo . of the edge blade trailing edge. expresses of the The the loss in kinetic flow that would energy if the as a fraction trailingedge loss thickness loss exist (766) of the loss for 77 by is with friction is dis trailingedge against on kineticenergy trailingedge the momentum with but Expression this thickness coefficient in figure incompressible for several thickness. in loss energy loss.05 . coefficient is approximately. not rigorously. coefficient.8. energy factor E1.Effect of trailingedge blockage on kineticenergy factor H1.015 . O2O Ratio of trailingedge thickness to boundarylayer height. U_ul.005 0 . to boundarylayer as expressed friction kineticadditive bladesurface trailingedge combined equation loss (766). drag coefficient loss coefficient. fluid has a void the area behind blockage. which is just downstream the trailing Therefore.16.O i .5 _ .! _ . t* FIGURE 77. of a kineticenergy loss coefficient . of the surfacefriction and trailingedge loss in terms cussed in the next section.10 . Cv0. Form 212 . and there is no longer due to trailingedge is obtained as a kineticenergy loss coefficient * This ideal were loss coefficient kinetic the only values This (761). equation not the energy included flow is plotted of the ratio figure The is based flow of trailingedge loss associated Therefore.3. 1.
_1" from of equations as Analytically. boundarylayer (with parameters are flow as follows: adjusted _* 1. where thickness ideal surfacefriction be expressed the friction boundarylayer on the basis at station thickness of the same la where (61". the Adding combined the loss to the loss loss parameters due to surface then yields and trailingedge (771) (772) (773) (767). discussion and trailingedge loss loss a kineticenergy at of the a location trailing and coefficient trailingedge can be obtained corresponding edge. 213 And the value of _1 is then obtained from equation .t ) where friction parameters the subscript at station f refers 1: 6x* = _I. ideal at station blockage) is a trailingedge Therefore. 01". and (729). the Los boundarylayer expressing by making to way. In this appropriately The measurements downstream values (728).BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES Combined As stated thickness combined experimental which versions obtained is just experimental in the parameters friction and Friction of the and TrailingEdge loss. . of &*.( _bl'! = _bx_ s scosa_ cos al_.IA_ t. can be added. with there by the boundarylayer adding they the must and trailingedge 161" thickness loss parameters to the at station trailingedge (767) 1 are loss./_ _*(s la s c°s Olat al" COS ) (768) 0* and 0* (s sc°sal" (769) . and _ll* IY l./AO t. flow. the parameters ideal 01*a.f 'fire (770) friction. flow ideal the true blockage. value station we obtain subscripted of _1 is then the the 1. Howflow 1. obtained Before The ever. frictionloss expressed there dimensionless of an ideal thicknesses flow without blockage the account to the for _l*a) are in terms must trailingedge la. (730). to at station frictionloss blockage be comparable is no blockage. 01" = Ox.
either thus leading to possible po'p2' error. the with equations were available. is unknown. they in in be these for twodimensional flow by integrating at station even 1. and the mixing the previously loss This downstream is impractical determined of the for experimentally would loss coefficient loss. that the com(1) (2) the for the flow had enough For the with large. mixing Equating (station the mass 2) yields The basic equations those for conservation and momentum before in the mixing flow rate during after o(pV)1 From conservation cos o1 d in the =cos a2(pV)2 direction (774) we get of momentum tangential f0 and from (pV2)l sin al cos al d of momentum =sin in the a2 cos a_(pV2)_ axial direction we get (775) conservation g fo Although can the static ' p_ d + equations survey (oV 2) cos 2 al d are data angle. beforemix station is not station 1. values reasons. it would and then where the not be possible to determine 214 . error loss are or and (3) after and the small of aftermix values would be constant would obtained possibility of measurement of aftermix be relatively analytically determined experimentally analytically the beforemix 1) loss parameters. mixing. and as described the has aftermix loss that Loss includes the surfacefriction loss. the trailingedge $2 is determined is obtained pressure plete To determine mixing the mixing loss. subscripted were available = gp_+cos _ a2(oV2)_ (776) flow. momentum axial direction 1) and (station aftermix conditions are in the tangential direction. integrals variations could If experimental pressure written for any beforemix location at which data used to evaluate the aftermix loss coefficient. $_. that these use (station the of length. where reasons: require by subtracting measurements _1 from blading several be made occurred. while quite long. if desired. The aftermix in this section. The length for complete mixing. In the case evaluated conservation also be applied above equations and to threedimensional could flow be directly These radially. for determining of mass.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION AfterMix The aftermix loss is the total loss. aftermix loss would have to be corrected for sidewall friction mixing mixed.
01"\ _ _2=11+2 COS 20t1[(1_1*) )+co 2 (782) 2(]81*01*)_ For steps compressible are required flow. howedge. for _2 is incompressible sin 2 al (1 . equation 1 to 2 al(181"01") along (TI'= obtain with T_'). and flow. The Equation void. 1. it is it is only angle aftermix variations flow measure ments where possible used herein used are usually and pressure downstream somewhat constant (776) If static station of the 1. to express differs from for equations parameters.a for station I and combining it with (777) equation (729) (pV2)l Substituting (776) momentum mined: yields equations the in terms d (777) = (18.*01") and equations boundarylayer (pV)f.1 (pY_)l. and the following to obtain 215 . is desired. trailingedge previously analysis station (728) can be boundarylayer in reference as was done 1 only to station is no there of reference l. in simultaneously kineticenergy aftermix solution compressible incompressible flow. no explicit _: solution was found. In most and survey of the damped across cases. that in terms in reference the la herein. where in that beforemix 1 corresponds station subscripted written as fo Subscripting (777) yields equation 1 (pV)ld =(1Sl*)(pV)l.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES the ever. mixing loss completely the final made pressure and by a little experimental loss that farther have are to angle (774) means.. _. the the the can (pV2)s0a = sin a_ cos a_(pV2)_ _ a2(pV2)_Wgp_ and the (pV2)ioa=cos ideal be gas solved law conservationofas shown loss coefficient._l*. trailing out.l into parameters cos a2(pV)2 (778) (774) of mass to and deter(779) (780) (781) (778) for equations following of the COS conservation previously oq(181") sin al cos al(1 81"01") gpl+cos These energy reference for both For equations..
)t. the frictional loss..)2 (___.+1 X/(. \pi / 1 Values the blade of _ include row.. the all the bladerow trailingedge loss.V_.74i 7. .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (1) The parameters C and D are computed from (1As.*_ ]__1" from / (784) (2) The quantity (V.tsinal\ is obtained (l_x*0..)_ (3) The density ratio .7_."/.'_('. j._x(1.. _2 is obtained from (789) (p._. loss.il (o/p'): is obtained from (7s5) (_)_1 (4) The total pressure ratio (')._.*) cos (787) . Values loss of of $1 mixing 216 . \:]'I ''('') from (786) is obtained i0_I P c.yC )'_l+(.a) ?+1 +cos_ _7 at(X*t*01*) (V)' _ y.yC / . and that the is.t (783) C D V =(Vf_.y1)D.l_ (5) The pressure ratio (p/p')_ is obtained p p from v (78s) (6) Finally../Vc.o.'_[I p2'/po' . \O gc.
z is the fractional loss in available BLADEROW In the effect this various section.0: Meansection blade suf/ace friction loss o 70 I 100 Percentstatorareasetting I Do FIOURE 78. _miz = &. types LOSS CHARACTERISTICS and analytically and will be discussed of Losses experimentally loss coefficients and at three loss _1._. agreement loss coefficients is reasonably analytical .m.3D" ! ? ¢._ where _m.Comparison stator of experimental area settings.) 217 . edge.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES include all the bladerow losses except mixing loss.3D represents friction. stator reference a given loss the compares determined of kineticenergy coefficient the the endwall $1. In general.m v g_ ¢t_ Mixing and endv/all losses Trailing edge loss ela. Therefore. from values for The Comparison 8.0: e2.. the stations just at the and at three reprethe mean just loss loss drag.04 __ 0 Experimental results t'3 Analyticalresults O_" . including taken settings losses. angle different trailing mean the trailing section. 8. obtained coefficient _2. for and within determined compared. obtained total and loss plus trailingedge annulus tra_lingedge mixing. and analytical (Data from loss coefficients for different ref. and blade the represents and surfacefriction friction section. the experimental represents radius) edge. losses and of the experimentally considered geometry will be presented of bladerow on losses and Distribution Figure analytically different senting blade beyond at the the (arithmetic mean 78. m . (790) energy due to mixing. coefficient between good.
ve separate is seen mixing losses.6 I . m.o . shows separately losses...05 0 el.. Effect A study layer 218 of the of BladeRow of turbine in reference Geometry geometry 10. the energy about vary vary The will will The and loss was about endwall 2 percent loss.Mixinq loss Endwall loss ¢.7 (VNcr)i. and total but confor this onequarter with loss. (Data from ref. as well stator This figure also shows as the other bladerow In this particular ideal loss The case.8 I .9 Meansection ideal aftermix critical velocity. m 0 ela. of the case. that each depending endwall 15 percent remaining of the of the total on radius 10 percent the losses stator may spacing.Variation of loss coefficients with velocity. indicate blockage about up the of course. FIGURE 79. . friction of the loss was about total loss. taken locity.) Figure row. made will.. The the shown losses.01  Bladesurface friction loss o . stator as was primarily vary with total onehalf of the trailingedge trailingedge in figure loss ratio of the design. the loss is presented assumption . be of 77. 2 I . 9. In that on Losses boundarywas effect on turbulentflow study. the coefficient to decrease the slightly mixing velocity. loss.5 I . with mixing does which the loss In general. trailingedge was design. m . but 78 does gives not reference some idea of the the the distribution and variation of losses endwall in loss with and in a stator Figure with blade 79.30 . coefficient increasing from Loss 9. loss breakdown comparison sequence.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION A el. .
(792) fC. of the form equation equation threedimensional an equation 0. shows the percent in h/s This optimum two area.) where the as blade given ponent hess order Reh is a Reynolds of the c/s._ (O.. is based of O. curve chord is no minimum for height Reynolds number).BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES made that the momentum Reynolds loss per unit number blade surface varies as the inverse of the chord to the m power: _Re7 C _ (791) where equation into Rec is a Reynolds (722). variation (50 results and 712./c. 710. to the the The 711.. and.). as explained m is set equal 10. geometry variation little 711 effects optimum in figures than also area. known. the The of endwall considerably of the 711 loss is more sensitive of figure number to solidity 711 and heighttospacing counteracting reflects endwall influences 219 . of the of the value dimensionless variables variable thickin geometric of each obtained number 9. that ratio.(".ot_ (_)1_Re__. can be expressed ratio reference The minimum of solidity. The on the variablesheighttospacing Reynolds becomes analysis. Reynolds of a blade excessive. 10 are shown in figures minimum reference figure in each 710 from and be varied Comparison shape Reynolds around of the Also is the nature that associated or more) variable... momentum was in terms h/s. effect and number and then based using on blade chord (747) c.*¢¢ (_)m _1 +cos a. value a exthreedimensional a function solidity solidity thickness parameter Reh. and number momentum geometric height in reference therefore. As indicated. Expanding substituting to express the (791) by multiplying yielded dividing by like terms. the respect 08* with loss for a function In reference to find the minimumloss (there values of the other With the loss around analysis shown with in the variables optimum the from each change Figure value results number may loss. the relative variations in momentum values were then of the a wide causes Figure from results determined. the counteracting of changes with some.. derivative to each to _/_ in the based on blade height h. increase shows 710 in momentum in chord solidity but not shows that and the loss.
.) variation in he_htt_ _<'//////////(/ I I I I Y/'////// ///i I _ = .8 LO 1.4 I ..Variation of momentumthickness ratio with spacing ratio.6 FIGURE 711. 10. (htslllhlslopt FIGURE 710.2 . J" _i/I .=_ i.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION /_ _/////_/////// I ! I I i I / H n . (cls)/(c/s)opt I 1.Variation of momentumthickness from ref.6 t"_ I _ .21_'. \ _'_Z_ _ b. (Data from ref.7 ._I 1.) ratio with solidity ratio.2 Z6 Heighttospacing ratio relative to optimum ratio.'/ _:. .4 ==o I \ IX.==P J/..=L4E.6 LO ¢/s and Reh are constant L4 1. j'. 10./ his and Reh are co Lo .8 2. 4o .2 Solidity ratio. (Data 220 .4 J 1.
then.s o I . results from the Reynolds number to the m=_ crease in height Reynolds height Reynolds number of different turbomachines..: 1970. B. Layers. PATANKAR. Calculating Pressure Compressible Gradients. These results show that results used in improved in correlating performance. AND MISER. Press. STEWART. 10. RehlReh. of Turbine D. change from of momentumthickness While the in inlet figure the indicates change in geometry.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSEF t //.6 1.0 ratio a change in Reynolds The curve to the an inThe with in / his and c/s areconstant .4 I . 4._ I . (Data from ref. WHITNEY. for in CompressibleFlow Rows in Terms of Loss Basic Characteristics BoundaryLayer 2. l). mental acteristics 1956.: Analysis of of TwoDimensional Blade 3515. shape. 1967.. WZLLIAM and D5681. TN Downstream Characteristics. WARNER. STEWART. ef n r FIGURE 712.: Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary WARREN Investigation and WARNER with L.. McNALLY.. Turbomachine NACA TN Program Layers 1955. J.s I Lo I _2 I ]. loss being inversely proportional power.Variation of momentumthickness ratio with height Reynolds number ratio. S. number also result number could change flow conditions.6 I . CRC FORTRAN Boundary Turbulent Arbitrary AND SPALDING. /////Z I ! I 1 _Ls 4 _ 1.4 I L6 HeightReynolds umberratio. the number is sometimes performance REFERENCES 1. JAMES NACA W.) Figure height Reynolds number 712 Reynolds shows due the to variation ratio.4 //[ .: RM ExperiCharE55K24. I7 L8 2. StatorBladeOutlet Theoretical Results. V. BoundaryLayer a Comparison 221 . Laminar NASA 3. L.
: Analysis Turbomachine E56F21. Variable THOMAS Stator P. W. JAMES RM IIStator 1968.. WHITNEY. Air TM HERMAN and TN JR. MOFFITT.. 222 .. with AND BIDER. BERNARD: Turbine Design Effect of for NASA Performance Detailed Losses a SingleStage with 130Percent Suitable Area. Midland Park. Predicting ROBERT Y. Stator Performance 1972.. JR. : Effect of Certain of TrailingEdge Turbine Stator Thickness D6637. by Changes WARREN in Blade J. FluidDynamic AND HELON.. STEWART.. Viscous 1956. MOFFITT. Variable 9. HOERNER. SIGHARD W. 1965. PRUST.: NACA ThreeDimensional 1956.] Affected AND WHITNEY. Area on HERMAN W. PRUST.. etry NASA 8. BERNARD: Turbine Design Effect Suitable Area. Air Cooling.. WARREN Parameters RM E. the 7. STEWART. Stator BoundaryLayer Losses. Area VStator 1968.J. MISER. Drag. RONALD J.. on M. Geometry.. F. of for NASA Performance a SingleStage 70Percent HERMAN Cooling.55L12a.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 5. on Detailed THOMAS of Losses P. WARNER L. W. WARNER Losses L. in AND WONG.. AND of BIDER. N. GeomBla_ling.: Use of MeanSection Turbine 6. PRUST. TM 10. X1696. of NACA X1635.
m. m. ft distance distance fraction fluid blade ratio velocity. ft thickness. ft height of body placed in boundary layer. . ft point. exponent P q Re_ Reh r 8 T t U V X forward layer. ft K. N/m. thickness. ft at constant area walls m2. ft spacing. 32. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu blade surface distance from (791) velocity lb/ft lb/ft _ 2 profile forward to m. ft constant boundarylayer boundarylayer 223 . constant direction. ft exponent turbulent absolute dynamic chord height radius. ft _ (783) for one passage. °R m. Y Y (x o_m to boundary to boundary deg thickness layer expressed as of boundarylayer axial flow angle stagger of specific direction. in tangential m/sec. C C parameter by equation by equation coefficient chord. ft/sec surface normal normal axial from at from m.41. Btu/(lb) (°R) Cp D E drag. conversion constant. A. ft direction. pressure. N/m2. defined of end defined m. number number m. lb/ft parameter defined energy factor kineticenergy conversion form factor constant. ft rear stagnation point. blade absolute trailingedge distance fluid distance m. ft heat temperature. deg to specific heat at 3_ pressure m. blade surface surface from angle volume displacement thickness. N/m_. ft 2 (715) m2.BOUNDARYLAYER LOSSES SYMBOLS Ab surface surface parameter drag blade specific area of one blade. by equation loss coefficient 1.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec _) g H h J l m n blade height. m. stagnation m. Reynolds Reynolds m. 1 . J/(kg) (784) (K) . heat pressure. along from from in equation boundarylayer pressure.
ft P boundarylayer Subscripts: cr eft f fs h i inc m min mix opt p ref s t te tot x 0 1 la 2 3D critical effective friction free hub ideal incompressible mean section minimum mixing optimum pressure surface reference suction surface tip trailing total edge stream thickness. (N) kg/m3. lb/(ft) (sec) m. ft m .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 0 boundarylayer viscosity. momentum (see)/m2. lb/ft 3 energy thickness. flow conditions axial component bladerow inlet just beyond trailing edge of blade row row just within downstream three trailing edge of blade uniform state dimensional Superscripts: t * absolute total state value dimensionless 224 . density.
fillingandemptying arc. Roelke J In the process these these nitude of these design admission must pumping loss in the a loss that loss. tip geometry. instances. the selection comprises of the turbine are considered however. by by tip affects (high the tip 225 a reduction of all. blade occurs partialadmission as they pass herein. a large in turbine recesses output. reaction) of blade reaction pressure higherkineticenergy flow to leak . Finally. blade turbine. geometry. amount For leakage shrouds. a turbine blades first of radial a given loss. causes since more causing must and the operate casing.CHAPTER 8 Miscellaneous Losses By Richard. also be considered. across is affected. all the be of such point. by the clearance. turbine losses that If. a partialare the be included. additional considered losses a fulladmission turbine loss in the is being The passages inactive axialflow considered. are and of any the usually the In some output can design must with the the flow channel discussed. incidence is the admission turbine at offdesign operation will also be covered TIPCLEARANCE Because of the the loss the the rotor thus tips. and may The be sum in the that mag neglected. with some nature by the some LOSS clearance of the tip the work in between fluid leaks This that and the through tip the tips fraction of the amount difference across leakage is. casing. as to influence losses of normally a very in other the boundarylayer were loss and small other part losses losses associated To determine loss. blade efficiency tipclearance represent however. which designpoint include losses last in the chapter. diskfriction of the these losses there losses channels through overall of a turbine. instances.
2). have been of tip and the author clearance loss have been in reference 1. blade. they are satisfactory.6 of exit flow angle with from radius ref. 60 Tip clearance. however..0 rotor tip clearances.. . I. Figure shows at the blade of a 5inch stage turbine (ref..Variation ratio for four 2.5 lTr +.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION gap from the work. Two that the flow in the clearance to be noted from the angle traces are and near the tip was not fully turned. 1. causes a loss of the blade. pressure this but side leakage to the flow suction not of the only side of the blade. to its also causes evaluation an unloading drop difficult primarily efficiency complex Analytical leakage by tipclearance problem. I .9 Oo. states that Lewis geometry of some exit of the none is entirely Center axialflow results of of tests the helps 81 reaction to made at the NASA and tip Research on of the effect clearance turbines. percent of passage height Axial .7 .0 6 4P 2O 4C . obtain the angle An examination a better traces things space understanding tipclearance single loss.8 Ratioof hubradiusto tip radius FIGURE 81. (Data I I . developed.+rw. A number to determine and tests impulse these is inherently of the Several empirical expressions for and some of these are summarized rather complicated. 4_ 0 1 2 5.0 direction = 2' 2O • 1:3 o 8.. in turbine because With due an unown in the caused flow shrouded reduced tip region.) 226 .
I I . 3) lStage. 83 in figure turbines 5 (as estimates 2 and efficiency from here small that tip singlestage in reference of the (refs. 4) Estimateref.00 m . tested. The the two published Extrapolation gives for the reaction dashed lines turbines 82 for the impulse losses for 83. to blade double of the of tip clearance were are efficiency turbine. that of the flow all the the blade The increased with increasing this occurred efficiency. 5) for ref. clearance.reaction (ref.10 Tipclearance.6) data and reproduced of figure loss as figure experimental satisfactory estimates of tipleakage clearances. 82 and that and turbine as well test turbines were clearance about of the underturning effect flow and unloads others. impulse (ref. 4).12 .MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES Turbine 0 C] Z_ 1Stage.08 . that the impulse figure. 82.06 . 227 . and clearance tip This results for this figure (ref. 4) as obtained 82 shows for the curves figure fig. 5)for ref. FIGURE even way at the down smallest to the hub.Effect of tip clearance on efficiency. solid 2) and the level For lines output in efficiency in (ref. 1. 2 turbine ( m m Estimateref.fractionofpassage height 82. 2) 2Stage. underturning in lower turbine. aerodynamically decrease in figure The (ref.04 . from The height. 4 turbine ( 1.reaction Iref.80 .02 .76' 0 I I I I. as for two results is shown represent singlestage a singlestage importance evident the from in losses twostage of reaction the same 3) reaction in the and from loss is clearly turbine All turbines plays ratio unshrouded.96 _ \\ .
and three singleof tip and tested 85.Tipclearance blades• (Data from ref.03 .97 8 • 95 .OZ Tipclearance.1 . 5.01 .90 0 I I I .) Reviewing loss large leakage creasing schemes stage the tip clearance in reference A clearer the loss ratios the results shown in figures with to blade 82 height.95¢ . if work of reference 84 to blade height.00 •99 . the loss methods above it is apparent is appreciable• for reducing the blade These at the several recessed configurations are shown affecting area.98 U O r .fractionofpassage height correlation for unshrouded FIGURE 83.2 . channel of (1) reduced .o • 94 _J r' .4 • 93 • 92 b .91 . 4. bladeheight mixing configuration blade of the leakage to a zeroclearance clearancegap throughflow. and the turbineperformance understanding of the are performance considered.3 . tested with general results The factors loading flow with be used turbine Figure individually 4 was both shows without the or in combination. (2) that the to tipin in efficiency increases to reducing include increasing clearance. casing and 83.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1. characteristics as compared mechanisms consist (3) for the reduced configuration leakage 228 flow. reaction. the adding and for moderate the of tip clearance In addition losses the can impulse shroud• the and tip recessing either tip while lossreduction The ratios casing in figure is possible turbine blade height. a tip shroud.
and the leakage flow was reduced.Rotor blade (c) (a) Reduced blade zeroclearance FmvaE height (relative to blade height).Tipclearance configurations investigated (b) Recessed casing. (c) Shrouded rotor. was the to the gap was reduced by varying indirect figure was eliminated. passage changed blade (as a result With the outer loading radius area of flow going and the leakage 85. at tipclearance 229 . leakage shroud side blade as the Thereflow added recessedcasing configuration. for impulse turbine (ref. of constant of casing and With that the the extended clearance fore. reduced because the blade Note of the from to the blade.MISCELLANEOUS R_s_casi_ LOSSES Flow _. was amount path. E ". however. 84.Rotor blade (a) (b) Tip shroud_ Flow_ _'. further unloading was eliminated. and to (4) blade the suction unloading side). from the pressure the height recess. 4).
can be as the for the shroud to no an gap in efficiency. overlapping tipclearance many factors gap clearance clearance as the a complicated predicted depends and. diameter the 230 into summary. dependent particular on the design is particularly number it should the creating loss and required for larger ratio shrouded With section pressure should of seals be noted additional presents is not easily recessedcasing stagnant configuration. results This depends on the shown upon not that only figure true different and may span and respect will flow with as seen height bladetip not apply since to just the not be blade.Effect of tipclearance configurations ref. The to other the difference extend churning In influenced accuracy. increase about 0. that losses. loss increases of clearance . (Data from fractions longer below provides some an loss value. 4. attributed clearance increasing friction is decreased. recess. fluid and the blade If it does.035 shroud in in this This and instance.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION "O R 38 36 i I I I 1 . flow but the also geometries leakage between casing 85 of the clearance used.04 .fractionofpassage height FIGURE 85.06 . to blade problem consistent on for a turbine diameter) gap primarily previously.10 Rotor tipclearance.08 . by The (larger comparative are turbines.12 .) on turbine efficiency. increases.
cools from with for es surface and centerline to the around shown in base rotor of the blades. Equations are presented Throughflow For fluid the case with no throughflow. to a desired hence the of clearance becomes severe therefore. the It tipclearance becomes gap to loss blade For be increases diffacult height a given and a problem to evaluate with to as the radius in the a increasing maintain turbine. ratio. for larger tipradius blade increasingly smaller. 86.Flow patterns (t)) for With rotating throughflow. and and In circulation a small and the stationary aircraft bathes The turbines for hot applications. ratio height.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES For any given huband diameter. 231 . by the thin layer action of close to the rotating outward centrifugal 7//A//////////_ (a_ (b) (a) Without FmuaE throughflow. surface as in figure is thrown 86(a). case. effects. to small the therefore. disks. loss is more If tip for small to carry turbines out tests less severe turbines. have the near tive rotor the nature diskfriction of fluid some disk. ratio. without qualita of the throughflow timating of cooling the associated figure herein. engine steady This loss between stream cooling flow (or windage the rotating loss) disk LOSS is due to the skin friction casing. leakage is considered particular leakage it might be worthwhile DISKFRICTION The addition. of lowertemperature gas outward patterns gas losses No are flows along for example gas that the rotordisk disks 86. engines.
to the Consider inner an radius. in N/m torque 2 or to in m or ft. component the fluid v. shear be expressed (83) where C! fluid shearstress kg/ma. and stress (81) r is the radius. the torque times the The disk angular pwaa 5 (87) J where 232 Pd/is the diskfriction power loss. is m/sec. tangential disk surface.32.o CM.r2rr 2 dr in Nm The C/ (82) for both can sides of a disk as or lbft. 2gJ in W or Btu/sec. torque in rad/sec.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and returns via the stationary wall effect.CM.rr dr where A is the area. constant. in m or ft.op (8'6) 2g where friction velocity: Mow Pd$ . and J is a . At the V_ = too where into w is the angular (83).o is a torque loss expressed coefficient as power for the is then ease of no throughflow. r. of the in m 2 or ft 2. for both sides By substituting of the disk equation (84) (84) as can be written Mo = fo a 2__# Cip_2r 4 dr where a is the disk rim radius. ft/sec (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) lb/ft 9 P conversion density.17 _ of fluid tangential absolute velocity velocity. element thereby of area building on one up a continuous side of the disk circulatory dA = 2. stress of no throughflow. the total velocity. shear lb/ft _. acting over this the disk rotation of r produces a resisting dMo 2 where in the Mo is the case resisting torque. of one side area element area dA. Performing w2a 5  (85) the integration yields Mo=CM. coefficient 1. The radius at the of the fluid disk. .
or flow regimes. space between equation for a given and investigation of chamber of the rotating and the several disk. conducted on disk of flow that in the space from loss is obtained (refs. in (N) (sec)/m 2 or lb/(ft) (see). Kds in have The equation made wide doubt. and (89) R is in m or ft. defined (s/a)i _ disk and casing. or 778 (ft)(Ib)/Btu). are the radial can exist torque in the axial on the in each for the dimensions A description coefficient layers the coefficient CM. axial 87(a) of the variations components for torque in the gap. by having 7) to deterto present In general. torque Boundary 6 and and exist. is this loss is. gap and The is best each regime follows: Regime rotor velocity at a given theoretically disk I: Laminar and casing across in the exists radius and Clearance.owhere the s is the Reynolds axial distance. of flow that speed. between as wa 2p number R =  (810) where u is the dynamic viscosity. the and of are as on the in nature velocity both between a diameter effect a higher An extensive picture the has been proportions modes depending The of flow. Figure tangential equation continuous indicates variation of fluid coefficient. no somewhat and the the (87) to variations oversimplified the is that (87) be noted of different casing. 211 CM.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES conversion equation constant (87) that (equal is found to 1. is The form of in most handbooks 5 Pdl = KdlpNaDr where Kd! (88) diskfriction powerloss coefficient N Dr rotative speed disk rim diameter A number of investigators to be used to the changes have exponents of the from types One which thing blade that rotative published to better used values of the constant others data. fit the while available the derived. 233 . empirically. so that a s. assortment of semiempirical model equations testapparatus equation can to predict geometry. friction may chamber regime.o was evaluated theoretically experimentally equations Small merged. can occur lower speed. associated Flow. Reynolds and number. existence rotor and or (88) a smaller mine clearer four casing the both the modes and flow (88) small due for different circumstances.
layers Large on the Ch.o1_ 112 (811) where 234 CII is a function of (s/a). and .Velocity (a) Flow regimes I and Ill. and between ing fluid in which no the case.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Radial component ofvelocity Tangential component of velocity 0 Disk r_ "_}/////////////////////A_ (a) Radial component ofvelocity Tangential component ofvelocity 0 0 r(d I (b) FIGURE 87.arance. patterns around rotating (links without throughflow. as shown in figure 88(a). Regime II: Laminar Flow. radial and and tangential empirical velocity equations a core of rotat87(i)) shows for this coefficient components for torque CII CM. arc variations The best in the theoretical these boundary layers there change ill veh)city occurs. (t)) Flow regimes II and IV. rotor and The on the casing exists Figure combined thickthe ness of the boundary is less than axial gap.
