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SOFTWARE PRODUCTIVITY CONSORTIUM

Integrating Six Sigma


and the CMMI

David N. Card

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Topics

• Background
• Six Sigma and the CMMI
• Design for Six Sigma and Software
Development
• Putting It All Together
• Challenges

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Background

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Problem Statement

• Adoption of Six Sigma is increasing among


Member Companies who already employ
CMM/CMMI-based software process
improvement.
• They are superficially different approaches:
– Different language and terminology
– Different consultants
– Different professional societies
• Does Six Sigma obviate CMM-based process
improvement?
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Some Historical Influences

Shewhart
SPC
Six Sigma

Fisher
DOE
Crosby
COQA CMMI

Paulk
CMM

Humphrey
Box
85Qs
EVOP

1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000

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Six Sigma and CMMI

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Quality Management Maturity Grid

CMM/CMMI Translate the QMMG into


the Software and Systems Domains

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What’s Six Sigma?
Spec. Limits

• Another quality slogan, for many


σ

• A business-focused philosophy
based on statistical thinking
Performance Measure
• A goal for process capability
– Very small probability of unacceptable result (approximately 3
defects in a million to 2 defects in a billion)
– Only arrived at by understanding and managing process
performance
– Usually only meaningful for a process element or activity
• An integrated set of established techniques including
statistical process control, design of experiments, quality
function deployment, benchmarking, etc.
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σ on Benchmarking

• Essential to becoming “best in class”


• Typically need to benchmark with many
different organizations to cover all processes
• Can be done via literature searches
• Should be a continuing activity
• CMM provides synthetic benchmark of best
practices for software engineering

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Control Charts Provide a Useful
View of Many Processes

Inspections of State Transition Diagrams

Upper Limit

Center
Actuals

From D.Card, Controlling the Object-Oriented Design Process, CNRC Conference on


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Quality Assurance of Object-Oriented Software, February 2000 PRODUCTIVITY
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Significant Differences
Six Sigma CMM/CMMI
Assumes processes have been Focus on defining management and
identified and defined technical processes early
Doesn’t distinguish organizational Organizational process definition
standard and project processes used to capture best practices
Emphasis on training to motivate Emphasis on infrastructure to
and communicate skills ensure key processes addressed
Reliance on statistical methods to Statistical approach intended often
manage performance not implemented
Focus on learning from internal Additional mechanisms to leverage
experience and data external technology
Prioritization of efforts based on Link to strategic planning weak and
business payoff often ignored
Certification of individual Certification of assessors and
practitioners, not organizations organizations, not practitioners
David N. Card, Sorting Out Six Sigma and the CMM, IEEE Software, July 2000 SOFTWARE
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Practical Implications
• Adopting a Statistical Process Control-based
approach to Level 4 facilitates the transition to Six
Sigma
• Six Sigma is difficult for Level 1 organizations to
implement
• Six Sigma provides an alternative (not a short cut) to
pursuing Level 5 for Level 3 organizations seeking to
instill continuous improvement
• Incorporating Six Sigma techniques helps
organizations working towards Level 4 and 5 to
deliver the best business results
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Design for Six Sigma and Software
Development

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Design for Six Sigma

• Moving past five sigma often requires


redesigning processes and products
• Two strategies commonly applied:
– Use standardized and proven parts (i.e., reuse
and COTS)
– Minimize complexity in process (e.g., fewer steps)
and product (i.e., increase producibility)
• Implies concurrent design of process and
product (e.g., tailoring of organizational
process)
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Traditional Manufacturing Context

Design Design Execute


Product Process Process

Product Process Deliverable


Design Design Products

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Typical DFSS Context
DFSS
(Process)

Design Six Sigma


Process

Process
Design

Deliverable
Execute
Design Products
Process
Product

Product
Design

DFSS
(Product)
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Two Related Objectives

• Design the process from the start to achieve


Six Sigma
• Design the product to facilitate the process –
minimize breakage during production
 DFSS is not a software development
methodology, but its concepts and techniques
can be incorporated into one!

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Producibility in Software

9
10

8 B A
G
7
H F
6

5
C
Defects 4
E
Per D
KSLOC 3 r = 0.83
p(r = 0) < 0.02
2

25 30 35
Design Complexity
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From D.N. Card, Measuring Software Design Quality, Prentice Hall, 1990 PRODUCTIVITY
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Putting It All Together

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There’s No Easy Answer!

• Which software development approach


should I adopt?
– CMM/CMMI
– Extreme Programming
– Iterative Development
– DFSS
– Etc.
• Processes (methods, tools, people) provide
competitive advantage – have to be adapted
to the organization
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Key Concepts for Integration

• Each paradigm addresses a different issue


• CMM/CMMI describe what must be done, not
how to do it
• Six Sigma and DFSS provide generally
applicable techniques
• Software and systems development
methodologies define the detailed “problem
appropriate” steps to accomplishing work

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First Step Towards Integration
Six Sigma DFSS
(Process) Support

Process Engineering
Audits, etc.
Management Extreme
Programming, etc.
DFSS
(Product)

Software
System Product
Design
System
Product
Project Earned Manufacturing
Management Value, etc. (May be just
duplication)
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Six Sigma in Support Processes
Regression
These are not all the possibilities… Analysis is a
EMEA is a mechanism for
mechanis CAR
m for CAR

Control Chart
Pugh Matrix is is a
a mechanism mechanism for
for DA&R M&A.
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Six Sigma in Project Management

These are not all the possibilities…


Control Chart
is a mechanism
for OPM.

Control Chart
is a mechanism
PM&C.
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Six Sigma in Process Management
Deployment Flow
Chart is a These are not all the possibilities…
mechanism for OPF
and OPD.

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Six Sigma in Engineering
These are not all the possibilities…

Quality Function
Deployment can be
a mechanism for
RM, RD, and TS.

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Challenges

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Common Problems

• Adoption of Statistical Thinking


• Statistical Issues
• Conceptual Models
• Focus on the score
– CMM Level
– “Sigma” rating
• Reluctance to recognize (and measure) the
magnitude of software rework (Typically 30-
50%)
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Adoption of Statistical Thinking
• Ambiguous use of “obvious” measurement
terms
• Unfamiliarity of statistical terms, concepts,
and techniques
• Lack of good engineering process data
– Length of time it takes to produce data
– Difficulty in performing and scaling experiments
• “Desire for Perfection”
– Convenient excuse for resisters
– Overload produced by enthusiasts
• Lack of software-oriented statistics training
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Conceptual Models
• Design of Experiments
– C. 1900 (agriculture)
– Multiple trials following experimental design
– Extraneous factors eliminated
• Evolutionary Operation
– C. 1950 (chemical processes)
– Systematic variation of key parameters
– Normal operational conditions
• Statistical process control (c. 1920,
manufacturing) accompanies both
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Statistical Issues

• Distributional and data concerns


– Control Charts:
XR chart (typical for manufacturing)
XmR and U charts
– ANOVA and Regression
Parametric (based on normal distribution)
Nonparametric and distribution-free analyses
• Elaborated versus assembled product

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Summary

• Six Sigma and CMM/CMMI-based process


improvement are complementary:
– Six Sigma strengthens analysis capabilities
– CMM provides organizational structure
• Six Sigma provides a new package for existing
quality and statistical techniques
• Successful integration of these techniques requires
expertise beyond just “assessing”
• Limited research in addressing the issues that limit
the application of Six Sigma to software and systems
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