RCA INSTITUTES

R E C E I V I N G S E T DIAGRAMS . PART 1 SHEET AERO SEVEN . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
AERO SHORT WAVE ADAPTER FOR A.C. RECEIVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 AMRAD A.C. 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 APEX 36 ALL-ELECTRIC ...... 3 ATWATER KENT 20 . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ATWATER KENT 30 . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ATWATER KENT 32 . . . . . . . . . . .5 ATWATER KENT 35 . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ATWATER KENT 40 . . . . . . . . . . . 6 BALKITE . MODEL A . . . . . . . . . 6 BOSCH 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 BREMER TULLY 7-70 . . . . . . . . .8 BROWNING DRAKE-34. 36. COLONIAL 31 A.C
&

38 . . . 8

. . . . . . . . . . .9

CROSLEY 608 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 CROSLEY 704-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 DAVEN BASS NOTE . . . . . . . . . . .10 DAY FAN A.C. POWER SET . . . . 11 DAY FAN 35 D.C . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FADA -MODELS 10.11. 30
6

31 (60 CYCLES). . 12
&

FADA-MODELS 102.112. 302

312 (25 CYCLES). . . 12

FEDERAL ORTHO-SONIC A.C ... 12 FREED EISMAN NR 5 . . . . . . . . . 13 FREED EISMAN NR 80 . . . . . . . .13 FRESHMAN EQUAPHASE . . . . . . . . 24 FRESHMAN-MODEL G . . . . . . . . . 24 GILFILLAN GN 6 . . . . . . . . . . . 14

RCA INSTITUTES
GREBE SYNCHROPHASE. . . . . . . 14 HAMMERLUND ROBERTS H. 1Q

. . 15

KING-MODEL FF. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 KING-MODEL H

. . . . . . . . . . . . 15

KING-62 TRF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 KOLSTER 6K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 MAJESTIC A.C . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 MOHAWK ALL-AMERICAN LYRIC MODELS 60.61. 62.65. & 66 . . . . . . . . . 18 MOHAWK ALL-AMERICAN LYRIC MODELS 80.83.84. 85 & 88 . . . . . . . . . 18 PFANSTEIHL 34
&

50 A.C. . . 19

PHILCO ELCTRIC- SERIES 5.19 RCA- RADIOLA 16 . . . . . . . . . . 20 RCA- RADIOLA 17 . . . . . . . . . . 20 RCA- RADIOLA 18 A.C . . . . . . 21 RCA- RADIOLA 18 D.C. . . . . . 21 RCA RADIOLA 60. . . . . . . . . . . 22 RCA RADIOLA 62 . . . . . . . . . . . 22 ROBERTS AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SILVER MARSHALL-MODEL 630 . . . . . . 23 SPARTON EQUASONNE-MODEL 89 . . . . . 25 SPLITDORF INHERENTLY ELECTRIC .. 25 STEINITE 261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 STEWART WARNER-MODELS 801. 801A 811. AND 811A SERIES B . . . . . . . 26 STROMBERG CARLSON-MODELS 635.636 .. 27 ZENITH-MODELS 11.12. AND 14 . . . . . . . 27 CHARACTERISTICS OF RECEIVING VACUUM TUBES. . . 29

RCA INSTITUTES
PART 2

ATWATER KENT MODEL 55 . . . . . . . . . . . 29 BRANDES MODEL B-15
&

16 ......... 29

CROSELEY R.F.L. 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 CROSELEY MODEL 804 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 FADA MODELS 50.71.71.
&

72 . . . . . . 31

FREED-EISMAN NR 55 A.C . . . . . . . . . . 31 FREED-EISMAN NR 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 GREBE SYNCHROPHASE BATTERY . . . . . .32 GREBE A.C. SIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 MAJESTIC MODEL 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 RCA-RADIOLA 28- A.C . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 RCA-RADIOLA 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 RCA-RADIOLA 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 RCA-RADIOLA 44 .................. 37 RCA-RADIOLA 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 STROMBERG-CARLSON NO . 641 . . . . . . . 38 STROMBERG-CARLSON NO . 846 . . . . . . . 39 ZENITH 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
FOREWORD . INTRODUCTION TO RADIO

TECHNICAL LESSON 1 . MATHEMATICS LESSON 2 . UNITS OF ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS AND SYMBOLS LESSON 3 . THE ELECTRON THEORY-SUBSTANCE AND MATTER-STATIC ELCTRICITY LESSON 4 . MAGNETISM LESSON 5 . ELECTROMAGNETISM-ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION LESSON 6 . PRIMARY CELLS LESSON 7 . RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTION LESSON 8 . ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

RCA INSTITUTES
LESSON 9 - D.C. MOTORS LESSON 10 - D.C. GENERATORS LESSON 11 - A.C. CURRENT LESSON 12 - THE MOTOR-GENERATOR LESSON 13 - POWER TRANSFORMERS LESSON 14 - INDUCTANCE LESSON 15 - CAPACITY LESSON 16 - THE STORAGE OR SECONDARY BATTERY LESSON 17 - THE USE OF STORAGE BATTERIES ON SHIPBOARD LESSON 18 - METERS LESSON 19

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GRAPHS

LESSON 20 - SOUND LESSON 21 - ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES LESSON 22 - FUNDAMENTALS OF RADIO RECEPTION LESSON 23 - VACUUM TUBES LESSON 24 - CHARACTERISTIC CURVES LESSON 25 - THE OSCILLATORY CIRCUITS LESSON 26

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MID-TERM EXAMINATION

LESSON 27 - PRACTICAL RADIO CONSTRUCTION LESSON 28 - PRACTICAL RADIO CONSTRUCTION LESSON 29 - AUDIO AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS LESSON 30 - PRACTICAL RADIO CONSTRUCTION LESSON 31 - REGENERATIVE DETECTOR WITH CAPACITIVE CONTROL OF FEED-BACK LESSON 32 - PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF SCREEN-GRID RECEIVERS LESSON 33 - CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF THE RCA INSTITUTES A.C. SCREEN-GRID RECEIVER

LESSON 33-A - BUILDING THE BATTERY-OPERATED SCREEN-GRID RECEIVER LESSON 34 - PRACTICAL RADIO CONSTRUCTION

RCA INSTITUTES
LESSON 35 - COMMON FAULTS AND TROUBLES LESSON 36 - PRACTICAL RADIO CONSTRUCTION LESSON 37 -THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUPER-HETERODYNE LESSON 38-PRINCIPLES AND USE OF TEST EQUIPMENT FOR SERVICING RADIO RECEIVERS LESSON 39 - INSTRUMENTS USED IN SERVICING RADIO RECEIVERS LESSON 40 - INSTRUMENTS USED IN RADIO SERVICING AND PRINCIPLES OF SET TESTING LESSON 41 - BALANCED ARMATURE LOUD SPEAKERS LESSON 43 - RADIOLA 28 A.C. OPERATED LESSON 44 - VICTOR MICRO-SYNCHRONOUS RADIO R-32, R-52, RE-45, RE-75 LESSON 45 - GENERAL ELECTRIC MODEL H-31 MODEL 80 - GRAYBAR MODEL 700

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WESTINGHOUSE MODEL WR-5, RADIOLA

LESSON 46 - GENERAL ELECTRIC MODELS H-51 & H-71 - WESTINGHOUSE MODELS WR-6 WR-7- REDIOLA MODELS 82 & 86 - GRAYBAR MODELS 770 & 900 LESSON 47 - CROSELEY R.F.L. 90 -- ZENTIH 17 LESSON 48 - PRACTICAL RADIO CONSTRUCTION LESSON 42 - THE ELCTRO-DYNAMIC SPEAKER LESSON 49 - RADIO RETAILING - SALESMANSHIP LESSON 50 - GREBE - BATTERY AND A.C. RECEIVERS LESSON 51 - BATTERY ELIMINATORS LESSON 52 - PRACTICAL RADIO CIRCUITS - PART 1 LESSON 53 - PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICALLY OPERATED TUNES R-F CIRCUITS LESSON 54 - ELECTRICALLY OPERATED TUNED R-F AND SUPER-HETERODYNE RECEIVERS LESSON 55 - INTERFERENCE ELIMINATORS LESSON 56 - COMMERCIAL LONG AND SHORT WAVE RECEIVERS LESSON 57 - SPARK TRANSMISSION LESSON 58 - ARC TRANSMITTERS LESSON 59 - RADIO AVIATION EQUIPMENT LESSON 59-A - AVIATION RADIO EQUIPMENT FOR TWO WAY COMMUNICATION LESSON 60 - VACUUM TUBES USED IN TANSMITTING LESSON 61 - COMMERCIAL TUBE TRANSMITTERS

&

RCA INSTITUTES
LESSON 62 - VACUUM TUBE TRANSMITTERS LESSON 63 - SHORT WAVE TRANSMITTERS LESSON 64 - SHORT WAVE (HIGH FREQUENCY) RECEIVERS LESSON 65 - TELEVISION - PART 1 LESSON 66 - TELEVISION - PART 2 LESSON 67 - PHOTORADIOGRAMS - BEAM TRANSMISSION LESSON 68

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BROADCAST TRANSMITTERS

LESSON 69 - RADIO DIRECTION FINDER OR RADIO COMPASS LESSON 70 - SOUND MOTION PICTURES LESSON 71 - SOUND MOTION PICTURES AND SOUND REPRODUCING EQUIPMENT SUPPLEMENTARY INTRODUCTION

R. C . A. INSTITUTES, 1N.C.
75 VARICK STREET

NEW YORK, N. Y.

Please Read These Instructions Carefully
This binder is for keeping your lessons in good condition and it should be used for that purpose only. When you submit your answers to the lessons, and whenever you write to us, write your name, address and student number plainly so that we will not be delayed in giving you prompt attention. After you have answered the examinations on the exadnation paper which we furnish you, file the lessons in this binder. Do not return the lessons, themselves, to us all we want-qre your answers. Use only one side of the examination paper and write your answers with pen and ink, or typewriter. In answering the examina6ons it is not necessary for you to copy the questions write or type just the answers.