I.30 .3_ 3.5 I I I I I .05 I I 1 I I . (Data from ref. (b) Flow regime IV.9 2. The best Small Clearance.oz 0 I .0622 CM.080 CM.10 .o  3.1 m 2.) CM.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES 3.70 (s/a) R 1/2 1/1o (812) respectively.15 . and The empirical turbulent equations of Regime coefficient theoretical . 6.20 . 235 (814) (s/a) V4RV4 (813) Flow.09 . FIGURE 88.o.Evaluation of torque coefficients.25 Ratioofaxialgaptorim radius.7 2.oand 0. s/a (a) Flow regime II. Regime counterpart for torque III: Turbulent are 0.(s/a)1/6R1/4 respectively.
merged boundary layers Turbulent flow. (Data from ref. as shown O. coefficient Flow. _10 2 III _ \ _ IV \ \ \ _\ '_ \\ _' _ boundarylayers Ratioofaxialgap to disk rim radius. (changes the Reynolds Reynolds as shown to another.05 :_I I I I I 1o2 lo3 I@ lo lo ld 5 6 Reynolds number. merged boundary layers Laminarflow.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Regime counterpart tions IV: Turbulent II. I "\\ lOI .L "_ %_ . The (811). _. ..Theoretical variation of torque coefficient with Reynolds throughflow. flow regimes by matching Slope ofcurve ' Flow regime I II Description Laminar flow. slopes in slope) of the number number in figure in the lines can be from 89 for lines with determined by plotting coefficient discontinuities transition determined one regime In this figure. indicate are that exists and from at any against (815). separate boundarylayers Turbulentflow. values 89 flow regime torque (813)._ . and The empirical turbulent equa of Regime theoretical for torque Civ C_.ORI/5 where Civ is a function of (s/a). separate _'_ •. and (815) (816) respectively.102(s/a) C_.) number for no 236 .00. I [ ["1 I@ I@ lol° lon R FmuRE 89. The equations several of figure the particular (89).o RII5 in figure 1/l° 88(b). of s/a.\_. 6. The are Large best Clearance.
In this case.8centimeter of s/a verify Throughflow For the the friction case of the torque rotating disk with with throughflow. Torquecoefficient (20in.45 for s/a ratios loss can case be obtained compared assessment calculating throughflow 4Ko CM Q .12.op_a 5 Substituting equation M (816) for CM. where Q is the volumetric in m$/sec total torque or fP/sec.o yields Q ° we _ _ 1+ throughflow g from by to 0. rotating rim of the angular of the is the increase in torque. of reference moreover. chamber near the centerline with no with some disk.(gowa)a=2p g throughflow of the disk. for the in the through clearance space on one side flow case is then M = Mo+AM . has been increases the throughflow. of angular of change momentum the system: Q K_a g rate.0255is/a)l/l where T is a dimensionless = 1 +39.CM'°pw2aS+2 p QKowa 2 (818) 2g The An friction value of Ko is approximately of the of the power torque case: M =It Mo 2pQK_a 1 _ C M.025 that to 0.) theory. equation the effect (820) of s/a predicts is not values somewhat accurately 237 . This as in figure problem 86(b). The 2 (817) AM=2p Q. rate angular velocity The velocity of the K_a. analyzed for low values of throughflow it is assumed that the fluid enters the angular The core AM. 7. velocity of gas over and leaves at the the ratio velocity throughflow flowing through symbol Ko represents to the that of the angular fluid without with regimeIV flow. rotated 6) in determined experimentally oil for several a 50.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES those water shown and in the insert in the with values figure. the values disk (ref. the noof the 0.2 Ko (s/a)m defined o as T (820) throughflow number V= _ wa Rm (821) According that are to the data high.o wa 3 (819) KoR 1/5 _o= 1 + o.
T (822) Equation (822) is plotted for several PARTIALADMISSION Fulladmission however.o.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Ratio of axial gap to disk rim radius.  1. 1. to partial be less and low Reynoldsnumber blades. due unusual may that then axialflow conditions choice. than be a better a normal it may admission If.1 + 13. (Data from given by (s/a) m°. the design give fulladmission be advantageous with losses and long rotative higher to use partial admission. 7. turbine admission speed ratios. the test data are represented to within + 5 percent by the relation M . for example. sla f /o. rate blade losses leakage short the the is for which would may a partialadmission massflow verysmall The the having allows Also.12 _ 1.  . T . freedom In addition. partial way bladejet for a given may use of partial 238 admission be a convenient to reduce power output .01 . turbine so small heights. Empirically. turbines sometimes are arise design blades LOSSES used for most applications.02 Throughflow .03 number.2 g 10 0 .05 FIGURE 810.9Ko Mo (s/a) in figure 810 1/8 s/a values. of larger diameter of the fulladmission speed.Empirical variation of torque ref.04 .) with throughflow number.
0171 coefficients 239 . in this inactive block have some of the stator In general. coefficient recently. the equations investigations pumping(adjacent of the three in results in to. E meansection diameter. of the rows. ( 1 . or sector or fully and low volumetricflow previously loss in the pumping As mentioned partialadmission and the the active clearly channels through fillingand loss encountered loss has been mechanisms but as the blades referred to as expansion. often applicable expression for pumpingpower loss is yet to be found. blades similar loss caused the expression back that are height by the inactive for the a fluidfilled and often expressions several estimating showed power blade open the on these that casing. blade on the loss are quite terms. to onehalf housing by equation if the This coefficient were combined pumping (87) a singlestage the reported 9. and location of such accounted it used is of obstructions vicinity that for only appears by differences a generally empirical The coefficient._) where Pp K_ pumpingpower pumpingpower blade blade blade active value units were by an meansection height.63 l/m _/2. (ft) (lb)/sec 1/m_/_. sides casing loss as evidenced or lack by variations in the in the exponents Further. values. ft area in reference (lbf) rotors above losses enclosed. ft m.) channel were summarized. m/sec. If a diskcombined form of to the the loss estimated of reference (823). (sec _)/(Ibm) is subtracted remaining is significantly loss is converted to be 5. are not power of partialadmission in a decrease operating turbine understood. they do result to the same loss is that with. l D.92 higher than Kp is found ]/m _/_. combined all seem and expressions to trace for it are somewhat to reference resulted and diskfriction 8. from diameter pumpingpower effects uncertain. losses with in output scavenging.. speed. and efficiency rotating in form loss. perhaps most Therefore. (ft 3n) u. wall. one equation Pp = KpoU. when The latter The fulladmission turbine (physically turbines chapter. fraction of statorexit coefficient herein rotor. W. for in reference from 8 and (sec2)/(lbm) the More loss.0105 of the unenclosed onequarter diskfriction the turbine 9 and the (ft3n). ft/sec (lbf) (seO)/(Ibm) (823) loss coefficient. The for the of the used Kp as reported For and the same converted (fts/2).MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES of an existing passages)... rotor to the values enclosed friction losses equation (lbf) is 3. output are the emptying This loss. of for compared pumping full admission. where The these These experimental the investigations loss of blade the nature etc. m. or 0.. or 0. partialadmission high specificwork losses sector. blade pass the rates.al l'sD..
sin Ox(1 +K._) where turbine. For where component m/sec. Effectively. we can coefficient on turbine and is determined from express volume the (26) 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION reported lack The Imagine filled the inlet less entire through of the of the with blade momentum channel in reference other 8. It was be found it is rapidly decreasing 10 that rotorexit as it flows energy by a loss an overall in the momentum the available decrease in momen the rotor. work. and specific the associated velocity diagram work of an axialflow turbine as geometry. J/kg. 240 K_ is the For rotor the relativevelocity ratio turbine. are). the into. Btu/lb velocity. and the difference loss shall is attributed herein must the the be called the be pushed active nozzle Since decrease this to primarily the sector sector. loss occurs. effect With of the sector loss the use of equations velocity efficiency (214). ft/sec deg respectively. is a rotor f is the nozzle active that arc acas in m or ft. active this diffused partialadmission relatively stagnant is completely out by the a second channel. counts The follows. W2/W_ for the (826) fulladmission the sector loss partialadmission applying . and K. and exit. It is highuntil blade As the and the of an adequate a blade fluid channel passes out blade channel loss model. fluid the less has the loss. in m or ft. to the blade highmomentum the rotor. sector. axial inlet m/sec. for the sector loss. Um Ah' = __ W. angle of relative ft/sec from rotor measured to the most 0 The 2 refer (which an impulse partialadmission turbines 01= 02.2) = _ W2 sin 02) (s25) specific velocity. channel leaving of the channel fluid area through reported by These as it just fluid nozzle. Ah' = g_ where Ah' Wu W turbine tangential relative fluid subscripts relative 1 and turbine ( W_ a Um ( Wl sin 01Wu . continue As arc. fluid passing fluid. in reference tum may coefficient multiplying momentum where length. thus the the active is cut enters to flow losses cause starts that This within off from to enter scavenging sector active will sector. p is the rotorblade pitch. direction.
K.) qJ (828) Since efficiency is hh' .WI (827) So. 10) are plotted bladejet Predicted cfficiencies . loss admission In the was total and loss efficiency efficiency loss only. cannot complete efficiency operation optimization at present. rotor Also. the the I+K. separately The diskfriction from the total partialadmission admission losses. Wt sin _I(1+K_K. increase.. a partialadmission blade profile on the loss will pumping to reduce blades blades is not Therefore. of arcs (from loss to give what losses include the sector pumping while the to the and other 9 are plotted against was called other partialsector loss and any loss sector. MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES coefficient yields W_ = KwK. penalty the expressed (824) closely are added of the be done 9. figure over from The arc the active admission with stant of reference combined fraction. 1 IK_ by equation earlier that the blades rotor. These other due in to leakage losses 811. as the blade were turbine The difference pumping subtracted analytically of reference over a range determined of admissions to partialadmission losses were between the full.. further. for the partialadmission Ah'r_=_ turbine. ref.Ah_a (829) where Abed is the turbine ideal specific turbine work. with in J/kg respect or Btu/lb. to that the effull ficiency of the partialadmission admission turbine is of the nm Ahrro Ah' (830) into equation (830) then Substituting yields equations (826) and (828) _=n The sector turbine however. design study due should the as more known. of a small from was 12 to taken and of a partialaxialflow 100 percent.and the partialadmission measured efficiencies. admissionarc loss remained against The partialfraction increased conspeed 241 nearly inactive diskfriction losses decreasing the range tested. of rotor indicates to the (831) accounts (831) for the pumping Equation have effect loss discussed spaced number will reduce the the overall sector loss.
1 I .6 Bladejet peed s ratio.7 .6 .. 0 .5.5 .5 . 1. 10.a U qJ $ .2 gJ l I I .) fraction of stator mission o .Designpoint and fulladmission turbines.8 Ahtd . admission reduction Aerodynamic 242 full admission expected The different efficiency from reduction important bladejet is seen. operating admission. 2) in figure and with thing speed three in peak ratio 812 for a particular amounts with this arc speed reduced figure ratio turbine of partial arc of is the of 0.4 I I "I" 'Is C I I t % .1 .3 .0 .) .2 . Urn/_ performance of partial(Data from ref. ratio (see discussion with The in vol.9 1.Variation of partial+_cimission losses with active area.8 Active fraction of statorexitarea.6 i. efficiency is a maximum at a bladejet .9 I 1. in optimum to note as admission is reduced. (l)ata from ref+ 9.5 T I I I .4 .0 Fmuam 812. • Fmtmm 811.4 . ch..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION .3 .Estimatedumping p anddiskfriction losses C3 0 Pumping anddiskfrictionlosses Otherpartialadmission losses K.7 .1 .
Vp / i a . angle must deg from from axial axial direction. a larger power and part decreases losses.Blade incidence nomenclature. be the absolute angle The incidence or negative. the partialadmission or nearoptimum an optimum bladejet INCIDENCE The row angle. Therefore. as the for the must be diskfriction which decreasing power decreases. is obtained turbine. with is aerodynamic blade speed. The loss which at some normally all gas dashed the LOSS occurs angle only and used when other occur when inlet the gas enters than the are optimum matched the blade a blade flow at the is profile angle (832) at offdesign speaking through The conditions. admission maximum and design factored speed of admission and become arc net output power) the design arc.ob FIOuRE 813. theoretically condition. angle is important of loss with incidence is different Axial direction IB. indicated because angle in figure 813. design shown incidence (either Flow stator incidence The 813. line and loss is that or rotor) would at least. since. i = a  ab where i ab The angle incidence fluid blade fluid for inlet angle. The sign of the incidence cascade tests have shown that the variation for positive and negative angles. as of the with gross admission power decreasing decrease arc minus speeds. losses (aerodynamic at lower bladepumping diskfriction into ratio blade of a partialadmission can be selected. in figure blade running angles nomenclature line defines of incidence incidence is the camber is defined as blade angle. 243 . deg deg angle may for stators be positive and the relative as flow angle flow angle rotors.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES irrespective Bladepumping blade speed. before reduced. direction. Thus.
n •*. incidence.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Lowreaction _/_ blades_. at large smaller blades reaction whereas range. is some negative incidence . The results. for minimum The respect incidence.. which of incidence about loss with the incidence of cascade angle test angle._i_ U. as indicated area. Another does nation cidence the blade not incidence. be due local separation in figure positive incidence. i FIGUaE 814. but general by The nature figure loss curve may of the variation 814. is shown shows represents for positive a summary incidence 815. two Both inlet tests but flow small and at some angles negative theory of negative zero be explained at some by the of figure shown. that incidence show stagnation streamline curves upward and the true zero incidence 244 as the flow impacts occurs when there on the blade leading edge. of separation at the same in which the mean acceleration blades) have a wide blades range have from lowreaction thing occur This streamlines and the inlet value of negative incidence.Characteristics of blade incidence loss.j'_''_ b de Incidence angle. of the gas flow is large over for is that small are which the the amount 816._/2___ _. (highis low. or Also. one with the at same loss losses 814 sketch of incidence higher figure incidence loss staginto to be noted at zero may other angle.L(ical flow separation on blade surface. o. FiauaE 815. is not symmetrical is larger to some zero incidence than and for the on the suction a loss that This negative surface lack.
of figure V_ can be resolved blade a component direction passes component without the (camber through line at inlet). The incidence some angle at minimum design others while loss is their do not 4 ° to 8 °.=_ zg.Curvature of stagnation stre. V12 L. turbine incidence.. designers of negative involved.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES a<o ab F[aua_ 816. The a predicted. row lost.I where equation ion. the aid A method in reference 813. (834) and has been with (834) In order and negative to account incidence. This type of proved satisfactory offdesign performance 245 . loss on test here into inlet the must incidence of a turbine takes be data with on importance when the for 11. is entirely If it is assumed recovered component normal component energy V_ 2 VI' 2gJ2gd and the kineticenergy loss due Li (V. relative usually blades because The offdesign to the freestream flow. for the positive the effect of bladerow the minimum generalized loss not occurring to at zero incidence. normal the to. Because with a small amount of the small difference magnitude of the performance incidence method Vp parallel that entry kinetic the loss any of this._ \_J 2 V_' =2_ is c°s_ i (833) to incidence V12 2_ (1cos differences equation 2i) in loss variation reaction. and blade determining An inlet analytical velocity loss based is described to the parallel and that is is described V._mline at blade inlet._)"1 (835) (minimumloss) when incidence used in angle. is the has optimum Ilcos" (iio7.
LOEWENSTEIN. 2. JOHN H. W. 1966. Mar. Dynamic Analysis and Control Lab.: Axial Turbine Loss Analysis and Efficiency Prediction Method.: Effect of Rotor Tip Clearance on the Performance of a 5Inch SingleStageAxialFlow Turbine. Reprinted by Peter Smith. STODOLA. E. I)._ign Performance of AxialFlow Turbines.: An Examination of the Flow and Pressure Losses in Blade Rows of AxialFlow Turbines... REFERENCES 1. such as that of reference 12.: Analytical Procedure and Computer Program for Determining the OffDe. Basic Eng. G. 12. W. I. V.: Axial Flow Turbines. Inc. HORLOCK. V.. 1955. Boeing Co. D. KOFSKEY. Tech. AND ASnEDIAN. C.: Design of Turbines for HighEnergyEuel LowPowerOutput Applications. TRANS.. HUOH A. Apr. 1927. Rep. ^ND M^THIESON. MILTON G.. MILTON G.:Performance Evaluation of a TwoStage AxialFlow Turbine for Two Values of Tip Clearance. 1967. J. NASA TM X472.: Enclosed Rotating Disks with Superposed Throughflow: Mean Study and Periodic Unsteady Characteristics of the Induced Flow. AND NUSnAUM. HOLESKI. ll..to TipRadius Ratio. 3. voi. 79.. McGrawHill Book Co. 1960. Massachusetts Inst. 1945. J. AND FUTRAL. 1968. E. 11. 9. SAMUEL M. W. (Louis C. AINLEY. Massachusetts Inst. AND NECE. Vol. (ARO1)25002. 1953. 7. 1968.. Tech. D43220.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION prediction loss data methods are lacking. YONO S. G. DAXLY. DONALD E. 4. 8. JR. DAILY. Rep. STENNING. Britain. Sept. ERNST. 246 . NASA TN D4700. pp... F. R. NASA CR710. Butterworth Inc. HONO. KLASSEN. Gt.75Inch Meanl)iameter SingleStage AxialFlow Turbine. E.. R&M2891.. 10. R. 200201. 1. G..: Chamber l)imension Effects on Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Disks. 6. pp. A. 1969. AND GROH. 1964. 30. R_416. Rep. Mar. NASA TM X1757. FLAGO. 1961. NASA TN I)4388. 5. KOFSKEY. 1966. Where negative specific and incidencen = 3 for values been of n = 2 for used incidence positive incidence have satisfactorily. 82. J. WXLLIAM J.: ColdAir Investigation of Effects of Partial Admission on Performance of 3. 217232.: Experimental Investigationof Three TipClearance Configurations Over a Range of Tip Clearance Using a SingleStageTurbine of High Hub. Aeronautical Research Council. no. ALAN H.): Steam and Gas Turbines.. AD443060)..
h)ss. work D f 9 Ah' _h_d i J Kdl Ko Kp K. efficiency (N) lb/ft 3 (sec)/m2. 247 . number m. velocity. sector loss coefficient rotor blade velocity height. Q R r throughflow 8 distance speed. ft U V W absolute velocity. deg m/sec/ft/sec axial flow angle inlet angle fluid relative angle measured from active fraction of stator exit area turbine dynamic P static kg/m'_. Nm. rev/min (835) in equation power power pitch. specific deg pressure. ft active specific ideal no throughflow m. direction. Btu/sec Btu/sec rate.o CII Civ C/ CM Ci. m/see. m. from from axial ft/sec direction. ft between m/see. K. W. m2. conversion diskfriction ratio J/kg. ft 2 in regime in regime I I by equation IV by equation (811) (815) disk rim radius. constant.o to evaluate coefficient with torque diameter. lb/(ft) (see) viscosity. work. ft (Ibm) Btu/Ib based on ratio of inlettotal pressure Btu/lb (ft)/(lbf) (seC) J/kg. nozzle turbine turbine incidence coefficient m. density. ft to evaluate disk. tad/see. ft torque for incidence frictional lbft rotative exponcnt diskfriction pumping rotorblade volumetric Reynolds radius. powerloss 1. conversion 1. constant. resistance speed.17 to exitstatic angle. W .32. coefficient coefficient used fluid shearstress .o Li l M N n arc length. rotor ft/sec disk and casing. Btu/lb for fulladmission both sides of rotor disk. to disk angular velocity 'v2) (lbf)(seC)/(lbm)(ft impulse turbine of rotatingcore pumping power loss coefficient. deg deg axial direction.o Ci. axial blade relative fluid blade loss. coefficient m.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES SYMBOLS A ¢t area on one side used of rotor m. ft'_/scc m. ft Pp P loss. m_/sec. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu coefficient angular velocity 1/mY2. J/kg.
TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION T fluid shear stress. N/m_. rad/sec lb/ft _ by equation (821) T throughflow angular number defined velocity.bladerow rotor exit component inlet 248 . Subscripts: m n o opt p pa r u 1 2 mean section normal to blade inlet direction component optimum component no throughflow parallel to blade inlet direction partial admission disk rim tangential _rotor inlet ].
Because operate in indicated used for potential turbine application and/or by use have high require It of stage is defined entering in systems weights where NASA in the and'. of stages available turbine consumption. number work the the lower primarily exitkineticenergy where along the choice. supersonic following performance of characteristics. pressure of driving be lightweight however. Goldman J A supersonic supersonic have having velocities) They have have been low relative molecular are used been studied turbines of the would of stages. a small would. high at low static For chapters jet for For amount velocities. 2 and systems from design turbines be method and used. that operates fluids high ratios are with turbines (those expansion available. ratios 1). the with high and at Both the therefore. pressure rocket turbopump auxiliarypower large a given specific power for space.2).CHAPTER 9 Supersonic Turbines ByLouis . speed (vol. Supersonic puts type small atively turbines than speed high criteria could To level. supersonic bladejet design generally As correspond a minimum the than turbine the are design ideal offset being efficiency designed to low losses. fluid and (often low primary minimum pressure may highest result because outthis and a relless of fluid ratio in a systems a velocity Supersonic highenergy consequently. bladejet efficiencies. (1) method . of 3 the where as one rotor. high in opencycle potential ratio. ratios are more keep proper rotors because of turbine number simple. and systems work level. the 0. and under chapter. supersonic efficiency optimum must the design of supersonic by possible stators In this discussed (2) design 249 methods turbine headings: supersonic are characteristics.
e. derivation Both of for type. processes ematical equations. and characteristics METHOD CHARACTERISTICS is a general method equation. waves. weak in references Wall satisfies is the waves.. Mach wa ye Mach wave V dV V " V__ctV "// V////// _UX/. 1 and method two the to other 2.Weak expansion and compression (b) Compression. :/. shown wave in is flow a Single field that flow) These oblique are The motion simplest (other weak through and supersonic than uniform standing to be very the wave the called waves.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPI. (3) design of supersonic OF of supersonic turbines. by types of supersonic axially of characteristics methods will be the derivation It is useful developments Flow ways: formal mathematical simple dynamical The siderations.1)...//_Wa II X . handled be developed (2) by dynamics one the twodimensional this also type can can and on only based of a perfect be discussed symmetric this in stresses here... 91. 250 . waves.. shock zero. presented method in extending are given Along flow wave.I_ATION of supersonic (4) operating stator blades. figure produced equations Mach The 91. characteristics of partial the (hyperbolic) Only flows) differential supersonic of flow flow be (i. flow will for solving The equain this and (see (1) conphysical mathsimilar a The certain tions gas chapter. rotor blades. certain ref. 7"/////i / (a) (b) (a) FIGURE Expansion. The by are method type of motion of this Other nonsteady method The involved. entropy of parallel through a single vanishingly can change pansion be shown be considered is essentially waves an expansion Examples of weak As when exwill the compression subsequently.
FIGURE 92.+V dp=o Conservation of momentum pV. + dV. and a compression when the wall bends toward the flow. therefore. included in figure V as shown p V. it is realized can. = (p+dp) ( V. kg/sec. +dV. 251 .) = constant (91) where w A p V.) (V . mass flow density. m_. _ /////. The fields magnitude produces bend to which when surface of Mach wave Mach wave in dO) in the wave.Flow through a weak expansion wave. velocity flow area rate.= (p k. The through will now be discussed. ft/sec lb/sec wave. ft 2 component secondorder Neglecting V.// wave/ Z_Z_ n p p +dp + dV dO U//////////////////_ •. along kg/m3. The bend (of the angular which wall. and associated nomenclature. Mach lb/ft a normal terms to Mach (i.+ dV . dp dV. gives m/sec. as flow diof the _ to the conservation Mach curved be considered is required condition flow is a standing The that any be on both importance of straight can be appreciated along through a weak the of initial requires a curved a series expansion standing velocity that A= be considered to be made up of a finite waves.. number approximated dynamics at an angle 92.) wave.SUPBRS_NIC TURBINES wall bends away from the flow.. The the wall which may also as a disturbance is to follow a boundary with may The the uniform solution flow flow Consider rection of mass wave is produced can be considered if the flow as wave of this surface sections.V in the tangential direction gives (92) .) (93) t Ma¢. the sides wall one solution of it.e.do) ('[7.
in ft/sec..}pVn equation V. Substituting (93) y. (9I) O=g Eliminating dV.b dV.. 32. (_)s or ft/sec.= or pV. be equal the to the component speed of velocity of sound. is directed component normal in the of velocity the direction _ to tile Mach remains velocity wave. normal (92) conchange of momentum gpb pV.g Equation (157) of chapter 1 (vol.SIGN AND APPLICATION where m/sec gives Vt or is the velocity component equation tangent (91) to the into Mach equation wave.Z=g(p + dp) b (pb dp) (V.V. I_E._ by using (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) lb/ft 2 into equation dVn (92) results in (96) and expanding yields (97) Substituting dp... pressure. 1) states (98) a. substitution (910) normal from to the figure Mach 92 wave that (911) must Noting Vn=V gives V. equation 1 .) (96) where g p conversion absolute constant. for M> The 1.. the and tangential the wave.+dVt) (94) dV.=o This stant dV means as the is equal Conservation that flow to dV. sin _VV where and 252 M has is the meaning Mach only number. (99) in here shows m/sec that V.:a Therefore._/g where process (98) a is speed being into equation of sound. Since the (99) differential of equation considered is isentropic. sin tt a 1 M ft is called the Mach (912) angle angle .17 N/m2.TURBINE _. gives crosses Consequently.(V.
Velocity diagram for v+dv flow through a weak expansion wave.. critical of The (917) critical critical 1 velocity velocity (M=I) (vol.. du 713 / FIGURE 93. m/sec. The dV can figure relation be 93.4_1 It is more ratio and 1). du dV B= __= _ (913) (914) (915) ft/sec ft/sec be determined (916) V . found between from limit change the (dO*0).. V. The convenient M*=V/VcT to can relation be if dV/V rather the speed M* evaluated between is expressed than from and Mach equation M is given of sound in at terms the of the M.SUPF__SONrC Mach wa ve TURBINE. in flow angle dO and shown velocity geometrically change in velocity relations In the du=dV dv=Vdo and tan where du dv Since. component component as can of dV of dV parallel normal from to initial to initial equation 1 tan/_=_/_1_ equation (915) becomes dV do 1 velocity velocity (912). V. m/sec.S V _" _ ". number (163) Vcr is equal condition chapter by the equation 253 ..
sign.TURBINE l)E_IGN AND APPLICATION / M= / 2 _+i 1 71 M. >' '_ I/ / .Representation of flow along a convex wall._lach waves // // I \ \ . each consider relation been the producing The of between weak for would along the a Mach through combined motion a change expansion a single have a curved surface wave. equations is called therefore. // d83 FmURE 94. V1 / / /"" . or simple PrandtlMeyer . ve .21 M. / ". each flow for and similar a velocity change could except us now in figure bends. Let shown is the differential through have that 94. 254 ._. _ V where heat 7 is the at constant ratio of specific Since volume. at constant is constant pressure (because to the specific total dM* M* (919) into equation (917) (919) gives. weak (convex) The field relation wave values wave will. 71 7+1 _ dM* M* in flow wave. dO: equations (918) and heat Vc. _ (918) M. temperature is constant). angle A (920) This relation wave. as equation Assume a minus is composed Mach of small the This by equation changes to type solution (920) the of flow will be satisfied in 8 are small. flow. infinitesimal flow. a single obtained (920) flow that compression surface.. 1 M . dV V Substituting finally. of a number indicated provided be a of dO.. ".
waves _\\\\\\\\\\_\\\\\ \" . • 0= _1 _I/4/_41 arc_ sin [(3.) + constan + t/'_ 41 \ (921) If angle and Meyer from the it constant by is tabulated angle is the 1 to is chosen equation in angle the many such (921) through that is 0=0 when the (e. Prandtlin going given the given called which PrandtlMeyer references Mach the Mach required number is often symbol 1 _ (or u).g. Therefore.1 )M*_ _¢] 1 arc sin _.__ . The angles. flow and M*=I(M=I). Oz. has be been (M that shown for expansion sign in for Mach figure For (917). equation flow angle 95. r d61 _o 2 FIGURE 95... 255 ._I waves. (920) gives the flow field becomes continuous. flow there a minus the in velocity decreases) through _ increases Mach a concave hock Mach . compression Therefore... 1).4/. would decreases This means wall.45 I_ _r arc sin [(_1 _A)M*__] "_ J _ 1E2arc sin (922) from V1 to V2 is That (923) is. the sion along derivation there wave. must The turn the angle.3.. a compresfor lines. Note given that by the the change change in in flow the direction (50) in going respective PrandtlMeyer _2. /. ref.SUPERSONIC TURBINES If the number of segments Integration approaches of equation infinity.Representation of flow along a concave wall.01: 50: The waves.
of course. region The derived of relations. form a shock as shown in the shock figure.Hodograph characteristic curves. 256 . would be invalid in the because FIGURE 96. the converge entropy and increase.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION fore.
97(a)).___. numerical cumbersome if it is recalled be made _ Math waves lo _. any The two be plotted diagram.Flow along (b) convex Hodograph wall. constant (921) through with of PrandtlMeyer by equation property the in the physical and along expressed hodograph are parallel This wall. line on corresponding hodograph segment curve by drawing segment in the to use. The graphical cedure may procedure entirely at best._ical plane. (a) Phy. expansion separating parallel preceding V2 is found the is characteristic wave continued the the normal physical as N1 in P_P2. around varied velocity of diagram characteristic and are of equation curves (922). graphically flow of segments is best explained a simple point a curved curve (fig.SUPERSONIC TURBINES The ratio curves The erate the in figure relation M* (eq. to genratio is that corresponding flow field to be into (line by that The This example. P_ is located to Ur2 (or characteristic PI is located diagram characteristic to V1). as the 1 at 00 represent of the curves. The the lie wave is Point OP2 the the parallel V1 and figure) to the process is. that through S_).J \ Cb_ \. plane. FIGURE 97. Mach direction additional The the prodirec segments. of the passing angle is called a hodograph flow has M*= critical dimensional value these variation An normals Mach Consider a finite on the constructed the important to wave surface The hodograph been characteristics._/ / / 15. through OP_ parallel drawing /)2 must Mach (shown direction plane. 97(b)) characteristics to by the initial the the wall allows After the in the wall characteristics plane. to Note P1. is divided to V1 number (fig. of this between (921)) This plot convex type are can the flow angle on of called 0 and a polar the the critical velocity as shown plot. 96.. 257 .
