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NOOR AZIZAH

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS AND FUNCTION

MOTIVATION:

Trigonometric geometry is very iseful in daily life. It can helpas in determining distance of two points, length/height of tower, height of tree, and position of sailing ship with observation distance towards certain elevation angle. Using this science, complex problems can be made simple.

Draw Simple Trigonometric Function Graphs

To study these trigonometric functions are reminded prerequisite knowledge understands the function. From the understanding developed understanding of the function f is a function of the trigonometric functions on real numbers , for is a trigonometric ratio which has been described before. Examples: a. Function Sine b. Function Cosine c. Function Tangent The graph of trigonometric function, like function sine, cosine, or tangent can be drawn by using unit circle and trigonometric table for extraordinary angles.

**1. Drawing Graphs Using Unit Circle
**

Before you can fully understand the behavior of any sort of function, you have to graph it. In the case of the trig functions, the graph is pretty easy to draw if you look at the unit circle for a while. The strategy is simple: start out at , and follow the unit circle around, watching what the y-coordinate or x-coordinate.

The reffered unit circle is circle with the length of radius q unit and control is point O. From the figure, the formula for trigonometry comparison for angle is as follows.

Kochansky’s Way:

How to draw approaches the value of π.

Draw EF = 3r So that,

The graph of the trigonometric function , for can described as follows.

Aapproaches the value of π ≈ 3,141592635897932384626433832795.

a. The graph of

, for

b. The graph of

, for

c. The graph of

, for

Example

Draw the graph of function Solution: Sin 0o is zero, as you hopefully figured out for yourself by looking at the unit circle last page. Sin 90o is 1. In between, as moves from zero to ninety, the y-coordinate on the unit circle is constantly increasing. So the graph starts out like: , for !

Continuing to follow the unit circle around, as increases to 180o the y-coordinate drops to zero: we're now at the point (-1,0) on the unit circle. As keeps going from there, the y-coordinate doesn't turn around and go back up to one; it keeps going down, reaching -1 when gets to 270o. Then the y-coordinate turns around, and reaches zero again when is 360o; we are now, of course, at exactly the same place on the unit circle that we were at when was 0o. So the full sine graph looks like:

You can keep on going from there around the unit circle, retracing the path around and around; so the graph repeats itself indefinitely.

Check Understanding:

Doing exercises on Exercise 1 on the worksheet individually!

**2. Drawing Graphs Using Extraordinary Angles
**

Other than utilizing unit circles, function graphs for sines, cosine, and tangent can also be drawn by initially making a table for function values for extraordianry angles. In additon, to draw a graph of trigonometric function, it is necessary to take notice of the trigonometry function value of the extraordinary angles. By subsituting the extraordinary angles, the graph of the trigonometric function , for can described as follows.

Example

Draw the graph of function Solution: , for !

**The values of table.
**

F(x)

Cos x

**for extraordinary angles are shown in the following
**

60o

1/2

0o

1

30o

1/2

90o

0

120o

-1/2

150o

1/2

180o

-1

210o

1/2

240o

-1/2

270o

0

300o

1/2

330o

1/2

360o

1

From the table, the point pairs of (x, f(x)) or (x,y), which are (0o,0), (30o, 1/2 ), (60o, o o o o o oo o ½), (90 ,0), (120 , -1/2), (150 , -1/2 ), (180 ,-1), (210 , -1/2 ), (240 ,0), (300 ,1/2), (330 , 1/2 ), and o (360 ,1). Further, the pairs of the point are drawn in Cartesian coordianate by smooth curve so that the graph of function , for is obtained.

Check Understanding:

Doing exercises on Exercise 1 on the worksheet individually!

**3. Amplitude, Period, and Phase Shift Amplitude
**

How do the function and compare with the function ? We will make a table of values and sketch the curves. In the following tables, approximate values of irrationa values of the sine function are used.

