Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 1.2.

8 Hyderabad, April 22, 1974

Pradyumna: (leads chanting, etc.) dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ notpādayed yadi ratiṁ śrama eva hi kevalam [SB 1.2.8] Translation: "Duties, or dharma, executed by men, regardless of occupation, are only so much useless labor if they do not provoke attraction for the message of the Supreme Lord." Prabhupāda: dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ notpādayed yadi ratiṁ śrama eva hi kevalam [SB 1.2.8] Dharma (is) generally translated into English as "religion." I have already expl ained several times. The dictionary meaning of religion is "a kind of faith." Bu t actually, dharma means occupational duty, or the characteristic. Just like a s nake. The snake, its religion is to bite, and fatal bite. That is his dharma, oc cupational duty. Everything has got... Just like this microphone, it must work, it must expand the sound. That is its dharma. If it does not expand the sound, i t is useless. So everything you take, there are characteristics. That is the mea ning of dharma. Dharma is not an artificial faith. Faith you can change, but you r occupational duty, you cannot change.

So what is the occupational duty of the living entity? The living entity is now encaged in two kinds of gross and subtle body. Therefore, when he is situated in the bodily concept of life, his dharma is fruitive activities or sense gratific ation. When he is situated on the mental platform, then his occupational duties become speculation, imagination. And when he is situated in his original, spirit ual platform, then his occupational duty is to serve Kṛṣṇa. These are the three positi ons: karma, jñāna, yoga, bhakti—gradual evolution. Because spiritual knowledge also gr adually evolves. Nirviśeṣa-brahman, antaryāmī paramātmā, and ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇa-bhagavān—th ferent stages of self-realization or spiritual advancement. Karma, jñāna, yoga and b hakti. Yoga means bhakti-yoga, or the preliminary, primary stage of bhakti-yoga. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ [Bg. 6.47] There are different types of yogis, but the first-class yogi is he who, now, mad -gatenāntar-ātmanā, Kṛṣṇa says, "who is thinking of Me always," mad-gata, śraddhāvān, with ion, love and faith. Bhajate.

So to think of Kṛṣṇa is also bhajana. There are different process of bhajana. To hear of Kṛṣṇa, that is also bhajana. Just like you are hearing. And to speak about Kṛṣṇa. I am s eaking; you are hearing. Similarly, when the speaking and hearing is finished, t

hen you think of Kṛṣṇa, or by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, you think of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa being a these different processes are also the same, one and the same. There is no diffe rence between chanting and hearing or remembering or worshiping in the temple. Śra vaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanam, arcanam [SB 7.5.23]. The temple worship is cal am. Vandanam, offering prayers. The Christians, the Muhammadans, they offer pray er. Of cou rse, not t o the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but impersonal featu re or some idea. But that prayer is also one of the processes of bhakti. Anyone who accepts the supremacy of God, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, his proces s of worship has to be considered in the category of bhakti-yoga. The more and m ore you become purified by executing the bhakti-yoga process, then you come to t he real platform.

That is stated here, that dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsām [SB 1.2.8]. It doesn't matter what ki d of dharma. Actually dharma is one, the occupational duty, the characteristic. The characteristic means that God is great and we are subordinate. That is the i njunction of the Vedas. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān (Ka 13). We have to understand that singular number. God is singular, nitya, eternal , cetana, living. He is also nitya and living entity, but the chief, nityo nityānāṁ ce tanaś cetanānām. And we are plural number, nityānām, cetanānām. So the... We are plural num , living entities. But He is singular number. Why? What is the difference betwee n these two nityas and two cetanas? God is not dead stone. God is like you and m e. He is a living entity, but the chief living entity, singular number. Just lik e we have got leader. There are many hundreds and thousands of followers, but th ere must be one leader. You follow any cult, you have to accept one leader. Eith er you follow this philosophy, that philosophy, it doesn't matter. But you have to follow a leader. But Kṛṣṇa is the supreme leader, leader of the leaders.

That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjayaḥ [Bg. 7 Leaders there are, gods are, there are. God means controller. There is controlle r always. So there are many gods. Anyone is god, because he is, somehow or other , he is a controller; a leader also. But we are meaning the supreme leader, the supreme controller. That is Kṛṣṇa. Leader you have to accept. But... Controller you ha ve to accept. But nobody is supreme leader or supreme controller. That is Kṛṣṇa. Every leader is also controlled by some other leader. But Kṛṣṇa is such a leader that He is not controlled by any other leader. That is Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, mattaḥ parataraṁ .. [Bg. 7.7]. "There is no one superiorly..." īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ anādir ādir govindaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam [Bs. 5.1]

That is the statement of the Vedic literature: the supreme controller, the supre me leader, is Kṛṣṇa. Sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Kṛṣṇa is not formless. When Kṛṣṇa was present anet, He is not formless. He has His form. And what is that form? Sac-cid-ānanda-v igraha [Bs. 5.1]. Ānandamaya-rasa-vigraha. Ānanda-cinmaya-rasa. That is not this vig raha. That we have to understand. Our vigraha, our form, at the present moment, material form, that is not sac-cid-ānanda. Sat means eternal, cit means full of kn owledge, and ānanda means full of blissfulness.

