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Ra

Ra

unarske mre
unarske mre

e i
e i
komunikacije
komunikacije
(laboratorijske vje (laboratorijske vje be) be)
Dejan Abazovi Dejan Abazovi
e e- -Mail: dejoa@ac.me Mail: dejoa@ac.me
Plan i program
Plan i program
Ukupno 24 kolska asa
4 vjebe po 6 asova
Zadnja dva asa, u ciklusu od 6,
testiranje-samostalan rad
Prisustvovanje obavezno
Ra
Ra

unarske mre
unarske mre

e
e
- - Tipovi ra Tipovi ra unarskih mre unarskih mre a a
LAN - Local Area Network
(manji prostori, tipino zgrada i sl.)
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
(vie LAN-ova, npr. na teritoriji grada ili sl.)
WAN - Wide Area Network
(geografski udaljena podruja)
- - Kategorije ra Kategorije ra unarskih mre unarskih mre a a
Server based
Peer-to-peer
Principi funkcionisanja
Principi funkcionisanja
ra
ra

unarskih mreza
unarskih mreza
Circuit Switching Circuit Switching (komutacija kola) (komutacija kola) - - uspostavljanje fizikog kola sa
rezervisanim propusnim opsegom (POTS - Plain Old Telephone
Service ili Post Office Telephone System)
In telecommunications, a circuit switching network is one that establishes a fixed bandwidth
circuit (or channel) between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate, as if the
nodes were physically connected with an electrical circuit. The bit delay is constant during the
connection, as opposed to packet switching, where packet queues may cause varying delay.
Packet Switching Packet Switching (komutacija paketa) (komutacija paketa) - - nema fizike trajne komunikacije
izmedju krajeva i svaki paket moe da ide i razliitim putem (WAN)
Packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (discrete blocks of data) are
routed between nodes over data links shared with other traffic. In each network node, packets are
queued or buffered, resulting in variable delay. This contrasts with the other principal paradigm,
circuit switching, which sets up a limited number of constant bit rate and constant delay
connections between nodes for their exclusive use for the duration of the communication.
Mre
Mre

ne topologija
ne topologija
Bus
Prsten i dvostruki prste (Dual Ring)
Star - topologija zvijezde
Extended star - proirena zvijezda
Topologija drveta
Mesh
Neregularna topologija
elijska topologija
n(n-1)/2
OSI referentni model
OSI referentni model
Open System Interconnection
You should be familiar with the OSI model,
because it is the most widely used method
for talking about network communications.
The OSI model:
Provides a standard for hardware
development
Allows for modular software development
Speeds development of new technology
Konektor RJ
Konektor RJ
-
-
45, uti
45, uti

nice i
nice i
Patch panel (UTP i STP)
Patch panel (UTP i STP)
Topology
Physical topologies--bus, star, cascading star
Logical topology--bus (physical bus, logical bus; physical star, logical bus), star (physical star, logical star)
Media
Access
Method
1.CSMA/CD--Carrier Sense, Multiple Access/Collision Detection (contention). Devices use the following process to
send data. Because all devices have equal access to the transmission media (multiple access), a device with data
to send first listens to the transmission medium to determine if it is free (carrier sense).
2.If it is not free, the device waits a random time and listens again to the transmission medium. When it is free, the
device transmits its message.
3.If two devices transmit at the same time, a collision occurs. The sending devices detect the collision (collision
detection) and send a jam signal.
4.Both devices wait a random length of time before attempting to resend the original message (called backoff).
Transmissi
on Media
Thick coaxial, thin coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic
The most common Ethernet implementations use unshielded twisted-pair cables (UTP). Each cable consists of
eight wires, twisted into four pairs. UTP cables are classified by categories: Cat3, rated up to 10 Mbps
Cat4, rated up to 16 Mbps
Cat5, rated up to 100 Mbps
Cat5e, rated up to 1,000 Mbps (gigabit)
UTP cables are connected with RJ-45 connectors.
Frame
Type
Frame size = 64 to 1518 bytes (this is the same for all Ethernet standards)
Four frame types are supported: Ethernet 802.3--This frame type is the original Ethernet frame type.
Ethernet 802.2--This frame type accommodates standards set by the IEEE 802.2 committee related to the logical
link control (LLC) sublayer. It is a more current frame type than 802.3.
Ethernet II--This frame type provides the ability to use TCP/IP as a transport/network layer protocol. Other
Ethernet frame types operate strictly with IPX/SPX as a transport/network layer protocol.
Ethernet SNAP--This frame type (SubNetwork Address Protocol) is an enhanced version of Ethernet 802.2 that
allows for greater compatibility with other network architectures such as Token Ring. This frame type also supports
TCP/IP.
Physical
Address
The MAC address (also called the burned-in address) is used as the Data Link layer physical device address. The
MAC address is a 12-digit hexadecimal number. Each digit ranges from 0-9 or A-F.
The MAC address FFFFFFFFFFFF is the broadcast address. Packets addressed to the broadcast address will be
processed by all devices.
Ethernet Architecture Facts Ethernet Architecture Facts
Category Standard Bandwidth Cable Type Maximum Segment Length
Ethernet Ethernet
10Base5 10 Mbps Coaxial (thicknet) 500 meters
10Base2 10 Mbps Coaxial (thinnet) 185 meters
10BaseT
10 Mbps (half duplex)
20 Mbps (full duplex)
Twisted pair (Cat3, 4, or
5)
100 meters
Fast Ethernet Fast Ethernet
100BaseTX
100 Mbps (half duplex)
200 Mbps (full duplex)
Twisted pair (Cat5) 100 meters
100BaseT4
100 Mbps (half duplex)
200 Mbps (full duplex)
Twisted pair (Cat5) 100 meters
100BaseFX
100 Mbps (half duplex)
200 Mbps (full duplex)
Fiber optic
412 meters (half duplex
multimode cable)
2,000 meters (full duplex
singlemode cable)
Gigabit Gigabit
Ethernet Ethernet
1000BaseSX
(short)
1,000 Mbps (half duplex)
2,000 Mbps (full duplex)
Fiber optic
220 to 550 meters depending on
cable quality
1000BaseLX (long)
1,000 Mbps (half duplex)
2,000 Mbps (full duplex)
Fiber optic
550 to 5,000 meters depending
on cable quality
1000BaseCX (short
copper)
1,000 Mbps (half duplex)
2,000 Mbps (full duplex)
Special copper
25 meters, used within wiring
closets
1000BaseT
1,000 Mbps (half duplex)
2,000 Mbps (full duplex)
Twisted pair (Cat5e) 100 meters
Ethernet Standards Ethernet Standards
Bandwidth - jedinica informacije (bit) u jedinici vremena
sekunda), bps (brzina toka, irina propusnog
opsega)
Bandwidth - jedinica informacije (bit) u jedinici
vremena (sekunda), bps (brzina toka, irina
propusnog opsega)
Bandwidth
Bandwidth
Primjeri b
Primjeri b
andwidth
andwidth
-
-
a
a
i du
i du

