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fracturing, or fracking, to extract natural gas from shale.
The process injects millions of gallons of water, mixed with
sand and chemicals, under high pressure to crack the rock
formation to release natural gas. Much of that water returns
to the surface, along with water from underground, con-
tumínuted víth íruckíng íuíds und other, possíbíy rudíouc-
Private water players can make money on
both ends by seíííng vuter to dríííers und then treutíng the
During 2011, Aqua America and American Water were at
the forefront of the private water utility industry’s push to
exploit fracking’s water needs.
Amerícun \uter, the íurgest pubíícíy truded vuter und
sewer utility in the country,
had “strategic positioning”in
drííííng ureus oí lennsyívuníu, uccordíng to CLC }eíí Sterbu.
He added, “We’re continuing to expand service in the Mar-
cellus Shale region where we have 29 points of intercon-
nection, serving 12 different drilling companies.”
Aquu Amerícu, the second íurgest pubíícíy truded L.S.
was perhaps more aggressive in that arena.
In July 2011 when SmartMoney asked what was on the
company’s radar, CEO Nick DeBenedictis replied, “We’re
íookíng ut probubíy the bíggest thíng to huppen to lennsyí-
vania in the past 30 years, which is the natural gas in the
ln u September 20ll íetter, Deßenedíctís
told stockholders, “We are currently pursuing the growth
opportunítíes províded by the shuíe drííííng índustry, espe-
cially in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale, and focusing on
the ´cíeun vuter' uspects oí the drííííng busíness.¨
Through several multimillion-dollar deals that year, the
company sought to focus its operations and strengthen its
Issue Brief + December 2011
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huíe gus deveíopment creutes u potentíuí muítíbííííon-doííur murket íor vuter suppíy
and treatment services,
the prospect oí vhích couíd be encourugíng some íurge
investor-owned water utilities to support shale gas and downplay its water risks. Certain
water companies suggest that with regulation, shale gas drilling poses no real threat
to vuter quuííty. 1he compuníes' ínuncíuí ínterest ín the shuíe murket, hovever, custs
doubt on the reííubíííty oí thut ussessment. lor the prívute vuter índustry, shuíe gus
deveíopment presents un opportuníty becuuse oí not despíte íts vuter probíems.
Why the Water
position in three states with active shale plays: Pennsylva-
nia, Ohio and Texas.
Although Pennsylvania was a pilot
íor íts busíness modeí, the compuny píunned to expíore
applying it in Texas,
as well as Ohio. DeBenedictis told
the Marion Star that the shale market opportunity in Ohio
was the “icing on the cake” of the company’s planned $120
million purchase of water and sewer systems in the state,
adding, “When drilling starts in earnest in Ohio, I think we
vunt to be posítíoned to be u suppííer.¨
Shilling for the Shale Gas Industry
Aqua America was a vocal supporter of the development
and regulation of shale gas drilling, particularly in Pennsyl-
vuníu. lt vus un ussocíute member oí the Murceííus Shuíe
Couíítíon u group thut udvocutes on behuíí oí the drííí-
und cosponsored un índustry coníerence
called Shale Gas Insight 2011.
Aqua America executives
huve uíso spoken ín íuvor oí shuíe gus drííííng beíore the
Pennsylvania House Democratic Policy Committee and the
Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale Advisory Commission.
“In short, we want to support the efforts to grow an indus-
try thut provídes tremendous economíc beneíts to lenn-
sylvania and critical energy resources for our country,”
DeBenedictis said in his prepared statement to the Pennsyl-
vania Marcellus Shale Advisory Commission, adding that
the compuny vunted ít to be ºdone ríght¨ thut ít vus
American Water’s Pennsylvania arm also tacitly endorsed
the shale gas industry and implied that regulation was suf-
ícíent to protect vuter suppííes.
“As an industry we know
thut Murceííus Shuíe ís u sígníícunt economíc opportuníty
for the Commonwealth,” Kathy Pape, head of Pennsylvania
Amerícun \uter, toíd stute íegísíutors ín Murch 20ll, ºbut
thut economíc opportuníty hus to be buíunced ubout vhut
muy be negutíve ímpucts.¨ She cíurííed, º\e're not suy-
íng thut ut thís poínt ín tíme there ure negutíve ímpucts, but
ve vunt to be sure thut the ¦Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí
Protection] staff is there to enforce the regulations that are
Despíte cíuímíng to shure the pubííc's ºdeep und ¡ustííubíe
envíronmentuí concerns¨ ubout shuíe gus deveíopment,
Aqua America’s DeBenedictis criticized newspaper cover-
uge ubout groundvuter contumínutíon neur drííííng sítes
and downplayed health risks of potential contaminants.