So as soon as we think of one body, we think comparing with our body. So similar ly, by our foolishness, if we think of Kṛṣṇa's body like one of us, then we become mūḍha. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam [Bg. 9.11]. Because Kṛṣṇa comes in the human for g, therefore we should not take Kṛṣṇa as one of us. Then we become mūḍha, rascal, fools. O r in other words, one who thinks of Kṛṣṇa having a body like us—that is the Māyāvāda philos y—he is a mūḍha. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ [Bg. 7.15]. These are the s avad-gītā. How you can misinterpret? This is plain t hing, that symptom. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino m padyante narādhamāḥ. These are the words used in the Bhagavad-gītā. It is not our manufact ured word. People may be very unhappy or angry, but we have to quote from these

scriptures. These are the... Anyone who does not surrender to Kṛṣṇa, he is within thes e categories.

What are they? First of all duṣkṛtina. Duṣkṛtina means simply engaged in sinful activiti es. Kṛti. Kṛti means meritorious. But duṣkṛti, badly meritorious. They are using their b rain for something atrocious, simply planning how to do harm to others. That is called duṣkṛtina. For his own sense satisfaction he is plan... That is called asura. Āsuraṁ bhāvam āśritāḥ. Asuras, they are simply planning for his own sense gratification. A devotees, they are simply planning how to satisfy Kṛṣṇa's senses. That is the differen ce. How Kṛṣṇa will be satisfied. Both of them are planning, but one is planning for hi s own sense satisfaction and the other is planning how to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa. This is the difference between asura and deva. There are two classes of men: de va and asura. Dvau bhūta- sargau loke 'smin daiva āsura eva ca [Bg. 16.6]. Āsuras tadviparyayaḥ. Viṣṇu-bhaktaḥ smṛto daiva āsuras tad-viparyayaḥ. Those who are devotees of the d, servants of the Lord, they are called deva, or demigods. Āsuras tad-viparyayaḥ. A nd the asuras are just opposite. Just like Hiraṇyakaśipu, Prahlāda, the father and son . Prahlāda is deva because he is devotee of Kṛṣṇa. And Hiraṇyakaśipu, because Prahlāda is d tee of Kṛṣṇa, he's trying to always tease him. Although he is a five-years-old-boy, hi s son, his beloved son, but since he became Kṛṣṇa conscious, he became the enemy of th e asura, Hiraṇyakaśipu. This process is existing from very, very time immemorial, tw o classes.

Therefore to become devotee is sometimes very troublesome, because even the fath er become enemy. This is the position of the devotee. But still, you have to bec ome devotee. That is your success of life. But the warning is there, that as soo n as you become a devotee, you become enemies of so many, especially nowadays. Y ou know that recently I was refused entrance in Africa. The government did not a llow me to enter. What is my fault? Because I am a devotee. This is my fault. So we are meeting so many dangerous position. In Bombay our temple construction ha s been refused by the commissioner of police. Why? Because we chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. They h ave openly written that "The bhajana nuisance." You see? This is our position. B hajana... Kṛṣṇa says, Bhagavān says, that catur-vidhā bhajante mām. This bhajana word is th re. "Four kinds of people can be engaged in bhajana." Who are they? Sukṛtino 'rjun a: "Whose bac kground is very, very pious activities." Now, at present, bhajana is nuisance. Bhajana is stated in the Vedic scripture that it is performed by th e pious man, and now, at the present circumstances, bhajana is nuisance. Satataṁ kīr tayanto māṁ yatantaś ca dṛḍha-vratāḥ [Bg. 9.14]. These are the statements of Vedic scriptur Who is mahātmā? Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ [Bg. 9.13]. Satataṁ kīrtay Bg. 9.14]. These are mahātmās. Nitya-yukta upāsate. But at the present moment... Not a t the present moment. From time immemorial this is going on. As soon as you beco me devotee, as soon as you are inclined to take part in bhajana, you will have s o many enemies. Therefore Caitanya Mahāprabhu has recommended that you tolerate. S till, you cannot give up your bhajana and Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is not possible. T olerate. Tṛṇād api. What is the process of toleration? Yes.

Dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ. Dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ notpādayed yadi ra going daily to the temple, or to the church, or to the mosque, or anywhere, any religious building or institution, if you do not develop your propensity to hear about God, then you have wasted your time. Śrama eva hi kevalam. Going and coming , it is simply labor, that's all. So that is the test. Therefore either in templ e, or in church, in mosque there must be regular recitation on the talks of God. Otherwise people will lose interest, and the churches and temples have to be cl osed. tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā amāninā mānadena kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ [Cc. Ādi 17.31]

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement we are teaching to become sukṛtina, to make his lif e successful by understanding Kṛṣṇa.

Then this verse explains... Dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvaksena-kathāsu yat [SB 1.2.8]. ) Please take the child. So this formula is that you may execute your occupation al duties first class, svanuṣṭhitaḥ, as it is prescribed, very nicely, regularly, fait hfully. You are discharging your occupational duties. But if it does not awaken your dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then it is useless. Śrama eva hi kevalam. Because the human life is meant for awakening Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Our consciousness is now pollu ed. Just like the rain water. As soon as it falls down on the ground, it becomes muddy. Otherwise, the rain water is distilled water, very nice, clear, crystal water. But as soon as it touches the ground, it becomes dirty immediately. Simil arly, originally, we are all Kṛṣṇa conscious because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Mamai a-bhūtaḥ [Bg. 15.7]. Kṛṣṇa says, "All these living entities, they are My part and parcel." Just like the son is the part and parcel of the father, for crude understanding , so we are also similarly part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. mamaivāṁśo jīva-loke jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati [Bg. 15.7] As soon as it comes in touch with this material world, it is contaminated.

The same example: Just like rain water falling from the sky is crystal clear dis tilled water, but as soon as it comes in touch with the ground, it becomes muddy , dirty. So at the present moment our consciousness is dirty. Abhadra. It is sta ted in Bhāgavata in one place, śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ puṇya-śravaṇa-kīrtanaḥ, hṛdy anta . Abhadrāṇi, the dirty things within the heart, hṛdy antaḥ-sthaḥ, within the heart. We hav e got so many dirty things within the heart. Now, how it has grown? Due to our c ontact with the material nature. This is our disease. Another place in the Bhaga vad-gītā it is said, kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgaḥ asya sad-asad-janma-yoniṣu. Sad-asat means nice bo ery abominable body. Y ou may get a very nice body—learned, scholar, beautiful, ve ry aristocratic—or you may take a body of the worm of the stool. You have to chang e your body, and there are 8,400,000 different forms of body.

So why one has taken the body of the worm of stool and why one has taken the bod y of Lord Brahmā or Indra, Candra, Varuṇa or rich man, very nice man, beautiful man? Why? Why these differences of body? Because the kāraṇaṁ guṇa-saṅgo 'sya [Bg. 13.22]. As y ou are associating with the modes of material nature, sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-g uṇa... There are three guṇas. Sattva-guṇa, if you associate with sattva-guṇa, then ūrdhvaṁ acchanti sattva-sthāḥ [Bg. 14.18]. If you remain in sattva-guṇa... Sattva-guṇa means bra hminical qualification. Satyaṁ śamo damas titikṣā ārjavam, jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahmajam [Bg. 18.42]. If you remain on the platform of brahminical qualification, tha t is called sattva-guṇa. And less than that śauryaṁ tejo balaṁ yuddhe cāpalāyanam, kṣatriya alification—that is modes of passion. And others, remaining, they are in the modes of ignorance, do not know what is the value of life, what is next life, what is spiritual realization, why we are suffering. Nothing, no knowledge. That is tam o-guṇa. So, ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthā adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ [Bg. 14.18] This is our position. Therefore there is dharma. In the civilized human society,

there is dharma. Either you take it as characteristic or a faith, but a civiliz ed nation has a kind of dharma, either Christian dharma or Hindu dharma or Muham madan dharma. Anyone. Dharma means some relationship with God. That is dharma. D harmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam... [SB 6.3.19]. That is another definition of dharma: "D arma means to abide by the laws of God." So everyone is trying to abide by the l aws. Mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ sarvaśaḥ pārtha. Sarvaśaḥ pārtha. That is also stated i gavad... Everyone is trying to approach. Here the ultimate injunction is that dh armaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvaksena kathāsu yaḥ[SB 1.2.8]. Viṣvaksena is another name of K