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The examination will be found at the end of each 1ess::n. With the exception of standard diagrams, symbols, characters and formulas, your answers must not be copied from the lessons, nor should they be copied from a text. Instead, use the instruction in constructing a line of reasoning of your own and build your reply upon such parallel lines of reasoning. The passing mark for each lesson is 75 per cent. and if your grade
is less than 75 per cent. you will be required to re-submit it entirely.

In grading the examinaiions of o m students we give each answer the proper credit. We take into consideration such factors as neatness, general preparation end manner of expression. Always send in two examinations at one time and keep your mailings at least five days apart. You will at all times be supplied with sufficient study material with which to keep busy. Your exanination papers should be sent to us FIRST CLASS mail. The mailing rate is 2 cents for each ounce or fraction of an ounce. If your examination papers consist of five sheets, or less, the postage required is 2 cents. If from six to eleven sheets are mailed the postage.required is 4 cents; if twelve to seventeen sheets, 6 cents, and so on, addmg two cents for each additional six sheets. Always advise us of any change in your address. Write plainly and d o not abbreviate the name of your town, state and street.

R. L. DUNCAN President
M

P. S. Remember to send in two examinations at one time no more.

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DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
T h i s lesson c o n t a i n s standardized r a d i o d e f i n i t i o n s and symbols only and does not r e q u i r e a n examination, However, it should be always a v a i l a b l e

t o t h e student as a ready reference when studying t h e l e s s o n s of t h e course. It i s not expected t h a t t h e student w i l l understand the e n t i r e contents of t h i s l e s s o n u n t i l he w i l l have completed t h e course,

W express our thanks t o t h e I n s t i t u t e of Radio Engineers f o r permission e t o make use of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s and symbols,

"A" POWER SUPPLY:
the cat'node of
ACLTPTGK:
B

A power s u p p l y ' d e v i c e which provides h e a t i n g c u r r e n t fop

vacuum t u b e .

A c i r c u i t of inductance and c a p a c i t y which i s s o arranged and tuned a s t o o f f e r low impedance t o c u r r e n t s of a given frequency, and hlgh impedance t o c u r r e n t s of any o t h e r fiequencg.

ACOUSTIC

INiPEDANCEz The a c o u s t i c impedance of a sound medium on a g i v e n surface i s the complex q u o t i e n t of t h e p r e s s u r e ( f o r m p e r wit a r e a ) on t h a t surface by the f l u x (volume v e l o c i t y , ox- I f n e a r v e l o c i t y multip l i e d by the a p e a ) t w o u g h t h a t s u r f a e e , The a c o u s t i c impeaance way be expressed i n terms of mechanical impedance, acoust f c impedance being e q u a l t o mechanical impedance d i v i d e d by t h e square of khe a r e a of t h e s u r f a c e considered,

ACOUSTIC RADIATOR:

An a c o u s t i c r a d i a t o r i s t h a t p o r t i o n of a transducer which f a c i l i t a t e s t h e r a d i a t i o n of sound v i b r a t i o n s ,

ACOUSTIC REACTANCE: The a c o u s t i c reactance of a sound medium i s t h e imagin a r y p a r t of t h e a c o u s t i c Lmpedance, It i s the'component of the a c o u s t i c impedance r e s u l t i n g from t h e e f f e c t i v e mass o r compliance of the medium,
ACOUSTIC RESISTANCE " e h a c o u s t i c r e s i s t a n c e of a sound medium i s t h e r e a l component of t h e a c o q s t i c impedance, T h i s i s the component of t h e

a c o u s t i c impedance a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d l s s i p a t i o n of energy,

ACTIVE TRANSDUCER : A n a c t i v e t r a l a s d u c e ~is one in which t h e psvier supplied t o t h e second system i s obtained from a l o c a l source and is c o n t r o l l e d by t h e power from the f i x s t system.
AERIAL:

An e l e v a t e d con8.uctor p o r t i o n of a condenser antenna.

AERIAL C I R C U I T :

The components between t h e f r e e o r i n s u l a t e d end of t h e a e r i a l and t h e connection w i t h t h e e a r t h ,

Printed in U.S A. .

..

i

AIR CONDENSER:

A condenser having a i r a s i t s d i e l e c t r i c

ALTERNATIW CURRENT: A c u r r e n t , the d i r e c t i o n of which r e v e r s e s a t regul a r l y r e c u r r i n g i n t e r v a l s , the algeb7aic average value being zero.
ALTERNATION:
A LT E RNATOR :

A a l t e r n a t i o n i s one-half cycle of e.m.f. n r i s e and f a l l i n one d i r e c t i o n .

or c u r r e n t , o r t h e

A e l e c t r i c a l machine f o r g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i n g e .m.f n

.

ALTERNATOR TRANSMTl'TER:

A r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r which u t i l i z e s radio- frequency power generated by a r a d f o-frequency a l t e r n a t o r .

AMMETER: A instrument connected i n s e r i e s i n a c i r c u i t t o measure t h e n c u r r e n t flowing.

AMPERE: The standard e l e c t r i c a l u n i t of c u r r e n t i s t h e ampere, and i t i s the current e s t a b l i s h e d i n a c i r c u i t of 1 ohm r e s i s t a n c e by an e l e c t r o motive force of 1 v o l t . AMPEREHOUR: The ampere-hour i s t h e u n i t f o r e x p r e s s i n g t k e q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r i c i t y passing through a c i r c u i t under t e s t , when a c u r r e n t of 1 ampere i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a c i r c u i t f o r a period of one hour. AMPLIFIER: A device f o r i n c w a s i n g the amplitude of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t , voltage or power, t h r o u g h t h e c o n t r o l by t h e input power of a l a r g e r amount of power supplied by a l o c a l source t o t h e output c i r c u i t .
AMPLIFICATION F C O " ATX

m a s u r e of t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e g r i d voltage r e l a t i v e t o t h a t of t h e p l a t e voltage i n a f f e c t i n g ths p l a t e c u r r e n t ; it i s the r a t i o of t h e change i n p l a t e v o l t a g e t o a change i n g r i d v o l t age i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n , under the c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e p l a t e curr e n t remains unchanged.

AMPLITUDE: The amplitude of a wave i s a measure of th maximum d e v i a t i o n from i t s zero or normal a x i s .
ANODE:

The e l e c t r o d e t o which t h e e l e c t r o n stream flows.
A device f o r r a d i a t i n g o r absorbing r a d i o waves.

ANTENNA:

ANTENNA F R FACTORdhe r a t i o of t h e e f f e c t i v e h e i g h t of an antenna t o OM

i t s a c t u a l physical h e i g h t .
ANTENNA RESISTANCE :

A e f f e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e which i s numerically e q u a l t o n t h e quotient of t h e average power i n the e n t i r e antenna c i r c u i t by t h e square of the e f f e c t i v e c u r r e n t a t the p o i n t of maximum c u r r e n t . Note: Antenna r e s i s t a n c e includes: R a d i a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e , ground r e s i s t a n c e , radio- frequency r e s i s t a n c e of conductors i n antenna c i r c u i t , e q u i v a l e n t r e s i s t a n c e due t o corona, eddy c u r r e n t s , i n s u l a t o r leakage, d i e l e c t r i c loss, etc.

Definitions

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sheet

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APERIODIC :

That which has no d e f i n i t e i n d i v i d u a l period.

A P E R I O D I C CIRCUIT:
ARC:

A a p e r i o d i c c i r c u i t is a c i r c u i t which n e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s which prevent it from o s c i l l a t i n g . An a r c i s formed by the passage of an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t thr or vapor, t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y of which is mainly due t o t h e i o n i z t h e gas or vapor.

AFfC

CONVERTER: An e l e c t r i c a r c used f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i n g or pulsating current.
A device f o r changing a-c. t o d-c,

ARC RECTIFIM:
A RT IC U L A TION:

A r t i c u l a t i o n of an e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c t r a n s d u c e r i s a measure of i t s a b i l i t y t o t r a n s m i t detached speech s y l l a b l e s and i s expressed a s a percentage of t h e t o t a l s y l l a b l e s spoken which a r e c o r r e c t l y understood by t h e l i s t e n e r a t t h e output of a t r a n s m i s s i o n system including the transducer a s t h e o n l y source of d i s t o r t i o n of d e t e c t a b l e magnitude.

ARRESTER Apparatus w i t h s u i t a b l y arranged e l e c t r o d e s and s h o r t air- gap, : placed i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e ground lead of a t r a n s m i t t e r o r r e c e i v e r ; a lead i s t a k e n t o t h e r e c e i v i n g apparatus from t h e s i d e of t h e sparkgap remote from t h e ground; used f o r c o n t r o l l i n g s i g n a l s on c i r c u i t , and f o r keeping t h e antenna grouxled i n thunder storms and other e l e c t r i c a l disturbances. ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION: A l o s s of power i n t s a n s m i s s i o n of r a d i o waves due t o a d i s s i p a t i o n i n t h e atmosphere, ATMOSPHERICS: S t r a y s produced by atmospheric condit t o n s ,

(See STATIC )

ATTENUATION: The r e d u c t i o n i n power of a wave or a c u r r e n t with i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e Prom t h e source of transmission, ATTENUATION EQUALIZER"device f o r a l t e r i n g the t o t a l transmis s ion l o s s of a c i r c u i t f o r v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s i n order t o make s u b s t a n t i a l l y equal t h e t o t a l t r a n s m i s s i o n l o s s f o r a l l f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h i n a c e r t a i n range.
AUDIO FREQUENCY: A frequency corresponding t o a normally audible sound wave. The u p p r l i m i t o r d i n a r i l y l i e s between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. A transformer f o r use w i t h audio-f requency

AUD10-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER: ourrent s,
AUDION:

~ i Vacuum Tube. e

AUTODYNE RECEPTION: A system of heterodyne r e c e p t i o n through t h e use of a device which i s both an o s c i l l a t o r and a d e t e c t o r .
"BW POImR SUPPLY:

A power supply device connected i n t h e p l a t e c i r c u i t of

a vacuum tube. BAFFLE: A b a f f l e is a p a r t i t i o n which may be used w i t h a f r e e r a d i a t o r t o impede c i r c u l a t i o n from f r o n t t o back. Definitions

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FREQLJENCES: A continuous range e f l n i t e frequencies.