He cíuímed, º\e beííeve thut there ís íov potentíuí íor
adverse impacts on our water supplies from Marcellus
Shuíe drííííng uctívíty ín íurge purt due to ¦the lennsyívuníu
Department of Environmental Protection’s] effective regula-
tions coupled with enforcement.”
Pennsylvania American Water has tacitly expressed a
símííur beííeí ubout the suíety oí drííííng vustevuter. lt
pubíícízed the resuíts oí ºu íuíí buttery oí tests¨ thut ºcon-
írmed¨ thut Murceííus Shuíe drííííng vustevuter hud not
affected the company’s drinking water.
The company did
not actually assess water quality risks of drilling wastewater
but províded u snupshot oí certuín suríuce vuter condí-
tíons. lt tested vuter uíong severuí rívers but díd not specííy
vhether sumpíes vere tuken neur or even dovnstreum
oí treutment píunts thut vere receívíng drííííng vustevu-
ter at the time.
(Cver the prevíous yeur, u number oí íurge
gas drillers had sought to avoid sending their wastewater to
und the number oí píunts ucceptíng drííííng
wastewater fell from 27 to 15.
Nonetheless, some shale gas proponents seized on the
company’s results, inappropriately overstating and general-
ízíng them ín un uttempt to díscredít vuííd concerns ubout
íruckíng's potentíuí to contumínute vuter suppííes. lor
example, the Marcellus Shale Coalition used the results to
attack a widely cited New York Times investigation,
among other things, found that some sewage plants were
not udequuteíy treutíng drííííng vustevuter beíore díschurg-
ing it to surface waters.
During his opening remarks at a
congressíonuí heuríng ubout nuturuí gus deveíopment und
the envíronment, Rep. 1ím Murphy (R-lA) vhose 20l2
eíectíon cumpuígn hus receíved more contríbutíons to dute
from the oil and gas industry than from any other indus-
reíerred to the resuíts us he ruííed uguínst the L.S.
Environmental Protection Agency for inspecting sewage
plants that treated drilling wastewater.
Gas Alliance used the results in a statement denouncing an
American Rivers report,
which found that the Susquehan-
nu Ríver vus the country's most endungered ríver becuuse
of natural gas extraction;
Pennsylvania American Water
did not test water from the Susquehanna River.
The Margins on Contamination
Regulation is often not enough to prevent fracking from
contumínutíng vuter suppííes. lor ínvestor-ovned vuter
utilities, this is not necessarily unfortunate; in fact, it can
uctuuííy be ínuncíuííy revurdíng. \uter contumínutíon cun
necessitate and justify costly treatment plant upgrades that
boost corporute returns. ßecuuse oí hov they ure reguíuted,
ínvestor-ovned vuter utííítíes íncreuse theír proíts by ín-
vestíng ín ínírustructure und by ruísíng rutes.
Water contamination can also create new customers for
vuter compuníes. As Deßenedíctís noted, the ºreusonubíe¨
treatment methods for removing methane from drinking
vuter couíd be ºdííícuít¨ íor smuíí prívute veíís.
fracking pollutes water sources, households and small
water systems that cannot afford to treat their water have to
índ unother vuter suppíy. 1heír oníy uíternutíve muy be to
connect to u vuter system ovned by u prívute utíííty. lor ex-
ample, after natural gas drilling contaminated groundwater
wells in Dimock, Pa., the state agreed to fund a $12 million
project to connect 18 homes in the community to Pennsyl-
vania American Water’s water system.
(As oí December
20ll, the pro¡ect uppeured to be stuííed.)
Hydraulic fracturing requires a “tremendous amount of
water,” in the words of Aqua America’s DeBenedictis.
20ll, L.S. nuturuí gus íruckíng operutíons used un estímut-
ed 80 bííííon guííons oí vuter (see tubíe).
In 2011, DeBenedictis predicted that water usage in the
Marcellus Shale would grow “geometrically” in a year or
To capitalize on this market, Aqua America devel-
oped buík vuter stutíons next to híghvuys vhere trucks
can collect water for gas drillers.