Suppose Between Two Walls wall can be the initially as shown the walls in region The line V_. is often be seen sharpedged as will with sonic nozzles for this case. velocity is symmetric of the the field constructed initial the magnitude of straight point line segments. relative The _. a single through the replaced cornertype is important throats. that type and lines imagine case bend 98(a). a single of flow limiting is represented called later. The P_ in and denoted by S_ and represented represents 258 . Consider flow both be bounded are about the by parallel hodograph of the by two walls outward walls deflected centerline dividing here flow diagram. and by the parallel 99. The channel. past between constructed two points. As finite and before.Flow General along case. case the that 0. wall wall by occurs approaches figure a number flow. occur practical Mach two measured points. a where around of supervalid A special shaped in figure point seen This corner. number S'_. to the hodograph wall is so though. is still Flow The method of solution generalized to handle the uniform figure amount. completely useful along pass that has between numerically. into a 1 is OP_ flow S'_. The the flow flow $3 and the direction supersonic that will S'3.TURBINE I)E_SIGN AND APPLICATION / '_. Equation a common as shown common it is bends.]dC h waves 0 cai (hi (a) FIaURE 98. Since it is finite usually to the average a wall changes assumed average direction may now diagram. with Math (b) Limiting waves case. at one intersecting tion of the that speed of Mach in the the be wave the waves the flow is given solution lie at of the the by the Math angle angle problems. S_ in same used for the flow along a single flow between two walls. the of small or (921) flow design 98(b). corresponding to the flow The if the point. convex wall point. The is still of flow Mach Now large for visualization.
be determined. from only C'2 both region if the (since sets end the flow field 3 is separated form. of the P3 or P1 in the hodograph out because are point this would mean compression being further of the P'2P3 the waves.. The problem Mach are parallel intersect.Flow between two (b) Hodograph plane. to the after be the the sepsame 2' must not is to determine happens and V'2 2 and are another direction. representplane that which 2 through these curves through graphically). Because assumed procedures of the type symmetry can waves flow. jump a iump from characteristic of the of conditions. field.S_PF__ S_NIC TURBINES . Consider that continuation. and M'I. in regions The two arated lines initial by 2 and OP2 and 2' (points as before.. being be ruled extensions little makes makes plane direction given in the physical sense P3 in the flow Mach P2P3.../////._L_ i \ I C'I . These until wall.. of the by the extensions to initial and normals segments of respectively. in modified A jump of motion is.. s . piecemeal the channel A new of solution 259 .. OP'2 waves flow now P2 and P'2 for the flow in the through hodograph a weak V'2. To C1 or satisfy Similarly... ] / c2 // 0 P7 _15/ J _ "" _///////_ k_V k. V3 is parallel field strikes to V_. diagram) expansion flow in can wave. the equations P2. point point region lies on a characteristic represent lie on end the point waves end and 2' must from waves satisfy (921) 2 and 2' by a M..F 2 V [ . of be used advancing is now the to hodograph the velocity the the flow plane.. s3__ i .. of the initial Mach any wave can eq. hodograph The are waves it represents M'2 expansion. walls.V 2 6 _ 3 _///////'_ . that C'L or C2. (a) (b) (a) Physical plane. because The M_ the ing the The the end flow field point 3 must P. one construct across required. /!: >_. since to V2 and what Flow V2 fields 4 respectively..////' .." "'/L_ u s .._>. 15v. be either can expansion sense.. FIOUR_ 99.
This approximately of procedure are found known flow problems. and. further. stream properties procedure. entire by a number quadrilateral of the are satisfied regions quadrilaterals in satisfied is called in as small the In this in each and.TURBINE DES. method. that in fields direction. angle than is the associated with Figure solid in the produced fied 260 without same cancellation proper same of an location magnitude conditions waves. flow wave wall at a boundary. For hodograph discussed waves. shows A bend and the at the respectively. flow the the a solid boundary reflects of the flow in the interior as an expansion of the channel foregoing is constant. 910(d) direction by the any wave. from velocity The wave since Another is often net. the previously of expansion of a weak reflection expansion the reincident the flow from a solid boundary. in the is made deflection satis of the The boundary (reflected) therefore. of small The are type of motion sides the flow in the channel are finite the regions. these In characteristics to those as shown is. calculation used Both are "latticepoint procedure. P_ must require the in because lie According that wave The The the the on 5 cannot the flow extend flow in flow field the in in wall. summarized along solution." seen the each as before. for will 1. which parallel a new lie 6 are is parallel to field to the on in the through used in the the 6 must wall the same to wall. may of the form "field or be approximated waves. additional . to arguments P8 be located between hodograph P5 and is an expansion expansion wave striking wave. wave is at a slightly because of the higher the reflected wave. field and 4. and case. most not intersections. wave. in supersonic properties or lattice practical discussed identical. conditions where an 5 is not Therefore. situations. found methods at the are. smaller Mach Mach number In figure 910(c)." the of stream the Mach the method. diagram. before. the wall segment field the point OP4. points. expansion top as the are. wave. it from of line therefore. C_ or C'3. equations discussion. therefore. stator each cases and Flow Solutions as well as others blade physical 910(a). P_ Also. general. wall. be through field. separate field 6 is parallel plane must 4 and similar P6 hodograph flows one of the extension Ps.IGN AND APPLICATION Consider Sa. The construction proceeds As which Mach across out fields. expansion of an that are are is and the of supersonic 910. The Both methods "latticepoint are described method" in reference Summary The used shown (c) show intersection wave flected wave across flow for the solutions design in the figure the with of Elementary previously discussed. rotor the Figures sections. situation (b).
/_SONI_C TURBINES Figure section point istic 910(e) shows region the wave solution and B and beyond D must for the lie on the the flow field wave. Intersection of an expansion from flow 910. as shown. continues intersection. a solid solutions. waves.SfUPE. intersection beyond The the interhodograph each wave of an expansion representing curves passing unchanged a compression C.. . .¢.:P. 6 (al 6 OD BA / b ?//'//_}i"///d .:. . of character through in type Therefore.4. ._/_ _c_ (a) (b) (c) Reflection FlovRs Weak expansion of expansion wave wave..Elementary 261 . boundary.
6 6_ (dt Z////////21//7_ _B /_1'Compression wave O0 : 0A + 25 "////Z///I/I_ / (e) P : Constant A _on wave (fl (d) (e) (f) Reflection Cancellation Intersection of expansion of expansion of expansion wave FIGURE from wave and a at solid boundary.I//l/l_'//. This free 262 is the that but is not may be encountered of general of an boundary expansion in the wave design is shown from requires of supersonic in figure the a constantpressure that pressure blade 910(f). waves. A case sections. compression free boundary 910.ft/lllll_ A t "V/I/i///// L 0 B : 04 . (constant pressure). . condition reflection The boundary. DESIGN AND APPLI_ATrON 6 It//l.TURBINE. be interest.Concluded.
axis a solid zone.SUPERSONIC TURBINES constant velocity be equal. 263 . pressure) along the outside field streamline. off the and sonic is a streamboundary. slope. The wall The purposes. fields C must wave wave. to have of a stator uniform of nozzle be discussed Flow flow curve Nozzles A supersonic in figure sonic. In general. parallel flow. of nozzle the This the important speeds. the flow (AD) parallel and then is shown and superin again it is required curve be parallel so that at the exit. is called be designed. of all the flow along in the the boundary be as shown an expansion as a compression reflects a free boundary (constant DESIGN One flow also design at has of the most OF SUPERSONIC uses This is of the wind flow type STATOR the method to produce basis tunnels.Supersonic nozzle producing uniform. wall nozzle Since must Producing that first Uniform Parallel produces that outward uniform. only generates for the flow of the design ABCDA one half at the wall is again parallel the wall has its maximum the throat symmetry. line and Therefore. D is the point where that Because may. to based is its application supersonic dimensional desired to the design of a channel nozzles application for supersonic parallel on this supersonicturbine blades. nozzle waves need the which is uniform. (DE). magnitude Therefore. It is usually parallel. design type rotor. parallel of since Only twoit is the here. the nozzle by be replaced nozzle of the to the initial flow. flow region expansion AD expansion procedure calculation is the same as was discussed [ B ¢ FIGURE 911. Since lying from the flow is isentropic. reflect centerline. The in the curved section assumed (M1). hodograph the must plane. Point the 911. stator entering will of BLADES of characteristics uniform.
how parallel.D _ [ _. PrandtlMeyer angle supersonic program. bounding at an angle exit written by the nozzle 7 of the the nozzle. 912." The uniform. long of ing section. 264 . in the flow that waves hodograph occurs of the design been these Solutions. plane. losses.TURBINE' DE. reflected exit.5" ] 181 I1). the _. expansion seen flow number For for this A limiting points (corner parallel that and wall angle nozzles Only The output 3 does number the input and gives not one the _. Cancellation (fig. Therefore." wall cancelled. exit The Mach program PrandtlMeyer method is designed the The working of A computer 3) to design by desired fluid. shown previously depends exit between may a limiting in figure numbers. supersonic the account includes specificheat of reference A. 3 (a) Physical FIGURE plane. 912(b)) of the to the corner waves. expansion as a result 2 is set of the has as a result reflected equal (ref. uniform shows flow. "Summary The region section The DCED is curved is called so that Flow of cancelling the the straightenincoming waves final A be too form 912(a). by to around used length. produces shortest expands are is again possible (fig. sharpedged flow The waves The nozzle is used.SIGN AND APPLICATION "Flow Between and waves the Two the are is Walls.Nozzle with sharpedged (b) Hodograph throat. 911). A large type in past in this method and section CE on Mach turbine with of D a the of Elementary expansion a nozzle In throat. sharp the obtain the described coincide. program the throats of the program ratio of flow characteristics. producing of the the of the half region is half program sharpedged portion computer coordinates for any the the reflected diagram centerline._ I / _. It is a where edge was The Mach and D. occurs of this type cases. applications. flow half other which with to at of nozzle uniform. much supersonic. parallel supersonic nozzle form and flow).
Design of supersonic stator nozzle with sharpedged throat. the basis Addi of minimumlength (chord) as compared supersonic to the previously Ideal nozzle _ t / / Displacementth ickness.SUPgRSONIC TURBINES Stator The for tional the sharpedgedthroat design considerations nozzle for a stator Nozzles just discussed serves nozzle as stators. / / Tangential direction Converging section_ \ t_ Axial _Trection FIow_ FIGURE 913. 265 . \ \ \ / / / / Straight sectior_ angle /_ozzle / / / Diverging section'.
channel discussed methods to prevent characteristics. and to flow can of the to is The converging (supersonic) The be section. are of characteristics. surface cancel zontal of the the flow of designing blade parallel from The supersonic of this flow flow upper type is given by Shapiro 914(a). then by parallel undergoes the concave (pressure) so as to horia resulting blade. section flow designed section at the on to 5 (vol. indicated method ideal to the thickness. momentum by nozzle 7 (vol. A typical uniform. methods by from 2). of characteristics by the required as previously completes nozzle the angle. entering is designed is assumed convergence compression to be uniform Method rotor I) the In blades waves. converging designed losses. parameters thicknesses as described as indicated boundarylayer efficiency in chapter is obtained DESIGN Two rotors tion methods are caused the that The by rotor the OF SUPERSONIC been Both proposed design of ROTOR for the BLADES design use any and of supersonic the method formaflow The parallel. passage CornerFlow One method (ref. of by length desired by the the freethe is section methods of chapter minimize the produce turning designed straight and its accelerates section profile. incoming (0=0) expansion. the flow turning and the desire to include flow and A supersonicturbine being as and section the flow.TURBINE D_IGN AND APPL_CATrON discussed energy are losses. of shock have herein. nozzle program nozzles. surface region flow cancelled compression is obtained. 2). The 1). for (no loss) of sharpedgedthroat for losses. by for final nozzle the the designed is presented 4. blade nozzle (2) the sonic 2). profile is then ideal profile by the superin dashed including is first then a correction nozzle profile. with waves parallel cornertype 266 . (displacement computed The The displacement in figure 913. design discussed. discussed adding nates the parameters chapter 6 (vol. An ideal 913. coordiobtained Boundarylayer thickness. This being a comertype lower is curved 2. to exit. entering compression. is shown in figure undergoes concave (region along (suction) waves.) in the local reference converging The Mach suction discussed herein The a stator (3) nozzle. (subsonic) a straight accelerates section diverging number surface the is stator is shown stator section. the and channel 913 and section will of the be referred sections: type to (1) a in figure consists a diverging suction speed In order all the This of three surface. stream method on the determined A computer sonic lines stator in figure etc.
hodograph in figure which is desirable. blade only to be designed. only The easy The one profile. and outlet parallel flow (as this kind is flow of the desired on the Mach upper number surface. in any specificato design. of comer of blade diagram 914(c) quite because drawback for this blade is the theoretical unusual. Another number. (c) Outlet FIGURE 914.SUPERSONIC TURBINES surface. distribution is not of the inlet very blade. occurs parallel half of Straightline blade makes of one segments directions. Mach middle for a given of velocity method becomes in the of this design is that rParallel flow I t t Parall . Shown velocity distribution. the This loading type shown in bladesurface zero figure 914(b). particularly region. shown since type are present complete in fig. (c) Blade by the loading diagram method. the blade an impulse needs waves flow 914(a)). at the to the For the tion since until blade inlet uniform exit.Supersonic cornerflow 267 ._ Parallel flow _ (a) M* Inlet Distance alon9 chord _b) (a) (b) Hodograph diagram. rotor design Blade and passage. it is symmetrical.
maximum (1. critical out the shown The arcs. The of the levels inlet The and velocity amount exit to 3. This ratio A typical 915(a). gas. is no limit amount arcs distri obtainable necessary on to be quite shown because The diagram. inlet The transition inlet flow tranat the waves generinterflow. the cir transition parallel vortex transition compression waves The expansion 915(a)). surface computer inlet.5 therefore. 914. consist arcs. parts: uniform of the the (1) arcs. by this is a constant is described flow within therefore. as compared cornerflow A computer method program outlet. vortexflow begins where The concentric outlet flow arcs. type the ratio by the of characteristics input and output shape. Method supersonic the product passage rotor blades vortex (also. and lower essentially and upper) (3) flow transition arc of outlet by convert arc (see of designing method M*) field. sition passage generated ated field sect. transition by and the compression circular arcs arcs the and expansion turn and maintain the vortex waves the upper the design are waves first the vortex flow into by and profile. bladeloading in figure for designing is presented the the method inlet rotor of and and numbers. to the Mach sum number equal is limited. in figure blades (2) circular arcs (lower into the upper by the inlet method 5. throughmethod is VortexFlow Another in reference the passage. The angles. the arcs 268 The blade program includes Mach includes using the rotor in blades reference flow of this 6. surfaces indicated the circular arcs there IK corresponding constantvelocity are diagram. flows of design. loaded. in with the the reconvert remaining on uniform cancelling outlet flow generated surface blade is in arcs and the surface figure BF Straightline segments directions for the the by type in degree the highly the to this parallel to the inlet complete type of A hodograph 915(b). figure of on to the velocity figure the blade hodocan This to the blade locations along circular the rotor.0). of flow (120 ° to 150 °) would be impossible. of the of in outlet the specificheat coordinates the is blade and a plot transition An approximate method for obtaining without characteristics described . letters The surfaces graph of flow provide bution blade The diagram flows along shown shown. The parallel cular by field. of turning. especially circular 915(c). turning PrandtlMeyer amounts angles.TURBINE I_ESIGN AND APPLICATION the sonic For amount (Mach reasonable of flow turning 1) or higher. turning any is seen is shown design represented In this 915(a). in region of flow large 2 must turning be is. blade and is based on establishing radius In a vortexflow of velocity designed velocity and streamline three the means and fig.
Supersonic rotor design Blade and passage. (c) 269 .G X'x// ) Inlet \ I / K Outlet Distance along chord mh_7. the vortex flow is established by making the curvature of the transition arcs onehalf the curvature of the circular arcs. In this blade design..SUPERSONIC TURBI_. method. 915. For very small curvatures. In this procedure.ES references 7 and 8.F Ib) (a) (b) Hodograph FIGURE diagram.. This permits blades of various shapes to be designed for Region Vortex flow transition AB and FG BC and EF HI and KL CDEand1JK Straight lines Upper transition arcs Lower transition arcs Circular arcs (a) M*.B C E A.and uppersurface Mach numbers are specified. the lower.H L. (c) by Blade the loading vortexflow diagram. this method is correct._H.
8). uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle.5). 130 °. Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. 18 ° (M1. 59 ° (M. total flow turning angle. uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle.TURBINE I_E. 104 ° (M10.4.1. 130 °. total flow turning angle.5) . uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. (e) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. (inlet Prandtl FIGURE 916. uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. 130 °.5) . uppersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. 120 ° .5) . 140 ° .5) .1.5 ratio of 1. 0° (M = 1) . 59 ° (M = 3.Turbine Meyer 270 blade shapes at inlet Mach angle of 39 °) and specificheat . total flow turning angle. total flow turning angle. 59 ° (M = 3. 59 ° (M = 3. (c) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle.7) . 59 ° (M = 3. total flow turning angle. 12 ° (M=l. (f) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. number of 2. 21 ° (M.7) .7) . total flow turning angle.5) .1.8) .SIGN AND APPLICATrON AA AB BD CC CD Circular arc Uppertransition arc Straight line Circular arc Lowertransition arc k ta) A B A B \ D/ (b! A B B D D A B A B (a) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer an (b) gle. 130 ° .3. (d) Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. 18 ° (M. 21 ° (M.
addthe as indicated Guidance of which a blade supersonic in this of is obtained consideration separation starting be discussed discussed for the case later "method chapter. it is seen Mach shape. flow of will 6 for an inlet (d)) figs. design A computer sections. (f)) design and designed by the in of reference (cf. vortexflow in reference lines rotor in figure obtained profile 7 (vol.Lossfree passage i/ Z \ \ \ FIOURE 917.Design of supersonic rotor blade section. and (cf. the method of characteristics. indicated and the profile loss is presented by the final 9. 271 . figs. profile to the thicknesses as described Boundarylayer is then ideal computed. The dashed designed are then the local 917.SUPEJRSONIC _URBINES a given program figure number whereas (c)) and effects. number of 2. displacement Rotor parameters in figure coefBcients are determined boundarylayer in chapter . the the Mach From the number. previously is only of ideal (isentropie) for the design a correction passage by profile. both The procedure program including (no loss) first eters ing inlet 916.5 axe shown uppersurface on the have blade 916(a). (b). of supersonicturbine for losses. blades the effect figs. figure. and by 916(c) turning in flow the lowersurface Mach selection significant problems. A number Mach has little number 916(e) of and of that (cf. characteristics" flow._ Displacement thickness /__/ _.. paramby from 2). _ _ '__/'x " .. _ . ideal is 917...
de3 . deg I 120 I 140 FIGURE 918. Specific 272 . EF adverse within give to cause criterion Mach pressure the flow places rotor gradients blade of whether exist passages. 1 l O0 '%. be desirable separation lowersurface OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS TURBINES Supersonic Starting OF SUPERSONIC the Problems diffuser occur in the starting must be able to swallow of supersonic the shock that diffusers because forms at the inlet Lowe rs u rface 140 PrandtIMeyer angle.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION As seen from arcs are figure HI and 915. upper calculations severe losses.Maximum PrandtlMeyer heat ratio./_120 ll5 llO 105 9O 85 8O 75 7O 65 6O 55 5O 45 40 3O 75 2O 15 10 120 ___ 20 t 0 20 1 40 Uppersurface 1 60 Prandtl%_eyer t 80 an(jl¢. and enough an indication it would numbers. the along The transition boundarylayer gradients results of the separation. o)/. pressure separation. angle 1.4. for supersonic starting. limitations Flow on separation to prevent the choice in large The If it is possible.
..' .'_7. F_. in PrandtlMeyer is known angles determined 8O Lowersurface PrandtlMeyer angle. .// ./ ' .  k E _ & r_ _o 39 •_ g & 4o I . a normal ing. passage the blade of blade of supersonic a first rotor must numbers expressed permissible through. I 1 110 Uppersurface PrandtIMever angle. In figure starting bladesurface inlet the to surface obtain PrandtlMeyer design velocity angle as a function for supersonic of the the and order of vortexflow PrandtlMeyer angle rotor blade PrandtlMeyer the problem. inlet 273 .. similar shock since Since turbines. . deg FIGURE 919._97.5.'_. __e_. S9 i 0 7" . wave For the inlet flow this mum rotor angles. c 5 E r_ 20 I o 30 I l_°l i_oo I lJ 1 50 _ l 70 L I 90 . spans the flow angles the rotor would As blade passage is convergentdivergent to occur it at the passage is in instant is set the the starting that by this shock of of startassumed problems the passage Mach (often (or inlet be expected approximation. startup. 39°._/'/77"7"//'77/'I /. 65 °. wu.Supersonic Mach number 2. diagram.SUPE_ SONI_ TURBINES during in shape.. segments corresponding value surfaces number be value is plotted the from usual the then be PrandtlMeyer w_ and The is given wz). . o. Inlet angle. contraction be large along in enough the terms to permit to pass specified blade Mach can inlet blades In must circulararc of the a maximum for which for 918.o. there PrandtlMeyer calculation in reference exists of the angle) procedure supersonic determining the maxi established. starting criterion PrandtlMeyer applied to example angle. maximum 6. inlet flow turbine. The condition.
and design Prandtlexample. pressure in efficiencies envelope would curve. falls maximum is similar turbine. a blade that at least To assure representing satisfactory the the the starting surface ordinate the permissible is best for the seen and to on the the for the corresponding given inlet angles to values an example. in figure inlet tion surface PrandtlMeyer starting design from following that fact due inlet inlet for the this region lie on or above angle. bladejet this ratios were a subsonic at the The lower turbine..=Mex=2._ only dashed would starting limit indicated 0 ° limit turning (_.0.. be restriction on PrandtlMeyer places Mach In general. (3)0. The ratio speed to in turbine 920. discussed °. w_ and _. 39 ° to remain the (2) M. are shown because is plotted bounds line not be as a function previously purposes represents permissible crosshatched of supersonic will.5 noted vary 104 °.. in general. with If variation speed a subsonic have in fig. The transition 104°). than the limit considerations. can the of condi conditions. For turbines divided are by reideal references variation (blade supersonicturbine corresponding is illustrated turbine inlettotalwhich exitstaticpressure the any ratio data given and in ratio for the speed._=65 that to the the flow 0 ° to 39 °. is inlet angle exceed of 65 ° (39°+65°= clarity. decrease supersonicturbine 274 . restriction designed from on the supersonic Suppose (1) _=1. the maximum in the figure.=39 for the _.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and passage 918 profiles. the w_. of at ratio Flow separation value of w_ to much consideration lower values Supersonic Experimental ported efficiency velocity ratio) in with performance 10 to bladejet Performance for supersonic in speed to presents 14..=_. . This is _ to can sonic.4. vary flow fact angle _. and w. conditions: °. fallen efficiency on at the the the off figure partialadmission efficiency rapidly efficiency to that for as reference design is maximum pressure (circles about is 920) pressure The decreased.. the point must a severe numbers. _z is due 104 ° limit cannot 919.x=39°). Turbine data 14. The In figure of maximum of _. It is first from must that Meyer For shown.
.04 .....12 Bladejet speedratio F. 920. havior was found in the data of reference 10.. as expected. to the shocks occurring in the underthe stator nozzle of formation expanded variation in static pressure throughout in the underexpanded the turbine of reference 14 is shown of the shock waves in figure 921. 275 .20 l .10 .Static efficiency of turbine as function for conseant speeds. 0 L__ ... but the was beThis same It can also be seen from this figure that at pressure ratios near design. the divergent section of the nozzle performed pressure did not remain constant in the straight section...08 A_ 1 . The nozzle is readily apparent.8UPF_R_)NIC Ratio of turbineinlet total pressure to turbineexit _ a o o static pressure 150 120 63 (design) _ "_ _ TURBII_S I .. of bladejet speed ratio lower The pressure ratios is due stator nozzles.16 J .24 ..2O _3 t_ . There some overexpansion followed by some compression.GuR_...30 cCD . 2___ .
8 ratio pressure _ 1.0_ •07 a c •05 L_ 9 V o •03  A •02 [] Theoretical . section I .TURBINE • 10 I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION __ •09  Divergent section [" Straight ...0 with to axial inlet distance total in nozzle pressure.2 Fraction of axial distance FIGURE for 921. .01 Throat I Exhaust Ii i .6 nozzle exit pressure static L .Variation constant ratios 276 ..4 of of nozzle It .
Application of Supersonic VortexFlow Theory to the Design of Supersonic Impulse Compressoror TurbineBlade Sections. GOLDMAN. John Wiley & Sons. C. 1947. 7. : The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. AND SCULLIN.. Butterworths. VANCO. SHAPIRO. Res.: Design and Experimental Investigation of a SingleStage Turbine with a Rotor Entering Relative Mach Number of 2. .: Introduction to Aerodynamics of a Compressible Fluid. AND PUCKETT. 1971. 277 . IComputer Program for Blading Design. NASA TM X2382.: Experimental Investigation of a Low Reynolds Number PartialAdmission SingleStage Supersonic Turbine. 13. NASA TM X410. 12. HORLOCK. GOLDMAN. AND GIBBS. R&M 3242. 1967. THOMAS P. NACA RM E58F20a. B. 1962. Computer Program for Design of TwoDimensional SharpEdgedTh_roat Supersonic Nozzle with BoundaryLayer Correction. MOFFITT. 1968.. 6. 1968.. AND GOLDMAN. LOUIS J.... I.AND WLODARSKI. NACA RM L52B06. AND VANCO. 1. THOMAS P. Aero. J. 9. ALLEN E. STABE. NASA TM X2343. . MOFFITT.: Computer Program for Design of TwoDimensional Supersonic Turbine Rotor Blades with BoundaryLayer Correction. 1971. Louis J. 1953.SUPE_tSONIC TURBINES REFERENCES 1. 14. Ronald Press Co. LOUIS J. JR. : Theory and Tunnel Tests of Rotor Blades for Supersonic Turbines. AND KLAG. HANS WOLFGANG. . 3. . 8. NASA TN D4421. R&M 3275. Council. 1952. JOHN F.. NASA TM X2434. ColdAir Performance Evaluation of a ScaleModel Fuel Pump Turbine for the M1 HydrogenOxygen Rocket Engine. . FREDERICK W. VINCENT J. 1971. KLINE. 5. 1962. NASA TN D3819. AND DRANSFIELD. STERRETT. . : Analytical Investigation of Supersonic Turbomachinery Blading. GOLDMAN.. LIEPMANN. GOLDMAN. 1960. Aero. MICHAEL R. Computer Program for Design of TwoDimensional Supersonic Nozzle with SharpEdged Throat. E. H. vol. JOHN. MICHAEL R. 11. G. LOUIS J. VINCENT J. LOUIS J. 10. JOHNSON. JAMES R. : Experimental Investigation of Partialand FullAdmission Characteristics of a TwoStage VelocityCompounded Turbine. H. 1958. ASCHER H. STRATFORD. AND SANSOME. NASA TM X1502. D. Res. EMANUEL. S. 4. BOXER. EDWARD H. 2. 1966. Council.: The Test Performance of Highly Loaded Turbine Stages Designed for High Pressure Ratio. : Axial Flow Turbines: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics.. AND SCULLIN. ROY G.
N/m_. PrandtlMeyer kg/m 3. in flow deg angle. absolute component m/sec.TURBINE I)E_IGN AND APPLICATIO_ SYMBOLS A a flow speed Mach critical area along Mach m/sec. lb/ft 3 Subscripts e_ rotor rotor lower normal exit inlet surface of blade with respect to Mach wave in l ITI4IZ maximum direction relative isentropic tangential upper direction with respect to Mach wave surface of blade 7" 8 t 278 . deg g M M* P conversion constant. ratio of specific heat constant volume small 0 p P pressure deg to specific heat at change angle. _ to initial flow direction. m/sec. deg deg ft/sec to initial flow direction.) lb/ft mS. ratio velocity ft/sec (Mvelocity kg/sec. mass Mach flow 1). ft/sec 1. number velocity pressure. ft _ (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec _) of sound. critical component m/sec. wave. parallel V velocity.32. velocity of ft/sec rate. of ft/sec m/sec. flow PrandtlMeyer density. normal lb/sec at constant direction.17 (V/Vc. angle. V Y) angle.
CHAPTER 10 Radiallnflow Turbines ByHarold . ease of manufacture. sturdy construction. are discussed. radialinflow performance. narrow. the a radial stator is fed (tan a tangential of a volute. Turbines of this type have a number of desirable characteristics such as high efficiency. a section stator takes height rotor ratios axial place through and the varies stator 0. its features addition. turbines and cover In this are design performance 101 enters of the and ratio 8. to chord. inlet case or a volute surrounds while the (shown the volute in a typical leaves blade from blades. design Figure The turning long the as flow 1 to 6 are general performance axialflow of these and In offturbine. design.Rohlik E Radialinflow space power turbines systems. plenum. radialinflow the rotor which about on the turbine. and is described. and reliability. are suitable for many where applications compact in aircraft. 1 to as much radially turbines.5. and from axially. 279 It can be seen turbine . power sources and other systems are required. compared geometry is a substantial literature. a prewhirl gential component the stator blade camber. of blade have shows the flow In There in the most chapter.1 to 0. by The which which torus is a doughnutshaped is a spiral is fed inlet by pipe. fig. inlet. flow In passage. aspect Radial turbine aspect other generally A torus. in the rotor passage. This is is relatively which hand. This results in stator blades with little or no from figure 102 that the than overall the diameter rotor of a is considerably larger diameter. ratio. radialinflow of velocity) is imparted to the gas before it enters row. of the those areas the with and design of amount References and an turbine blade of information on radialinflow in nature machines. usually pipe. 102).