Of

frequencies e

E

A WINDING: ~ A form of c o i l winding i n which s i n g l e t u r n s a r c e s s i v e l y i n each of two o r more l a y e r s , t h e windi ng proceedi end of t h e c o i l t o t h e o t h e r , without r e t u r n .

BAND-PASS FILTER: A f i l t e r designed t o pass c u r r e n t s of frequencies w i t h i n a continuous band l i m i t e d by an upper and a lower c r i t i c a l or cut- off

frequency and s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the amplitude of c u r r e n t s of a l l frequencies out s i d e of t h a t band.
BAR:

A pressure of one dyne per square centimeter i s c a l l e d a bar,
A b a t t e r y f s a combination of two ol- more c e l l s .

BATTERY:

BEAM ANTENNA: A u n i l a t e r a l d i P e C t i w antenna such t h a t i t s r a d i a t i o n i s subs t a n t i a l l y confined t o a narrow beama

BEAT:

A complete cycle of such p u l s a t i o n s .

BEAT FREQUENCY: BEATING:

The number of b e a t s per second. This frequency i s e q u a l t o t h e d S f f e r e m e between t h e frequencies of t h e combining waves,

A phenomenon i n whioh two o r more periodic q u a n t i t i e s o f , n o t g r e a t l g d i f f e r e n t f r e q u e n c i e s r e a c t w i t h each o t h e r t o produce a r e s u l t a n t havfng p u l s a t i o n s of amplitude.

BEAT RECEET I O N :

See Heterodyne Reception c

BI~LATERAL ANTENNAAn antenna having t h e p r o p e r t y of r a d i a t i n g o r r e c e i v i n g s a d i o waves f n l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n i n angular r e g i o n s 180 degrees a p a r t t h a n i n a l l other d i r e c t i o n s ,
BREATHING: Breathing f s a slow and f o r t h e most p a r t p e r i o d i c v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r e s i s t a n c e (and microphonicness ) of a carbon microphone. It may be of r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e magnitude and is not i n g e n e r a l audible.

BROADCASTING: Radio t r a n m i s s i o n intended f o r g e n e r a l r e c e p t i o n . B U H DISCHARGE: A dkschtlrge occurring on t h e s u r f a c e of conductors charged RS t o high potential.
BURNING: Burning i s a r a p i d , t r a n a i t o r y and f o r t h e most p a r t nonperkodic r e s i s t a n c e f l u c t u a t i o n i n a carbon microphone, It i s evidenced by a f r y i n g o r s p u t t e r i n g nofse sometimes heard from a connected r e c e i v e r .

B S BAR: A broad l e a d t o which s m a l l e r leads from t h e u n i t s of a power l i n e , U condenser, b a t t e r y bank, or switchboard, a r e joined,
BUZZER, TUNED: A eommon buzzer w i t h t h e c o i l s of a n electromagnet shunted by a non-induct i v e r e s i s t a n c e,

BYPASS CONDNESXi : A condenser used t o provide an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t p a t h of comparatively low impedance around some c i r c u i t element. . Definitions

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A T : An a n t e n n a h a v i n g c o n d u c t o r s which c o n s i s t of g r o u a r e l l e l w i r e s a r r a n g e d a s the e l e m e n t s of a c y l i n d e r .
C A P A C I T I V E COUPLING:

The a s s o c i a t i o n of one c i r c u i t w i t h a n o t h e r by means of c a p a c i t y common o r mutual t o b o t h .

CAPACITOR: (same a s c o n d e n s e r ) A d e v i c e employed i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s t o i n t r o d u c e t h e e l e m e n t s of c a p a c i t a n c e . CAPACITY: The c a p a c i t y o f a c o n d e n s e r , o r b e t t e r , i t s c a p a c i t a n c e , i s a measure of t h e amount of e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y which t h e condenser c a n s t o r e UP CARBON CONTACT PICKUP: A c a r b o n c o n t a c t pickup i s a phonogpaph p i c k u p which depends f o r i t s o p e r a t i o n upon t h e v a r i a t i o n i n r e s i s t a n c e of one o r more carbon contacts.
C A RB O N MIGROPHOITZ:
A c a r b o n microphone i s one u s i n g one o r more c a r b o n

contacts, Burning i s a r a p i d , t r a n s i t o r y and f o r t h e most p a r t n o n p e r i o d i c r e s i s t ance f l u c t u a t i o n i n a c a r b o n microphone. I t i s e v i d e n c e d b y a f r y i n g or s p u t t e r i n g n o i s e sometimes h e a r d from a c o n n e c t e d r e c e i v e r , B r e a t h i n g i s a slow and f o r t h e most p a r t p e r i o d i c v a r i a t i o n i n t h e It may be of r e s i s t a n c e (and microplionicness ) of a carbon microphone, r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e magnitude and i s n o t i n g e n e r a l e u d i b 1 e . Packing i n a c a r b o n microphone i s a c o n d i t i o n c a u s e d b y excesp mechanEcal p r e s s u r e between p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t oP b g a d h e r e n c e between p o i n t s of cont a c t r e s u l t i n g from e x c e s s i v e v o l t a g e s , It i s e v i d e n c e by d e c r e a s e d r e s i s t a n c e and s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e a l c r o p h o n e , CARRIER CUR?.F;NT: An a l t e r n a t i n g , e ~ r r e n t lnihlch i s modulated by a s i g n a l . O r d i n a r i : r e f e r s t o w i r e t r a n s i n i s s i c n of h i g h - f r e q u e n c y cu.rrents g

.

CARRIER FREQXZNCY I Frequency of a c a r r i e r wave o r a c a r r i e r c u r r e n t . CARRIER SUPPRESSION: That method of o p e r a t i o n i n which t h e c a r r i e r wave o r c a r r i e r c u r r e n t i s not t r a n s m i t t e d , CARRIER W m The component of a modulated wave which has t h e same f r e q u e n c y A: a s t h e o r i g i n a l unmodulsted wave. CASCADE:
CATHODE: A s e r i e s of c o n d e n s e r s o r s t a g e s of a m p l i f i c a t i o n .

The e l e c t r o d e from which t h e e l e c t r o n s t r e a m f l o w s .

CATIIODE, INDI!:ECTLY HEATED: A c a t h o d e i n which t h e h e a t i s s u p p l i e d from a separste heater element. CAT WHISKER: A f i n e w i r e used t o make c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u r f a c e of a crystal detector. sheet 5 Definitions

-

C

E

7 . S T : A s p c i a l s w i t c h arranged t o s h i f t the antenna c m e e t i c n from t h e sending t o t h e r e c e i v i n g apparatus and vice v e r s a .

C H O K E COIL:

A inductance c o i l i n s e r t e d i n a c i r c u i t t o o f f e r reactance n t o t h e flow of a l t e r n a t i n g - c u r r e n t components while allowing d i r e c t c u r r e n t t o pass.
A chopper i s a device f o r r a p i d l y opening and c l o s i n g a c i r c u i t .

CBOFFER:

CIRCITIT-PJtEAKER: A c i r c u i t - b r e a k e r i s a s p e c i a l type of switch s o arranged a s t o open a c i r c u i t r a p i d l y and without i n j u r y t o i t s e l f . GOHERFIR: A device used i n t h e e a r l y days of r a d i o c o m n i c a t i o n f o r det e c t i n g t h e presence of electromagnetic waves; u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of a g l a s s tube c o n t a i n i n g m e t a l l i c f i l i n g s making connection between two electrodes,
COMAIUTATOR:

c ir c u i t

.

A device f o r r e v e r s i n g the d i r e c t i o n of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i n a

COMPLIANCE: The compliance of a mechanical e l e m n t i s i t s d e f l e c t i o n per u n i t of f o r c e . This i s t h e r e c i p r o c a l of i t s s t i f - f n e s s . Compliance i n system a mechanical syseem is analogous t o c a p a c i t a n c e i n a n e l e c t ~ f c a l and i s expmssed i n c e n t i m e t e r s p r dyne, Negative compliance ( r e c i p r o c a l of negative s t i f f n e s s ) occurs f n a case of u n s t a b l e e q u i l i b r i u m where a small displacemex-it r e s u l t s i n a f o r c e t e n d i n g t o give a f u ~ t h e r displacement i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n .

CONDENSER: A condenser fs a device f o r s t o r i n g up e l e c t r i c a l energy, It u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of two o r more conducting s u r f a c e s s e p a r a t e d by an i n s u l a t i n g meat u c a l l e d the d i e l e c t r i c , m
@ONl)ENSETt AmENlQA:

An antenna consi s t i n g of two c a p a c i t y a r e a s .

COWIIEN5ER LOUDSPEAKEX: A condenser loudspeaker i s one f n which t h e mechanics f o r c e s a r e o b t a i n e d by var3ying t h e voltage between 'two e l e c t r o a e s of a condenser forming a. p a r t of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t .

C P D N E MPCROFEOIQT ; A. condenser microphone i s one t h e o p e r a t i on of which OT E S R fnvolves a v a r l . n t i a n i n t h e e l e e t r o s t a t f c capacltg' produced by a sound wave.
CONDENSER PICKUP: A condenser pickup is a phonograph pickup whose e1ectrfcs.f. output i s generated by a mechanical v a r i a t % o n of i t s charged c a p a c f t y . CONDUCTIVITY; The c o n d u c t i v i t y of a substance i s a measure of i t s a b i l i t y t o carry e l e e t r f e current,
C O N I C A L HORN"

coolaical horn i s a horn whose e q u i v a l e n t s e c t i o n a l r e d i u s has a constant r a t e of i n c r e a s e ,

A constrained r a d i a t o r i s an acoustic r a d i a t o r , t h e CONSTRAINED RADIATOR: sound from which i s o r i g i n a t e d i n a c o n s t r a i n e d p o r t i o n of t h e medium,
Definitions

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6

CCYLJXTEKPOISE:

A system of wires or other conductors, f omin& i;he lower c a p a c i t y a r e a of a condenser antenna e l e v a t e d above and i ~ s u l a t e ?f r ~ z t h e ground.