As of 2011, it had eight
site locations: six in Pennsylvania, one in New York and
one in Ohio.
DeBenedictis emphasized frequently that the stations
heíped reduce truck truííc on smuíí-tovn rouds,
cuííed u ºgreut pubííc servíce,¨
but thís eííect, íí unythíng,
is incidental or at least secondary to the company’s pri-
mury ob¡ectíve. Aquu Amerícu píuced the stutíons oíí mu¡or
híghvuys to uppeuí to dríííers by cuttíng theír trunsportu-
º\e've desígned the buík stutíons compíeteíy
around the needs of the Marcellus Shale industry including
technology to track who is taking water and how much they
ure tukíng,¨ Deßenedíctís suíd ín u corporute brochure.
lííííng stutíons ure not the oníy vuy thut the compuny
planned to tap the shale water market.
2011, Aqua America partnered with an energy services
compuny und ínvested Sl2 mííííon to buííd und operute un
18-mile pipeline to supply fresh water to Marcellus Shale
gas producers, including Range Resources Corporation.
According to DeBenedictis, water sales to drillers are un-
reguíuted, so ít ís more proítubíe to seíí vuter to gus dríííers
than to regular customers like households.
the compuny's Murceííus uctívíty to boost suíes by 0.3
percent to 0.4 percent,
vhích vouíd be S2 mííííon to S3
mííííon u yeur, bused on íts 20l0 operutíng revenues.
Duríng the írst huíí oí 20ll, Amerícun \uter soíd ll5
million gallons of water to a dozen gas-drilling companies,
making $702,000 in revenue.
lt soíd vuter ut 29 dístríbu-
mostly through pipeline extensions from its
The company gave gas drillers a major
discount on the price of water. On average, drillers paid 45
percent less than residential customers per 1,000 gallons of
vuter (see tubíe on puge 4).
Pennsylvania American Water’s natural gas drilling com-
pany customers included ALTA Operating Company, LLC;
Cubot Cíí & Cus Corporutíon, Currízo Cíí & Cus, lnc., LCC
Resources, Inc. and Rex Energy Corporation.
lruckíng produces bííííons oí guííons oí contumínuted
wastewater each year.
lor euch íruck, ubout l mííííon
gallons of contaminated water returns to the surface and
must be treuted.
Although projections vary,
Estimated Annual Water Use of Natural Gas Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States
Water Use Per Wells Per Total Water Use
(gallons per year)
Barnett Fayetteville Haynesville Marcellus Average
Shale Shale Shale Shale
New Fractured Gas Wells
(Drilling and Fracturing) 2,700,000 3,060,000 3,700,000 3,880,000 3,335,000 11,400 38,019,000,000
Gas Wells (Fracturing) 2,300,000 2,900,000 2,700,000 3,800,000 2,925,000 14,000 40,950,000,000
Total New and
Existing Gas Wells 78,969,000,000
U.S. Department of Energy. “Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer.” April 2009 at 64.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Addressing Air Emissions from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry: Overview of EPA’s Proposed
New Source Performance Standards and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.” July 28, 2011 at 4.
Total water use = average water use/well * wells /year
analyst predicted that the total market for treating the shale
gus vustevuter vouíd ííkeíy exceed Sl00 bííííon over the
next 40 to 50 years.
This has caught the attention of many
water companies. According to an article in the Wall Street
Journal, “The growing volume of dirty water produced in
shale-gas drilling has triggered a gold rush among water-
“GE is involved, Veolia is involved, Siemens is involved,” an
undisclosed water treatment company executive told Global
Water Intelligence, u vuter índustry pubíícutíon, ubout the
produced water market in the Marcellus Shale. “Most of
the people who are major players in the water industry are
focused on that market.”
Regulations Driving the Treatment Market
Some water companies support strong regulations for the
disposal and treatment of drilling wastewater,
purtíy becuuse stríct reguíutíons vouíd creute u murket
opportuníty íor theír treutment busínesses.
America and American Water stated support of drilling
regulations that they claimed would protect water quality.