At little usually the or rotor no straight inlet.) so that The Therefore. rotor exit. radial inlet low blade Also.. flow. radius. tangential and and with where radial. (Since rV. ratio be volute.. exit absolute shape the that seen. At the stator the (where r is the radius. generally here where the velocity Figure shows solidity generally turbine blades 280 is rather highly the blade curved or no angular component momentum of absolute W_=O. the and partial. the flow velocity (W_=O). shows clearly. SIGN AND APPLICATION Station :.=U_r. to the is turn whirl.TURBINE DE. relative the section to rotor of the the rotor blades has are blade component This tangential of the more in loaded. the low are The full little prewhirl of in here rotor.Schematic cross section of radialinflow turbine. aspect can of the blades part chord the has They of radial in the turbines between flow passage . varies U is blades has 103 that (ratio used shown in the the are V_ is the velocity) V. Stator blade 0 1 2 Rotor blaue FIGURE 101. blading developed to stators splitter.a:r2. are used spacing) or since straight rotor rV. square speed.
the use blades turbine are discussed further in from differs decrease appreciably in with eq. difference to rotor to both as shown because in in figure the p.' line is farther p't' line change difference Therefore. 281 radius. losses. for level through total turbine line p[' (as and the pressure the (231) the for axial total of the pressure radius change 1 (see rotor. turbine. . to reduce the the "BLADE The that The radius. the the from the in an discussion). and radial a given rotor p" are in due 104. because expansion. Splitter DESIGN" section.Radialinflow turbine. process turbine in a radial because and is be in chapter This the can which Tile If the the this This 104. associated turbine overall diagram T" tile fig. relative as was temperature decreasing discussed it permits 2 of volume a distinct of a lower seen change in were below turbine. shown p_" is shows change expansion of a radialinflow _hown corresponding would relative slightly radial from and of ch. expansion.Rotor / Volute C72323 FIGURE 102. be only because For rotor removed losses 2).RADIALINFLOW TURBINES Stator /. only is due and for line p_' 28 in expansion an blade loading. in figure the the advantage velocity the relative total axial the between p_' temperatureentropy the temperature (T['=T_').
_gak FIGURE 103. velocity would approximately turbine.Turbine stator and rotor assembly. rotor ratio blade be axial evident.TURBINR I)F__SIGN AND APPLICATION Rotor splitter blade Stator blade. 282 U2 equaled as in an . U_ and the Us is very relative three kinetic times volute and a mean diameter The difference between the For a typical W] leaving zeroexitwhirl the UI.5. A of a lower shown in radialturbine a turbine with prewhirl in the (exitmean to inlet) of about speeds diagram. Rotor full blade / / t / C?1863 . energy as high if is turbine.) level figure square of velocity 105 for the relative is clear. expansion exit the static rotor from the same rotor inlet total pressure p'_' to the same W= at (larger fluid of pressure exit in distance losses gas in p_ would require an axial turbine between a rotor velocity. velocity increase the a higher relative than in a radial approximately with velocity turbine Since the vertical friction p_" and p= for an axial advantage diagram inlet 0.
U2 FIGURE 105.Velocity diagram.RADIALINFLOW TURBINES i T1 tl TI 2gJCp E F 2gJcp Entropy FIGURE 104.Temperatureentropy diagram for a radialinflow turbine rotor. 283 . V 0 W] W2 / p2.
"optimum" Note this flow analyses properly angle that were near the not the streamline in figure the suction when schematically is approximately separate sive cally loss. blade._ and experimentally compressors Pressure surface . tip flow Blade passage. surface between in both relation V_.uction urface / FIGURE 106. been and leading U1 has inlet pattern surface.Streamline flow at rotor inlet.TURBINE DE'SIGN AND APPLICATION OVERALL DESIGN Optimum CHARACTERISTICS Incidence rotor inlet. ferentially gradient the show point suction that that the blades are radial 105 has is an a value incidence optimum at the incidence flow in figure provides angle This This blade angle. factor of the passage. There at the is some rotorblade as 40 ° with to the flow with blades. there Streamfunction is an radial. 284 . the the the analogous of mass a large of this the in a centrifugal Before across the compressor. the inlet flow angle incidence leading a radial the in the "slip" rotor unloading fll Since shown angle edge. If stagnation would causing studied turbines. This flow at the so. and from The 106. the flow edge. conditions condition and is sometimes as high is associated by the rotor optimum near uniform. and the is influenced loading distribution then produces it is circumstaticpressure shift toward flow condition stagnation is shown point tend analytiIt has to exces so that pattern there is a streamline locates _1.
pressure constant. and ft3/sec exit total pressures.. 32. of Specific speed by the Speed on Design Geometry and and Performance in ch.RADIAIrINFLOW TURBINES been number determined ratio that depends there on expressed is an optimum blade as V_"=12 loading ratio and. velocity meansection 2_ rad/rev. or head. Specific similarity. 285 . ft (assumed to be in 60 sec/min (hh'_ v. is independent considered effect velocitydiagram study. This blade optimum and is often U. ideal ratio. that customary of expresses may be units).The substituting for N. rad/sec. U_. of V. m/sec. 2 of specific parameter equation N_ (derived discussed 1) is given NQ21/2 N_where N rotative volume ideal H314 (102) Q2 H speed. geometric it is not may and by dimensionless. work. diameter.S. based on inlet m3/sec. rev/min flow rate at turbine exit. height. n is the number of blades Effect The vol. ft axial direction). and on efficiency H as follows: (103) (104) (105) = KUI Q2=_D2h2V2 H=Vj2 where K D1 D2 h2 V2 dimensional rotor inlet rotorexit rotorexit rotorexit m/sec. N Analytical examined of specific Q2. (ft) (lbf)/lbm In size its most and commonly truly be used form as a (with shape the stated speed parameter speed U. (tip) passage fluid ft/sec speed. ft m. 1 to consequently. n (total of full blades plus (101) splitter where blades). m. m. based ft/sec 1 . g conversion jet constant. J/kg.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) on inlettotal to exitstatic diameter.
DESIGN AND APPLICATION Ah_ ideal work based on inlettotal and exittotal pressures. Btu/lb Ahid ideal work based on inlettotal and exitstatic pressures. \D.]2 (106) characto velocitydiagram value ratio teristics and overall geometry. N.2/D_. statorbladeto rotorinlet ratios (U/ speed. Any specific speed by an infinite number of combinations of these number 7 to speed.2/D_ of values areas statorexit extreme For in static dashed any curve at and the of velocitydiagram mentioned flow and characteristics losses a_. were shroud kinetic exit flow those analysis caused The al of reference by the number 7 related stator on and the losses variations. rotor. angle hubtoshroud windage (in degrees) n:0. A large in reference of specific range analytically a wide neglecting clearance. a minimum avoid of the was to meandiameter The losses layers. The range efficiency used shown three was critical plotted 107. The properties. as much envelope as 45 to 50 points of all . of input value rotortip study. velocity against Statorexit which boundaries and speed. of 0.=(Constant)\_7]u The terms of equation (106) are \_j/ related \U]. For fell seen region are large values. J/kg.)_.03 considered boundary of rotor according (a_57)_T number (full incidence and in order This tion was to provide the to total the minimum the reaction rotor number of blades used (101) establish included a maximum (nh/D. energy. in equa(V_. Dt.2:0). The examined number height diameter Vc.TURBINE.] \D. varied equation (107) separation. variables of specific variation efficiency. The specific calculated flow into the there computed of each in the all of the in the to be for by determinant flow values given is the of efficiency. points angle a small region assumed can be a static for some is to rotorinletdiameter ratio static shaded a prime each the limits. the falls by for angle rotorexit were a large previously statorexit ratio hdD_. 286 set geometric The the a favorable limit (W_:2W_). rotor back blades to the 12 that plus zero would splitter) Other exit whirl limit angle. J/kg.7 for effects by of of geometry calculating combinations D.. Btu/lb These substitutions for specific and some manipulation result in the following expression speed: y.)2.4 for assumptions and with flow bladetothe exit statorof these determine combinations optimum were combinations examined over can be achieved terms. then in figure angle. of 0.
Effect of specific speed on computed (Data from ref.0 I 1. to with computed values. total represent associated primary mum the ure Most functions 108 specific specific height creases and the The the and solid curve above values because used in however.7 8 \ \ \ \ . of specific that and Figure increasing optimum optimum (opens shows values statorexit to a larger that to 1011. deg TURBINE_ Total efficiency corresponding to curve of maximum static efficiency .2 [ . aI .8 t 1.4 I . Ns. and are do not achievable of reference determine continuously of 108 angle area) ratio these of that velocity The speed the 109 decreases geometric curves. velocity presented it represents of efficiency there the was ratios are study to vary of some in figures flow flow the many corresponding necessarily assumptions 7.6 [ .) designpoint efficiency. The the optialong ratios as Figat low efficiencies. dimensionless l 0 I 20 I 40 I 60 I 80 I lO0 l 120 I 140 I 160 I 180 Specific speed. with concern geometry of the envelope shows speed speed.2 I 1. efficiencies. 7. FIGURE 107.4 Specific speed. N (ft314)'.3 .9 _ 8 of maximum static efficiency \ .4 . ratios.5 . loss model study.RADIALINFLOW 1._ 0 .0 Statorexit flow angle.lbm314)/(min)(secll2}(Ibf3t4) s. is large with speed increasing and inat 287 the optimum at low until of statorblade is reached rotorinlet diameter specific is small speed specific a maximum .
ratio 7.) statorexit angle. 7.0 l '1.6 1 .20 O oA XZ L_" _z u_ C 0 0 . dimensionless l 20 1 40 I 60 I 80 I i00 I 120 t la3 1 160 I 180 Specific speed.04 0 .6 . Ns.4 Specific speed. dimensionless I 20 I 40 I 60 I 80 I l O0 I 120 J 140 I 160 I 180 Specific speed.Effect of specific speed on optimum (Data from ref. speed on optimum (Data from rcf.) of stator 288 . (ft3/d_tlbm314t/Imin!lseclIZJ_lbf3i4_ FIGURE 109.4 I . (ft3J41(Ibrn3/4)/IminJlseclJ2jIIbf3/4_ FIGUaE 108. Ns.08 a: .8 [ 1.TURBINE DESIGN 90XD AND APPLICATI. Ns.0 1. Ns.4 .8 1.2 1.2 I l.Effect of specific speed blade height to rotorinlet and blade diameter.ON _" 8O ¢D _o 70 60 5O .a Specific speed.2 I .2 I . • 20 (UtVcr)l 0. Blade critical velocity ratio at rotor inlet.
6 O . 289 .4 ¢_  .4 Specific I .8 I 1. of 7.0 I 1.Effect diameter of specific speed diameter.l E 7 TURBINES .RADIALINFLOW .4 speed.2 0 . 7.6 I . (ftJld}(Ibm3/41/(min_secll2)ilbf314_ FIGURE 1010.) bladejet speed ratio.2 .) rotorexit tip to rotorinlet 14  L 0 I 20 FIGURE 10I 1. dimensionless I.2 I 1. 0 I 20 I 40 I 60 1 80 I 100 I !20 I 140 I 160 I 180 Specific speed. Ns.o ff .Effect of specific (Data speed from on optimum ref. Ns. on optimum (Data from ratio ref.
geometric that 1010 height effect compressibility is also result at shown in any ratio smaller given in figure ratios it is seen of stator rotorinlet specific of rotorexit [] qb_ (a) Specific speed. 7. 0. Statorexit Statorexit (ft 3/_)(lbm flow angle.) maximum _tZ)(lbf 3/_). speed. 3/_)/(min)(sec 75 ° .TURBINE. 3z_)/(min)(sec 81 °. 70 150 (ft flow 3/_)(lbm l!Z)(lbf l/2)(lbf air). of ref.23. turbine.16. tip diam109. Statorexit flow (b) (c) Specific Specific speed. 1. 3/4)/(min)(sec 60 ° . turbines from FmURE 1012.54. 3/4). 30 (ft 3/_)(lbm angle. DESIGN AND APPLICATION some in the mum blade Figure value of specific The and higher to shows speed only velocity velocity that depending that levels diameter the optimum ratios on the overall level has on of velocity the optiwhere speed. 290 . 0. angle.Sections of radial (Data static efficiency.
specific Sections for three speed 7 also geometries These capacity. The different shown values of specific index sections design losses in figure of specific of reference the for curve the the variation efficiency. 1. of in This For are flow the is low very in figures 1012 of radialinflow shown show study along 1013 speed.6 . to 1011 of turbines values is largely indicated static speed viscous optimum speed. dimensionless 1 _0 Specific J 50 I 80 1 100 J 200 speed. n _ 1 .Loss distribution (Data along from curve ref.2 1.RADIALINFLOW TURBINE_ eter creases to rotorinlet rapidly with is diameter increasing reached. 7. turbines. 291 .4 I . Ns. l[t3_'4Jllhm3/d_/fi:lin_secll2_ltbf3'4_ FIGURE 1013. losses of maximum range of specific and rotor stator . Ns.0  .8 1 I 2 speed.4 .1. covered.9p ¢x3 to ¥ Loss c <19 Stator Rotor :> Clearance Windage Exit velocity c_ .7 optimum manner The the design bladeiet similar optimum are specific can with an the speed be used to the efficiency. speed values ratio variation shown in figure that is It small specific is seen UI/Vj of static at low specific until figure with the speed imposed 1011 and that inlimit the in a for speed from varies 108 of D.1 .2 Specific .2/DI_0.) of maximum static efficiency.
FIGURE 1014. and low clearance windage speed. Also. (c) Cutback used (b) rotor.TURBINE.Rotor configurations specificspeed study of reference 8. a clearance relatively which large because bladetoshroud height. loss all decrease kineticenergy speed. the stator because loss becomes and rotor losses. and windage flow and area. As fraction primarily speed is also specific specific because of the speed increases. 292 . The exit at high values of specific C/I159 {a) ib_ C69q816 C?03533 to) (a) Design rotor. in Rotor with exducer extension. DESIGN AND APPI_CATION large because loss large depends at low of is on the large high ratio of the the of wall the passage diameter area to flow The rotative flow area. the is loss. of the increased predominant clearance loss. rate.
of specific reducedarea results. Ns.5 1 .6O • 9C [ 1 [ [ L L . (Data 293 . in reference determined area.6 1 . of of specific 8) to accept blades and for area throat the the study. and for internal 13 back to different was also were design the modified numbers with for vary area an inthe and the 1014 and cut velocity efficiency.) with FIGURE 1015. area rotor from throat area on order turbine of stator blade These area operation to blade determine rows The and was of the with experimentally a turbine was fitted cut used This speed.9 Specific speed.2 .In speed a series different reduced operation.Experimental specific speed.8o ._/'" . rotor extension creased stator to vary turbine shows back.RADIALINFLOW TURBINE_ Experimental effect (ref.7 I .4 l . _f variation of efficiency from ref.2 /. allowed Figure to be operated rotor are area Details of the as designed.g I .8_ t'oJ o • 7{3 1 . Ns. angles. throat 53 to 137 percent. 7O _ ¢_ WithConfigu ration design rotor With rotor extension With cutback rotor I. . 8. modifications from 20 to 144 percent over a large with range the test 8.00 • 9O .3 l .50 l I I 1 I I 1lO 60 70 80 90 lO0 t3/4 )_lbm3/4)/trnin)[sec t/2 )(Ibf 3/4) Specific speed. extension. given was and rotor geometry. Figure calculations Performance of stator experimentally 1 015 shows combinations of the the envelopes 1. dirnensi_nless t 20 t 30 I 40 I .
0.90.37 (lbm314)/(min)(seO when the ratio design in the (min) The design speeds) considerably turbine stators. that from with each rotor configuration. of used design. specific curves envelope was Note speeds obtained curve. as determined discussed the specificspeed unloading. generation of turbulence. ratio. . inlet turbine stator be achieved inlet was and exit a relatively (in loss terms clearances a 1percent of percent for there about in efficiency in clearance. greater loss in inlet clearance. and due to bladetoshroud clearance previously figure 1013. flow row rate over internal Further.80 (48 area overall over to pressure 0. of the a factor potential In addition. be used with to advantage total in applications remaining requiring varied 0. The shows the exit the rotor were effects clearance clearancetodiameter The the are effects exit in and of bladetoshroud on radialinflow study 1016. of stator throat static range speed Maximum efficiencies area to rotor throat efficiencies 0.TURBINE DE. specific (seC/2) a)(lbf3/4)). endwalls minimize Effect Clearance avoid contact to minimized between during avoid of BladetoShroud the loss blade and of work and the due blade was to Clearance shroud flow must bypassing be adequate but it the must blades. of nearly the parallel for leakage. For The efficiency loss losses included in the the losses shown clearance rotorexit in clearance loss was based on an average from constant values of rotorinlet and ratios.4 of about to 0. in the figure exit inlet and studies at rotor presented efficiency results determined of both causes inlet a experimentally clearance significantly increase in the Since design clearance. of the the turning With height). one of the analysis. of passage each 294 percent fraction it is flow of these clearance. whirl. Specific speed for each statorby to varying 0. be off even reference a variety the still yield the efficiency stator 8 showed distribution high volume blade that of a particular (different velocities basic specific is a radial variable for though of applications efficiency. to be speed thermal transients.SIGN AND APPLICATION designspeed efficiency as well as the overall androtor ratio at measured combination design for speed.5 (51 were obtained was near the were measured (ft 3/4) (lbm31_)/ Maximum (lbf3/4)). clearance turbine which of reference Increasing at 9. by the investigation.90 to 65 of about investigation could and. increase flow can equal that turbine efficiency than It is the exit clearance is fully that turned produces even with to the the does a comparable that determines exit rotor blade inlet large angle. might In this three.90 103 were (ft 3/4) efficiencies varied simply total 0.
as well problem the as the involves best DESIGN relating useful They design the discussed and can turbine be used velocity examination rotor in blade chapter geometry design to determine diagram. percent of passageheight v 0. turbine shape.RADIALINFLOW Exit clearance.) on total ] 28 FIGURE 1016. _ I ] 4 8 12 16 20 24 Inlet clearance.Effects efficiency. are easier to machine . discussed. design determine computer 108 to speed problem.92 o 3 \ __ A TURBINE6 4 "_E 0 D 7 \ . energy level radialinflow application. over a small for the efficiency axialflow turbine advantage for the BLADE The velocity for bine part in size order curves ratios and to and (figs. 9.E "4 1' _"'b_. The profiles. of internal and studies turnext flow The 2) are 1011) are to specific in preliminary a particular of any stator methods used programs for this purpose.Equal percent.Stator forward. would is largely to have with the result as a radialof rotorlarger of a larger axialflow required clearance (percent height) diameter radialinflow turbine clearance (in order along The a function same lower in a larger annulus kineticof a same clearance and This may diameter) area). (Data An inflow exit rotorexit absolute axialflow turbine passage turbine would have than of the (since be one with would the the same relative flow conditions turbine. large blade Typically. chords. 5 (vol. endwalls. exit and inlet clearance 8 i 0 L. percent of passageheight of inlet and exit clearances from ref.25 . a smaller previously turbine passage of the height reasons. Internal Flow Analysis design relatively chord and is usually because is relatively little the specified small straightlong because number 295 Stator. \ / "< 1. and parallel profiles blade the aerodynamic blades have A long camber.
Freestream velocity Suction Pressure su rface I {b_ t .Stator Blades Surface and passage. with surfacevelocity distributions.9 .TURBINE..imensionless d (a) (b) FIGURE l()17. velocities. area for a given solidity) the stator of means blades penalty are desirable because The (over that as structural supports aerodynamic associated shortchord Pressure .2 .8 1. I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION of blades lower serve cost..4 . with chord long the means chords added large for the endwall spacing shroud..0 Meridional distance.6 . (long Also. blades 296 .
for the streamfunction subsonic program outlet The includes flow and 10 provides conditions. and hub blade program of reference thickness developed of shroud distribution. number. input is of Conversely. Figure radialinflow prewhirl. uses blading because because combinations blade was appreciably adverse of the more pressure difficult gradients encountered and threedimensionality 11 is particularly contour. for radialintegration straight lines in the meridi the velocitygradient of directional derivatives (called quasiorthogonals) onal plane. orthogonals of velocities then calculated based is shown and fixed arbitrarily located intersect all streamlines section 1018. is obtained. turning before more cross than suctionand Except edge. and distributions for smooth Successive distribution are acceleration are made blade for the varying until and curvature satisfactory velocity suction surfaces. rate. leading whether suction edge. A meridionalplane streamlines approximately on irrotational blades. blade satisfactory computer inlet geometry.RADIALINFLOW TURBINE6 blades) is small because conditions. between the various these velocities quasisolution are an meridional of reference and a linear velocities basis Bladesurface 11 with velocity are equation distribution to evaluate smooth absolute used geometries and avoiding of obtaining accelerations 297 . fluid complete parallel Input in reference properties specification of local blade flow analysis may be used The for the stator and because method transonic flow and blade or nearparallel information and of endwalls. of the high reaction and the resultant favorable boundarylayer A twodimensional of the described solutions. provide is specified of rotor blading computer various which along that in figure of blades. for number This turbines. a and surface rate solidity. magnitude calculated with pressure velocities are examined decelerations. If at the specifies curves turning to determine trailing on may remain be design flow calculated and velocity the can the flow provide. suitable contour. open angle if the more in The figure The the 1017(a) turbine shows in the which stator the blade flow for flow row surface value a near and entering small the can for passage the profiles stator velocities at continuously for has are the a no calculated 1017(b). curvature.The than of the that of (decelerations) design. the the the the blade velocities pressure input than by the trailing the pressuresurface accelerates deceleration trailing accomplish edge the curves pressuresurface surfaces. Rotor. inflow design stator The screening approach. shown both used turning. blades angle. freestream will exit blades edge. trials of obtained and angles. specifically with method. in the These with several of A complete program flow bladesurface primarily severe on the decelerations.
However. as calculated from the meridshroud 1019.O . same solution of reference 11.Meridional turbine.6 Shroud contour Quasi orthogonal oa cfi [:Z . however. mean. that an at in the the leading that and used meridionalplane actually occurs blade trailing unloading these regions. dimensionless section through radialinflow FIGURE 1018.8 Axial distance. at a radialinflow turbine rotor 1020 are shown the velocity the hub._ ela CE 1 . It can difference The linear does method between velocity not solutions variation reflect the the streamfunction calculated from method of reference the meridionalplane solution appreciable edges. Bladesurface ionalplane sections of "In figure velocity distributions. surface velocities 298 The streamfunction in a more rigorous method determines manner.. the . DE:SIGN AND APPLICATION 1..TURBINE.8_ 1. and are shown in figure distributions for the blading.2 I 1 I 1 l. The surface velocities solution agree fairly well with over most of the blade.6 . solution occurs in the blade meridional those of the streamfunction be seen. but as calculated by 10..4 .
merEdionalplane FIGURE 1019..2_ 0 .6 ..2 t 1.0 .4 0 .Rotorblade distributions.4 '_ . _ I F I t I (al I ..8 o" . 10) and. 1 t 1 I Freestream velocity I . 1... surfacevelocity solution.0 ..2 .from plane program (ref. provides a better means for rapid screening of the many design variables.2 O_ Suction surface TURBINES .4 1 I fb) I ].8 l.RADIAIrINFLOW 1. A lesser difference occurs in the intermediate portion of the blade passage. (50percent streamline) (c) Hub section.4 (b) Mean section.0 .O Meridional distance.. 11) is easier and quicker to use than the streamfunction program (ref. thus. ____ ..2 . 1.6 ..6 . dimensionless (c) (a) Shroud section...2 w h •"_ .4 . In the meridional299 .8 _ .6 .2 .4 ..
streamline) section. shroud most velocities The because solidity generally 300 is examined .4 Meridional .TURBINE I_EISIGN AND APPD£CATION 1. is deviates then.0 I .6 4 .2 0 1 __() . blade blades of blade Figures in the along than Also. distribution in the flow a mean is also 1020 and blade of the a region the most different._q L ]. the loading. _c_ 1 .0 I _1 1.0 .2 .8 .8 .6 distance.2 1. plane analysis.4 .0 d 3 Suction _Mean / _ surface _ ""_/ t. region hubtoshroud as well loaded and the and Therefore.6 .2 0 1. 1_1 t 1 _3b J __I__ I . heavily flow.4 % _2 C) . distributions from streamfunction section.2 0 q)J 1..teestream velocity . as the along shorter the variations variations the shroud is flow path. and the mean stream mean blade surface. 1019 flow path. (50percent (c) Hub FZGURE 1020.4 dif]Te!_%lc.qle% r (a) (b) Mean Shroud section..6 . the flow is assumed to be circumferentially uniform.Rotorblade surfacevelocity solution.. surface the the elsewhere shroud considered variations that loading. and surface between the The streamfunction and the defines mean somewhat illustrate the blade is more lower of high critical from blade blades follows the prescribed solution considers bladetostream surface The between surface.8 .
to offset therefore. data very (ref. are com as indicated using rotor. the are is highest loading it can the 103 for the at is the rotor surface is radially excessive. the to _ The is conflow the r _) by the great this blade is nearly is due could are shows flow by discussed through This results angular inlet which momentum of splitters. were This near rotor margin the reaction of 12) The result indicate rotor in tolerance taken loss and over in was the removed. spacing at the 75 percent. of speed between to the offset difference removed increase loading l l_e reduced flow and discussed of efficiency low inlet pro of bladeshroud clearance an insensitivity leading toward a radialinflow such The turbine appreciable conditions. decelerations monly reduced of surface the must on The splitter blades additional unit use decreased reduced boundarylayer loss per splitter balance. blade to the calculated indicated meridional upstream of negative pressure in the upstream for both cases. been the a reverseflow 50percent what had extending loading trailingedge Turbine pressure splitter increase effect to vide poor an velocity a range efficiency due apparently previously edge. decrease particular principally the in blade turbine. thereby doubling the blade loading of the rotor. performance 12. where primarily (rVu be reduced discussed a very path hub about and section. designed experimentally blades removed. performance ratio and the when showed the surface conditions favorable nosplitter splitters area. radial. calculated suction the When is now full shown pressure radial and are losses surface area. from loading. blades in figure splitter the the in rotor distributions. little cases. per area of the unit of will. and/or by the indicated where large the by partial Such called loading area. As inlet. where at in near hub the near the loading loading change loading use of the from blade inlet spacing Splitter velocity flow the inlet the surface the long to exit decreased Blades loading If this surface. low the In in exit. blades previously. Channel velocities were calculated the from large splitters side the hub increase were of in the almost location. effect A judgment blades be made.RADIALINFLOW TURBINE6 carefully loading siderably is nearly previously in 50 next that percent section. 301 . velocities eddy streamline. section. flow negative blades partial splitter results However. in there the blade inward. be reduced part used. for near axial. A turbine The splitter examined with were half When on and splitter and the by the a then of reference tested. higher favorable the rotor than The This The rear high rapid high the part the bladesurface inlet. of splitter in was the built the velocities on between blades blades. as to whether blades study and on turbine of splitter was blades be beneficial.
2 0 1. matched approach is somewhat offdesign calculations. With must with with Therefore.O / [ 1.6 [ 1. Prediction many studies before design or in to offdesign design situations. select these used is modifications components geometry. In use techniques Estimated start where of methods the for offdesign performance transients They system variable performance data various also be The different can can and valuable in system conditions help be in that geometry is built.Radialinflow 302 . similar more are be useful operating used may not from the to turbine no flow (see fig.8 ralio characteristics. force pressure This speed is very is slightly decrease are slightly turbine at the In on turbine a radialthe fluid across pressure force. I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION OFFDESIGN The performance characteristics different from those of axialflow all rotor speeds. with 1021). I 2. to any study examine hardware the calculation studies. axialflow the however. .4 1 1. ratio turbine. 1021.2 Inlettotal I 1. speed.TURBINE. flow rate to this be rotation.6 e_ o ¥ N E Z 4 . increases variation in this an section. speed for turbine. the rotor even inward.8 Zero speeO . balanced there because pressure inflow in within radially the ratio The later for figure (inlettotal PERFORMANCE of radialinflow turbines turbines. of efficiency The bladejet turbine point a radialinflow efficiency as bladejet ratio varies from the peakefficiency the case of the radialinflow turbine.0 to e×it_staticq)res. to that speed rapid in in illustrated exitstaticpressure) at zero a pressure small increasing centrifugal as illustrated directed ratio gradient zeroflow centrifugal ratio. In an axialflow becomes is only the true by is some of the zero only when is one._Jre turbine flow FIGURE 1021.
RADIALINFLOW TURBINE6 fixed. an accurate rate with bladejet efficiencies loss.5 1.9 I 2.8 I 1. Joss and at 14. performance Center A radialinflow and turbine NASA the Figures version with the design operating flows are the rotor calculation is described is presented obtained presenting ratio flow of the Total are within and estiexand shown 1 perby pressure mass ratio.1 Ratio of inlet total pressure to exit static pressure FIGURE 1022.4 I 1. ratio results method in refin associated program illustrate program and The performance 1022 plotted experimental of mass calculated representation pressure speed efficiencies are generally Percent of design speed Experimental Ii" 70 90 100 110 .7 I 1. experimental flow rates for off 303 .0 I 2. a modified this figure variation 1023. Losses selected are fixed."30 50 ". Additional losses considered for subsonic incidence developed erence reference from calculated comparing mation perimental static in figure in 13. The the the exit kineticenergy offdesign Lewis 1022 of over shows flow against and this a range Research computer 1023 computer of speed performance. calculated to force and the variables stator and between are blade and pressure for the agreement calculated and experimental or design values at point.6 I 1. rotor the depend workingfluid speed on loss inlet coefficients conditions ratio.Comparison of calculated and design operation.110 Design 120 ¢ Calculated _" 110 B 100 90 8O 1.
.6 .5 ] .70  ¢1) "5 •60  Experimental 70 90 100 .8 J .Comparison of calculated and design operation.40 _ 30 • 30 .00  • 90  ..3 Bladejet speed ratio.. Percent of design speed 5O c o_ .. experimental efficiencies for off 304 .9 . vu..60  •50  .TURBINE DE'SIGN AND APPLICATION cent lations testing and at most are 2 percent system of the to experimental provide a prior values.7 Desiqn I .110 • 80  100 _' . .4 I . examination of the performance fabrication 1.70 o_ .. U]"V i FIGURE 1023. I .. valuable to The tool calcuin the and sufficiently of overall various accurate components.2 I I .__I__ 110 •80  90 _ _._ llO • 50  Calculated Design ! •30 I 1 I I 1 JJ I •90  .