When we use these values to sketch the curves , we see that the vertical direction and is the function is the function

,

, and stretched in compressed

in the vertical direction as expected. For , the maximum function value is 1 and the minimum function values is -1. For , the maximum function values is 2 and the minimum funtion values is -2. For , the maximum function values is ½ and the minimum funtion values is -1/2. For the function , the maximum function values is |a| and the minimum funtion values is -|a|.

For the function , the maximum function values is |a| and the minimum funtion values is -|a|. The amplitude of periodic function is the absolute value of one-half the difference between the maximumand minimum een the maximumand minimum y-values. For For For In general: For the function and , the amplitude is , the amplitude is , the amplitude is , the amplitude is . . .

Period

The function is the function stretched or compressed by a factor a in the horizontal direction. Compare the graphs of , , and . Consider the maximum, zero, and minimum . values of y for one cycle of the graph of

The graph shows the functions

(---),

(---), and is the

(---) in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 4π. The graph of

graph of The graph of

compressed by the factor ½ in the horizontal direction. is the graph of stretched by the factor 2

in the horizontal direction. For , there is one complete cycle in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π. For , there is one complete cycle in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ π. For 4π. The difference between the x-coordinates of the endpoints of the interval for one cycle of the graph is the period of the graph. The period of The period of The period of In general: The period of and is . is 2π. is π. is 4π. , there is one complete cycle in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤

Phase Shift

The graph of is the graph of moved |c| units to the right when c is negative or |c| units to the left when c is possitive. The horizontal of a trigonometric function is called a phase sift. Compare the graph of and

the graph of

.

The graph of

is the graph of

moved π/2 units to the left.

Check Understanding:

Doing exercises on Exercise 3 on the worksheet individually!

**4. Sketch Graph Using Software
**

In addition to the above two ways, there are also other ways to draw a graph trigonometry, using software, such as MAPLE. This method can provide its own motivation for students. Spiral Archimedes: for as a constanta.

Spiral Logaritmic

,

a constanta

Cardioda:

, a contant and 0 ≤

≤ 2π

Limason:

, a,b constant and 0 ≤

≤ 2π

Check Understanding:

Try practicing these functions on your computer at home, are you able to get similar results to the picture above!

Competen Competence Test:

1. Choose the graph of

, for - 2π ≤ x ≤ 2π.

a.

c.

b. d. 2. Which of the following is True for the function y = cos x? a. Even function c. Odd and even function b. Odd funtion d. Cannot be determined 3. Choose the graph of , for 2π ≤ x ≤ 2π.

a.

c.

b. d. 4. For what value of the following the function y = - 8 sec x is undefined? a. 41/4 π c. 31/3 π b. 21/2 π d. 11 π 5. What is the period of the function y = - 5/4 sec 20x ? a. 1/20 π c. 10π b. 20/π d. 1/10 π

6. Given the following graph, aanser question a-g.!

a. Indicate a cycle on this graph by using trick marks (or any other method) to indicate the beginning and end of the cycle. b. What is the period of this function? c. What is the frequency of this function? d. What is the amplutude of this function? e. Which of the following equations must be associated with the above graph?

f. Is this an even or an odd function? g. What is the range of this function? 7. Sketch the graph of y = - sec 2x for .

8. Sketch the graph of y = 1 2csc x, for - 2π ≤ x ≤ 2π, and find its period and amplitude! 9. Sketch the graph of , a is constant and 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π by using Software!

10. Suppose Tarzan is swinging back and forth on his grapevine. As he swings, he goes back and forth over the river bank, hovering alternately over land and water. Jane decides to mathematically model his motion and starts her stopwatch. Let t be the number of second the stopwatch reads and let y be the number of meters Tarzan is from the riverbank (not his height). Assume that y varies sinusoidally with t and that y is positive when Tarzan is over water and negative when Tarzan is over land. Jane finds that at 2 seconds, Tarzan is at one end of his swing 23 feet from the riverbank over land. At 5 seconds, Tarzan is at the other end of his swing 17 feet from the riverbank over water. Generate the equation that represents Tarzan’s swing model

Prove Simple Trigonometric Identity

1. Basic Identities

You will recall that an identity is a statement which is always true. In contrast, an equation is a statement which is only true for certain values of the variables involved. For example, Are equations; they are only true for certain values of x. is an identity; it is true no matter what x and y are. We already know some identities. Some are definitions. Other have been proven. We begin by listing all the identities we should know.