1hey both uíso vunted to seíí vustevuter treutment servíces
to gas drillers.
ln August 20ll, Amerícun \uter CLC }eíí Sterbu suíd thut
the compuny ís ºvery deíníteíy íookíng und vorkíng ín the
vustevuter treutment ureu,¨ but decííned to díscíose vhut
the compuny's ºspecííc ínítíutíves¨ vere.
lt seemed to be
vuítíng on reguíutíons, so thut ruíes vouíd be ºset ín stone,¨
in the words of one corporate executive.
America investigated treatment options for drilling wastewa-
ter, íncíudíng u mobííe treutment unít.
stalled its progress,
and in May 2011 DeBenedictis said
thut there stííí vusn't suíícíent demund íor the treutment
process, uddíng, ºßut ve vííí be reudy vhen the demund ís
That demand will come from the expansion of the
shale gas drilling and strict regulation of its wastewater.
ßecuuse oí the ínuncíuí tíes betveen the prívute vuter
utíííty und gus drííííng índustríes, pubííc oíícíuís shouíd
be vury oí reíyíng on prívute vuter compuníes to ussess
hydruuííc íructuríng's eííects on vuter suppííes. Lnreguíuted
sales of water from investor-owned utilities to gas drillers
uíso merít pubííc scrutíny.
1he nutíon's íurgest vuter utíííty corporutíons huve ínuncíuí
ínterests thut bíus them ín íuvor oí shuíe gus deveíopment.
Their endorsement of a regulated shale gas industry should
not be tuken us evídence thut íruckíng ís suíe or thut reguíu-
tíons ure suíícíent to protect vuter suppííes. 1hrough the
sale of water or treatment services to gas drillers, water
compuníes beneít írom the grovth und reguíutíon oí shuíe
Despite the claims of some water corporations, regulation
is not enough to protect water supplies from the dangers of
hydruuííc íructuríng. lruckíng ís exempt írom key íederuí
and often-overwhelmed state regula-
tors primarily oversee the practice.
Both state and federal
reguíutors huve u poor truck record oí protectíng the pubííc
from the impacts of fracking.
Lven íí the íuvs on the books
vere strengthened, íruckíng poses too severe u rísk to pub-
lic and environmental health.
Congress, stute íegísíutors und íocuí governmentuí bodíes
shouíd bun shuíe gus íruckíng.
The Gas Driller Discount: Comparison of Pennsylvania American Water’s Water
Sales to Gas Drillers and Residential Customers
Customer Class Period Volume Sold Revenues Average Charge
(in gallons) (Revenues/Volume)
($ per 1,000 gallons)
First half 2011 115,300,000 $702,000 $6.09
Full year 2010 29,237,005,000 $325,273,489 $11.13
(% less for drillers) 45%
American Water. “Institution Investor Meetings.” August 2011 at 41.
Pennsylvania American Water Company. “Operating Revenues.” Data requirements for the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission.
(Docket Number R-2011-2232243). April 29, 2011 at Vol. 6 FR.II.1.
1 Pickrell, Emily. “Water follows the shale trail.” Global Water Intelligence. Vol. 11,
Iss. 1. January 2010 at 25.
2 L.S. Depurtment oí Lnergy. ºModern Shuíe Cus Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes:
A Primer.” April 2009 at ES- 4, 64, 66 and 70.
3 Amerícun \uter \orks Compuny, lnc. L.S. Securítíes und Lxchunge Commíssíon.
lorm l0-l. lebruury 25, 20ll ut 3.
4 Sterbu, }eíí. ºÇ2 20ll Amerícun \uter \orks Co lnc Lurníngs Coníerence Cuíí
línuí.¨ FD (Fair Disclosure) Wire. August 4, 2011 at 3.
5 Aquu Amerícu, lnc. º20ll Sustuínubíííty Report.¨ Muy 20ll ut 2.
6 Prior, Anna. “CEO Interview: Aqua America.” The Wall Street Journal’s SmartMoney.
July 12, 2011.
7 Deßenedíctís, Níchoíus. Aquu Amerícu, lnc. ºLetter to shurehoíders.¨ September
2011 at 1.
8 Aquu Amerícu, lnc. (lress reíeuse). ºLurgest prívute L.S. vuter utííítíes to exchunge
subsídíuríes, euch nov íurgest ínvestor-ovned vuter utíííty ín respectíve stutes.¨ }uíy
ll, 20ll, ley, leter. ºAquu Amerícu, Amerícun \uter trudes expíuíned by Aquu
CEO.” Philadelphia Business Journal. July 28, 2011; Aqua America, Inc. (Press re-
lease). “Aqua America reports record earnings for second quarter.” August 2, 2011.