Note 38. THEODORE: Stream Use of of a Turbomachine. Macmillan Co. 1972.: A. Flow Distribution TN D2546. FUTRAL. to Estimate NASA TN A. Performance of HOLESKI. H. AND of a 4. TODD. AND FUTRAL.. Turbine Engineering Handbook.: for OffDesign a RadialIV Program Turbines.. J. Performance Prediction with Experimental Inflow Turbine. Eng. 3. NASA TN 10. G. Jan. . NASA TN D5513. CHARLES 13. ROHLIK. JR. Maximum AND NUSBAUM. SAMUEL M. ed. Performance Evaluation Without Splitter Blades. 9. Inst. Inc. yon WOOD. 6. London. THEODORE: Fortran Clearance 1970.. NASA TN D2621. 1970. SAMUEL Performance of A Fortran RadialInflow 305 . Power.. 2. 85. JR.: on Experimental D6605. 12. P. F. NASA CHARLES A.: Principles RODOERS. Efficiency.. pp. I. FUTRAL. vol. 1.: Experimental Results 6. 1966.: Current Karman Institute of Fluid Technology of RadialInflow Dynamics. Paper 13 presented at the Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Convention.. Geometry MILTON for G. Performance Characteristics of Radial Turbines. JOHN W. 7283. of Turbomachinery.. 8. Program for Surface in a E. AND of Varying the BladeShroud Turbine.: Experimental Turbine With and SAMUEL M. the OffDesign D5059. 4. 1966.. HAROLD E.59Inch RadialInflow NASA TN D7015. Int. C. 1965. JR. JR. 14.: Analytical Determination of Radial Inflow Turbine Design KOFSKEY. KATSANIS. 1963. 1964.RAD_ALI"NF_A)W TURBI_S REFERENCES 1. SAMUEL M. to the Study of Advanced Small Radial Mar. LAGNEAU. SAWYER.02Inch RadialInflow Transonic NASA TN Velocities D5427.. in the Arbitrary Meridional WASSERBAUER..: Gas Publications. FUTRAL.: Experiments Concerning the Aerodynamic Performance of Inward Flow Radial Turbines. SAE.. 5. pressible Fluids.: Contribution bines. 1956. 1968. KATSANIS. Com J. CARROLL Verification M. G. 1964. for Tur1970. Gas Turbine SHEPHERD. HOMER J. D.. Mech. Turbines 7. a RadialInflow DONALD TN D4384. Effects of Specific Speed Turbine.. 1969. Apr. no. Eng. AND WASSERBAUER. : Efficiency and Paper 660754. WILLIAM NASA J. QuasiOrthogonals for Calculating Plane of a Turbomachine. AND JOHNSON. Calculating on a BladetoBlade 1969. 1 1. HIETT.
Btu/lb conversion constant. m/see. based ft/sec m/see. absolute blade absolute ideal ratio. speed. (ft) (lb)/Btu 60 sec/min (ft a/4) (lbma/4)/(min) plus partial) (sec 1/_) rad/rev. rev/min N. ft/sec measured measured from from meridional meridional plane. m. pressures. rad/sec. 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS Cp specific diameter. 32. K. velocity. lb/ft _ mS/see. ft/sec on inlettotalto exitstaticpressure ftS/sec °R Q r T U V temperature. (ft) (lbf)/lbm (ft)/(lbf) and exit work.17 (lbm) J/(kg) (K) . ft/sec m/see. 778 2r and and exitstatic exittotal pressures. or head. passage height. on inlettotal inlettotal 1 . constant. speed. Btu/(lb) (see _) total (°R) D g H m. N/m 2 . conversion rotative specific (lbP '4) total P number flow m. Yj W Ot absolute flow flow angle angle 0 deg fluid relative deg Subscripts: b'r critical hub tip tangential at stator at stator at rotor flow condition (sonic velocity) h t U 0 1 2 Superscripts" ' " 306 component inlet exit exit or rotor inlet absolute relative total total state state . relative fluid pressure. J/kg. ft ideal work based on J/kg. Btu/lb ideal work based J K N J/kg. speed. (full absolute volume radius. jet ft of blades rate. speed. based on inlet pressures. dimensionless. ft constant. plane. m/see. velocity. conversion ideal heat at constant pressure.
of air are effective GENERAL ]n balance analysis prediction requires the flow. bustor frequently integrity bled from for both airfoils discrete losses. components is routed then the turbine very required. efficiency. parts: gas (1) stream. leaving and development laminar the transition potentialflow temperature (or other (pattern combustor . "blade" enter 1644 compressor thrust blades. profile airfoil.CHAPTER 11 Turbine Cooling. a minimum while the in the discharge of the cooling across trend towards higher to increase turbine this gases excess of turbine and around the chapter. the refers the K and vanes. blade and is dumped hostile environment.Colladay S The inlet necessity requirements. passages gas stream results which compressor locations inevitably thermodynamic utilize Consequently. DESCRIPTION one or end must wall) into from the metal make to a complete arrive at limit. term to first the vane in through or vane. vane. in the this the into overall cooling pressure cycle and rotor row In "vane" end refers airfoil. the an any on can turbine the be which of the the heat location factor) cooling blade broken flux of of the (or meets up of the gas velocity design. foil. to energy a cooling The The This over turbulent heat 307 configuration a given conceptually blade the to the temperature three hot understanding boundarylayer from the distribution. at peak order internal the This main cycle schemes to ratios walls and has turbineled to the life aircomthe air of the at in temperatures of cooling In term efficiency to meet hot to a stator The temperatures preserve (2500 ° F). ByRaymond .
W/(m 2) (K). The gas temperature is exwhich (the For be the o) for convection temperature of this gas total the cooling surface temperature._CATION source). the simultaneously. 0 Tw. °R T_. K. or recovery purposes illustration. problem wall on blade coolantmust Let us for a moment oversimplify dimensional model of a turbineblade surface (see fig. blade. Btu/(hr)(ft _) of hot gas. Btu/(hr)(ft _) heattransfer (°R) coefficient Tg! total temperature temperature of hot gas.TURBINE. temperature. W/m_. The heat flux product of a hotgasside difference between the pressed is the would let the as an effective adiabatic reach adiabatic if there heattransfer gas and the gas were wall by considering a onethe suction or pressure can be expressed as a to the coefficient and the temperature wall. to (2) And. transfer the treated energy gas to blade processconvection wall. Therefore. 111). the A steadystate map the (3) prediction heat through be or of metal transient of complex To blade heatconduction for bladestress internal coolant closure convection from analysis predicflow on the hot from to paths a detailed temperatures maintain and for convectioncooling entire conduction calculations.SIGN AND APPI.Simplified onedimensional model. where q hz heat flux. I_E. balance.K. temperature no cooling). 308 . provide tions. (111) temperature q=he(Tg'Tw. °R TW. i FIOURE 111.o of wall outer surface.
the let for fiatplate conductivity. (112) is q=h_(T_. the flow heattransfer over a fiat Nusselt local is frequently For Nu a firstorder layer.K. number thermal coordinate wall second conductivity normal dT k_ dy=[ (T_. ft on distance is defined as (115) Re_ = pugx la where P _tg _t density. . m. thickness. K. ft Btu/(hr)(ft)(°R) surface. the Prandtl kg/ma. to wall W/(m)(K). equality he be a m. m. Pr The Reynolds Prandtl Reynolds along number number number __gx 0. ft holds done only in for constant by thermal design. component viscosity._TJ) where he heattransfer (OR) w.) of wall. ft/sec of hotgas (N) (sec)/mS. °R through k the wall is given by (113) T' C The total temperature temperature drop q=where kw y 1 The As plate. coefficient approximated boundary by given a correlation turbulent is Nu.TURBINE CIOOLING The heat removed from the wall. number is and where 309 .= where distance Re. .0296Re_" __ 8Prl/3 (114) surface based from leading edge z of flat plate. lb/ft 3 velocity lb/(ft) defined in x direction. °R of coolant. W/(m _) (K). Btu/(hr)(ft 2) temperature of wall inner surface. (sec) as (116) m/sec. expressed in the same manner. i coefficient of coolant.T_.
coolantpassage on characteristic lb/sec passage. air temperature temperature increases difference (higher (Tw. ft 2 and kg/sec. the At increased decreases time. Tg' as of cooling is desired. ])E_IGN AND APPLICATION K C_. T total pressure of hot ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion constant J/(kg) gas constant. T_.5) through p_' and be avoided. a number of cooling schemes can be used. temperature The heat flux removed. geometry length___ m. gas From with Tw. laminar m0.0296)Pr heat gas._ for compressor ratio). at 1. blade increasing drop temperature increases 0. 32. temperature when and state heat the the pressure wall outer temperature are increased from the and flux temperature 112). j (117) p'. depicted the hot consider in figure gas convection internal the 112.TURBINE. dimensional specific an ideal to yield h =_ (0.8 flow profile nl3._Tc') compresavailable q must Therefore.. m2."Pr"=C( where C Re f We w'_" "]"Pr" (118) constant Reynolds coolant characteristic dependent number mass flow length flow on based rate. (m=0. 3600 sec/hr J/(kg)(K). but in h_=CRe/. 310 . same constant (117) the and (going (111). N/m2. be convection cooling is sharply wall reduced. cooling. 1 to state flux to the with 2 in fig. at constant 1 . # I T1 Mx 2\(v+l)/2('_Dm T s " x where k yW . can be For (114) equation '/3 FPz' / _'g._.e. (lbm) (K) . should the Since blade efficient wall. Mach number gas.17 lb/ft 2 pressure (ft)/(lbf) (°R) to specific (sec 2) heat at g R M On the general. substituted Btu/(lb)(°R) into equation constant (115) pressure.8 power heat it increases raises a fixed bleed so the the wall temperature. coolantpassage turbulent Now.o).o is kept equations pressure to The wall the (i. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) coolant side. ft J For for coolant area. otherwise the outer will increase. sor for the pressure temperature outer through T. constant.
the impossible Because quantity the from required The 1644 taining designs shows cooling convection aircooling examples (figs.Gas temperature and pressure the wall. in cooling and while Figure compared methods and on its supply cooling nonlinear capabilities reference limit of plain 1 shows in the is apparent. is required. gas l l4(f) Film the or K to achieve. must case. cooling. one way the of transpiration convection and it also cooling from methods the hot is an effective cooling along cool film surface gas stream by directing air into surface. passage he must be infinite. boundary effective layer to provide temperature 311 a protective.(Tw. where inside this temperature are equal.Tw. of limited of cooling internal air available convection the cooling hotspot To operating film film only. cooled components by and or savings highly and restriction pressure.o . flow is state the coolant the therefore. is the to air 113 course. .o) _ kw / _.Tw. effect on temperature drop through h. reasonable must potential combined cooling turbine of blades to (i)). increase convection temperature and temperature for convection (2500 ° F) pressure. i I 1 / C FIGURE 112. Of size flow we. The wall limiting tempera as seen figure coolant 3. ture and and an be increased from coolant infinite by increasing 112. condition on a limit Figure cooling increase.WPURBINE i COOLING Tg hg(T_ . cooling incorporate as pressure of advanced turbineinlet application is about about 20 maincooling 113 to for shows atmospheres exceed these blademetal gas conditions temperatures. the cooling the to (e)). of these the use as basic transpiration air with illustrates l l4(a) or more to protect the The in cooling Figure 114 (figs.
.where T_.z_ is the total temperature T. K I 22O0 I 2OOO I 25OO Turbine inlet temperature.. of film which and must minimizes blade air into tend the boundary some The losses to reduce coefficient layer of the equation aeroof using and heatconfigura injection pressures designs causes turbine advantages temperatures.Effect of turbineinlet flow pressure requirements.. in. in. be integrated metal the aerodynamic an optimum consistent efficiency.) of the gas film. [ 2O00 T_.. and the heat q=hg(T's_. Pg. and temperature on coolant in equation (111) becomes flux to the blade is then the local film temperature. in this (119) It is frequently is the same The dynamic higher transfer tion objectives 312 assumed that the heattransfer as in the nonfilmcooed case.TURBINE. I I 3O0O Tg. in. atm Turbineinlet 3 4O 20 lO Convection cooling Film and convection cooling Transpiration cooling I 1400 1600 1800 Turbine inlet temperature. l l3. oF t 35OO FIou]_. with to achieve temperatures which ensures yet longlife loss in turbine .. I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION pressure. in K or °R.
Cooling air (aJ Zn _ Xn (bt __ o c:_ c>xE//Ej (d) J JJ (e) (a) (c) Convection cooling. requires less boundary cooling latter be recognized other in holes. (d) Fullcoverage film cooling.q_UR. that 114(i). the it to For leads blade has designs wall is the operating most efficient airwhich significant drawbacks under due cooling. losses the can the extreme pores conditions. Film cooling. (e) Transpiration cooling. 313 . figure cooling blade transpirationcooled cooling is an cooling from attempt without an array as illustrated figure l l4(h). injection point. transpiration of blockage air air into aerodynamic it must than is shown of discrete to problems of cooling however. of normal this cooling film cooling available. its use of a porous but advanced efficient Also. FmuaE 114. transpiration to draw on some of the advantages paying the penalties mentioned.BINE COOLING Transpiration cooling currently heatflux should and To because offset piration A typical coverage foreign scheme limit be small. which contaminates. transFullin of schemes. (b) Impingement cooling. to oxidation be severe layer.Methods for turbine blade cooling.
//// / fConvection .TURBINE I_E. and and filmcooled blade blade configuration. configuration. blade where is confined large velocity to boundarylayer . Transpirationcooled blade FIGURE I I4. L Impingement cooled (fl inlet airflow /_\lmpingement cooled Convection cooled (g) (hl _Transpiration i. cooled / / Wireform porous sheet (il (f) Convection.The region transfer very near Equations of heat the to the surface. impingementcooled filmcooled blade configuration.Concluded. HEAT TRANSFER FROM HOT GAS TO BLADE BoundaryLayer General the 314 equations. Film cooled_ \ Convection \_ i_f// 1/// /. Fullcoverage configuration. (g) Convection(h) (i) impingement.SIGN AND APPLICATION Radial outward airflow into chamber1.
v. the 6 (vol. u. J/kg.. must o 0%(pu) where timeaverage m/sec. Btu/lb 1. conversion heatgeneration dependent v. expressions and molecular our limited assumpto hydrodynamic but of various such thermal diffusivity momentum turbulent of its heat as and the is straightforward. the heattransfer introduced Conservation in chapter of mass 2). for variables as denoted of stress and the these and layers. pu 6_+(pv+p _7=7. ft/sec component quantity value O (pv+ (1110) of velocity component in y direction. component Conservation of energy OH . the the and use One counterpart. p. and in ch. sum of the understanding tions which but for turbulent eddy in has bears of turbulent physical because of assumption. shear solution boundary of heat describing little transport diffusivity persisted constant. _ OH 0 / 1 ur\ (1112) where H J total enthalpy. are present. N/kg. 778 W/m3. of turbulence in predicting hypothesis stress and resemblance structure success The laminar shear processes. _. following Consequently. ()' () Conservation fluctuating timeaveraged of momentum Ou .'tURBINE C(K)LING and temperature gradients process..e. force lb/ft 2 in the x direction. simplicity is Prandtl's momentum. and The the H. equations flux timeaverage overbar the appropriate contribution understood. mixinglength and heat flux are contributions" expressed turbulent 315 . (ft)(lb)/Btu Btu/(see) H are with the requires through laminar requires to (ft z) values being (i.. Q The u. term. of body N/m2._ u O v ) _=g dp _+g 0 _ (1111) rtgpB_ where T local shear stress. lbf/lbm B. heat The flow 6). boundarylayer be solved: to describe equations.
(1113) and (1114) p and q=Ko(aL+ar) The flow heat preceding and both reduces where boundarylayer compressible. flux _ mean flow are assumed proporthat is. aL . stress of momentum of heat Btu/lb u'v.\ (1113) and { aL_jj0/_ _) (1114) q=Ko[ where yr. solve term_ equation. enthalpy.As it an is corrections we saw considered 2) with the in chapter to in 6 (vol. __. to tile respective gradients in tile variable.4 v'_g_= .r and and ar there 0_'. and of the expericondiin the a later momen properties cp is neglected equation analysis.d as_u me t e lnperaturevariable flows zero).4 The tional laminar ity).. variable section. from often convenient approach boundarylayer parameters integral of integral . and heat diffusivity m2/see (kinematic ft2/sec viscos diffusivity. heat assumed (inclusive variation generation. mental tions. laminar static turbulent c()mponent m2/sec. properties equations are under arc is no intern. isothermal properties usually taken are These then approximately to account will be corrected for temperature properties.Koa O/ can 0u then p be written 0u as T denotes the turbulent (:omponent (1115) (1116) of momentum Equations (t117) (lllS) equations turbulent approach (642). equations. at the 'tssumed.O_r __ ' where and the subscript heat diffusivity. shear ft2/sec component J/kg. However.. .vr _ff and O. of laminar If the in specitic the energy onset. 'tt'v' = . Integral tum equations 316 to equation If temperaturevariable all boundarylayer constant data The are final results must freq_)ently be solved simultaneously.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION p/ Ou __.
If a local heattransfer q c_. and _ __d__ q_ (H. boundarylayer enthalpy eter for the integral defined as follows: /_= fo¢* pu( H..(H. _. with balancing volume details equation and mass transport 2).)] of constant (1121) properties.')= h.(H. wall. constantproperty A=fo_*u(T'T'.'=(T. For to the freestream value (1119) denoted by flow. then equation (1121) to its simplest dA dx as Kpu.c dh = ____t_A [ (l_Mg) Note zero flux with that at the if we make gradient..') The ment The equation across and the enthalpy caused integral (113) the boundary thermal resulting boundary integral thickness by the energy or is a measure layer...oTz') pressure (incompressible)..T.=dx= (1124) 317 .H.x (1122) coefficient is defined q h'. oT..') then. c_.u. profiles. at the the hydrodynamic In either flow wall is compressible temperaturevariable q transfer Kp. thickness energy as the and momentum momentum thickness so the enthalpy is a significant equation.TURBINE O0_LING such as momentum velocity derive and their displacement Just meaning from thicknesses displacement the The integral rather than in terms equaparamz_ is of discrete thicknesses tion.oH.) Note the that subscript the subscript e in chapter g refers 6. lowvelocity.°Ht)dx 1 du. F PgU. can by (for be derived the containing see for ref. no mass (T.)dY p.(T_.u. (1123) h.oT.... 1 restrictive lowspeed constant assumptions flow temperature reduces d (H'*' o11...._. da Stz Kpu..)dy u.(T_. either by of the eonveeted energy (1120) decre boundary equation directly of a control layers energy properties integrating of energy case. difference form.
o. from the equations (672) integral momentum equation CI'_dO 2 dx resulted (1126) of kinetic boundary temperature Tt. be ug2 2gJcp in to equal an is effect the ratio layer)._.Temperature distribution in a highvelocity boundary layer. factor by flow. For laminar for wall (resuggest number vice versa.+r ' ' where flow. thermal energy. T. would viscous energy equation: (1127) K or by on °R. Prandtl from static can temperature. t_R_p r and (675) that with in and is called (1125) similar assump Notice tions.TURBII_E I_E@IGN AND APPLICATION The group of variables on the left side is dimensionless the local Stanton number Sty. This r defined dissipation of kinetic Tg.. therefore. wall approximated Pr 11_. tg / _'_ u2 r 2g_j CpI Ii Tg. ing turbulent that temperature.. viscous 115.=T. sponsible allowing that should for heat lead tz is the the recovery boundary the Prandtl The for energy a given to hotgas factor layer.=t. while the adiabatic viscosity r is assumed has number the Pr z_. which is also equal to S Nu.o. It is not surprisof the diffusivity This a high number dissipation) to the kinetic (mechanism would to escape a high boundary freestream Prandtl and adiabatic temperature. 318 . The an increase there shear is dissipation within static the characterized temperature uncooled boundary recovery in the effective gas temperature of the or adiabatic is the temperature a measure by the following is. near This the reach heating is related into is wall if it in to For thermal as shown wall were the the compressible energy by in figure and layer.e _ Thermal _ // Iq " 0 FZOUR_ l l5. a the wall energy layer.
0296_Re by °" Spr'/a Reynolds he.The that the heattransfer of the for blade the pertains. already The Ot Nlv=0 =k_ seen._.eT.=0. constant. _ Re:. gas problem expression a cooling temperature. blade hg.=0. leadingedge region. in the assumed: 319 number. .332 plate with the at by 6 for analyses..:`(T. (1130) The For the local the following velocity u_. In the to BoundaryLayer Equations to the solution the suction or correlation a cylinder the fiatapresults primarily pressure hydrothe Blasius profile.TURBINE O00LING The (either heat flux to the blade gas is proportional temperature) to the at the temperature wall: gradient effective or static q=]¢' As we terms ture The suitable wall never has on refined effective have of the difference.o) to express and the case wall flux will the can be varying to coefficient which however. gas OT. enough only for correlation pressure faired in plate gradient proximation. in this adiabatic heat heattransfer temperature.g. a is approximated leadingedge strict fiatplate accurate a fiatplate around Though to zeropressureyields to a firstorder surprisingly because the gradient.. for In the gastowall always temperature... that boundary effect is to find objective outer is to design temperature temperature for in more is Solutions Firstorder to assume side into crossflow expression flow. For dynamic energy similarity With the laminar close to Stanton flow those of more sophisticated number St is relatively over layers be a fiat both solved in assumed h_. The a constant in determining configuration reality. the design The thermal stages... discussed velocity temperature to be constant. _ h _ v=0. sense. results often fact. the actual layer yield surface surface accounted must the the heat (1128) flux temperabe the a in it is convenient coefficient temperature or the the heattransfer h.'12pr'z3 X The turbulent counterpart is given hz.:`. insensitive thermal the means the and leading of the the the result boundary equation solution wall can beginning directly chapter edge. is (1129) is approximation. x is used in the heattransfer correlation coefficient is frequently . a heattransfer blade in are coefficient a the simplest approach coefficient on by distribution region.
laminar to becomes to grow.. for deg of stagnation coefficient leading D leadingedge The bracketed D is the 116) heattransfer in a cylinder free stream.'_=a where a E1" ]14k" (p'u' _ _D'_'/_pro. used to adjust flow of the the coefficient factor a. instabilities pressure take place be assumed of 200 surface transition to 500 Reynolds depending a Reynolds However. mainstream magnitudes amplification approaching flux 'is flows. yet. ft edge. factor of leadingedge approaching from circle. 3) has correlation fluctuating studied of stagnation turbulent scale and intensity Transition from Reynolds the ent. stream 320 boundary it can number layer generally number turbulence is available. large._ = = x/ FIGURE 116. The to from term account or 1. the in with occur detail.(l__)] _\ 80°_¢_80 ° (1131) augmentation diameter velocity angular of gas distance term (see fig. . laminar Ug. factor turbulent Various This used. vortex thereby boundary but as turbulence when the in gradiin the on freehum a vane uniquely of heat stretches of flow. ft/sec point. favorablepressuregradient stagnation region in the direction velocities this phenomenon heat transfer will allow zero will 000. range and flow high plate to with sufficiently For a fiat that 000 roughness. diameter a crossflowing.TURBINE DE. within The highly accelerated flow at the filaments oriented with their axes increasing layer. m/sec. m. associated the augmentation highly been with leading have edge.2 a is an for blade to 1..Blade leadingedge geometry.SIGN AND APPLI_CATION h.8. Kestin no general the turbulent (ref.
. 2)..energy approach The penalty of the to obtain "fiatplate accuracy In many approximation" is. Ug 3 5 / tJo Fx U.. complexity method.TURBINE O00LIN_ ber based on It the distance. An tion the layer immaterial is not a practical is more the of the the length criterion.1D ug_ is °. momentum value thickness of x where is obtained occurs is denoted manner T. A value corresponding flow. in getting boundary developed For a strongly turbulent.g . The then. _g _xrt.67vO. is thickness. Upon blade chapter form ref. surface The distance momentum measured thickness from with 8.'. velocity (1133) in where meters x is the or feet.. that (ouz0/u)_200. integrating momentum is given by as a function of a variable freestream OL__O. of momenrefined and previously increased sophisticated 321 This assumes an abrupt The than transition solution the the heat Integral tum and accurate discussed. of course. 5 +0.o. Reynolds of the convenient in the history critical characteristic because how independent Reynolds layer number boundary at layer. as the transition. The by the turbulent equation in a similar 0T 4. . then state.?. the an stagnation the stagnation approach (1132) point. momentum assumptions the the approximate from (see thickness on a turbine functional making of the profile equation through (676). it is a given origin) parameter. the more for more computation. I1 L _/. comes the use number for pipe turbulence. For flow accelerated flow.5 ¥ Turbulent such as 2_ exists when this the value of 0 is or transitional flow.._ti. fact is consistent of Reoccur=360 to Rex=300 over a turbine value for by be derived (676)) local the from velocity the boundary with the use plate very can layer never beof 0 but not with critical and high Reynolds ReD= 2000 freestream variation equaas to laminar velocity boundary is a "universal" 000 for a flat blade with of Ree. This of x..Sdx) \o. thickness be assumed.cr_t=200 momentum the integral suitable a conservative expression can 6 (eq. determining point the given that to is.t_s at point of a cylinder of diameter D in a crossflow 0._e from of the flux laminar integral to a blade ] to turbulent equations is a more the (1134) flow.L.. x._. from transition the to use leading the edge because momentum number (boundarylayer it is not for a local 0.cr_ t.. cases.
a flat plate.z_/o. _p. dx _.0296 Hence. plate dA of pressure functional flow over gradient. equation 0. same argument into equation is given for holds f from flow variation.) integrating the for function turbulent velocity Substituting yields StyrT hg'_ l"kpe'_=C p Pr2/3) 1"25(0._ (1140) 322 . be equation enthalpy proposed independently that can would thickness an of first approach the have to whereby be evaluate 5 in equation momentum show the He of a gradient.') dx (T=. integral the and assumptions integral no mass equation across (eq.oT.u. more The integral also for freestream of a nonconstant some equations. solved fact weak 4).2_ equation and_ (The by (1139) (1136) assumption.0.2/3 that Stx=_ the local Stanton by number can equations be expressed (1137) in terms and (11 38) of the for a flat.TURBINE DE. could use Stanton this momentum the however. to solve Consider specific heat However.oT.8 Rea) .SIGN AND APPLLCATION methods method and the are not accounts effect the warranted in the early velocity surface stages of design. the (1121)) wall with constant boundary.0296 Pr2/3( T ' T _o.cp ax _ _ u. ( 1136 ) making the of the experimental of pressure thickness be written data number Reynolds to be a very number that based function number function as a function as the of pressure on enthalpy is independent Stxf(Re_) If ] is independent should For and give us the turbulent yields St_=0. in order on h=.') (1135) Ordinarily. in the order Ambrok (1135) by that and integral to (ref.(T_. equation equation Stanton proposed local istic length.0296 Recalling from equation (1124) Re_ °2 Pr . energy transfer variation temperature must still realistically. solved (1i20). form. combining equations then the flatplate solution (114) (1125) (1137) (1138) enthalpy thickness combining so as to obtain (1139) by any equation arbitrary for laminar (1135) and St_ = (0. charactergradient._ can be made be included. (1139) freesteam flows.
.o)' ]_* u 25 • .. solution..TURBINE COOLING where I =: .+¢. to a equations ewduated from see reference of calculating boundarylayer approach. One accurate solve metho(1 all the turbine simultaneously numerical by of W.=. a fourth finite(lifference available uses addition the In to do to the There of these of the and others. this. highpressure figure (fig.. with enthalpythickness laminarboundarylayer IGnitedifference the are was heat several flux good and (eq.y+ o Ov P(_+_) az" 9 0._.._is of turbulent equations (1110)). the .v (1142) wheref/r The is a turbulent kinetic dissipation energy ... ll7(b)). direction including turbulentkineticenergy locally in the boundqry lence can be accounted All with lion wall properties no restrictive of surface (transpir'ttion are of fi'eestream locally m' velocity an(I local through assumptions the boundary on transfer are also the at layer variathe or approximating temperature cooling) manner. layer.SRe_(T/T_ o)71"25 J. p?I_(T_'T.'t 0z _.. ix given simultaneously energy (1112)). ['0..j//_ term. results made l)rotile.f . as in W/m s or Btu/(ft a) (sec). of turbulent energy also Conservation °z/+lo. The integration is performed Reynolds equation. initial from then through profiles be supplied as a boundary to get. (eq. details. 5). conservation solved kinetic momentum equation. mixing effects in m/sec By length ix (1 143) or ft/sec. that with by procedure (1111)).v=p_ \0v/ (o..Jyer started 11 7 presents of in must the from wine. for programs l(ays (ref.igtll'e the protile bound'n'v integration temperature. M.. the Spalding censervation energy kinetic P'ttankar mass . example mmwrical turbine l l7(a). for.. freestream profiles condition on. the turbucalculated component to Also. is given l. evaluated (u'2+v'2+w'2) of velocity. an<l developed numerical (eq. the the the xy plane. (1141) the critical the 2.The numerically mnnber For most blade by a is to further for being hg. computer for The the plots case of showing a highthe can be 323 velocity tlcxihilitv apI)roa<:h The but. turbulent is defined 1 2gd where in the w' is the fluctuating perpendicular equation.Mass film cooling handled in a slraightforwar(I I..
boundarylayer or 249. . hight_mperature.5 .12 .07 .SIGN AND APPLICATION 2500700 6O0 150(] .03 .It x Total enthalpy (b) I . .l . a 101.6 . 30. m E 200 500 10C_ 0 (a) _ 0 I I .TURBINE IYE.4 .28 ft/sec.3 . 1.1 I I I I .0447)< 106 Btu/(lb)(°R).16 Surfacedistance.02 I I I [ .04 I I [ I .04 .Boundarylayer development pressure turbine 324 .24 . program. freestream finitedifference velocity.08 .8 Dimensionless boundarylayer variable (a) (b) Initial Freestream reference FIGURE profiles for Surface velocity profile.9 } 1.O .7 over vane.05 Surfacedistance.Ol I .2 . m x I O I .06 I .20 I . high l l7.87 J/(kg)(K) numerical m/see or reference enthalpy.