ine
ine
za
za
ra
ra
zli
zli

ite tipove medijuma


ite tipove medijuma
T Tip medijuma ip medijuma
Max. Max.
Teoret Teoretski skiBandwidth Bandwidth
Max. Max. fizi fizic cko ko
rastojanje rastojanje
50 50- -Ohm Ohm co coaxial cable axial cable 10 Mbps 10 Mbps 185m 185m
75 75- -Ohm coaxial cable Ohm coaxial cable 10 10- -100 Mbps 100 Mbps 500m 500m
CAT5 UTP CAT5 UTP, STP , STP 10 Mbps 10 Mbps 100m 100m
CAT 5 (Fast Ethernet) CAT 5 (Fast Ethernet) 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 100m 100m
Multimode Fiber Multimode Fiber 100 Mbps 100 Mbps 2000m 2000m
Singlemode Fiber Singlemode Fiber 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) 3000m 3000m
Wireless Wireless 11 Mbps 11 Mbps Nekoliko stotina metara Nekoliko stotina metara
Throughput
Throughput
-
-
protok
protok
Odnosi se na stvarni izmjereni bandwidth
u odredjenom dobu dana i upotrebom
odredjenih Internet ruta pri prenosu
odredejnog fajla
Glavni faktor u analizi mrenih
performansi
Bandwidth
Bandwidth
i
i
Throughput
Throughput
Faktori koji utiu na irinu propusnog opsega i protoka:
mreni uredjaji
tip podataka koji se prenosi
topologija mree
broj korisnika
korisniki raunar i tip servera
zaguenje mrenog saobraaja
Mre
Mre

ni uredjaji
ni uredjaji
Host mreni uredjaj direktno povezan na
mreni segment
printer, raunar, server, FAX, razni tipovi mreni
komunikacionih uredjaja i sl.
LAN adapter
Komunicira sa
mreom preko serijske
konekcije a sa
raunarom preko
paralelne konekcije
Zahtjevaju IRQ i I/O
adresu
Mre
Mre

ni adapter
ni adapter
-
-
NIC
NIC
network interface card
network interface card
LAN
LAN
uredjaji u razli
uredjaji u razli

itim
itim
topologijama
topologijama
Hub
Hub
Regenerie signal
Koristi se kao mjesto
koncetracije
Ne filtrira saobraaj
Ne definie put
podacima
Naziva se i multiport
repeater
Switch
Switch
Koriste se kao mjesto
koncentracije
Kombinuju konektivnost
HUB-a i mogunost
regulacije bridge-a
Obezbjedjuju odvojene
puteve za podatke
Ruter
Ruter
i
i
Uredjaji za regulisanje toka saobraaja u velikim
mreama
Donose odluke na osnovu mrenih adresa
Rade sa paketima (Layer 3 data), odabiraju
najpovoljniji put za podatke
Dvije glavne funkcija: odabir puta i
preusmjeravanje paketa ka najboljoj ruti
Tok podataka kroz LAN
Tok podataka kroz LAN
Gornja tri sloja pripremaju
podatke za prenos kreirajui
prikladan format za prenos
Transportni sloj kreira
upracljave jedinice podataka
koje se zovu segmenti
Identifikuje segmente sa
brojem sekvence -sequence
number.
Mreni sloj enkapsulira segmente
u pakete. Mreni sloj dodaje
odredinu i izvorinu adresu,
obino IP, svakom paketu.
Data link sloj dalje enkapsulira
pakete u okvir (frame) i
identifikuje ih sa izvorinom i
odredinom MAC adresom.
Tok podataka kroz LAN
Tok podataka kroz LAN
Fiziki sloj prenosi bitove.
Tok podataka kroz LAN
Tok podataka kroz LAN
Pasivni uredjaji - bitovi jednostavno prolaze kroz
takve uredjaje.
Aktivni uredjaji - obavlja se regeneracija
Uredjaji sa fizikog nivoa ne analiziraju header-e
enkapsuliranih podataka