9 Deßenedíctís, Níchoíus. ºÇl 20ll Aquu Amerícu lnc Lurníngs Coníerence Cuíí
línuí.¨ FD (Fair Disclosure) Wire. May 6, 2011 at 6.
10 Jarvis, John. “Aqua America, American Water to swap.” The Marion Star. July 12,
ll Murceííus Shuíe Couíítíon. (ßrochure). ºYour Membershíp.¨ August 20ll ut l und 2.
l2 Shuíe Cus lnsíght 20ll Coníerence. Sponsors. Avuííubíe ut http://shalegasinsight.
com/sponsorship/sponsors. Accessed September 2l, 20ll. Cn ííe víth lood &
Water Watch; Marcellus Shale Coalition. “Inaugural shale gas insight conference
híghííghts nutíonuí securíty, economíc, envíronmentuí beneíts oí nuturuí gus.¨
September l2, 20ll.
13 DeBenedictis, Nicholas. Aqua America, Inc. Presentation to the Pennsylvania Mar-
cellus Shale Advisory Commission. May 20, 2011 at 3 and 9; Luitweiler, Preston.
Aqua America, Inc. Testimony on Marcellus Shale. House Democratic Policy Com-
mittee Hearing. House of Representatives. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. June 9,
14 DeBenedictis, May 20, 2011 at 3.
15 Pape, Kathy. Pennsylvania American Water. Testimony on Water and Wastewater
Industries. Consumer Affairs Committee. House of Representatives. Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania. March 2, 2011 at 16 to 17; Pennsylvania American Water. “Penn-
sylvania American Water position on Marcellus Shale drilling.” 2011.
16 Pape at 16.
17 DeBenedictis, May 20, 2011 at 2.
18 Ibid. at 3 to 5.
19 Ibid. at 5.
20 lennsyívuníu Amerícun \uter. (lress reíeuse). ºNo detectubíe íeveís oí rudíoíogícuí
contaminants or volatile organic compounds found at Pennsylvania American Wa-
ter intakes along Allegheny, Clarion and Monongahela Rivers and Two Lick Creek.”
May 16, 2011.
22 Levy, Murc. ºlu. vuter utíííty doesn't índ drííííng poííutíon.¨ Associated Press. May
23 Hopey, Don and Sean D. Hamill. “PA: Marcellus wastewater shouldn’t go to treat-
ment plants.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. April 19, 2011.
24 Murceííus Shuíe Couíítíon. ºNev tests conírm Murceííus deveíopment not ímpuct-
ing Pa. waterways.” May 18, 2011.
25 Lrbínu, lun. ºReguíutíon íux us gus veíís' tuínted vuter híts rívers.¨ The New York
Times. lebruury 26, 20ll.
26 Open Secrets. Congressional Elections: Pennsylvania District 18 Race: 2012 Cycle.
Accessed September 20ll.
27 Murphy, Tim. “The Congressional Natural Gas Caucus convenes a hearing on ‘natu-
ruí gus deveíopment und the envíronment: u stute reguíutor's perspectíve.' línuí.¨
FD (Fair Disclosure) Wire. June 2, 2011.
28 America’s Natural Gas Alliance. (Press release). “ANGA statement on the recent
American Rivers report.” May 18, 2011; Petersen, Laura. “Rivers: Energy sector
threuts híghííghted ín íutest ´endungered' ííst.¨ Lnvíronment und Lnergy lubííshíng's
Land Letter. Vol. 10, Iss. 9. May 19, 2011.
29 American Rivers. “America’s Most Endangered Rivers.” May 2011 at 3.
30 Pennsylvania American Water, May 16, 2011.
3l Averch, Hurvey und Leíund L. }ohnson. ºßehuvíor oí the lírm Lnder Reguíutory
Constraint.” The American Economic Review. Voí. 52, lss. 5. December l962 ut
1053 to 1055 and 1059; American Water. “Institution Investor Meetings.” August
2011 at 13, 34 to 36.
32 DeBenedictis, May 20, 2011 at 3.
33 Hughes, Mutt. ºAmíd drííííng íght, Dímock gets pubííc vuter.¨ The Times Leader.
Cctober l, 20l0, Skrupíts, Líízubeth. ºDrííííng compuníes eye sítes neur vuter
sources.” Citizens Voice. May 3, 2010.