4¢ o8° I E 60 (. thickness. The boundarylayer thickness. respectively. and heattransfer coefficient are shown in figures 117(c) to 117(f). 80 100 * >" r .Continued. 2. Notice that just upstream of the • 16  . 325 .OO4 (c) ] 0 I I 1 3.TURBINE O00LIN(_ calculated through the boundary layer at discrete x locations.2_E _. momentum thickness. momentumthickness Reynolds number.6 i° b20 I 20 4O 60 Percentsurface distance boundarylayer momentum thickness.8 [) (c) (d) Pressureside Pressureside boundarybayer FIGUaE 117.3 E = E 1.
Reynolds coefficient. 2400 le) I 1600 1 I I I % tm v _ 8.CATION 20percent thickness increase before surface (fig. a short by ll7(d)) distance the rapid 117(c)) momentum slightly "blip" thickness caused increase.2 0 20 40 60 Perceni surface distance 80 momentumthickness Pressureside FIGURE heattransfer 117. I 1_ Pressureside (f) 326 . rapidly continuing distance and then and to location the decrease This on the vane. over is the boundarylayer (fig.4 3.Concluded.6_ 7._ 5.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLI. number.0 _ ii '° 1000 8OO "T" 7600 4OO (e) .8 2.
8 Dimensionlessboundarylayer variable (a) Initial ft/sec.2i(b) "Total enthalpy 0 I _ I I I 1. reference velocity. (°R). 609.8i 24 .8 or ft/sec.2 .75 downstream freestream of slot.6 .6 J/(kg)(K) m/sec or or 2000 reference 4. reference FIGURE 118.6 E E >:.8189X108 1151._URBINE O0_LIN_ 48 4[ 24 • 8 I .Boundarylayer profiles along adiabatic wall with film cooling. 106 J/(kg)(K) 610. slotwidths or 2004 Btu/(lb) at slot.8189X velocity. reference 4. 327 .E 8 r_ E o E e_ c21 32 .75 (b) Three m/sec 1151.0 . 16E >_ I . o m 48 . Btu/(lb) profiles freestream (°R).6i 16 8 . Freestream enthalpy.2b fl (lx= g c (al 0l g. Freestream enthalpy.4 .
a n=0. across to (except p.4 freestream m=0.6.TURBINE DE. Pr.o+0.28 method tg+0. corrected correction property the temperatureratio ture method. to the example down of 3 slot shown widths in figure 118 (b). and given have 10percent a laminar boundary 117(f). evaluated flow. heatconduction a number is broken in figure elements. causes therefore.5 The temperatureratio Tw. The the are boundary blade for as shown. in finitedifference schemes results. to results variations are analytical experimental to for use the if properties evaluated? Usually. side for and the coefficients heatflux available.12. problem of finite WITHIN THE BLADE on the WALL hotgas conditions or vane example.':O. boundary velocity coefficient) layer. u. turbulent in laminar CONDUCTION Once coolant up 328 into the side local are heattransfer known. influence temperature.. and dependence and Since at c_.J properties laminar and m:=0. and St. temperature in were the heattransfer constant. and acceleration from location. TemperatureDependent The and these perature compared temperature temperature property or the are common relations all vary involving in earlier with properties (and. (1145) at the and greater constant For n=0. In the latter method. of temlarge what dimensionless contain The a change in the the be with of constant gases) in the small variation. velocity are profiles profiles 118(a). discussed transport profiles sections. flow.22 Tg. k.08 much Nu St N_ceZ_c_=\ The subscript For than CP static refers to flow. which temperature. . Nu. temperature Two the constantmethod) differences are namely. obtained occur properties solutions data account the for method obtained property (for the Properties parameters gas properties Re. : referencetempera all transport properties are evaluated at the reference temperature Tre.SIGN AND APPL]:CATION deceleration the about pressure the side. as can enthalpy in figure changed of the region Very be seen mainstream aft little from of the boundary of the figure illustrating About shapes Fluid flow leading resulting edge layer on occurs from the at is adversepressuregradient Transition state._ (1144) assumes (T_e'_"{ t_ "_" _] \T_. an layer in a transitional Initial film cooling the stream.
. means analysis the of blade from element.. and an energy of algebraic equal solved Once to balance the total is written number by for each equations.TURBINE COOLING FIGURE 1 l9.. distribution calculations. of elements.Typical node breakdown for a turbineblade conduction analysis. with All a The the equations result must digital a detailed for use is of a system equations then be computer. _11 oj+$ FIGURE l l10. is completed. 119.. a typical in boundary element figure Accounting 329 .. oj+4 _ _ I \ I \ f iI _  _ I I \ \\ I II ii J+ _ i II I il il . is available 1110.Typical boundary element for heatconduction analysis. temperature thermalstress Consider finitedifference number simultaneously such a conduction throughout highspeed.
the equation 0T transient or steadystate. and z are the coordinate direction_. 1110). equation boundary. internal to the each flow coolant. the T_. ra denotes The superscript n or n+ is used. as simple as it sounds. COOLANTSIDE There transfer impossible the local problem coolant can by to be many convection discuss temperature. must be known before An internal equations 330 flow network that describe and the internal the heattransfer is established. element at a point is allowed energy balance yields familiar heatconduction (1147) Pcp0(time) where x. ft s time step scheme subscript ofj th element. of momentum are solved conservation distribution . scheme• convectioncooling heattransfer the previously T'c) is to determine coefficient. ft _ element or boundary denoted 44 jth element i. in CONVECTION geometries and used to promote it would Essentially. he.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION for and all the those energy adjacent leads transfer to it to the )m+ k_Aj between (elements the jl1 given element (the including jth element) the fluid to j+5).Vj A(time) (T']+ITT') (1146) surface noted distance by volume area between jth element and and element or boundary de by subscript between i._This is not. can be very complex. ft m 3 . however. and equation (112) The coolant flow path the heat be for that reason. m. dc Ac 1 (TjTc' (Tj j+l) (TjTj+2)" + where A_ • " • +_s 5 (TjT_+5)" pc_. depending to reduce the The on how to an be either structured. depending on whether an explicit A similar calculation the equations infinitesimal or implicit equation may are size. the internal flow and coefficient and pressure pressure distribution can be determined. shown qhc(T. following T algebraic _ k_42 +_ (see fig. m s . transient for every volume If the must be written. y._. element l.
inside highly the mixed boundary area. m. on of the the Reynolds number and array the coefficient geometry data _1 and are the 6 impingementhole Reynolds gives A leastsquarescurve Xn 2 fit of the Xn in reference ma_(_) and =expEa2 where holes x. ft based on hole diameter distance hole power functions number.091 of the blade. account rows crossflow caused jets. (1149) 2 x. of the (fig. irap__lq_2ReDraprl/S (k_) (1148) impingementcooling as characteristic Zn Nusselt dimension hole m. the discussed between mined. as seen reference (g). be made. to coolant). and _o2 is an accumulation be expressed c are given attenuation of fluid as in table factor from as functions for of ReD. also help increasing convection is surface impingement effective where from convection small jets methods of cooling in figures cooling toward gives the air are directed 114(b) and cooling /. Since steps through cycle of deterscheme interaction (convection and three for must methods Fins to keep can the by heattransfer an iterative the has percentage been surface. is the centertocenter of flow.(. b.)+c. and _b for the (1151) i th row of 331 where aa and ba are given in table . in meters or feet.._ \0. (1150) between distance. the The in the 11I to direction coefficients coefficient by It the can a. convection calculations cooling be used are be correlations surface region the he. and xn +b. m between D The both diameter. wall correlation the flow split between from between each hot from gas must for various of to the parts three of the conduction blade. considered Various transfer. 1 _o2 multiple of impingement 1 +a3_b_3 11I. lators" They most 114(b))._URBINE COOLIN_ to determine there the is surface. ft and number wall. One representative 6 for impingement NUD. of the particular After blade air available a given empirical convection to determine used to enhance to the coolantside passages the to convection act heat added flow cooling and as "turbulayers One thin.
all percent injection temperature also the arc of holes that same of combining in figure cooling. than the as for higher will the for it becomes film air and cooling (as convection surface only. only. lb/(hr) FILM As parent reduce in fig. 8259 • 3985 0.4215 . 3 000 to 30 000 al bl ¢1 . 300 to 3 000 Reynolds number range. (m 2) . film the coolant hole.4696 •965 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 impingement holes is defined as Go! Zn (1152) where Gcr Gh crossflow mass flux. cooling and and Except cooling film or turbineinlet that blade 113). 0126 .5070 0.0428 •5165 0. only temperature coo]ing.580 O. localized cussed.5106 . the same wall Notice is about gradients cooling in a given fihn blade temperatures combined coolingair in the yields for convection convection and region immediate a significantly of the film lower convection for but the film wall cooling cooling alone. lb/(hr) kg/(sec) (ft 2) (ft 2) impingementhole (m 2) .0260 . either wall because be disfilm combined does average cooling same flow apto shown temperature cooling temperatures importance design given and conditions is shown convection be augmented both 1111. film cooling from rows cooling and or slots transpiration fullcoverage discretehole . 0025 • 0685 .IMPINGEMENTCooLING Coefficient Reynolds number range. 332 then of the protective film. kg/(sec) mass flux.0. hotgas rate.TURBINE I_E.SIGN AND APPLICATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS TABLE llI. metal The are AND TRANSPIRATION and must and pressure conserve COOLING increase.0015 . by cooling film Here. convection temperature much of the rapid decay First.2057 0.
ombinedfilm and convection cooling C _ _ 1000 :_ _ooI 0 I i l I I .A. by the heattransfer out rapidly. at . x the damped film with under gas (see form wall film having fig. o is the wall). is usually somewhat However. (1153) and (1154) is altered for this.e.. In the effective expression temperature temperature q=_hg.. T).Effect cooling.. wall a buffer The film adiabatic so _ is frequently it is obtained it is the a'r is of cool nl..6 . o temperature decays (coolant from temperature at the 333 effectiveness a value of 1. assumed adiabatic from between correlated temperature it and _ is included temperature cooling.... convection cooling.2 .o) where h. layer the e Very near the by the to be wall point the effect unity.. known.. filmcooled" filmcooling ing To successfully heattransfer analysis for becomes builds the the analyze on the flux film and model must film be surface._(T'.4 . data the hot of injection. coefficient to account without film cooling.x is the heattransfer coefficient (he.. temperature effectiveness _'"'"= where outer T_.._ hg...T_. Tg.TURBINE COOLING 1800 L2600v / _ _3_1_" Hot9as Film coolingonly _6 2200 : I J f__' _Convection _ Hotgas coolingonly _ . "nonthe followgas coefficient heat to preceding the discussion.._=Tw. z_: (1155) is sometimes because conditions film film temperature experimental and of an uncooled in dimensionless 1112)).8 l. injection The itself. The injected film film T._m: cooling. called (i.T'.'_ 1200 . Constant FIGURE l lll. x)I. the the Hence.O Dimensionless distancedownstreamof slot of combining coolant film and flow rate.
+ ¥ •+1:. surface seen._"_ _ I '( Coolant film I Coolingair FIGURE ll12._ % I 1000 2000 . I 4000 distance. effectiveness 7) correlate surface. slot.1  .1....TURBINE DE. the (0 ° is parallel film ref.8 _"_ Injection angle.Filmcooling effectiveness for slots. // / _'mm / J . to zero.1. distance slot hotgas width downstream s and the The stream.SIGN AND APPIAI.! 400 (x 600 xs#gs . expressions well: As film the the the The Figure injection 1113 from gives slots experimental as determined from massflux indicated to the values by the ratio injection slot F and with slot a of film number (xx_) between angle effectiveness is normalized film respect investigators. increasing The film 334 cooling injection following reasonably decreases turbineblade (from . _.__ _ deg o++ 90 _'__ +:_: 08  ..1.Experimental determination of film temperature.1 40 60 100 Dimensionless I 200 . for by air and to angle.1. 1. 90 ° is perpendicular). 1_ . of the is with far downstream.oz 10 I 20 _ I . FIGURE ll13.C_TION Boundary I r_ layer 7 / Y I T..
335 .40 o ° A o . and from diameter distance.464 in. as where or feet.TURBINE OOOLIN(_ O. 1.'="_ " _ .ymbols denote single hole at 35v injection angle Tailed symbolsdenote single row u:. hole diameters .155 of the for a 15 ° injection and 1114 of holes. lateral (from For film a function hole a single downstream in figure a row injection from with is presented hole 1 hole 8) for film lateral cooling distances. and n0. and (1157) for large edge Values values slot.18 cm or 0.9 k. case. C and and the G= z8 is the measured exponent 1."__ Plain s..21 of the the stagnation for the coefficient n are C2. Film distances ref. 2 _s 2. small effectiveness from the and n0. gas velocity. 0. injectionor 100 ft]sec. 0.22X 10 s..00 "_ E 30i_ xji_ ' "_.5 Reynolds number.50 1. of (zx. m/sec FIGURE down stream and lateral distances from injection holes.95 location from of the downstream point.7 for a 30 ° injection angle..5. in meters angle.Filmcooling effectiveness as function of dimensionless ratio. hole diameters l l14. 20 .). up to about downstream in this as previously effectiveness decreases shown • 50  Dimensionless lateral distance from injection hole.p_2] \p_u_s/ for small values of (zz. _I'z'_=exp k I 0. _ of holes I O l I I I i I I ] 9O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole. 30.). Massflux hole diameter.
TURBINE
DE,SIGN
AND
APPI.,ICJ_TION
for slots,
and
the
same
values
are
obtained
for single
holes
as for a row
of holes. For larger lateral with downstream distance flow, hole that and because gases Very the values of the unity limited for the interaction at the data
distances, as a result row of flows injection film jet are available the
effectiveness initially increases of the spreading of the injected are larger adjacent This the for jet than holes. separates row for the Notice from single also the with holes from angle than angle persist effective wall into convection is 2 hole of as a in from hole. as
of holes
_mm is not
is due
to entrainment of film
of hot surface.
underneath
a staggered
cooling holes. Frequently, the slot data are used for this case, an effective slot width s defined such that the total area of the equals Figure single the hole direction the area 1115 of the (from slot. ref. main very lateral 8) shows gas local stream, film coverage, the spreading For film the the but wall mass of a film spreads A film less does not most the layer angles of injection. a 35 ° injection compound
at various of the giving more
diameters,
coverage.
injection gives far downstream. Transpiration methods the boundary
cooling layer,
of a porous With film as the serves into to the
is one transfer with
of the from
of cooling
available. it combines
cooling
efficient
cooling. The porous wall where the heat conducted continuously through the this method extremely tion or standpoint, stream In cooling from surface. order is transferred small pores. of cooling
a very effective heat exchanger, wall from the hot gas stream in counter flow as it passes
coolant
However, to turbine are air. since the
there are problems blades. The pores subject Also, the film yet cooling, spectrum
in applying tend to be
small and, contaminants a penalty essentially to used. type alleviate advantages In number
therefore, in the is paid, to these
to blockage due to oxidafrom an aerodynamicloss air is injected still cooling, the obtain cooling into some air holes pure the of gas the film issues in the trans
normal
boundary. fullcoverage
problems film lies in the
characteristic a large This
of transpiration of small, closelyspaced,
fullcoverage of cooling
discrete between
piration cooling on flux over the surface, amount through of heat the wall
the one end, and localized by on the
with essentially a continuous mass film cooling on the other end. The to tile cooling internal air flowing pastortuosity of the flow
transferred depends
convection
sages. The wall may with a low resultant maze of interconnected effectiveness. Convection exchanger 336 theory and
be constructed of simple, convection effectiveness, flow passages, v_o,v is with a
straightthrough holes, or it may consist of a high convection from wall heat
a relatively term ability borrowed of the
effectiveness
is a measure
of the
(or blade
TURBINE
O00LING
Fi Imcooling effectiveness, "r/film 2 _
E
tO. 10
/
0@
\ \
2

.25
_. 20
_. 15
o r
I
6
1
'
I
(a)
1
I
I
d
r
.g 2 .E
E
0 /
r.
lO
•30I g
X13
L. 25
4 6
L.20
L. 15

I
I
I
tb)
I
I
I
u_
_
"_,
2 
r.
25
E
2 4 6
_
\ '.30
, .20
I
0 5
1
10
I
15
I
20
I
25
I
30
Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole, hole diameters (c} (a) Injection (b) Injection (c) Injection FIGURE ll15.Lines angle, angle, angle, 35°; lateral 90°; lateral 90°; lateral injection, injection, injection, 90 °. 35% 15 °. for singlehole
of constant filmcooling injection. Massflux ratio,
effectiveness 0.5.
acting as a heat exchanger) convection.
to transfer
f !
heat to the cooling
air by
T c.oT c.,.
(1158)
Since an optimum design utilizes as much of the heat sink available in the cooling air as possible for convection cooling, ,7_o,, values approaching the limit of 1 are desirable. However, the convection
337
TURBINE I)E,SIGN AND
effectiveness available. Consider turbine on (see wall, the ref. blade solid 9). a is usually
APPLICATION
limited
by model
the the of
coolingair drop porous balance flow for the
supply through or can through local
pressure the wall. perforated be written the metal in wall temthe
As Vco,v increases, onedimensional wall metal The in figure matrix resulting the wall,
so does
pressure
1116. and on the and differential Tw,
An
energy equations
coolingair local coolant
perature
through T'c, are
temperature
d3Tw hv d2T,_ dy 3 _ Go% dy _ and T'_=Tw
' hv dTw kw.e dy
0
(1159)
kw'ed_T'_ hr. dy 2
(1160)
where effective thermal conductivity heattransfer of the porous wall, W/(m W/(m)(K) 3) (K) ; Btu/ ;
hv
Btu/(hr) (ft) (°R) internal volumetric (hr) (ft 3) (°R)
coefficient,
The
boundary
conditions
are e dTw @_=o (1161)
h_(Tw.,T'e,_.)=kw,
and
G_cp(T_ In this case, as seen of surface area. An the overall flux energy to the q=Gccp(T' Typical 1,116. wall They and are coolant both from
'
,T"
'
_,)=kw 1116,
e dTw " dy _=o G_ is the mass flux
(1162) per unit
figure
ba]ance wall,
gives,
as a third
boundary
condition
for
heat
o T_,_.)=Gc%_co._,(Tw,otemperature with profiles opposite of the
T:,_.) are signs shown in of the the in
(1163) figure second coolant
nonlinear
derivative, and matrix The side heat
which is a consequence heat transfer. flux to the wall can
interaction in terms
also be written
of a hotgas
heattransfer
coefficient: q=h,,_( Tz,ethe Tw.o) heat flux expression (1164) with local
This 338
is somewhat
different
from
TUR,BINE
OODLIN(_
Tw,o
1 "1
C,O ]w,J
Gc
q
T__J
c, in
Tc, i
\
'\.,
_
ay_t
hvA .,Xy(T  Tc) '_ w
\
\ \ '_
dlw d ClTw_A kw,eA dy + dy (k w, eA _y) y Typical element FmuRE 1116.Porouswall temperature profile model.
film duced" than
hg,Z"
cooling the film
in
that
the
acual and local gives
recovery ht._ the due
gas to
temperature blowing are heattransfer model if the pressure of
and used
a "rerather
heattransfer temperature with incidentally we can
coefficient
solidblade
coefficient the blade is
Consistent wall, not which too large,
the
onedimensional good results
gradient
write F ht_ Stt_ _:;_=eF/__ Str_ 1J of convection Fis the ratio flux: (1166) mass . (1165) effectiveness of the coolant
where mass
the flux
correction in figure (surface
factor] 1117 (from averaged)
is a function ref. to the 10), and hotzas
as shown
F (pu)_
(pu)
339
TURBINE
I_E_IGN
AND
APPLICATION
Convection effectiveness, 1. E 11cony 0.9
J
o
f J
J
• 7j
f
J
J
o
k_
.7
.6 0 1 Blowing 2 parameter, FtStcj ' 3 4
FIGURE
l l17.Correction
to
equation
(1165)
for
wall
convection
effectiveness.
SIMILARITY It actual size than to at is often engine prototype the the actual test whether of of economic turbine environment. heattransfer hardware application. blade this will a cooled conditions To answer and at necessity components Generally, aerodynamic lower This behave gas practice to at evaluate conditions initial tests performance temperatures raises meeting similarly the various a under similarity design valid the heattransfer than conducted with and actualpressures question specifications actual to engine turbine engine perblade parameters as the are
performance to evaluate
other
configuration question,
co_lditions. which are formance are discussed. The number engine 340 Mach and
important in relating test performance of an actualsize filmconvectioncooled number test distribution around conditions. the and vane Similarity momentumthickness must in be these the two
Reynolds same between is parameters
distribution
TUITBINE
O00LIN_]
essential coefficient transition Let tion flow to engine does must
to
ensure and
the
same wall to to
relative turbulent test the that two cases. the
distributions and and the boundary local Mach the
of layer.
heattransfer point of
adiabatic laminar (t) refer
temperature conditions
same
from superscript
superscript number equivalent
(e) refer distribumass
conditions. not change same be the
To ensure between in both
conditions, Therefore,
w(.,,
wy'p'_ where for the F is an approximate variation of specific
p;,.
/(RT')_,r(.
ry'
,,
(1167) (2128) given and by (2129))
'e' _(R_)g(" (from
correction heat
/
eqs.
with
_
temperature
\(_+t)/2(_t)
F _f_ __) Since remain the local momentumthickness between (t) and (e) Reynolds conditions, number
(1168) must also
unchanged
#
/z
o;,,.:.,
film effectiveness the to and the is to
/(,r.);.,r,,,
s
__
(p_),',o;., .;') _" ,".;',p';"
\_/z
_,.,1
unchanged massflux ratio cases.
(1169)
between ratio
If engine
the
local and , test the ratio
remain to
conditions, coolant 0Jo_), is
coolant
hotgas
(ou)J(Cu)z (or density holediameter size
hotgas be the then
momentum same in both
(pu_)¢/(pu_)= Since actual
momentumthickness
to filmejection
ratio
OJD must presumed,
hardware
(_)(,, and equation (1169) becomes o;,,
1
(1170)
_':' _","___,,"''"'e_ I(_T_)',', r;"
#g(t) w_" Equation with pressure number Parametric for air. the (1171) viscosity and and Mach curves shows and number of ,(,,p,(,, that gives _/(R_)z(,, the the gas will (1171) flow Fg(,,1 rate must relation the and shown engine in vary same (1171) directly gas Reynolds conditions. figure 1118
functional provide for test are
between
temperature
which distributions equation
341
TURBINE
I_E_IGN
AND
APPIAC_TION
4O
E
30
_
leD
20
a_
i0
0 250
J
500 150 1000 1250 1500
i
1750
2000
2250
25OO
Temperature, K Tq,
I
0
I
500
I
1000
I
1500
I
2000
1
I
3000
I
3500
I
2500 , oF Temperature, lg,
FIGURE thickness
ll18.Similarity Reynolds number
curves of distributions
constant around
Mach number a turbine vane
and momentumfor air properties.
The
coolingair
flow massflux
rate ratio
and and
temperature momentum
are ratio.
then
set
by
the
coolanttogas
Requiring (1172)
(7 ,J  L(#u),j
implies
(1173)
Wg/
and
it is necessary
that
to ensure Neglecting in the
equality direction to
of test normal the
and in to
engine the the plane wall,
momentum of the the film temperature
ratios, wall ejection by
since
pc.o=p_. to that
conduction
compared
temperature
T_,o is related
supply
coolant
(He, oHe, (Hc.oH_, where (1171)). hotgasside 342 the viscosity Satisfying heattransfer ratio here
,,)(t>_q(,) _,(_) ,n) (_) q(C) u_" the to mass (1175) flow around ratio the
(1175) (see that vane eq. the will
represents (1171)
equations
ensures
coefficient
distribution
as it does The those dimen air passages same and the normalized temperature is to perform temperature only conditions. if the viscosity t ct)¢. ratio and drop If in the which most by equation (based simulated through the cooled remains convenient engine.o or some used actual scaled and because Strict similar equality hardware. and engine conditions._._T/) pressure. _. drop flux through at reduced reduced and cooling is commonly design. form the is given cannot are depends Stanton ratio the coolant number heattransfer by (*' dimensionless Nuc (') =Nuc where m is the power on the tion. number discussed unity side.. The the testtoengine bole diameter coolant filmcooling same cooling be some between perature) conditions internal must blade invariant which are is important the test namely pressure conditions. How343 is at the proportionately . during Reynolds the the the ejection for same two a test wall includes supply Hence.TURBINE C_OLING have the same shape transfer coefficient in for both test dimensionless St(. As testtoengine number.T_. and the effective gas temperature sionless wall temperature _. (T_. defined as T_. this from range unity tg to (') be set independently. the be 1. the number number temactual then. although its departure is small. In fact. with is not as a measure performance blade the wall in _ for test the of the potential than impossible temperature to cool temperature conditions. Stanton number form *) {'Pr(')Y/a be met. on set the the independently departure Prandtl coefficient number in The is heat (1176) if all of the other in Since similarity number equation On Nusselt the Prandtl conditions ratio from (1176). properly pressure.oould be approximated c by over the full temperature a power law cc t_ (1178) coolant and Reynolds to ensure for outer engine coolant Tf. on would the there (1174). The viscosity coolant Reynolds factor cannot factor number / _'* _'*' °_ number (1177) with the for coolantside is the Prandtl (1177) convec Reynolds in equation ratio. wall temperatures tempera ture T_. however. of a given is. dimensionless known.'):St(. the It grouping of the since because is easier greater driving of these cooling and lower the for at high three engine heat blade convection temperature (1179) temperatures.
00 1.SIMILARITY (a) Takeoff condition STATES Gas total temperature Gas total pressure.00 1.02 1.6 16.00 1. 5 25.JCATION ever. Since the it accuracy solving 11II fuelair would total heat environment. in equation at the lowtemperature be accounted for in the lowpressure ratio q(')/q(e) TABLE llII.03 1. atm. 9 21. Coolant temperature K oF _2200 367 478 589 700 758 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144 _3500 200 400 600 800 905 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 ' 33. wall the to a is be (1177) were used pressure.01 1. 344 .01 1. 3 11.00 1. similarity simultaneously rather using 1 percent equations for a highAir ratio be in gas. highpressure conditions radiation and heatflux cooling conveniently test conditions. range states the difference between in _(t) most _(e) is well example to of experimental generated is given by in table a given air.7 23.00 1.4 10.TURBINE I)E.0 7. 7 4.1 12.4 18.SIGN AND APPI.00 ' Reference condition. 2 19. what of the air. 00 1. 9 30. 9 14. 8 145 188 23O 273 294 315 357 399 442 485 528 571 613 656 699 743 786 828 199 122 45 31 70 107 182 259 335 413 490 568 644 721 799 878 955 1030 1. Radiation can blade not under directly be a significant by film component and with flux and cannot hightemperature affected simulated it must (1175).04 1.00 1.00 1. 1 28.00 1. 9 32.3 6. and cases. properties For a test temperature hightemperature condition _(_) is gasturbineengine than ambient higher those for than cooling dimensionless actual engine.7 9.00 1. 3 27.00 I.01 1. An (1171) for properly scaled within of test the conditions.
01 1. V. 1968. 4. Academic Press..9 4. Irvine.: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Chemical Rubber Co. 132. and J. Jan. 1970. Coolant temperature ! _( t)/ _o(e) °F K 12200 367 478 589 700 799 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144 ' 3500 2O0 4OO 6OO 8OO 978 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 28OO 3000 3200 3400 '13.5 4.. pp. to a Flat Surface Including the 92. 1966.4 1801 139 180 220 259 294 299 338 378 417 458 498 539 579 619 660 702 743 782 ! 1983 209 . McGrawHill Book Co. no. KAYS.. 3. 345 . O0 1. G.6 5. Vol. AMBRpK. vol.2 8.00 1. KESTIN. Phys. 6. O0 ! . SPALDING. ! I Reference condition. 1957. no.Concluded condition (X_LING (b) Cruise Gas K total temperature oF Gas total pressure.00 1.01 1.00 1.4 11. REFERENCES 1.7 2.P.02 1.6 10.8 1. : Heat Transfer by a Square Array of Round Effect Air Jets of Spent Impinging Perpendicular Air. AND PATANKAR. pp. Soviet Phys.1 11..00 1.: The Effect of FreeStream Turbulence on Heat Transfer Rates. W. pp. F. KAUFMAN. D. 1970. T. S. 5.00 1. M.0 6.. Inc. 2. 9.3 6.01 1.5 3. Eng. Power. Advances in Heat Transfer.. W.7 13. : Approximate Solution of Equations for the Thermal Boundary Layer With Variations in Boundary Layer Structure.00 1. cds. Hartnett.. 1966. arm.7 7. B.: COLLADAY. KERCHFR. JACK B.4 8.Tech. AND TABAKOFF. S. D. NASA TN D5992. J.. 7382. 19791986. 2.8 12. J. M. EsQAB.01 1.2 3.00 1.: Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Layers.03 1.TURBINE TABLE 11II.00 1. RAYMOND S.9 9..136 64 7 70 78 148 220 291 364 437 510 582 655 729 804 878 948 1. 1. vol. ALBERT: An Analysis of the Capabilities and Limitations of Turbine Air Cooling Methods.00 1. Jr. 3.00 1.
Nov. P. AND COLLADAY. 2. R. 1969. P. L. Minnesota Univ. ECKERT. NASA TN D6405. ERIKSEN. G. V. RAYMOND S. J. 10. NASA TN D6837. 1972. (NASA CR72612).. A. MEL R. COLLADAY. : Examination of Boundary Conditions for Heat Transfer Through a Porous Wall. Co. J.: An Experimental Investigation Into Film Cooling With Particular Application to Cooled Turbine Blades. RAYMOND S. 7. AND STEPKA. GOLDSTEIN. 8.1FC1. Elsevier Publ. E. Ulrich Grigull and Erich Hahne. Vol. D. FC1.10. R. BROWN.. DESIGN AND APPLICATION ARTT. Heat Transfer 1970. 346 . 1970. 1971. 9. pp. . AND RAMSEY. FRANCIS S. W.TURBINE 7..: Film Cooling Following Injection Through Inclined Circular Tubes.. L'ECUYER... eds.. W. AND MILLER. 7.. HTLTR91. Rep. : Influence of PorousWall Thermal Effectiveness on TurbulentBoundaryLayer Heat Transfer.