CONTROL ELECTRODE:

The e l e c t r o d e , the voltage between which and the cathode c o n t r o l s t h c u r r e n t flowing between t h e anode and t h e cathoee.

CONVERTER:

A machine employing mechanical r o t a t i o n in changing e l e c t r i c a l energy f rom one form t o another.

CORRECTED R A D I O B E A R I N G : has been applied,
COULOMB:

A r a d i o bearing t o which t h e c a l i b r a t i o n c o r r e c t i o n

The coulomb f s t h e q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r i c i t y or t h e charge t r a n s mitted i n 1 second by a c u r r e n t of 1 ampere.

COUPLER: A device employed t o t r a n s f e r radio- frequency power from one c i r e u i t t o another by a s s o c i a t i n g t o g e t h e r p o r t i o n s of these c i r c u i t s Couplers a r e of t b same types a s the types Of coupling; namely, i n d u c t i v e : c a p a c i t i v e and r e s i s t a n c e .
COUPLING: The a s s o c l a t f o n of two c i r c u i t s i n such a way t h a t energy mag- be t r a n s f e r r e d from one "c th.e o t h e r ,
COUPLI~VGCOEFFICIENT:

.

The r a t i o of t h e mutual or common impedance component of two c f r c u i t s t o t h e square r o o t of t h e product of the t o t a l impedance components of the same kind i n two c i r c u i t s , (Impedance components may c o n s l s t of inductance, c a p a c i t y or r e s i s t a n c e . )

C R E T AMPLIFICATION (OF A N AMPLIFIER jr "h UKN Te r a t i o of the a l t e r n a t i n g curr e n t produce& i n t h e output c i r c u i t t o the a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t supplied t o t h e input c i r c u i 6 ,
CYCLE:
pl id

One compl-ete s e t of t h e r e c u r r e n t values of a p e r i o d i c phenomenon,

@

DAMPED ALTERNATING CURRENT:

$j

A a l t e r n a t fng c u r r e n t pas s i n g through succe s sive n c y c l e s with p r o g r e s s i v e l y diminishing amplftude.

,# F
B
!,f.,~,
,

1 1

,

DAMPED IXPLQANCE : The damped impedance of" an e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c transducer i s t h e impedance measured a t t h e t e r m i n a l s of i t s e l e c t r i c a l system when t h e impedance of t b a t t a c h e d m c h a n i c a l system is S n f i n i t e or vice versa.
DAMPED W V S A E : Electromagnetic waves proceeding i n wave t r a i n s i n each o f which t h e amplitude of successive cycles p r o g r e s s i v e l y diminishes.
DAMPING CONSTANT:

The Napierian l ~ g a f f t h mof the r a t i o of two values of an e x p o n e n t i a l l y d e c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t y s e p a r a t e d by u n i t time.

DECREKWER: A instrument f o r measuring t h e l o g a r i t h m i c decrement of a n t r a i n of waves.

DECREMENT:

Percentage of decrease of amplitude i n o s c i l l a t i o n . Definitions

-

sheet 7

:

"at :ortion of t h e r e c e i v i n g apparatus which, connected t o e c i r w i t c a r r j i i l g c u r r e n t s of radio- frequency, and i n conjunction w i t h a s e l f - c m t a i n e d or s e p a r a t e i n d i c a t o r , t r a n s l a t e s t h e r a d i o - f r e w e n c y power i n t o a form s u i t a b l e f o r o p e r a t i o n of t h e i n d i c a t o r , This t r a n s l a t i o n may be e f f e c t e d e i t h e r by t h e conversion of t h e radio- frequency power, or by means of the c o n t r o l of l o c a l power, The i n d i c a t o r may be a telephone r e c e i v e r , r e l a y i n g device, tape r e c o r d e r , e t c .

The most common t y p e of d e t e c t o r i s a vacuum tube operated on a nonl i n e a r p o r t i o n of i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t f c curve, t h e r e b y converting a modul a t e d radio-frequency c u r r e n t i n t o a modulated d i r e c t c u r r e n t ,
A tube which o p e r a t e s s i m i l a r l y t o a d e t e c t o r t u b e , but t h e output of which does not o p e r a t e an i n d i c a t o r , may p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d a frequency converting tube.

DIAPHRAGM:
tions,

A diaphragm i s a v i b r a t i n g s u r f a c e which produces sound v i b r a -

DIELECTRIC: D i e l e c t r i c i s an i n s u l a t i n g substance t h a t a l l o e s e l e c t r o s t a t f c i n d u c t i o n t o a c t a c r o s s i t , as t h e i n s u l a t i n g medium between t h e p l a t e s of a condenser. DIODE: A type of vacuum tube c o n t a i n i n g two e l e c t r o d e s which passes c u r r e n t wholly ay8 predominantly i n one d i r e c t i o n ,

Note:: A vacuum tube having a s i n g l e cathode and two modes which o p e r a t e a l t e r n a t e l y may p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d a double diode,
DIFlECT CAPACITANCE (C ) BETWEEN TWO CONDUCTORS: The r a t i o of the charge produced on one coneuctor t o t h e voltage between it and t h e o t h e r cond u c t o r divided by t h i s v o l t a g e , a l l . o t h e r conductors i n t h e neighborhood being a t t h e p o t e n t i a l of e i t h e r conductor, DIRECT CCUPLING: A s s o c i a t i o n of two r a d i o c i r c u i t s by having an i n d u c t o r , a condenser, or a r e s i s t o r cormon t o both c i r c u i t s , DIRECT CUIIREKT: A unidiapectional e m r e a t . A s o r d i n a r i l y u s e d , t h e term designates s p r a c t i c a l l y non-pulsatim current, DIRECTIONAL ANTENIJA: An antenna having t h e p r o p e r t y of r a d l a t f n g or r e c e i v i n g r a d i o waves i n l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n along some d i r e c t i o n s t h a n o t h e r s , An antenna o r t h i s type used f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g iis o f t e n c a l l e d a d i r e c t i v e antenna. DIRECTION-FINDER CALIERATION: The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e d i r e c t ion and amount of f i x e d l o c a l wave f r o n t d i s t o r t i o n t o the end t h a t the c o r r e c t bearing may be obtained, DIRECTION FINDER (GONIOIVETER): A r a d f o r e c e i v i n g d e v i c e which permits detela mination of the l i n e of t r a v e l of waves a s r e c e i v e d . DISCHARGER: A device i n an O s c i l l a t i n g c i r c u i t by which t h e spark or a r c discharge i s c o n t r o l l e d . ( A l s o c a l l e d s p a r k d i s c h a r g e r ).

-

Definitions

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8

,~ " ..~- ., ,,.
!: ,

. .mTqT.-,-c

- - ..
a.

A c h c r G e i n wave f o r m o c c w i n g i n a t r a n s d u c e r or t r a n s ~ i s s i o n

n r e ? l w . whec t h e output wave f o r i l i s not a f a i t h f u l r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e i w u t wave f o r m . The principal sources of d i s t o r t i o n a r e r

b, c.

Non-linear r e l a t i o n between input and output a t a g i v e n f'requency, Non-unif orm t r a n s m i s s i o n a t v a r i o u s f r e q u e n c i e s . Phase s h i f t not proporltional t o frequency.

DOUBLE MODULATION: The process of modulation i n which a c a r r i e r wave of one frequency i s f i r s t moduleted by t h e s i g n a l wave and i s then made t o modulate a second c a r r i e r wave of another frequency.

DRIVER ELEMENT: The d r i v e r element of a telephone r e c e i v e r i s t h a t p o r t i o n of t h e r e c e i v e r rrhich r e c e i v e s power from t h e e l e c t r i c a l system and conv e r t s i t i n t o mechanical power,

DRY CELL: A d r y c e l l . i s a type of primary c e l l i n which t h e e l e c t r o l y t e i s i n t h e form of a p a s t e , DUPLRX DI'ERATION T 1 o p e r a t i o n of a s s o c i a t e d t r a n s s x i t t i n g and r e c e i v i n g 1e channels i n which t h e processes of t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n a r e concurrent.
EARTH: That connection of t h e lower e x t r e m f t i e s of an antenna system f o r completing an e l e c t r f c c i r c u i t t o t h e ground,
EDDY CUKRFNTSAnduced. e l e c t r i c e m r e n t s occurring when a m e t a l l i c mass i s a c t e d upon by a changing magnetic f i e l d , or th.e mass r o t a t e d i n a magnetic f i e l d , which consume a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of e n e r g y ,
E ~ C T ~ V E Hl3IGlE AS o r d i n a r i l y ing a unfforrn i n the actual

O AN ANTEIQiAflThe h e i g h t of an e q u i v a l e n t i d e a l antenna. F d e f f n e d , t h i s i d e a l antenna i s a v e r t i c a l conductor c a r r y c u r r e n t e q u a l t o t h e maximum c u r r e n t e x i s t f n g a t any p o i n t antenna.

Note: T h i s a p p l i e s m o s t s t r i c t l y t o a r t e n n a systems producing o r a f f e c t e d by a s u b s t a n t i a l l y v e r t i c a l electric field, ELFCTRO-ACOUSTIC TRARSDUCER: An e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c t r a n s d u c e r i s a t r a n s d u c e r which i s a c t u a t e d by power Prom an e l e c t r i c a l . system ancl s u p p l i e s power t o an a c o u s t i c system o r v i c e v e r s a . ELECTRICAL OSCILLATION: An e l e c t r i c a l o s c f l l a t % o n i s a complete c y c l e of h i g h or audf o-frequency c u r r e n t , ELECTRICAL PHONOGRAPH RECORDER : A n e l e c t r i c a l phonograph r e c o r d e r i s a n electromechanical t r a n s d u c e r a c t u a t e d by power i n an e l e c t r i c a l system and supplying power t o a r e c o r d i n g mechanical system, t h e recorded wave form produced by t h e mechanical system c o r ~ e s p o n d i n gt o t h e wave form i n the e l e c t r i c a l system,
ELECTROMAGNETIC LINES O FORCE: F Eleotromagnetic l f n e s of f o r c e a r e t h e l i n e s of f o r c e s e t up by a l l . c u r r e n t - c a r r y i n g conductars.