34 DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 5.
35 Ibid. at 7.
36 DeBenedictis, May 20, 2011 at 8.
37 Aqua America. (Brochure). “Aqua Resources makes splash in water supply for
Marcellus shale developers.” 2011.
38 DeBenedictis, May 20, 2011 at 8.
39 DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 3.
40 Aqua America, (Brochure), 2011; DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 5.
41 Aqua America, (Brochure), 2011.
42 DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 6.
43 Penn Virginia Resource Partners, L.P. (Press release). “Aqua America and PVR
Partners announce joint venture private water pipeline in the Marcellus Shale.”
September 20, 20ll.
44 DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 7.
45 Ibid, at 7.
46 Aquu Amerícu, lnc. L.S. Securítíes und Lxchunge Commíssíon. lorm l0-l. lebru-
ary 25, 2011 at 5.
47 American Water. “Institution Investor Meetings.” August 2011 at 41.
48 Ibid. at 41.
49 Sterbu ut 3.
50 Susquehanna River Basin Commission. “Approved Water Sources for Natural Gas
Development.” March 30, 2011.
5l ºlootsteps to the shuíe.¨ American Water Intelligence. Voí. l, lss. l. Cctober 20l0
52 Chernova, Yuliya. “In fracking’s wake.” The Wall Street Journal. September l2, 20ll.
53 Cíobuí \uter lnteííígence. ºlroduced \uter Murket: Cpportunítíes ín the oíí, shuíe
and gas sectors in North America.” March 17, 2011 at 137 to 138; Arnold, Mark.
Çuuntuíc Corporutíon. lresentutíon ut Global Water Intelligence’s American Water
Summít 20l0, \ushíngton, D.C., November 3, 20l0 ut 3.
54 Pickrell at 25.
56 Cíobuí \uter lnteííígence ut l00.
57 Deßenedíctís, Muy 20, 20ll ut 6, lennsyívuníu Amerícun \uter. (Aíert notíícu-
tíon). ºßromíde Aíert Lpdute.¨ Apríí 20, 20ll, lupe ut l6.
58 “Waste not, want not in the Marcellus Shale.” Global Water Intelligence. Vol. 11,
lss. 2. lebruury 20l0 ut 24, ºlountuín Çuuíí píuns íts Murceííus Shuíe conquest.¨
American Water Intelligence. Vol. 2, Iss. 1. January 2011 at 11.
59 DeBenedictis, May 20, 2011 at 6; Pennsylvania American Water, April 20, 2011;
Pape at 16.
60 Sterbu ut l2.
61 Vallejo, Edward. “American Water Works Co Inc at Philadelphia Securities Associa-
tíon íníormutíon íuncheon meetíng ínuí.¨ FD (Fair Disclosure) Wire. April 6,
2011 at 7.
62 DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 6.
63 Deßenedíctís, Níchoíus. ºAquu Amerícu ut Cubeííí & Compuny, lnc ßest ldeus
Coníerence línuí.¨ FD (Fair Disclosure) Wire. December 2, 20l0 ut 7.
64 DeBenedictis, May 6, 2011 at 6.
65 Lrbínu, lun. ºlressure íímíts eííorts to poííce drííííng íor gus.¨ The New York Times.
March 3, 2011; “Lax rules for the natural gas industry.” The New York Times. March
66 }ervís, Ríck. ºCus drííííng íueís u boom und heuíth concerns.¨ USA Today. Decem-
ber l4, 20l0.
67 Lrbínu, March 3, 2011.
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und sustuínubíe. So ve cun uíí en¡oy und trust ín vhut ve eut und drínk, ve heíp peopíe tuke
churge oí vhere theír íood comes írom, keep cíeun, uííordubíe, pubííc tup vuter íovíng íreeíy to
our homes, protect the envíronmentuí quuííty oí oceuns, íorce government to do íts ¡ob protectíng
cítízens, und educute ubout the ímportunce oí keepíng shured resources under pubííc controí.
Copyright © Dcccmbcr 2011 by food & Watcr Watch. All rights reserved. 1hís íssue bríeí cun be víeved or dovníouded ut vvv.íoodundvutervutch.org.
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