Btu/(sec)(ft a) Btu/(hr)(fC) (K) . in eqs. (1165) 1 . (1141) constant. lbf/lbm (1151) (1157) element. (2 q 1l Re r heatgeneration J/(kg) number Reynolds recovery Stanton factor. (118) eq. volumetric fit s) (°R) J/kg by eq. hole. mass flux in eq. W/ma. 2) (K) . 3600 W/(m) . 778 energy. b3 C in x direction. characteristic m. heat gas flux. or film. number eq. J/(kg)(K) (1150) impingement hole.[ G g H h hv /. side eq. Btu/lb 1 . (1145). Xlach number exponents Nusselt exponents Prandtl P pressure. ft mass used flux to hotgas (ft 2) (lbm) (ft)/lbf) (see 2) (ft 2) (°R) W/(m3)(K). W/m3 . 32. J/kg. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) (118). (1156).W k I M eo()l'mtpassage wall thickness. m2. defined conversion dimensional turbulent thermal 1 . Btu/(ft 3) (see) volume elements (see fig. used number used number N/me. ft 2 coolantpassage g al. I J K (m _) . in heat eqs.17 Btu/lb W/(m heattransfer . cto. (1142). . constant. coefficient. m. b2. coefficient. W/m_. in eqs. correction conversion heattransfer in eq. Cp el. kinetic (:onductivity. (1145). enthalpy. Btu/(lb)(°R) of volume m2. in eqs. 1110). aa area. at constant (1149) coefficients diameter injection D of leadingedge m . lb/(hr) constant. enthalpy.. Btu/(hr) coefficien't. ft in eqs. (1149) (1149) and (1126) pressure. m . component in eqs. Btu/(hr) length.TURBINE CODLING SYMBOLS A surface area of one flow factor. lb/ft" term. augmentation coefficients bodyforce coefficients constants friction specific C2 B_ bl. and circle. (llS). constant. ft d F dissipation term distance between ratio mass total internal Btu/(hr) static term of coolant factor kg/(see) flux. (1127) St 347 . ft z (1131) to to (1151) N/kg. and (ll4S) and (1157) (ft) (lb)/Btu sec/hr Btu/lb (K) . ft (ft) (°R) J/kg.
deg temperature (1148) (1152) in eq. angular coefficients term defined exponent distance in eq. momentum transfer 7/ at constant m. lb/ft 3 local shear stress. diffusivity viscosity). static m. gas m/sec. ft distance distance between normal impingement m2/sec._ec P T density. lb/sec layer plane (xy plane).TURBINE DE. 'tO component mass flow boundary distance the of gas velocity in direction perpendicular rate. eq. N/mS. pressure (1168) to specific impingement X Xn centertocenter direction coordinate distance m. of heat transfer coefficient effectiveness thickness. V component (ydirection). ft K.t momentum (N) (see)/m2. °R K.h enthalpy ratio cooling viscosity. from m. ft lb/(ft) (sec) (kinematic lb/ft _ leadingedge film heat at thickness. from wall by eq. kg/sec. m/sec. m. dimensionless stagnation point. ft and blade inner leading between edge. ft 3 velocity ft/see to the in direction normal to surface °R in direction along surface (z T t % temperature.SIGN AND APPLICATION 8 slot gas width. kg/m3. ft/sec along surface of flow. heat holes in Y Zn wall. m/sec. F specific correction ratio of specific heat constant volume . ft coefficient without m . ratio ft2/sec factor. ft to surface. referring to transition from laminar to turbulent flow crit 348 . holes m. volume of temperature. with cooling film cooling to heat 0 tt l. (1178) Subscripts: a adiabatic constant coolant CFOSSflOW CP C property COlbY convection critical. ft2/. velocity ft/sec m3. component direction). m2/sec. ft heat diffusivity. of gas of jth element.
(e) (t) . v./.s characteristic edge length at freestream condition film g h i imp in J L J le 0 re] 8 stag T t W X length length length A 8 oO apl)roaching ril)ts" engine test._. leading outer reference downstream stagnation turbulent transpiration wall local with with with value x as charttcteristic A as characteristic 0 as characteristic leading edge edge of slot a. condition ('mid ition stale (referring component to T anti (referring p) to p. and w) / flu(:tuating 349 .TURBINE C'(YOLING ]) e with fihn hole (li'uneter as characteristic dimension effective hot gas hole inner impingement inlet jth clement laminar with_. u. ] total Sul)ersc.
the etc. Only is designed dynamic this In of the The ments. the researcher must determine ing.) entire turbine on built. whether by testing with primarily design. obtain the The performance of the stator test he is interested instrumentation performance vary with in evaluatnecessary to and facility. turbine turbine Associated shafting. measurecannot obtained be losses can contributing be in obtained chapter experimental Rotor losses usually discussed easily from from the direct stator measurements. disks. the and/or these overall parameters. addition separate stator as loss to the overall performance to readily 7 (vol. Schum a J The theoretical deal aerodynamically. loss and they the are overall performance developing which nature the desired in are a test facility and parameters program. loss a breakdown is often desired. criteria. Once the casings turbine the aerocan is designed and design of mechanical be determined met.SzancandHarold. operating conditions subject 351 PAGE __'_ INTENTIONALLY 8LAtIK . the of a turbine. turbine manner which the parameters of this chapter. In it must have or not the been turbine be determined. goals preceding aspects chapters relating has the blading have to been been turbines directed is the (rotor concerned and toward turbine. for of consideration assembly the basis bearings.CHAPTER 12 Experimental Determination of Aerodynamic Performance ByEdward M. hai'dware the A great since. blading. obtained indirectly measurements. overall from 2).
Static meaningful is based shown pressure define (249b) pressure. in the the temperature flow determined to fully torque. turbine speed. gages data with used test facility the will be described. sures. all is all efficiency where efficiency where on a pressure of outlet the axial as constant. define rotative (needed test is discussed performance pressure The and generally flow rate. Ideal and (248b) the is of total based the on outlet however. kg/sec. used torque. speed. 1). J/kg. and static Rating of the used efficiency is not which efficiencies. measured calculated manner in The FACILITY stator in chapter AND MEASUREMENTS is expressed 2) and to specific for the to will define work. determine facility. recovery Rating of only or and the 2 (vol. parameters mass inlet directly from are usually in order rate. performance inlet Specific and work ranges not and be and turbine of rotative of the exit efficiency) computed discussed overall efficiency. meaningful is useful. in this and electroaic acquisition These reduction vary from be of discussed manometers automatic 352 visual to computer reading completely process sliderule computations with online acquisition . rotative conversion mass flow Nm. measurements will not and to make and can required systems be discussed. rev/min 1. rate. 1. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu lb/sec by the ideal temperature by equation is always ideal work. of chapter pressure depends on outlet outlet outlet Total meaningful velocity velocity to the based of the corresponding velocity component commonly discussed In the will this types and.SIGN AND APPLICATION TEST The herein._h' K F N J w turbine conversion torque. speed turpresare is then in which detail parameters are mass ratio performance 7 (vol.TURBINE DE. a representative generally Data chapter. These and bine. outlet as are is most velocity the total 1). the or is obtained by dividing the actual work hh' work is a function of the turbine inlet total ratio The on the is total static across outlet particular pressure useful pressure is lost. The used is most is most efficiency recoverable. efficiency the axial as inlet to desired. _/30 Btu/lb (rad)(min)/(rev)(sec) constant. component where only accordingly. pressure and turbine. lbft rad/sec. Efficiency work. of devices 2 (vol. were in chapter section. specific work. equation Ah'_K rN dw (121) where .
.. A schematic diagram of a turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center is shown in figure 121.fExpansion Main exhaust control valve ."@ valve valve @ _._i_ ". associated piping with control valves. and the instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. In such a facility. is used to test singlestage or multistage turbines of about 76 centimeters (30 in. a power absorber. A general discussion of data measurement. acquisition. transforms the rotating rig into a stator annular cascade. = Main control.' valves • _ /kl I Gas supply .. an exhaust system. I Bypass control valve . 353 . This facility. This is commonly air at ambient called coldair Burstdisc Laboratory air system Venturi safety valve . a gas supply. joint _ "_ / L LBurner_j_. Most turbine component testing is conducted with temperature or slightly heated.Flow schematic of a turbine test facility. and recording systems can be found in texts such erence 1. thereby. It is generally representative of most turbine test facilities and is used here as an example for this discussion. .Facility f isolation Laboratory system exhaust FIGURE 121..EXPERI1VIENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ing. Sonic valve • Vent to roof .. Description of Test Facility transas ref A turbine test facility consists of the research turbine. a photograph of which is shown in figure 122. acilit valve isolation Isolation. mission..) in diameter. removal of the turbine rotor gives the room necessary to place survey instrumentation behind the stator and.
values model are this to then.6centimeter air flow. be discussed and and in chapter temperature levels 1).696 and power thereby are actual on similar turbine.7 ° R). was number found effects obtain facilitates testing. Using the turbineinlet of pressure than to and Only for be encountered Mach numbers number. inlet are more the proper varied to Reynolds Referring N/cm2gage venturi (16in. values N/cm was flow cation diagrams of the number smaller turbine number.SIGN AND APPLICATION ductim :FIGURE 122. This airsupply of metering . turbine where pressure psia) parameters standard and are reported conditions (288. near would the the pressure test results actual same can turbine the effect in an K or 518. of Reynolds performance Reynolds can be negligible. the in terms of of equivalent (10. Reynolds larger dissimilarity. of the the A by the 27.TURBINE DE. turbines. testing.2 standard Yet. air in for air for the system of turbine the is supplied laboratory. important.6 ca}ibrated is located line a straight the purpose section 40. however.) 354 meter to figure (40psig) 121.Turbine test facility.133 This conditions in lower applivelocity as those present For a sealevel temperature 2 (vol. Performance based 2 or on 14. turbines.
air is with flow. the for operation bypassed remaining controlling particular 23.EX_PERIME. air the by This of to flow modified A burner is optional. ratio in fig. line that the air velocities of the will not Location affords number airmetering constant devices airmetering controllable valve pro a relatively of metering of valve sonic and pressure the a range A further discussion devices is presented in a subsequent Downstream of the venturi meter by vides the turbine a high operator.) control pressure in. using are gasoline. was bypass The of Hg into two absolute). general. (20in.6 422 In K highpressure is maintained turbine capability (52 temperature of bypassed lb/sec) a maximum kilograms temperature a relatively combustion for heat. to the where jet means air. between The so with to air. temperature facility is to elevate problems commercial is used.8centimeter dual velocity passing exhaust main valve. the turbine of the volume installation turbine valve. be accounted provide low. heaters 355 .5centimeter to facilitate burner pressure operation automatic line provide is the 50. pipe however. A burstdisc from excessive pressure.) control. air through turbine the is turbine.2 air lines to cm then entry can the control inletpressure protection centimeter turbineinlet (30 valve diverts of lower be seen After altitude (48in.) operator turbineinlet to a 121.2centimeter turbineinlet (20in. lines to provide (These plenum. drop section.8the desired 76.9centimeter bypass vary the is 40. the in cost the but Electrical installations. such ft/sec). because clean of the The the has a single natural burner desired amount the second purpose as to there the is shown avoid gas. and flow or natural these rates must are gas provide inexpensive added used calculations. However.NTAL DF_TERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE piping exceed device upstream required is sized 61 meters in the for (as was per and highpressure all piping) second may of (200 supply minimize flows.) pressure main control (for the The of the the the of the valve valves safety valve and vent Further downstream valve example used to establish this (6in.) pressure. 122. 121) burner jetengine Some air air heat from heated inlet to is and ambient (in of the icing response the in at burner of the then the inlet because control the can. With large large its use inlet In this turbines.) turbine turbine. fuel.) A 30. fine control air to 15. because turbineexit. mixed fuel phantom. This type of pressureratio control has been most successful with small turbines. laboratory and a the while entry the permits 50. and is a slower and fig. is an isolation (12in.) through system control These acrossthe discharged (16in. only of large of heating the air.6centimeter permit turbine pressure maintained constant by automatic control. both burner per burners simple products performance are and generally complexity and (300 ° F).
and pressure annular the station first and passage row (station is provided for between the purpose the converging of installing The 1/_ is flow of blades 0 of fig. flow measure turbineinlet previously. passage the is also are provided air made downstream state about of the turbineoutlet (measuring 2 bladechord Measurements . to the audible shut prevent alarm valves quickly and the This turbine turbine during in the stops facility. stations a plenum distortion. stator does temperature blades. entering section measuring chords the the insertion blading. of the shown. inlet rotor rotation monitoring for to only rapidly gas systems an system. fig. is shown blades. operation. turbine station 356 blades 2. as well in order to prevent Research damage Turbine of the A schematic diagram of one research turbines view also sides. annular to 123). to volume section An enlarged indicated is from two to provide A screen ensure giving turbine area. to the effective approximate 50 percent straight. inlet inlet blade low. the air enters pressure distribution plenum located screen drop as feasible further for minimum a symmetrical This a pressure minimum a converging pressure heads. that must conditions monitoring: and dynamometer and dynamometer outlet water inlet gas gas rotor and casing gas exit gas of turbine inlet exit supply lubricating ]ubricating water oil oil of turbine of turbine temperature temperature pressure temperature (or low) pressure pressure in bearings of dynamometer of dynamometer of turbine temperature of turbine of turbine rotor Overspeed Reduced Excessive Excessive on Some Others line air of turbine clearance between rig vibration shaft some monitors provide as in orbit of the provide a signal the heater Interlocks starting. designed and of with the as much figure 123.PPLICATION All turbines The following be guarded (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Low Low High High Low High High High High and are against supply pressures test some by facilities of the constant must potentially be designed unsafe with safety features.TURBINE DEISIGN AND A. used in this test As test facility is presented in section with instrumentation stated was velocity upstream circumferential has an of 2 dynamic A short. about velocity the inlet disturb upstream of the of probes significantly A straight. not measurement 123) Since is located the devices.
Flowpassage minimum conditiolls is exannular latter cone immediately following for the immediately required. measuring varying for the turbine test passages diflicult.. the aml in the diameters length of engine in Accurately this is the turbine. and a actual the sake blading reason jetengine the weight last row turbine turbine s_. sections an where the exit test air turbine is relatively are sta of the preceding somewhat inlet. of the outlet to rotor. Measurements stations There are are loe.Schematic diagram of turbine test section.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC f Station 0 PERFORMANCE I I 1 2 ] 1 I Stator bladetPlenum 'LJ :" Rotor blade ]'0 dynamometer i \ i i! \ _ i_\ ¸. of straight._ted numerous in the types uxia! and 357 .ving. installation. ]engths bilize(1 Both idealized The tail axial before tremely flow downstream and uniform the as has vary. the area use state of blades. FlowProperty The positions flowproperty indicated in measuring figure 123. \ [  CD1168311 FIGURe: 123. is after aml passages inlet and compared a burner Also.
walls. taps. In turbine size mentation probes In small ated and. and data. limits there the are on flow to obtain angle. be considered expansion presence measured. with blockage therefore. irrespective overall of research relative with This as This size their data. could on respect the available to make the instruments desired stator instrumentation exit. usually Static 124.At both on the staticpressure and outer vides a check to minimize taps served are often pressure pressures differ.TURBINE DE_TGN AND APPLICATION x o • E_ Temperature rake ]otalpressure probe Staticpressure tap Angle probe Measuring stations 0 diagram 1 of turbine 2 instrumentation. duplication turbines. inlet and located turbine measurements is shown as at the turbine investigations. velocities. Staticpressure . 90 ° apart. the circumferential pressure amount of instrumentation to provide some may not flow be the a single true test. desired blade is are staticpressure subsequent surface along surface. circulation distribution. For flow an values and each the inner require large of the effect size on being measuring whether passages the desired measurements. instruof the associprocess. can the various or number determines to the have the be afforded. We used in the example research of pressure. consideration in figure and proIn order multiple individual the obindividual to used installed deto number four of probes. station. as well general.Schematic variations of probes will discuss primarily turbine and outlet. at the in figure the same the probes turbine 124. FIGURE 124. negligible. experimental of stages. As part termine As calculate 358 explained of the the the in blade performance distribution section. size of the the The all turbine can turbines. this however. shown diametrically opposed multiplicity pressure. reading. average it is often the information taps If the of the occurs and manifolded reading stator a pressures. of The temperature.
EXPERIMENTAL D_TERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE along tubes the are major 0. FZ(_URE 125. are located is shown (0.0254 long apart. the For fairly The and desired the tip in sections any one can taps thus.Four at the to in in. hollow hub.) probe 20 ° . fig.Totalpressure (b) tb_ Unshielded probe. in of the blade be blade. 124) One is about length. to define based turbine turbineinlet turbine of mass turbineinlet performance experimental measurements static 359 . insensitive 125(b) probe totalpressure an insensitivity to yaw Flow I I Flow ia_ (a) Shielded probe. centimeter pressuretap the (0. are probe that The used adjacent the that blade.) flow. If among the by number the the size blades two of of be installed is limited discussed. used value turbineinlet to establish the pressure on totalpressure pressure and distribution maintain ratio when readings and a constant totalpressure reporting serve are as used value a check during total that flow rate. in. The testing sure. (see which in is has to yaw of passage. diameter shown totalpressure station the twice flow that shielding.010 hole a hole so as not Inlet to disturb time. presented approximately is desirable results probes. is on the presoften is a circumferential However. can then blades. shielded large. response pressure. probes. and mean. the used small small A taps is divided being size too or more no research turbine installing hole diameter. however. the in figure inlet area 125(a).48 40 ° . for also some problem.19 pressure unshielded for for about measuring center The and in figure This all immersed centimeter is such commonly readings are relatively measurement. total in a 90 ° and such 0.
matic used rakes. whictl lengthtodiameter 360 .Two are located at the turbine These contain of equal was radius. with and the total flow temperature angle and obtained to by the at the following turbine equainlet: a assumed be zero [i. ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion annulus gas total flow constant. the average in Autopresent not in exist but refburner center are of a type of thermocouples areas. inlet measuring station (see fig. wall of The to The the the latter the particular temperatures outlet to determine made a radialinflow a._1 the shown the center. °R from axial direction. wire accuracy in figure This modified thermocouple length at low 126(b) probe of bare thermocouple make the conduction shown in figure The results. pressure. encountered as discussed erence 2. can did number problem example Measurement a problem for was the at low conduction turbine testing herein. 124). where p' P 5' V &s%jT'"" lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 at constant l)ressure to specific 2) (122) total static pressure. temperature. in figure area the in figure 126(a). N/m2. siinilar to that situated rake at duct readings facilita. which a number annular and the are readings. angle constant.17 (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec (°R) (teg pressure than (K) . tmrl)ose. area. The 126(a) modified has a ratio of for is inadequate thermocouple ratio of about to diameter Reynolds has gives 12. measured value m2. total value This more value. of about number. radii 126(a) areamean turbine. 32. ft 2 J/(kg) heat at g Aan R T' 1.s well as for with for this the for individual testing a constant of temperature is maintained. spaced 180 ° apart. where regulation due large to heat research in thermoeouple rakes. A large amount to the flow in order to conventional exposed good shown 170.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION pressure. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K. a wire excellent wire must be exposed error negligible. calculated rel)resentative of turbineinlet of the true aver'_ge is thought is the to be experimental Inlet temperature.tes inlet burner temI)erature is I)rovided Reynolds This as an turbines effects. N/mg. being some used small of shown . tion. Provisions of all the fuel operation.
it is desirable a totalpressure to obtain the the is installed. type.Thermocouple (b) (b) Modified configurations. circumferential conventional value being staticpressure wedge probes. 126.During stator probe radial outlet performance and with testing. associated especially make such blockage on the measurements 361 . rake Stator at the stator survey outlet probe outlet. pressure.EXPERIMENTAL DIhTERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ! / / / / / / / I / / / Thermocoul)le junction Therrnocouplejunction (a) (a) Conventional FIGURE type. measured. turbine is the the Although testing. rotor the only measurement static and also surveys. made For statorproblems effect of previously mentioned is removed.
Totalpressure survey probe installed in test facility. unreliable.SIGN AND APPLICATION FIGURE 127. in figure is fixed angle.TURBINE DE. the these totalThis are walls. from pressure probe flow required The actuator driven probe as the facility. be and and The 127. same wa_ of stem is shown determined sensing the is shown of the circumferential the that used by interpolation taps. 127) Considerations effects blockage. to Note previously obtain measurements at both equipment totalpressure provides outerwall shown previously in this movement for not the does have saddle figure shown provides probe regarding movement. stem configuration in the (fig. The The example sensing motoraverage in the angle the survey for radial in figure elements. the outer 128. . 362 the The values probe required measured used at an that static at test probe pressures the hub facility has two are obtained and tip wall to inner probe.
• EXPERIMENTAL DI_TERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE r Outer wall saddleassembly r Actuator t / cm 0 LLLLU 5 C062250 FIGURE 128. capable angle are located at the probes probe probes.Totalpressure survey equipment. discussion come allows into the A laser techniques described recently of flowdisturbing of sensing 124 shows head that at radius outlet. 4. These side tubes are in a balance capsule. Turbine shown and flow not herein. directly velocimeter. located shown to the of flow pressure. measurements and measurement in reference 3. Figure temperature. behind serving have and reference the the use the blade trailing as the direction. element diameter. five of these combination measuring station 2. influences permissible. turbine by total respect between means size areas.Combination 129. total are symmetrically to a pressure are exposed pressure and the making connected static pressure. edge are discussed Although example use for Doppler velocity probes. Each of one the tional design. A 363 . used in the particular velocity as to be made optical measuring such laser distance facility magnitude in without with total exit. angle tube is accomplished The with ranges probe used that to measure of a convenis of the a 3tube The center two tube probe system. of measuring turbine type in figure pressure. The openings in an angle of 45 ° with the center to the two sides of a diaphragm the side tubes are in planes tube. side and of five equal annular number Measurement selfbalancing with tubes the center of probes are distributed circumferentially is located at the area center In general.
total use than determined (122). of equation does direct which from (122) measuremertts of turbine to check of This and have conditions.0N FIGURE 129.TURBINE I)E. position wouhl the the to zero not are used pointing totaltemperature for the to been used It has (121) measurement temperature occur over probe. A servosystem totalpressure determirtation values that more total in order values measurement reliable temperature.Combinationprobe sensing head. in to the side reduce are for and gross use work generated the and primary found probe pressures operates flow. unequal. to work be specific calculation When the exit of torque specific efficiency. more reliable When the values measurement. angle . pressure 364 the angle results of operating a selfbalancing accurately. integrated pressure. an of the tubes transformer error probe by signal are in is the capsule is actuated when into the the by the diaphragm. differential so the that error Exit generally but of than true they equation does if the discrepancies.SIGN AND KPPLIGATI. determine provides of exit probe the the is especially variations Even to be of ideal exit flow of exit flow with deterwork. angle total is surveyed is in a fixed range exit in order is used equation yields passage for for large in flow and mined Exit is usually is small.
inlet. C accounts theoretical meter. 4 kg/m3. factor m2. fluid has is which in the nozzle. (122). flow Although for the difference and good between the diffor caliThe meter at of the coefficient and type the of rate is significantly approximations a direct results... become ment the radial In total variations this case. pressure in the pressure choice and between angle values in the can exit be and passage obtained measure large. M C E Y p_n p_. Pt The flow area of meter velocity coefficient expansion at meter pressure pressure factor factor inlet. orifice secondary pressure and on the All the on The are the placed usually pressure in the may device. discharge flow for rate each in m or ft. 3 lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 throat. requirements of these variable of any of the have constraints meters of flow: application. which usually fluid flowing through the meter. of exit unless is not integrated clearcut. throat.(p. Measurement for use in equation calculation MassFlow Flows pend pipe. and and measured differential element pipe through Each the with variablehead by such the meters. temperature 365 .EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE large. basic equation for head rate the computation of the W= AtMCEY_/2gp. as a venturi.harge coefficients bration of the meter thermal throat expansion area is usually can be made from published data. at meter at meter factor M:1 D. is 1 (124) lb/ft N/m2. the obtained dis<. defluid or The caused a constriction primary element recording is a restriction which Utube be a simple selection manometer particular particular same or an intricate certain advantages depends meter of these meters disadvantages. should be made to assure accurate factor E accounts from is not for equal the fact that determined measurements to the room temperature.pt) (123) where A. ft _ approach discharge thermal density static static approach compressibility velocity where The actual ferent D is diameter. flowing. N/mS.
[ O. section. The than venturi other tube head has meters. orifices from having following (125). section. shows approaches. expensive F low "v_" Pressure taps FIGURE 1210.Figure tube.3 5 ( ___/. venturi verging tubes fuser the tube. section. are object usually usually section which cast a cylindrical and is made 1210 consists shows the important entrance and ') features section.3. empirical y _ l . straight difficult of piping.. along with in the equation curves reference value from of showing 5. recovery a pressure the used venturi obtained of 30 nozzle.)<0.O. The the the high shape to some pressure has of a commonly extent. to construct (particularly so as to and disadvantages reproducibility). the inlet and more run the throat.Figure The the flow diffuser is thus 1211 nozzle lost. machined an included a diffuser angle internal recovery 7 ° with energy venturipressure provide requires of accomplishing a maximum while minimizing friction loss.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION The compressibility factor for nozzles and venturi meters is (125) The derivation of equation and the D#D.Venturi tube. Flow flow tube with 366 nozzle. For Y can 5: reference Y as a most be function concentric determined of pJpt_ is presented (Ap/p_. without the venturi and nozzle loss . of about of kinetic (126) of a conThe difThe a of a cylindrical throat have with section.41q. surfaces. The total pressure loss from the tube inlet to exit is from 10 to 20 percent of the differential between in that a long. it is bulky. ] ! P2__ )' / Ventur4.
in most be a high machine If the edge must must not degree shops. the inlet factor depending and and the M on area throat. of the The cylindrical may to the effective minimum at the orifice itself. 1212) head meters. AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Flow Din Dl I i J /// :: ii\\ FIGURE 1211.65. and being with of flow the of the greater is about at the which acconaxial in367 The orifice nozzle. pressure is obtained. than that for a flow 0. is possible. coefficients to specifications.\ percent between approach 0. vena orifice edge. or more. The has a pressure flow coefficient This low value is due contracta rather than to make.The sharpedged widely used of the various the streamlines on the orifice (fig. \.98. It is possible published cording ditions length made of reproducibility exceed 5 percent upstream portion . The of the flow differential a nozzle pressure (product of is about coefficient (7) for discharge coefficient Orifice. This minimum area is it is at this area that the minimum loss for somewhat an orifice area an orifice is carefully sharp. Because side the and of the plate.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION Staticpressure OF laps . is probably the most of the inward flow of the minimum stream upstream area occurs downstream from known as the vena contracta. ratio.Flow nozzle. hole be used.
Torque it is possible to same coefficients construct two or when calibrated. the it generally In turbinecomponent by are heat. mos_ the produced performance. is shown generally 368 than Hydraulic since in used dynamometers fluidfriction. is extensively Measurement an accurate consideration used by measurement in evaluating to determine Simply. Because which will have the used.Sharpedged taps orifice. (3) electric methods other brakes. useful and turbine devices tests. .Static pressure FIGURE 1212. as brakes. surroundings. addition. no the The cradled in turn. clearly dynamometer.These 1213. supplied absorption is dissipated purpose. side diameter more orifices the orifice of the pipe. The as the converts energy to the turbine to be brakes. units always shows water. used generators include brakes. (1) dynamometer is of prime commonly dynamometers. torque This serves turbine. mounting dynamometer installations. meters water brake coupled electromagnetic (4) airbrakes. types frequently A typical the The cradle shaft of torque called water is for measuring absorption the figure in fluid dynamometer dynamometers is almost which and are are discussed. speed discussed (2) and force controller. in dynamometer provides this a load section In this is used or Absorption hydraulic.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPL]:CATION L f low Din Dt . the the where turbine into for of torque turbine turbine absorption heat.
Water in let . The the disk.Hydraulic dynamometer. inlet results and formation where valves a ring. A scale is supported the developed in the torque and rotates. absorption amount prevent .EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AE:RODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Disk Water in let _ Shaft bearing\ Packing gland . of the compartment packing As attached the moment.. in greater a consequently of water of steam frictional resistance should point. further. free turbine the to shaft The rotate. by glands. the or disk the with determination turning fed into closed the is thrown it forms opened centrifugal As the the water of the this housing. (Courtesy of Murray Iron Works Co. arm the to the fluid the on the power force ring casuch 369 bearings bearings. and housing transmits the limits./ /. pedestal shaft to an and to rotate be computed.Packing gland Shaft / /. brake. increased circulated at any discharge between be suffisince is increased. _thin it.bearing Shaft Pedestal bearing Pedestal bearing FIGVRE 1213. \ /.) directly housing friction so that housing housing absorbed Water to the valves depth the cient pacity disk to to the through on the it is tends permits may periphery are and of the test disk.
of force so that are air gap when On the between enter caused as the and by the scale. Eddy. particularly of these is by holes.. With brake a constant varies of torque water almost a_ with and powerabsorbing of speed. ends ing face in the on two the dynamometer..) of MidWest Dyna 370 . engines. be exercised. desirable disk near and occur. so that In this any dynamometer device. and Engineering (Courtesy Co.. is moved of force to sweep /. vicinity capability periphery. :_: i . . of this (i.current shown supported mitted rotor bearings. carries the stator. of the the stator The lines arm and measured which is supported which. of the torque on the shaft.. rotor. by Another further as much friction.SIGN AND APPLICATION action level. disk can to more because staging. 'K ' It itator Scale Shaft bearing_ ___ _k_7_:_i''_. and characteristic versa) and makes with to by increase of is typical them all fluidfriction particularly in the the electricaltype for testing Some the can Care outer increase must water dynamometers nongoverned brakes power in the are This absorption however. way using increase power absorption one disk.lorquearmI FIGURE 1214. The in the starer in with are and rotor teeth the direct with opposby the the rotor them starer a coil. L ]. OCilile /Shaft / o '.TURBINE DE. momentary capacity This vice unloading. a small lines energized machined to produce the rotor principally through through device teeth. than is is trans provided tends throughholes increase erosion that as an order of the is. current.Stator I I c_:Q(__I /_ /'// Water passages..The views pedestal of figure bearings eddycurrent 1214. of magnitude. torque the may stator be by means is mounted The magnetizes of the the being ends tested. the increase cube would the of the cause speed.e.Eddycurrent mometer dynamometer.
leaving to ensure axial inlet collector through removes the research through passes the opposite a direction rotor air absorbs airbrake to the are the rotation from and After tangential turbine flow direction. bearing. is attached which to designed casing A torque measure of torque. The magnetic attraction between with the currents the rotor. casing. straighteners Therefore. eddyhas in can capability. determine rotor. bearings. a compressor) when windage measuring absorb energy. or airfoil type and discharge airbrake which direction momentum power output. therein. an It dynamometer. type. to the is shown of a throttle collector.A cradled. of the it rotor. an researcher dynamometer. the motorgenerator. thereby. they can often the larger jetengine type when compared to the total be neglected. rotor and the causes sweeping the stator through to cooling to try to turn the stator induce water flowing in does and rotor.RODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE iron stator force of the stator. the from iotor rotor. The and ment casing axial the in gives of an it blading.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AE. driving This the smaller turbine of the tests the frictional turbines. water passages is called dynamometer the coolant ironcore directly onto in series dynamometer shown water rotor. the to give dc the power is also a drygap A wetgap type contact the flows power rotor. frame It can a pump mover unit acts or be the be a is dissipated The because current cylindrical stator connected dc stator used or tluough 1214 used. at testing The a rotor dynamometer the view airbrake with the NASA small of the consists either Airbrake power Center. The from commonly wetgap passages Eddycurrent required dynamometers absorption with (testing of a prime the acts to dynaraometer. airbrake developed for 1215. radial is discharged on the in air arm in an axial torque torque is equal on the for for is cradled loads. versatile to drive the When the the measured torque. The seal. about mometer valve. any figure not the The lines of this energy in the stator. is then friction added losses to the true obtain represent appreciable percentage turbines. the is accelerated in The the tangential the momentum air and. shaft. 371 .hThe that used (25 hp)). After the air enters axial diiection. torque turbine power. and flow straighteners of the air. torque in order the total losses and driving and and to or a reciprocating capability losses the the may permits by it is absorbing as a generator. these output. removing torque turbine torque as a function of speed. airbrake a paddle dynawheel entry of the stator. to measure provides the as well electric most required as to engine). was is extensively in figure is Lewis a type Research of than absorber 19 kW inlet turbines (less A crosssectional a stator. For are generally small hence. (a turbine as a motor. a device output unit turbine during For the it is driving.