Definitions

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9

A s e n s i t i v e form of d e t e c t o r (now o b s o l e t e ) co e l e c t r o l y t i c c e l l , u s u a l l y w i t h a very small anode of insoluble m a t e r i a l , such as platinum, and a l a r g e r cathode immersed i n an e l e c t r o l y t e of 10 per c e n t s u l p h u r i c aciZ s o l u t i o n . O s c i l l a t i o n s from an outside source d e p o l e r i e e the anode and changes occur i n t h e l o c a l c u r r e n t which a c t s upon t h e telephone r e c e i v e r .

I G DETECTOR:

I

I

I

EmCTROMAGNETIC WAVE:

The propagation Of e l e c t r i c a l energy through space s e t i n t o motion by t h e displacement c u r r e n t about a r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g antenna.

EIXCTROMOTIVE FORCE: Electromotive f o r c e i s t h e voltage or e l e c t r i c a l pressure t h a t causes e l e c t r i c i t y t o flow i n a c i r c u i t . ELECTRON: A e l e c t r o n i s assumed t o be t h e s m a l l e s t known p a r t i c l e of matter n and i s an a c t i v e charge of negative e l e c t r i c i t y . ELECTRON EMISSION: The phenomenon of t h e l i b e r a t i o n of e l e c t r o n s from t h e s u r f a c e of a body i n t o t h e surrounding space, u s u a l l y under t h e influence of h e a t , i l l u m i n a t i o n , x- rays, impact e x c i t a t i o n , or chemical d i s i n t e gration. ELECTRON TUBE: An e l e c t r o n t u b e i s one whose o p e r a t i o n depends p r i m a r i l y upon a flow of e l e c t r o n s from one element t o another, ELECTROSCOPE: An i n s t r m n t f o r d e t e c t i n g small s t a t f c charges.

E .M . . : Abbreviation f o r Electromotive FOrCr3. F

EMISSION CHARACTERISTIC: The graph p l o t t e d between a f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g e l e c t r o n emission (such a s t h e temperature, voltage o r c u r r e n t of t h e cathode o r filament) a s a b s c i s s a s and t h e t o t a l emission from t h e cathode o r filament a s o r d i n a t e s . (See Grid C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; P l a t e C h a r a c t e l ~ i s t i e ; and Mutual C h a r a c t e r i s t i c . ) EQUISIGNAL RADIO RANGE: A r a d io range which t r a n s m i t s two d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n a l s which may be r e c e i v e d w i t h e q u a l i n t e n s i t y only i n c e e t a i n directions, EQUISIGNAL ZONE: A r e g i o n i n which two d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n a l s from an e q u i s i g n a l r a d i o mnge a r e r e c e i v e d w i t h e q u a l i n t e n s f t ye EXPONENTIAL HORN: A e x p o n e n t i a l horn (sometimes c a l l e d logarithmic horn) n i s a horn whose s e c t i o n a l a r e a v a r i e s e x p o n e n t i a l l y with i t s length. FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION: The e l e c t r i c a l transmission of a copy o r reproduct i o n of a p i c t u r e , drawing, or document, ( T h i s i s also called picture transmission). FADING: The v a r i a t i o n of the s i g n a l i n t e n s i t y received a t a given l o c a t i o n from a r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n a s a r e s u l t of changes occurring i n t h e transmission path. FARAD: The f a r a d is t h e u n i t of c a p a c i t y and r e p r e s e n t s t h e charge i n a condenser when an e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e of 1 v o l t w i l l place i n t o it an e l e c t r i c charge of 1 coulomb. Definitions s h e e t 10

iii!

i -

,:,j

-

he sum of the c u r r e n t s a t a11 tb a n t i eeding the antenna.
FIDELITY: FIU&~NT:

RATIO ( O F A M U L T I P L E TUNED ANPENNA):

The degree t o which a system, o r a p o r t i o n of a system, accur a t e l y reproduces a t i t s output t h e s i g n a l which i s imp-essed upon i t .

A cathode i n which t h e heat i s supplied by c u r r e n t passing through t h e cathode.

FILAMENT CAPACITANCE ( C f ) : The sum of t h e d i r e c t capacitances between t h e

filament and a l l o t h e r conductors of a vacuum t u b e ,
FII,A&~ENT CURRENT: FI~.&~J?,NT FILTER:

The c u r r e n t supplied t o t h e f i l a m e n t t o heat it.

VOLTAGE : The voltage between t h e terminals of t h e filament

.

A s e l e c t i v e c i r c u i t network, designed t o pass c u r r e n t s within a continuous band o r bands of frequencies o r d i r e c t c u r r e n t , and s u b s t a n t i a n y reduce the amplitude of c u r r e n t s of undesired frequencies.

FIXED

CONDENSER: A f i x e d condenser i s one whose p l a t e s a r e s t a t i o n a r y and whose c a p a c i t y cannot be changed, ANTENNA: A n antenna having approximately h o r i z o n t a l conductors a t

FMT-TOP FLUX:

the top. By t h e f l u x of a c o i l i s meant the electromagnetic l i n e s of f o r c e produced by a c u r r e n t i n t h a t coP1.

FORCE FACTOR:

The f o r c e f a c t o r of an e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c transducer i s a meas u r e of t h e coupling between i t s e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical systems. ~t i s t h e r a t i o of t h e open c l r c u i t f o r c e or v o l t a g e i n t h e secondary system t o the c u r r e n t o r v e l o c i t y i n t h e primary system.

FORCED ALTERNATING CURRENT:

The a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t which flows i n a c i r c u i t a s t h e r e s u l t of an impressed a l t e r n a t i n g voltage and which has t h e same frequency.

FREE ALTERNATING CURRENT: The damped a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t which flows i n a c i r c u i t following t h e c e s s a t i o n of an impressed voltage.
F R E E RADIATOR: A f r e e r a d i a t o r i s an a c o u s t i c r a d i a t o r , t h e sound fram which i s o r i g i n a t e d i n an unconstrained medium.

FREQUENCY:

The number of c y c l e s per second.

FREQUENCY CHANGER: FREQUENCY METER:

A device d e l i v e r i n g a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t a t a frequency which d i f f e r s from t h e frequency of the supply c u r r e n t .

A instrument f o r measuring frequency. n used i n r a d i o work a r e sometimes c a l l e d wavemeters.

Frequency meters

FREQUENCY MULTIPLER:

A frequency changer used t o m u l t i p l y by a n i n t e g e r the

frequency of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t , Definitions

-

sheet 1 1

h a l f cycle of the a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t supply, one element f u n c t i o n i n g d u r i n g one-half cycle and t h e o t h e r during t h e next h a l f c y c l e , and so on.
FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY: T h a t frequency a r e integral multiples.
Of

which a l l component f r e q u e n c i e s

PUNDANENTAL OR NATURAL FREQUENCY (OF AN A T N A ) : The lowest' resonant f r e NE N quency of a n antenna, without added inductance o r c a p a c i t y .

-

A EE F N A E T L W V I NGTH : The wavelength corresponding t o fundamental f reguency. U D MNA G L A O E W : A s e n s i t i w e instrument f o r i n d i c a t i n g t h e presence of an AV N MT e l e c t r i c current i n a c i r c u i t , and determining i t s d i r e c t i o n . GENERATOR: A e l e c t r i c generator i s a device or machine f o r converting n mechanical energy i n t o e l e c t r i c a l energy.

I1

I

GONION1ETER:

Same a s D i r e c t i o n Finder.

GRID: A e l e c t r o d e having openings through which t h e e l e c t r o n stream n between cathode and anode may pass.

GRID BIAS:

The d i r e c t eomponent of t h e g r i d voltage.

G R I D CAPACITANCE ( C g ) : The sum of t h e d i r e c t capacitances b8 tween t h e g r f d and a l l o t h e r conductors of a vacuum tube.
G R I D CHARACTERISTIC: T h e graph p l o t t e d between g r i d voltage a s a b s c i s s a s (See P l a t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; Mutual Charand g r i d current a s o r d i n a t e s . a c t e r i s t i c and Emission C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ),

I I

GRID CONDENSER:

A s e r i e s condenser i n t h e g r i d or c o n t r o l c i r c u i t of a

vacuum tube.
G R I D CONDUCTANCE:

The r a t i o of t h e change i n g r i d c u r r e n t t o the change i n g r i d voltage producing i t , under the condition of constant p l a t e p o t e n t i a l . The d i r e c t c u r r e n t passing from t h e g r i d through t h e vacuous The d i r e c t capacitance between the g r i d

GRID CURRENT: space.

FILAMENT CAPACITANCE ( C g f ) z GRIDand the filament.

GRID LEAK.' A r e s i s t o r used t o a f f e c t or determine t h e g r f d b i a s .
GRID-PLATE CAPACITANCE ( C g p ) : the plate.
G R I D VOLTAGE:

The d i r e c t capacitance between t h e g r i d and

The v o l t a g e between t h e g r i d and a s p e c i f i e d p o i n t of the

cathode.

h 'i I* 4
?
1

GROUND:

Same a s Earth. Definitions

-

sheet 12

GROUND EQUALIZIER INDUCTORS:

C o i l s of r e l a t i v e l y low inductance placed. i n the c i r c u i t connected t o one or more of the grounding p o i n t s of an antenna ground system, t o d l H d e t h e c u r r e n t between t h e v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n any d e s i r e d way.