So by executing the process of dharma, if one does not come to the point of unde rstanding Viṣvaksena, or Kṛṣṇa, then what is that? Now, notpādayed ratiṁ yadi. Rati means a tachment. If one is not inclined to hear about Kṛṣṇa after executing his dharma, occup ational duties, whatever he may be... Actually, occupational duty is meant, acco rding to Vedic civilization: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. Brāhmaṇa has got his occupa l duty, kṣatriya has got his occupational duty, vaiśya has got his occupational duty , and śūdra also, occupational duty. So when it is described, dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ, sva mea s "own." So one must be either a brāhmaṇa or a kṣatriya or a vaiśya or a śūdra. Or nowadays one may be a medical man, engineer, or a businessman , or this or that. Everyone has got some occupation. Either you take this way or that way. But it is very s ystematic. When we think in terms of Vedic civilization—the brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra—this is scientific. Because a class of men, very intelligent, very pure, ideal class of men, brāhmaṇa, must be there. That is Vedic civilization. People will see and learn. Because ultimately, human life is meant for elevating to the standard of spirit ual consciousness. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. So unless in the society there is an ideal cla ss of men, brāhmaṇa, how people will learn it? That is necessary. You cannot say, "L et us all become technologists, śūdras, that you can get money for purchasing wine a nd meat." But the ideal life is lost. Ideal life is lost. There must be... Just like if you want to keep your body fit for everything, there must be brain. If y ou say that "There is no need of brain. We simply want legs," so how what is thi s body? A dead body. There must be the head, there must be the hands, there must be the belly, and there must be the legs. So brāhmaṇa is the head of the society, b rain of the society. And the kṣatriyas are the arms of the body. And the vaiśyas, th e belly of the body. The stomach and the belly must be kept in order. If you do not eat, if you do not digest your food, the brain will not also work, hand will not also work.

So for proper upkeep of the human society, there must be a brahminical class, brāh maṇa class, the kṣatriya class. They are all equal because my hand is as much import ant as my brain. But although comparatively my brain is more important than my h and, that is comparative. But you require the brain. So at the present moment, w hy the society is chaotic condition? Because there is no brāhmaṇa. That is the defec t. So society must be divided in the material stage of this brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūd a. And gradually, everyone should be educated to become brāhmaṇa. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. Br hma-bhūtaḥ. Then he will understand what is bhakti. brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām [Bg. 18.54] And when you attain to the stage of bhakti, then your life is successful. This i s the process. Therefore it is said that you may go on with your so-called occupational duties, but if you do not come to the platform of spiritual understanding, then it is śra ma eve hi kevalam—it is simply waste of time. Simply waste of time. Because you do not catch up the ideal of your mission. Simply work like the animals and die. T

he bodily concept of li... Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke [SB 10.84.13]. Simply thi nking that "I am this body, and my only business is to satisfy the senses of the body. Not only my body, but my son's body, my grandson's body, my relative's bo dy." This is going on under different names, Socialism, this "ism," that "ism"—exp anded bodily concept of life. This is animal civilization. Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri -dhātuke [SB 10.84.13]. Because the animal is also doing that. A cat is thinking t hat "I am this body. I must s ecure my food anyway. A mouse, anywhere." A dog is also thinking like that. If human being also thinks like that, then what is the difference between cats and dogs? He may be very much proud that "I am discharg ing my duties very faithfully," but here Bhāgavata says, dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvak thāsu yaḥ, notpādayet: "If you do not develop your Kṛṣṇa consciousness, you are simply wast ng your time." This is the verdict. dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ notpādayed yadi ratiṁ śrama eva hi kevalam [SB 1.2.8]

So our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is simply trying to educate people that "Don't was te your time. Just try to awaken your dormant Kṛṣṇa consciousness." The Kṛṣṇa consciousness is there within you; simply you have to awaken. And what is the process? That aw akening will take place simply by chanting and hearing. Śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte karaye ud aya. There is a verse in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta: nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti sādhya kabhu na a. Kṛṣṇa-bhakti, your devotion for Kṛṣṇa, your attachment for Kṛṣṇa, is there because you a and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Just like a small child. He is... [break]... His problems will b e solved this way... No, that will not be solved. Śrama eva hi. Simply wasting tim e by laboring for nothing. You take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, take to the instruction of Kṛṣṇa as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. The, your economic problems, social problems, political problems—all human society will be solved. It is practical. So if we take it seriously... That is our propaganda. We are requesting not only the Hindus or Indians, but we are requesting everyone all over the world, "Take to this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement and try to understand." We are therefore publish ing so many books. We are very fortunate. I am very glad to inform you that we a re selling our books, not less than forty to fifty thousand rupees daily. So our books are being well received, because in the Western world outside India, they never heard of this idea that God can be approached personally, we can talk wit h Him, we can live with Him, we can play with Him. These new ideas, of course, n ovel to the Western world. Therefore they are taking very careful attention. So why not India? Do not waste your time this way, that way. And the process is ver y simple. The process is very simple. We are recommending the followers of Kṛṣṇa consc iousness... Just now I received one letter from Jaipur. They wanted my guidance. The guidance is not very difficult. It is very simple thing. First of all try t o become sinless: no illicit sex life, no intoxication, no meat-eating, no gambl ing. Observe these four regulative principles and chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra as far as po ssible, at least sixteen rounds. Then see how your life changes. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)

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