TURBINE DE.Airbrake dynamometer.J . J CD1016709 FIGURE 1215. remotely be arm vertically. stator is of the absorb opposite blade imparts type or the for to the direction power case seal of rotation design. these measurement Measurement frictional simply the dynamometer most because very the force. can the driving the the be a direction independent valving measure example. It for can each be noted an outer row. [ \ stator _ _t_tteor r i I _. air I ' il _ t_ 1.I\ air bearings bearingsr. torque of the arm scale the proper regardless observable magnitude telescopes disadvantages available scales of a springbalance (lowpower not have may .I Y_::_.. configuration momentum other rotor used to capability.X.SIGN AND APPL£CATION Thrust Journal Flow tubes_. is not used). of two sections.. is inlet low where direction the with well one stator adapted blade consists to For row can as the momentum rotor._. of can can torque acting horizontal.__"?i straighteners ._:. the drive losses. blade small from and turbine in an This figure inner stator outputs can be the 1215 blade system at used same row that row.... to For paddlewheel turbine the and aiIbrake as was of bearing be obtained used are (It dynamometer. i_:_ 1 x i Throttle valve J _z. pressures. impart rotor in this This permits force scale.'... extremely a stator tangential while case.The measurement Such absorber forces relatively The readily and 372 a scale displacements Because should are small.Jl Inlet collector / /_ . the power indicate remain involved. of rotation tangential of the Thus. dynamometer by a springbalance of scales does force reading been and of the that force the have range. the turbine.
the that applied. wherein gear torquemeter. impractical torque rotative would this on the speed necessitate problem.. that the these indicated be and/or kept because reflecting polished surfaces and source.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Hydrostatic (e. the is impressed in a confined pressure produce Most straingage electrical provide particularly calibrated turbine cells signal torque equipped These calibrated provide an can signal is measure which. component as may capability required arise of the for abbox.. two photocells. torque voltages parallel unit illuminated gap. conventional the To strain mounted The unique through ment. projects each image reflecting a hairline to restore of shaft has must produces condition. or force with devices The the or on the This required a gas fluid. the cradle is higher measurement. must have surfaces to are maintain usually highly accuracy. it. where torquemeter optical measures surfaces Shaft occurrence Optical a shaft system from ination separated A stationary with of induced torquemeter. include interfere torquemeter fiat the on twist reflecting twist of a slit. current load output direct as the fluid the can of operation devices fluid the held is that being greater be with have force becomes in test to either been a liquid used (e. with this fine turbine which operates are on wire function circumvent sorber. a digital appropriate voltmeter. a transmitted encountered measurements. which torquemeter. greater the fluid. mercury) force. is Straingage testing. Both bearings light torque oil mist such The been design operated straingage torquemeters systems provide adequate .An polished optical the of the by on the of the shaft. and is that and to indicated. data electronics. with the air) the fluid. torque.Sometimes.g. on to fluid to measure space. to cloud beam. onto thereupon Photocell of the close tends as a laser for two by successive unbalanced life surface gage absorber. readings. A higher facilitate the under bearings surfaces. A servomechanism the photocells is a measure Experience torquemeter This turbine these may optical torsional may be tile nullbalance twist. nearly equipand consists at each The optical reflection photocells illumrepositions position optical to the the of end. in turbomachinery equipment situation the of an intermediate straingage torque and resistance Readings appropriate short with Problems the and wire a highspeed. the of the type of onto shaft has A bonded slip rings. possibly and twist gearbox intensity accurate load. shaft. pressure of the are The on load principle force to be measured the terms facilities with on digital the The than use the that be used. the con373 of both in difficult. shaft turbine its proportional. This readings for automatic to suitable it is recording. shaft strain power is very are electronic brush the basically surfaces shaft.g. the principle can between property strain brushes.
available. A means with These speed a timer. the and discussed map are usually map of the on the used and 1). work. The the larly sprocket An given currently suited with time and speed proportional the turbine system. to the It is particumethod. of performance of speed of efficiency. operating map for are any in terms nature on means figure. measurements tachometer generator. absorber decelerations ideal taking tends to accelerations accuracy is. when a steady TURBINE The by one performance the characteristics maps. are shown presented shows. for a given method or electronic of teeth counts count of measuring pulse is secured the teeth machines. faster. There available are that other also torquemeters commercially RotativeSpeed One testing to give manent shaft the usually speed. For and called because 1 minute). when pressure for this.SIGN AND APPL]_CATION junction types could of be with used dynamometers. conditions contours inlet of equivalent pressure so that are be readily concept 2 (vol. that turbine for with are testing. therefore. shaft. directly during flow rate an increase as rotative turbine and. It The and in supply to correct within the have data. is to be measured. good correlation. rotative is proportional read measurements. conditions conditions a performance as functions Also and can shown speed The and flow. (usually is through revolution counter for engaging advantageous it simultaneously an rotative chronotachometers. Rotative supply directly to drive there the to somewhat Since mass pressure power to pressure. accuracy air supply the air are tends and of highrotativespeed (or impulses) displays varies varies.TURBINE DE. is the field to its to in can with driven turbine be used a perby the The speed. are average the voltage of the is that magnetic speed remote output simplest of rotative field of which of the indicator and indication and most Measurement accurate The electric Adc Since graduated of speed. speed. conditions of temperature pressure. units a positively is provided are Commercial time driven units. flow The turbine and PERFORMANCE of turbines Such work ratio. generator is a voltmeter is constant. For speed this use of an electromagnetic a given pickup number accurately the counter. tests therefore. for a a turbine speed. a continuous a rotating armature. greater result control provide electronic for most accepted greater disengaging they yield accuracy should in speed be used. of equivalent 374 in chapter .
696 (29. .. the equivalent conditions are w. or no and conveniently shown in the speed rotative Lines of constant included can presented contours a great of efficiency deal a better if some of for completeness.= where rection the subscript eq refers factors are defined as to the equivalent condition.(.q=w _ e _h' (127) ah. case) this is presented the speed.0).4).a (1210) (1211) and ( e%'a 2 "_%._/(. variations pressure map.ta_) (1212) \__t_+ 1/ ( 2 y. map against weight example specific and the out there in ratio performance work the may in is plotted data equivalent be little speed.. 14.. Also. be obtained turbine a range from performance are sections plotted The are not 375 of speed. the Although performance can curves be independently of this information performance ratio in the map. understanding of the presented of pressure of the for obtained parameters following as functions type to be . EquivaK of or pressure 518. where the square of the critical V_r= velocity 2Z_ gRT' 3.133 std molecular refers N/cm to _ or the conditions (288.2 (1.'0 Ps.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE In brief review. An lent flow spreads follow.a/ _=p. The (129) cor o=( V_.o ) _ \Vc_.7 ° R)...q= and 0 (128) N Ne.t1 standard psia). is (1213) The subscript (10. and sealevel temperature specific heat ratio 1216. as will variation constant are be product This in figure of the product in mass pressure are mass to With (total the rotative because. equivalent the discussion flow rate on ratio air Vc.
SO li f/ i  i I _.c. k Ob / 4 / / .]¢.i'l l.0 i/3. pb/@ Efficiency t 90xlO3 39 37 35 85 80 Design equivalent speedand work output IO0 105 084._. ¢wN/8.4 _:__ 4..i. 3 .Y 3.. _wN/6. but were selected to illustrate Flow turbine for (small pressure a singlestage 1217 having was statorthroat a small ratio obtained stagger and speed operwith area).I _'.. 7 "i"l 30 2=.t[..z "E 19 "_ I. /"7>.j1 I LI '> 9 4 5 6 7 8 Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed. d. for the same turbine whose certain map points.6 O 25 _' 23 21 6oh 55[ ..4 _.8 7..e._ i" z_ .._'_7..80U7 1/40 P x. (kg)iradl/sec 2 7 _8 I 9 I 10 I 11 _ 12 I 13 l 14 _L.. 2 31 70i 29 33 _ q701:?_'_S:_._.I. o z..Turbine performance map. with 1218 in figures turbine Figure angle a stator having stagger with obtained .'J5" .q'_/. /'IV" /I/1/7  i 1.. N/%/B Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure._..(/_2_.1 3.. 70... Mass is shown in figure 1216.'T " / ?1 F.t'.Yd.c.._'1.. and angle a Variations are ated stator figure 376 shown with 1218 in two was mass different a large flow 1217 rate and stators..4 4 85 2 42..tA= 2.4:I_' . I 15 16 I 17 I 18 i 19 I 20 lOxlO3 ___L 211xl 04 Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed./.6 / _...TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Percent of design equivalent speed.5<t7h937 _V _5_  3. (Ibl(rpm)/sec FIGURE 1216.o / 2.8 17 15 13 11 u C.
maximum indicates the maxiThis relathe maxi value is reached. same it can the rotor be pressure For was seen both used.Variation of for turbine equivalent with small mass flow statorthroat with area. mum mass is the usual tive mum The turbine. speed. A further increase flow. 1217 total flow In would occurrence flow rate behavior pressure of very with increases with decreasing and is due to an increase decreasing incidence speed. choked In figure of the 1218.4 II0 I l_i 2.o}.4 _ 3. increase in mass that either the In figure mum this mass that value indicates flow the rate rotor 1217. blades the mass were flow a given increases increases until some maximum produces no mass flow is the maxispeed. however..EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE (large identical. __ t 1.5 ' 1.0! 9. The reason for stator or the rotor the has small which flow the stator For is for rate by the in pressure ratio this maximum in choked. 5 I. has turbine.0 1.2 1. for the stator speed. statorthroat by the speed. rotational the which rotor.0 Ratio o1'inlettotal to exittotal pressure.6 I _ i 2. 0_ f_ .5_ 30 31 _ 13. in a decrease case of a with decreasing In some foregoing discussion singlestage in figure of variation a multistage indicate variation shown A flow stator 32 14. the case rotational is influenced is choked.. that ratio cases. ___ 3 i _: _ _spee_ 12.. pb/p_ FIGURE 1217./F E ! _ II.6 3._ I0. totalpressure ratio 377 .%_ .0 1 3. losses ]arge causes rotational speed.8 2.2 o I _ 2. area. a firststage been the for flow the choke. in the rotor inlet cases.8 l 22 t 21 i0. In rate statorthroat and the as both figures area). 5 o o 4o 60 • 24 _ 23! .4 i 1.2 I 3.6 2. of mass that is unaffected is choked.8 I 3.5_ 14.
5 I 1. the rate for the turbine. occurs 3. p_/p_ FIGURE 1218.TURBINE I_EISIGN AND &PPLZCATION 49 48 47 45 = 44 "E 43 "5 42 41 4O 39 17. flow continues of choking about rotor second second pressure to increase. a turbine that es ratio of about the maximum It is.4 1.6 I 1.2. ratio for the type shown blade in figure row.3 I Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure.3 1.2 I 2. of course.0 I 2. is indicated constant For first As first chokes remaining to decrease.9 i 2.Variation turbine of equivalent with large mass flow statorthroat with totalpressure area.1 I 2. ratio any that where (at given blade 1219.5L 1. variation speed) As row the in hub is turbine measurements Such data static shown by the in turbine at choke pressure the while particular the pressure for each ratio static the constunt of a twostage in of increases. then pressure figure pressure 3.2 1. choking To in some downstream exactly between illustrated with blade pressure downstream case stator ratio pressure tablishes 378 illustrated at continues turbine row determine are where this the blade in figure pressure exit choking upstream static in a turbine choking occurred. rows would have 1219. blade row staticpressure to be obtained. ratio the the turbine.7 I 1.8 t 1.7. 1218 either a would rotor indicate or a stator. .
speed.5 I 3. manner ratio in which pressure mass increasing flow velocities pressure to flow decrease At a given absolute increasing increases) a decrease angle in mass becomes a possible . the the rotor torque shown ratio values turning decreases amount positive of torque in inlet varies in in flow velocity The change of absolute radius.5 2.__TCE First stator exit First rotor exit Second stator chokes Second rotor chokes I Second stator exit I I I I I Second rotor exit . 379 is 1).0 I 3.0 2. pb/p_ FIGURE 1219. speed.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMA.i 1. rotor and a given to the This (exit equation with the (29) mass of chapter rate 2 (vol.5 Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure. and with between speed pressure and the in flow higher increased torque the more rate.5 i l 4. a higher high is due turbine (hV_) and tbe rate and ratio. the resulting in the the experimentally indicated vary by directly component any For torque constant with due from rotor. on hub static pressure in a Torque As should tangential and figure creases of with tuining as speed AVu (absolute) in exit for 1220.0 l 4.Effect of turbine totalpressure ratio twostage tu_rbine.
and is indicated ratio work any further increase This phenomenon on a performance to yield In figure reached.. . the 1220 torque shows that to as the level pressure off and in is map ratio reach pressure termed by increases for a given value.4 17 I> 20 40 70 80 90 g _ 0 6o  1500' 1000' 500' 100 110 120 130 o o 1. exit ratio results in no "limiting loading" lines of loading occurs the is.o" 2400 2800 E z _o. the various and These is unity.8 I 4. increments a performance of pressure work.8 2. not a maximuin 1216. Efficiency Another 380 convenient and widely used method of presenting turbine .0 p_IP2 I 5.0N 4000  5500 50O0 4500 /. Figure speed. and is to select for the speeds.8 Ratio of inlettotal FIGURE 1220. additional torque. when of constant the pressure specific the axial The measured performance map ratio converging for each but area has speed. performance be drawn. value limiting that equivalent is being when exit approached annulus Mach mass been turbine loading at the number flow data. Limiting is choked. torque curves usual flow curves just discussed used to can be plotted the from turbine are then procedure and torque construct The mass in constructing at even work.2 I 4. Specific and the ideal specific map can efficiency are then calculated.6 I 3. map.Design point 32OO .3500 C _" 3000 _ __ g 1500 1290 800 4OO E o •_ _ 2500 4OOO Percent of design equivalent speed 0 [] A _7 I_.Variation of equivalent to exitstatic pressure.TURBINE I_E. tends a maximum Above this limit.6 I 5. torque with turbine pressure ratio and speed.4 I 3. .4 I 5.4 1.2 I 2.0 I 3.SIGN AND APPLICATI.
1 1 .6 I .2 I .3 Bladejet I .EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE performance _. I ._h_ where U Ah_ blade ideal meansection specific work J/kg. bladejet parabolically obtained in figure efficiencies are plotted axialflow for a twostage ___ _q <_ 50 _ 30 / / / / / .5 v I . This shown jet speed was discussed in chapter for an mathematically to vary ratio Experimentally idealized case. where For a correlation that speed case. with static 1221 1). which is to plot is given by the efficiency equation as a function of bladejet speed ratio U (1214) _/2gJ.4 speed ratio. based Btu/lb 2 (vol.8 FIGURE 1221.1 Design value I .V_riation of efficiency with bladejet speed ratio. speed. against turbine bladeover a was efficiency shown was m/sec. on ratio ft/sec of inlettotal to exitstatic pressure.7 I . 381 . ratio.
flow we angles should are not as they turbine over performance the turbine understand vary 3O Percent of design equ ivalent speed 2O  80 10 100 0 "0 120 _'_ 10 g 2. especially bladejet Angles considered how Although parameters. the efficiency generalized It should as for where the turbine turbine. at the speed somewhat. conditions to separate limiting loading is approached.TURBINE I)E. ratio manner be noted. only and jet range very are. very a real well that by lower Flow efficiencies bladein as good a 1221 as well shows turbine as for is not correlate correlation figure.SIGN AND A.PPLI.6 I 1. angle with turbine pressure ratio 382 . represented For speed operating lines ratios.Variation of rotor incidence and speed.2 I 2. and Figure to the this higher The very total low than the efficiencies exit velocities.0 I 2. turbine of the not serves for (1 or 2 percent) presented. P_P_t FIOURE 1222. speed of speed slightly and pressure two stages ratio.CATION wide turbine. static that an ideal always tend the for this were because therefore.8 I 2.2o 30 40 50 6O 1 1. however.4 Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure.4 I 1.
which angle as is an important 8 (vol.8 t 1.4 I 1.7 I 1. 2). contributor The the rotor rotor discussed is defined and and chapter incidence inlet over angle. in incidence angle 4 m 16_" A _3 © [] © Percent of design equivalent speed 4O 5O 6O 7O 8O 90 100 8 0 16  o Q_ L.6 I 1. p_/p_. a typical in figure the was relative a range and are the rotor pressure values blade ratio calculated singlestage of speed the resultant defined turbine.0 ] 2.Variation of outlet flow speed.9 I 2. angle with turbine pressure ratio and 383 . angles ponent velocity.3 I 1. of the which in flow entering each blade determines offdesign the incidence losses.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE operating row to conditions. FIGURE 1223. flow as the difference inlet for between angle.5 I 1. 2_ 32  40  48  56 2 1 1. The direction loss.1 Ratio of inlettotal to exittotal pressure. this are presented positive the when same 1222. Flow comblade from the po herein as being vector tangential as be the made over of the The velocity following is in direction can occurs generalized variation observations angle change figure: (1) a large range in incidence (2) the tential operating of a turbine.
gives 2). totalpressure tip regions..(=_ ca.' surface o 0 su rfac/ __ressure One blade pitch FIGURE 1224. majority where layers. "_c_ . the total be noted. generalizations the with pressure incidence Loss in and at one 1224.0  it) _=_ 1.1. ratio loss losses stator. flow angle is important design of whatever component amount of thrust that flow 1223 graph. pressure to made in for and ratio the in figure last being parathat singlestage observed outlet that the incidence speed is in the to the difference flow for rotor Stator Stator means previously totalpressure trailing of such trated affected with the loss is directly in figures survey in the in measurable probe 127 taken figure wake and of a totalpressure shown loss occurs edge loss as shown near by the the survey 128. as with the respect and pressure to the (3) the ratio angle increases and The turbine decreases. region.SIGN AND APPLICATION with rotor pressure incidence ratio speed outlet becomes becomes greater more as speed positive increases.5  Suction / .0r.TURBINE I)E. 384 . totalpressure as described area of one and the to kineticenergy Integration loss for the coefficients in chapter passage perform Once turbine stator 2. angle the direction angle for The also change is plotted the apply opposite same trends in outlet to over may be downstream of the turbine or to the can be obtained from the outlet flow. radius It of can A equipment A typical just composite stator of the The traces be plainly behind as that stator that all such ratio concengreatly loss can endwall circumferential is shown traces in figure hub and endwall critical buildup circumferential yields 1225. The over the contours The terms of total pressure such the seen of many were were pressure the loss full data by and referred only ratio angle. boundary velocity can of the measurements increased flow) and (and increasing boundarylayer be converted 7 (vol.Typical totalpressure loss survey data at blade exit. Outlet a range and angle of speed turbine flow angle.
obtained experimentally.90 >070 to 0.80 to 0.70 >060 to to to to 0.60 to 070 r_> Totalpressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet) 0..70 to 080 _lm >0.90 to 0.98 0 90 to 098 >0. a turbine loss breakdown Surface An important surface profiles part that of the yield blading favorable Velocity design is the selection velocity of the blade surface distributions.80 070 I I 4 L_j (c) (a) ity (c) ity FIGURE Ideal ratio.98 i_ 0. critical veloccritical veloc 1225.Contours ance have been can be made.90 0. Ideal ratio.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Totalpress ure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet_ >0.80 to 090 I_ 0.859.80 to 0.671. aftermix 0. stator annular surveys. of totalpressure ratio critical veloc(d) ity critical veloc(b) ity Ideal ratio.98 0.90 v.512. Totalpressure ratio (bladeex_t 1o Nade inlet) Pressure surface side E::3 >0 98 090 Io 098 0.823. aftermix 0. Ideal ratio. side  (b) Totalpressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet} rI >098 _zza 0. aftermix 0.80 Suction surface . 385 .98 0 90 0.80 0. from (d_ aftermix 0.
6 (a) I I I I . in it is of interest were a blade surfaces blade the whether To measurements previously static distribution the velocity pressure are made along blade the in the surfaces relation discussed With the section on staticpressure from measure distribution can be determined Vc. surface. 2).0 0 . (1215) velocity The disone.8 I 1.. surface __Pressure I_ surface '_ Pressure I . is are Figure 1226 shows the experimentally distributions for two stators tested under tribution Acceleration smooth. vf_'+i[1 L_1L\p_/ ( P']'""'"7"lr" jj determined surface similar conditions. methods 5 (vol. surface distribution velocities velocities along the along were discussed to deteractually surface.TURBINE DE'SIGN AND APPLICATION Analytical chapter mine achieved.. no large (force and flow shown on the in figure the maximum is well 1226(a) velocity (diffusions) distributed along other hand. shows a velocity the suction surface 1.4 0.2 . the obtain for calculating During "designed the velocity in the the test for" surface program.0 _ Suction surface _ ¢''_\ _. 3_.6 I .4 B 1. 386 ././ ' / . distribution accelerates Figure considered 1226(b). _ . on the to be undesirable.8 1.Z/ I •2 _ 0 f_).Experimental surface (b) Undesirable velocity distribution. distributions... velocity There The suction surface decelerations loading on blade) blade. 1226. known. Flow on is considered to the is maintained on either the to be a desirable maximum subsonic.2 Fraction of blade surface length (a) Desirable FIGURE distribution._ r..2 .0 . "0 i .E.4 (b) I . i. staticpressure manner ments.Suction surface >_1.
in with reattachment surface. ASME. WISLER. the Laser Doppler Velocimeter. D. HAROLD J. ASME. 1969.2) velocity.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAIVIIC PERFORMANCE to a supersonic back of the possibly velocity boundary lead because sharp designed. Mar.: Instrumentation Used to Define Performance of Small Size. Nov. 1. 2. W.: Measurement Systems: Application and Design. MOFFITT.j AND MOSSEY. KOFSKEY. layer to separation observed it is followed any separated and valleys peaks with on and Such an the by of the an then associated flow pressure flow. Their of Mechanical 387 . Mar. 5th ed. MILTON. general. 5. McGrawHiU Book Co. AND SCHUM. 1966. is also of (V/Vcr=l. In undergoes increase a rapid causes suction but that surthis would velocity when the a in loss deceleration thickening and face. C.. SAMUEL M. ASME.. acceleration be avoided distributions should are being REFERENCES ERNEST 0. P. AND ROHLIK.. 1959. PUTRAL. HAROLD E.: Some Measurement Problems Encountered When Determining the Performance of Certain Turbine Stator Blades from Total Pressure Surveys. Paper 69GT103. THOMAS P. 1972. is not result blades could to a subsonic a deceleration off the A deceleration as critical. Paper FLUXD METERS: The American Fluid Society Meters. 4. ASME RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON Theory and Application.. PRUST.: Gas Velocity Measurements Within a DOEBELIN. Engineers. HERMAN W.. Compressor Rotor Passage Using 72WA]GT2. Paper 69GT104. Low Power Gas Turbines. 1969. 3.
°R speed. thermal conversion ideal turbine conversion conversion approach rotative absolute absolute blade absolute change tween mass pressure. 8. N/m S. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K.SIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS A C D E g hh_d hh' J K M N P R T U V AVu W area. ratio of specific heat constant volume ratio of turbineinlet pressure defined velocity velocity pressure function of specificheatratio. (124) (sec) 1. Subscripts" an cr by eq. ft/sec of absolute velocity bem/sec. (1212) based based (1210) (1214) on turbineinlet on and standard (1213) ratio of to critical critical defined 3 temperature speed kg/m temperature. pressure. gas constant. annulus critical condition (at Mach 1) eq in std t 0 388 equivalent meter inlet standard meter sealevel throat station at turbine inlet condition measuring . in tangential rotor inlet ft/sec flow rate. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu defined rev/min (o R) (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec of inlettotal 2) to exitstatic on ratio expansion constant. 9/30 factor. kg/sec. rad/sec. ft 2 coefficient m. m2. ft/sec component and exit. J/kg. ft factor 1.TURBINE DE. m/sec.32. constant. flow Nm. meansection gas velocity. lb/ft 2 (K) . J/(kg) temperature. work J/kg. to specific standard m/sec. specific specific discharge diameter. lbft Y F 5' compressibility absolute torque. velocity speed. factor. lb/sec defined by eq. ratio.17 based Btuflb work. Btuflb (rad) (min)/(rev) by eq. lb/ft defined by by eqs. eq. (125) from axial pressure to or (126) deg heat sealevel at measured at constant total direction. constant. squared sealevel bladejet density. angle. 1 .
EXPERIMENTALDETERMINATION OF 1 2 Superscript: ' absolute total state measuring measuring station station at stator at turbine AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE outlet outlet 389 .
t_n_._n.r_'. J.Unlimited . _f _'_ _h_ 2. organic fluids.. engines._ment ` Paperwork 3. a means for selfstudy.l_.S. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U._. Propellantturbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for space craft. Two commonly used cons!stent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. burden oMs _o.. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED I" AGENCY USEONLY(Leaveb/ank) 12" REPORT ATEjune 1994 D 4. AUTHOR(S) A. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. and performance.._c. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT 20. aircraft engines.r_ .t ] _TI "_e'_.S.REPORT r_._r. _. o7o4o188 Form Approved eslrmate ODeratlon% Wa%hington.: . :c. TITLE AND SUBTITLE I SDecial Publication 5. automobile 400 16.._ i T_.. _..'_.r_.._._rmat_on qr% Ser_ S_'nd cP.c. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES N Responsible 4335890. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluiddynamic concepts. Closedcycle turbine using inert gases._ t_l_. NUMBER OF PA_GES engine design.v!. fundamental turbine concepts.1_02.¢. DOCUMENTATION . Airbreathing engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion. rmpl_llnq _. velocity diagrams. !2C.'_tq._.r r_ducln] _ncl _6 _t. Ol S T"iB U TI'0_0 D E' Unclassified Subject . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Lewis Research OH Center 44135 8.._fferson thi% _r_f.. SUBJECT TERMS 15._ ._t?.. and metal fluids have been studied forproviding longduration power for spacecraft.. mechanical design.. etc. 800 Elkridge Landing Road. The course was somewhat rewsed and again presented in 1_7273.... Such apublicaLion can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course. _. Civinskas. oll_ct4_f_ i.rTrOn J'_h_n_on PAGE Of .r_+. operation. or a reference for selected topics.) propulsion power and groundbased electrical power._t_. SPONSORING/MONITORINGAGENCYNAME(S) AND AODRESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Washington. other asDect 1215 Ot ]. PRICE CODE A17 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 19.t. . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT lB. DC 2050]. _h. a course entitled "Turbine Design and Application was presented during ]96869 as part of the ]nhouse Graduate Study Program.._. DC 20546 Space Administration 10. organization code 2760. trains. These are the ST units and the U._. blade aerodynamic design. 12a. Kestutis C. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER NASASP290 11. In view of the turbines_stem interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center. _r_ .. R5666 9.. MD 210902934 Form _INSI 29B _td (Rev Z39_8 2B9) 298 !02 .._. or and ..j*_. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include landvehicle (cars.nl.. turbine engines.._r_r. cooling 17. DISTRIBUTION person..l_.t . Unthicum Heights. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented... _teadquar ind Budeet 22202._ . as well as auxiliary power for aircraft._ _._._n :_f._. _r. ._r. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Cleveland._. (216) / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. r. blade cooling. FUNDING NUMBERS Turbine Design and Application 6.7 Category 13. ABqTRACT (Maxmnum 200 words) NASA turbine driven engines electric trucks. comment_ Directorate Reducteon regarding _ot Prolect the% Information (0104018B). losses. buses.r_ . :. 14. customary units._ '_.in_ _. r_. has an interest in turbines relatedprJrnarily to aeronautics and space applications.Jny _epott_. Glassman 7. customary units and defimn 8 as unity tho_o not required for the ST units. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Unlinlited Standard _rescrloed by Unclassified NSN 7540012805500 Unclassified Unclassified For sale bythe NASACenter for AeroSpace Information.
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