GROUND S S E Y T M (OF AN ANTENNA) :

That p o r t i o n of t h e antenna system below t h e antenna l o a d i n g devices or generating apparatus most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e ground and including t h e ground i t s e l f .
A conductive connection t o t h e e a r t h .

GROUND \nllRE:

GROUP FREQUENCY:

The number of t r a i n s of damped waves or c u r r e n t per second.

H L - A E RECTIFIER: A r e c t i f i e r which changes a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i n t o p u l A FW V s a t i n g c u r r e n t , u t i l i z i n g only one-half of each cycle.
HARMONIC : A component of a p e r i o d i c q u a n t i t y having a frequency which i s an i n t e g r a l multiple of t h e findamental frequency. For example, a component

t h e frequency of which i s twice t h e fundamental frequency i s c a l l e d the second harmonic.
HARP ANTENNA: A antenna composed of v e r t i c a l , or approximately v e r t i c a l n conductors, a l l i n one plane.
HELIX:

A hollow conducting c o i l o r solenoid.

HEWRY:

A henry i s t h e u n i t of inductance, and a c i r c u i t has an inductance of 1 henry when a c u r r e n t changing a t t h e r a t e of 1 a m p r e p e r second

produces an induced e.m.f.
KERTZIAN WAVES:

of 1 v o l t .

Electromagnetic waves f i r s t observed by Hertz, which o r i g i n a t e i n a r a p i d l y v i b r a t i n g o r a l t e r r a t i n g c u r r e n t and a r e p r o j e c t e d f a r i n t o surrounding space. Radio communication i s a p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s discovery.

H T R D N RECEETION: The process of r e c e i v i n g r a d i o waves by combining t h e EEO Y E received voltage w i t h l o c a l l y generated a l t e r n a t i n g voltage. The l o c a l l y generated frequency i s ~ommonlyd i f f e r e n t from t h e r e c e i v e d frequency, t h u s producing beats. ? h i s i s c a l l e d beat r e c e p t i o n .
HIGH-FREQUENCY CURRENT: A c u r r e n t where s e v e r a l thousand or more o s c i l l a t i o n s take place i n a second of time.

HIGH-PASS FILTER: A f i l t e r designed t o pass c u r r e n t s of a l l frequencies above a c r i t i c a l or cut - off frequency and s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce t h e amplitude of c u r r e n t s of a l l f r e q u e n c i e s below t h i s c r i t i c a l frequency.
HOMODYNE RECEPTION: The process of d e t e c t i n g a wave by t h e a i d of a l o c a l l y generated wave of c a r r i e r frequency. (Some times c a l l e d zero-beat reception). HONEYCOMB COIL: mation.
HORN:

A m u l t i p l e l a y e r c o i l wound a i a g o n a l l y i n l a t t i c e l i k e f o r -

A horn i s a constrained r a d i a t o r c o n s i s t i n g of a tube of varying s e c t i o n a l area f o r determining the shape of t h e c o n s t r a i n e d p o r t i o n of t h e medium. Definitions sheet 13

-

HOT-WIRE

AMMETER : (Expansion type ) : An ammeter dependent f o r i t s i n d i c a t i o n s on a change i n dimensions of an element which i s heated by a current through i t ,

HYDROMETER:

An instrument f o r measuring the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e i n a s t o r a g e c e l l t o give a n i n d i c a t i o n of the s t a t e of charge of the c e l l .

HYSTERESIS: Expenditure and l o s s O f energy i n t h e form of h e a t due t o the work r e q u i r e d t o change t h e molecules; takes place i n process of magnetizing and de -magnet i e ing

.

IDFAL TRANSDUCER:

An i d e a l t r a n s d u c e r f o r connecting two s p e c i f i c systems i s a passive t r a n s d u c e r which converts the maximum p o s s i b l e power from t h e e l e c t r i c a l system t o t h e a c o u s t i c system or vice versa.

IMPEDANCE:

The impedance i s t h e t o t a l opposition of a c f r m i t t o the passage of a n a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t .

IMPULSE EXCITATION: A method of producing damped o s c i l l a t o r y c u r r e n t i n a - c i r c u i t i n which t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e impressed voltage is s h o r t compared w i t h t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t produced,
INDUCTANCE:

The inductance of a c i r c u i t is i t s p r o w r t y t h a t allows it t o s t o r e up e l e c t r i c a l energy i n electromagnetic f o m .

INDUCTION: The inPluence e x e r t e d by the i n t e r f e r e n c e or influence of f i e l d s upon f i e l d s o r f i e l d s upon conductors o

MDUCTION MUDSPEAKER: An Induction loudspeaker i s a moving c o i l loudspeaker i n which t h e c u r r e n t which r e a c t s w i t h t h e p o l a r i z i n g f i e l d i s induced i n t h e mov3.ng member e INDUCTIVE COUPLINQ: The a s s o c i a t i o n of one c i r c u i t w i t h another by means of ( T h i s term when used without modiinductance common or mutual t o both. f ying words i s commonly used f u r coupling by means of mutual inductance whereas coupling by means of self- inductance common t o both c i r c u i t s i s c a l l e d " d i r e c t i n d u c t i v e coupling".

,

INDUCTOR: A device used i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s t o introduce t h e element o f Inductance
INPUT ADMITTANCE : The r e c i p r o c a l
Of

input impedance.

INPUT IMPEDANCE:

The r a t i o of the a l t e r n a t i n g voltage impressed on t h e input t e r m i n a l s of t h e device t o t h e a l t e r n a t i n g . c u r r e n t t h e r e b y produced a t t h e s e t e r m i n a l s , i n t h e absence of impressed a l t e r n a t i n g voltages a t o t h e r points.

I NS UL AT OR: An i n s u l a t o r i s a m a t e r i a l t h a t p r e s e n t s such a high opposition t o a flow of e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a p e r c e p t i b l e flow through t h a t material.

INTERFEREXICE: Confusion of r e c e p t i o n due t o s t r a y s , undesired s i g n a l s or o t h e r causes; a l s o t h a t which produces t h e confusion. Definitions

- s h e e t 14

!< .. . ,,:.,

~ ? 6 ! Z D I A T EFREQUENCY: A frequency between t h a t O f t h e c a r r i e r employed i n r a d i o transmission and the frequency of modulation, and t o which t h e

c a r r i e r i s converted i n super-heterodyne r e c e p t i o n .
INTERNAL OUTPUT ADMITTANCE:

The r e c i p r o c a l of i n t e r n a l output impedance.

INTERNAL OUTPUT IMPEDANCE: The r a t i o of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g voltage impressed on t h e output terminals of a vacuum tube t o t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t h e r e b y produced h t t h e s e t e r m i n a l s , i n t h e absence of impressed a l t e r n a t i n g voltages a t o t h e r p o i n t s . Note: T h i s i s sometimes c a l l e d simply "output impedance" but t h e p r e f i x " i n t e r n a l n i s p r e f e r r e d i n order more s u r e l y t o d i s t i n q u i s h it from t h e impedance of t h e e x t e r n a l output c i r c u i t . INTERRUPTED CONTINUOUS W V S Waves obtained by i n t e r r u p t i o n a t audioA E: frequency i n a p e r i o d i c manner of an otherwise continuous wave. INTERRUPTER: Apparatus f o r breaking up a continuous c u r r e n t i n t o a success i o n of pulses. INVERTED '$L" ANTENNA: A f l a t t o p antenna the l e a a d i n of which i s taken from one end of t h e h o r i z o n t a l portfon.
IONIZATION:
JAMMING:

The breaking up of a compound i n t o p o s i t i v e and negative ions.

I n t e r f e r e n c e , malicious or otherwise, from u n d e s b e d s t a t i o n s .

JOULF:

The p r a c t i c a l u n i t of e l e c t r i c a l energy; denotes work done by one coulomb under one v o l t pressure.

m:

A key i s a s p e c i a l form of switch arranged f o r r a p i d operation t o form d o t s and dashes of t h e t e l e g r a p h codes.

KEIY-MODULATED W V S : Continuous waves of which t h e amplftude o r frequency AE i s va'rfed by t h e o p e r a t i o n of a t r a n s m i t t i n g key i n accordance w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s of a communicating code.
KILOCYCLE (STRICTLY KILOCYCLE P R SECOND ) : A thousand cycles per second. E

KILOWATT:

One thousand w a t t s .

LEAD-IN That p o r t i o n of an antenna system which completes t h e e l e c t r i c a l connection between t h e e l e v a t e d outdoor p o r t i o n a d t h e instruments o r disconnecting switches i n s i d e the building.
-EN
J AR: A condenser composed of a g l a s s j a r w i t h i n n e r and outer surf a c e s coated w i t h copper.

LIGHTNING ARRESTER: A l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r i s a d e v i c e f o r p r o t e c t i n g a c i r c u i t or apparatus from l i g h t n i n g or o t h e r e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h voltages.
LOADIRTG COIL:

An i n d u c t o r i n s e r t e d i n a C i r c u i t t o i n c r e a s e i t s inductance but not t o provide coupling with any other c i r c n i t . Definitions sheet 1 5

-

L OD E S T ONE :

A n a t u r a l o r e possessing inherent q u a l i t i e s of magnet i s m .

LOGARITHMIC DECRENENT:

The Napierian logarithm of t g e r a t i o of t h e f i r s t t o t h e second of two s u c c e s s i v e amplitudes i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n , f o r an exp o n e n t i a l l y damped a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . The l o g a r i t h m i c decrement can a l s o be considered a s a constant of a simple r a d i o c i r c u i t , being f l times the product of t h e r e s i s t a n c e and the square r o o t of t h e r a t i o of t h e c a p a c i t y t o t h e inductance of t h e c i r c u i t .