Pythagorean Identities 1. 2. 3. Reciprocal Identities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Reciprocal Identities 1. 2. 3.

–

Confuction Identities 1. 2. We already proven all these identities, except the conjuction identities. We have already mentioned them when we studied tranformations of the graphs of sine and cosine. These identities will be used as our starting point for proving more identities. Before we do this, you may have already asked yourself: what are identities used for? One answer is the that learning how to prove identities is a good exercise for the brain. But identities are useful for other reasons. Very often, identities allow you to simplify expressions. The simpler an expression is, the easier it is to work with. Identities are also used in solving trigonometric equations.

Example

Use the basic identities to show that side of the equation is defined. Solution: Each of the functions in the given equation can be written in terms of , , or both. and for all values of x for which each

1. Use the basic identities to write each side of the identity in terms of .

2. Divide a numerator and a denominator of the left side of the equation by

:

Note: if csc x is defined,

Discussion:

Consider again the trigonometric ratio of the material below, try to discuss the using of the ratios in proving the basic identities! Doing the Exercise 1 on worksheet!

2. Proving an Identity

The eight basic identities are used to prove other identities. To prove an identity means to show that the two sides of the equation are always equivalent. It is generally more efficient to work with the morw complicates side of the identity and show, bynusing the basic identities and algbraic principles, that the two sides are the same.

Example 1

Prove that is an identity. a. Sum and Differenc e Identities Solution: Write the left side of the equation in terms of and .

1

Proof begins with what is known and proceeds to what is to be proved. Although we have written the proof in Example by starting with what is to be proved and ending with what is obviously true, the proof of thihs identity really begins with the obviously true statement.

**Example 2 1 Prove the identity
**

Solution: For this identity, it appears that we need to multiply both sides of the equation by to clear the denominator. However, in proving an identity we perform only operations that change the form but not the value of the side of the equation. .

Continue the completion of these examples!

Discussion:

Is an identity? Explain why or why not? undefined? For what values of x is the identity

3. Other Identities

Sum and Difference Identities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Double and Half-Angle identities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Discussion:

Discuss with your friends to prove the above identities!

Competen Competence Test:

1. Knowing that , calculate the remaining trigonometrios of angle x. 2. By determining trigonometric ratios values of extraordinary angles, prove the following statements. a. b. c. 3. We have a. b. c. 4. Use the pythagorean identities to write: a. in terms of b. in terms of 5. Prove the identities: a. b. c. d. and , where x and y are acute angles.

Determine the following values.

Siswanto. 2009. Theory and Application of Mathematics. Solo: Tiga Serangkai. Laval, Philippe B. Trigonometric Identities. Kennesaw State University. http://www.intmath.com http://www.purplemath.com http://www.analyzemath.com/unitcircle/unitcircle.html http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/trig-graphs.html http://roslynschools.org/schools/amsco/algebra2/Chapter12.pdf http://roslynschools.org/schools/amsco/algebra2/Chapter11.pdf http://www.belajar-matematika.com

Draw Simple Trigonometric Function Graphs

Prove Simple Trigonometric Identity

1). b (Graph 3) 3). c (Graph 1) 5). d (-1/10 π) 7). Make a table of values for ordered pairs of the form (x, - sec 2x). Plot the points and connect them with a smooth curve. Draw dashed vertical lines at the points where the function y = - sec 2x is not defined. Notice that the function repeats at intervals of π units . Therefore, the period of y = - sec 2x is π. The function increases without bound over each interval, so the amplitude is not defined. 9).

1). First quadrant:

Second quadrant? 3). a (117/44) b (452/576) c (75/125) 5). a (proven) b (proven) c (proven) d (proven)

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