L O A T N A An antenna c o n s i s t i n g of one o r more complete t u r n s of wire. O P NE N : This i s a l s o c a l l e d a c o i l antenna. LW FREQUENCY CURRENT: A c u r r e n t where a l i m i t e d number of o s c i l l a t i o n s , O about 60 t o 500 c y c l e s , t a k e place i n a second of time. LOUDSPEAKER: A loudspeaker i s a telephone r e c e i v e r designed t o r a d i a t e a c o u s t i c power i n t o a room or open a i r . PASS FILTER: A f i l t e r designed t o pass c u r m n t s of a l l f r e q u e n c i e s beLOWlow a c r i t i c a l or c u t - o f f frequency and s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e a c e t h e amplitude of c u r r e n t s of a l l f r e q u e n c i e s above t h i s c r i t i c a l frequency.
MAGNETIC FIELD:

The r e g i o n surrounding a magnet L h r ough which magnetic

forces act.
MAGNETIC LOUDSPEAKER:
M A GNETIC MICROPHONE:
A magnetic loudspeaker i s one i n which t h e mechanfcal f o r c e s r e s u l t from magnetic r e a c t i o n s ,

A magnetic microphone i s one whose e l e c t r i c a l output i s generated i n a c o i l o r conductor i n a magnetic c i r c u i t o r f i e l d . A magnetic device employed a s a modulator a d f u n c t i o n ing by v i r t u e of i t s non- linear magnetization c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ,

MAGNETIC MODULATOR: MAGHETIC PI CKUP :

A magnetic pickup i s a phonograph pfckup whose e l e c t r f l c a l output i s generated i n a c o i l o r conductor i n a magnetic c i r c u i t or f i e l d ,

MAGNETOSTRICTION LOUDSPEAKER: A magnetostriction kouilspeaker i s a magnetic loudspeaker i n which t h e mechanical f o r c e s a r e obtained by magnetostriction.
MASTER 0SCILLATOR"n

o s c i l l a t o r of comparatively low power s o arranged a s t o c o n t r o l the frequency of the output of an amplif 5.e~.

ME C H A N I C A L DdPEDANCE:

The mechanical impedance of a mechanical system i s t h e complex q u o t i e n t of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g f o r c e a p p l i e d t o t h e system by t h e r e s u l t i n g a l t e r n a t i n g l i n e a r v e l o c i t y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f o r c e a t i t s p o i n t of a p p l i c a t i o n .

ME C H A N ICAL REACTANCE:

The mechanical reactance of a mechanical system i s t h e magnitude of t h e imaginary component of t h e mechanical impedance. It may a l s o be expressed a s t h e component of the mechanical impedance of t h e system r e s u l t i n g from i t s e f f e c t i v e mass or compliance.

rn

Definitions

-

sheet 16

I

I I

MECHANICAL RESISTANCE:

!
I

The mechanical r e s i s t a n c e of a p e c h a n i c a l system i s t h e r e a l component of t h e mechanical impedance. It may a l s o be expressed a s the quotient of the power absorbed by t h e system by the square of the a l t e r n a t i n g v e l o c i t y a t t h e point o f a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e force.
A m i l l i o n Cycles per second.

d

,I

MEGACYCLE (STRICTLY MEGACYCLE PERSECOND ) :

i
I

MEGOHM:

A megohm i s a r e s i s t a n c e of 1,000,000 ohms.

i

METER: ( a ) The meter i s t h e u n i t of l e n g t h i n t h e m e t r i c system, l a r g e l y used i n European c o u n t r i e s , and corresponds t o a l e n g t h of 39.37 inches. ( b ) A meter i s an instrument f o r measuring some q u a n t i t y , as a voltmeter.

M T R AMPERES: The product of t h e antenna c u r r e n t i n amperes a t t h e point EE of maximum currellt and the antenna e f f e c t i v e height i n rreters f o r any r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t ion.
MICA:

A mineral i n s u l a t o r . A microfarad i s a c a p a c i t y of l/l,000,000

MICROFARAD:
MICROPHONE:

of a f a r a d .

A microphone i s an e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c t r a n s d u c e r a c t u a t e d by power i n a n a c o u s t i c system and d e l i v e r i n g power t o an e l e c t r i c system, t h e wave form i n t h e e l e c t r i c system corresponding t o t h e wave form i n t h e a c o u s t i c system. T h i s i s a l s o c a l l e d a telephone t r a n s m i t t e r .

MILLIAMPERE: . A milliampere i s a c u r r e n t of t h e s t r e n g t h of 1/1,000 of an ampere.

MOBILE STATION:

A s t a t i o n capable of moving and which o r d i n a r i l y does move.

MODULATED W V S Continuous waves Of which t h e amplitude or frequency i s A E: r e p e a t e d l y varied i n accordance w i t h a s i g n a l wave. MODULATION: The process whereby t h e frequency or amplitude of a wave i s varfed i n accordance w i t h a s i g n a l wave,
MOD U LA T OR :' A device t o e f f e c t t h e process of modulation. It may be operated by v i r t u e of some non- linear c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or by a c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a t i o n of some c i r c u i t q u a n t i t y .

K O N I T O R I N G RADIO RECEIVER: A r a d i o r e c e i v e r arranged t o enable an operator t o check t h e operation of a t r a n s m f t t i n & s e t .
blOTIONAL IMPEDANCE:

The motional impedance of an e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c t r a n s ducer i s t h e vector d i f f e r e n c e between the normal and t h e damped i m pedance.

MOUTH O A HORN: F The mouth of a horn i s t h e end w i t h the l a r g e r c r o s s s e c t i o n a l area.
M O V I N G I R O N LOUDSPEAKER:

A moving i r o n l o u d s p a k e r i s a magnetic loudspeaker whose operation involves t h e v i b r a t i o n of a p o r t i o n of t h e ferro- magnetic circuit.

V

Definitions

- sheet

17

* MOVING C O I L LOUDSPEAKER: A moving c o i l loudspeaker i s a magnetic loudspeaker i n which the mechanical f o r c e s a r e developed by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of curr e n t s i n a conductor and t h e p o l a r i z i n g f i e l d i n which it i s located. T h i s i s sometimes c a l l e d an Electro-Dynamic o r a Dynamic Loudspeaker.
MULTIPIBTUNED ANTENNA: A antenna w i t h connections t o ground or countern poise through inductances a t more than one p o i n t , the inductances being s o determined t h a t t h e i r r e a c t a n c e s i n p a r a l l e l present a t o t a l reactance equal t o t h a t necessary t o g i v e t h e anteqna t h e d e s i r e d n a t u r a l frequency.
MUTUAL CHARACTERISTIC (GRID-PLATE CHARACTERISTIC ) :

V

The graph p l o t t e d between g r i d voltage a s a b s c i s s a s and p l a t e current a s o r d i n a t e s . (See G r i d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; Mutual Conductance ; P l a t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; and Emission characteristic.) The r a t i o of t h e change i n p l a t e c u r r e n t t o the change i n g r i d p o t e n t i a l producing i t , under the condition of constant p l a t e voltage. (The u n i t o r d i n a r i l y used i s t h e micromho).

MUTUAL CONDUCTANCE:

NUTUAL 1ADUCTANCEAut.ual inductance i s the term a p p l i e d t o d e s i g n a t e tne inductance produced by a c u r r e n t change i n one of two independent c i r c u i t s which r e a c t upon e a c h other.

NORMAL IMPEDANCE : The normal impedance of a n e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c transducer i s the impedance measured a t t h e terminals of t h e e l e c t r i c a l system when the mechanical system i s connected t o i t s load o r vice v e r s a .
OHM: An ohm i s the u n i t of r e s i s t a n c e , and may be defined a s the r e s i s t a n c e t h a t w i l l allow 1 ampere of c u r r e n t t o pass under the pressure due t o an electromotive f o r c e of 1 v o l t .

OSCILLATIONS: Electromagnetic waves s e t up i n space by t r a n s m i t t i n g instruments. OSCILLATION CONSTANT: The o s c i l l a t i o n constant of an o s c i l l a t i n g c i r c u i t i s t h e numerical f i g u r e obtained from the square r o o t of i t s inductance multi p l i e d by i t s capacity. OSCILLATION TRANSFORMER: An o s c i l l a t i o n transformer i s a s p e c i a l open type of transformer p r i m a r i l y used f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g l a r g e amounts of o s c i l l a t ing energy from one c i r c u i t t o another. CSCILLATOR: A non - rotating device f o r producil3g a l t e r n a t i n g power, the out put frequency of which i s determined by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the device. OSCILLATORY CIRCUIT: A r e l a t i v e l y low r e s i s t a n c e c i r c u i t containing both inductance and c a p a c i t y , such t h a t a voltage impulse w i l l produce a curr e n t which p e r i o d i c a l l y r e v e r s e s .
PACKING:

-

Packing i n a carbon microphone i s a c o n d i t i o n caused by excess mechanical p r e s s u r e between pofnt s of contact or by adherence betrzeen It i s evidenced by p o i n t s of contact r e s u l t i n g from excessive voltages. decreased r e s i s t a n c e and s e n s i t i v i t y of the microphone.

Definitions

-

sheet 18

i

PARALLFL C O N N E C T I O N :

A p a r a l l e l connection of e l e c t r i c a l devices o r c i r c u i t s

i s one i n which t h e c u r r e n t d i v i d e s , only a p a r t of t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t passing through e a c h d e v i c e or c i r c u i t .
PARALLEL RESONANCE: A c o n d i t i o n which e x i s t s i n a c i r c u i t having inductance and c a p a c i t y connected i n p a r a l l e l , when t h e supply c u r r e n t and supply v o l t a g e a r e i n phase.
PASSIVE TRANSDUCER:

A p a s s i v e t r a n s d u c e r i s one i n which t h e power supplied t o t h e second system i s obteined e n t i r e l y from t h e power a v a i l a b l e frorn t h e f i r s t system.

PERCENTAGE MODULATION: The r a t i o of h a l f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e maximum and minimum amplitudes of a modulated wave t o t h e average amplitude, expressed i n per c e n t . PERIOD: The period of a n a l t e r n a t i n g Current i s t h e time r e q u i r e d f o r one cycle t o pass through a complete s e t of p o s i t i v e and negative values. PERIODIC CURRFNT: P e r i o d i c a l l y r e v e r s i n g c u r r e n t the frequency of which i s determined by t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n s t a n t s of t h e c i r c u i t s i n which i t flows. It may be e i t h e r damped or continuous.
PERIODIC TIME:

The time of a completed p e r i o d .

PHONOGRAPH PICKUP: A phonograph pickup i s a n e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s d u c e r a c t u a t e d by a phonograph r e c o r d and d e l i v e r i n g power t o an e l e c t r i c a l system, t h e wave form i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l system corresponding t o t h e wave form i n t h e phonograph r e c o r d .

PHOTOEIECTKIC T B " UE . form Of vacuum tube i n which the e l e c t r o n emission i s produced by t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n of t h e cathode. (Also c a l l e d t h e photoelectric cell. ) PIEzO-ELECTRIC LOUDSPEAKZR: A p i e z o - e l e c t r i c loudspeaker is one i n which t h e mechanical f o r c e s a r e obtained by use of a p i e z e - e l e c t r i c element. PIEZO-ELECTRIC PICKUP: A p i e z o - e l e c t r i c pickup i s a phonograph pickup whose e l e c t r i c a l output i s g e n e r a t e d by varying mechanical s t r e s s e s i n t h e piezo- electric c r y s t a l .
PLATE:

The common name f o r t h e anode i n a vacuum t u b e .

The sum of t h e d i r e c t c a p a c i t a n c e s between the PLATE CAPACITANCE ( C p ) : p l a t e and a l l o t h e r conductors of a vacuum tube.
PLATE CHARACTERISTIC : The g r a p h p l o t t e d between p l a t e volt age a s a b s c i s s a (See Grid C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; Mutual C and p l a t e c u r r e n t a s o r d i n a t e s . a c t e r i s t i c : and Emission C h a r a c t e r i s t i c . )

PLATE C m C U I T :

The p l a t e c i r c u i t of a n e l e c t r o n t u b e include connected d i r e c t l y i n t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t between t h e c a t p l a t e elements.

P

ate p o t e n t i a l producing it , under t h e co
tial.

GOhWCTANCE:

The r a t i o of t h e change i n

PLATE CURRENT: space

.

The d i r e c t c u r r e n t passing from t h e p l a t e through t h e vacuous

PLATE-FILAhBNT CAPACITANCE ( C p f ) : and t h e filament
PLATE RESISTANCE:

.

The d i r e c t capacitance between t h e p l a t e

The r e c i p r o c a l of t h e p l a t e conquctame.

PLATE VOLTAGE: cathode.

The voltage between t h e p l a t e and a s p e c i f i e d point of t h e

POLARITY:
POTENTIAL:

The p r o p e r t y of having opposite poles o r e l e c t r i c signs (

+ and

- ).

The degree of pressure of a n e l e c t r i c a l charge.

POTENTIOMETER: The potentiometer i s an arrangement f o r o b t a i n i n g any d e s i r e d voltage by u t i l i z i n g t h e voltage drop across t h e r e q u i r e d p o r t i o n of a current- carrying r e s i s t a n c e .

P W R AAIPLIFICATION (OF AN AMPLIFIER ): The r a t i o o f t h e a l t e r n a t ing- current O E power produced i n t h e output c i r c u i t t o t h e a l t e r n a t i n g - c u r r e n t power supplied t o the input c i r c u i t . POWERAMPLIFIER: A a m p l i f i e r t h a t i s capable of producing r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e n power i n an putput c i r c u i t .
POWER LFVEL: The power l e v e l a t any point i n a system i s an expression of the power being t r a n s m i t t e d p a s t t h i s point.

PRIMARY CELL: A primary c e l l i s a type of c e l l whose voltage i s d i r e c t l y due t o t h e chemical decomposition of matter. (See d r y c e l l ) .

PRIKARY C O I L :

A primary c o i l i s t h e input winding of a transformer.

PROTECTDE DEVICE: A device f a r keeping c u r r e n t s or v o l t a g e s of undesirably l a r g e magnitude out of a given p a r t of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t . For example, f u s e ; l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r . PULSATING CURRENT: A p e r i o d i c c u r r e n t , t h a t i s , c u r r e n t passing through successive c y c l e s , t h e a l g e b r a i c average v a l u e of which is not zero. A p u l s a t i n g current i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e sum of a n a l t e r n a t i n g and a d i r e c t current. PUSH-PULL MICROPHONE: A push- pull microphone i s one which makes use of t w o functioninq elements 180 degrees out of phase.
RADIATE:
RADIATION:

To emit e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves i n t o space. The process of e m i t t i n g electromagnetic waves i n t o space.

RADIATION EFFICIENCY:

The r a d i a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y of a n antenna i s t h e r a of power r a d i a t e d t o t h e t o t a l power d e l i v e r e d t o the antenna, a t given frequency

.

RADLATION RESISTANCE:

The r a t i o of t h e t o t a l power r a d i a t e d b t h e square of the e f f e c t i v e current a t the point of maximum Definitions

RADIO- BEACON:

A r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n i n a f i x e d geographic l o c a t i o n which e m i t s a d i s t i n c t i v e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i g n a l f o r e n a b l i n g mobile r e c e i v i n g s t a t i o n s t o determine bearings or courses.

R A D I O BEARING:

The angle between t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e advance of t h e i n coming r a d i o wave and an a r b i t r a r i l y f i x e d l i n e (such a s t h e c e n t e r l i n e of a s h i p ).

RADIO CHANIEL:

A band of f r e q u e n c i e s or wavelengths of a width s u f f i c i e n t t o permit of i t s use f o r r a d i o communicotion. The width of a channel depends upon t h e t y p e of t r a n s m i s s i o n .
/

R A D I O COMMUNICATION: Applies t o the t r a n s m i s s i o n by r a d i o of w r i t i n g , s i g n s , s i g n a l s , p i c t u r e s , and sounds of a l l kinds.
RADIO CONIMUNICATION STATION (OR RADIO STATION): c a r r y on r a d i o communications.

Any s t a t i o n equipped t o

RADIO C M A S O PS

A d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r used f o r navig?.tional purposes.

R A D I O FIELD INTENSITY: The Toot -mean-square value of t h e e l e c t r i c or magnetic f i e l d i n t e n s i t y a t a p o i n t due t o t h e passage of r a d i o waves. It i s u s u a l l y expressed tn terms of t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d i n t e n s i t y , i n microvolts p e r meter or m i l l i v o l t s per meter.
RADIO FREQUENG! : A frequency h i g h e r than those corresponding t o normally a u d i b l e sound waves,

Note:

It i s not implied t h a t r a d i a t i o n cannot be secured a t lower f r e q u e n c i e s , nor t h a t r a d i o - f r e q u e n c i e s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y above the l i m i t of a u d i b i l i t y .

RADIO-FREQUEBCY ALTERNATOR : A r o t a t i n g - t y p e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t generator which g e n e r a t e s radio- frequency power.
RADIO-FREQUENCY TRANSFORMER: cur r e n t s

.

A transformer f o r use w i t h radio- frequency

RADIO NOISE FIELD INTENSITY: A measure of the f i e l d i n t e n s i t y , a t a point ( a s a r a d i o r e c e i v i n g s t a t i o n ) of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves of an i n t e r f e r ing character. I n p r a c t i c e t h e q u a n t i t y measured i s not the f i e l d i n t e n s i t y of t h e i n t e r f e r i n g waves, b u t some q u a n t i t y which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o o r bears a known r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i e l d i n t e n s i t y .
R A D I O RANGE: A r a d i o beacon which t r a n s m i t d i r e c t e d waves by means of which d e p a r t u r e s from a given course may be observed.
R A D I O RECEIVER:

A device f o r c o n v e r t i n g r a d i o waves i n t o p e r c e p t i b l e s i g n a l s .

R A D I O TRANSWITTEE:

A d e v i c e f o r producing radio- frequency power and modifyi n g i t i n accordance w i t h a s i g n a l .

R A D I O TRANSMISSION:

The t r a n s m i s s i o n of s i g n a l s by means of r a d i a t e d e l e c t r o mag~etic waves o r i g i n a t i n g i n a c o n s t r u c t e d c i r c u i t . Definitions

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sheet 21

R A D I O IIIrAVE-FRONT DISTORTION:

waves.

A change i n the d i r e c t i o n of advance of r a d i o

REACTANCE:

Reactance i s t h e term applied t o express t h e opposition of a wire t o changes of , c u r r e n t e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t .

RECTIFIER: A device having a n asyrumetricay conduction c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s used f o r t h e conversion of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i n t o a p u l s a t i n g c u r r e n t . Such devices include vacuum-tube r e c t i f i e r s , g a s r e c t i f i e r s , oxide r e c t i f i e r s , e l e c t r o l y t i c r e c t i f i e r s , e t c . Note: In d e a l i n g w i t h r e c t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e r e c e p t i o n of r a d i o s i g n a l s t h e term " d e t e c t o r " i s p r e f e r red t o " r e c t i f i e r " . REFLEX C I R C U I T : A c i r c u i t arrangement i n which one o r more a m p l i f i e r tubes amplify the s i g n a l both before and a f t e r d e t e c t i o n . REFRACTION: The change i n d i r e c t i o n of the flow of a n e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t when i t passes from one medium t o another of d i f f e r e n t c o n d u c t i v i t y or of o t h e r differing electric qualities.
REGENERATION: The process by which a p a r t of t h e output power of an amplif y i n g device r e a c t s upon the input c i r c u i t i n such a manner a s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i n i t i a l power t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g the a m p l i f i c a t i o n . (Sometimes c a l l e d "feed back' or " r e a c t i o n " . )

REJECTOR: . c i r c u i t of inductance and c a p a c i t y which i s so arranged and P tuned a s t o o f f e r h i g h impedance t o t h e flow of c u r r e n t s of a given f r e quency and low impedance t o c u r r e n t s of a l l other frequencies.
I

RELAY: A device by means of which c o n t a c t s i n one c i r c u i t a r e operated by a 'change i n conditions i n t h e same c i r c u i t o r i n one o r more a s s o c i a t e d circuit s

.

RESIDUAL MAGNETISM: The magnetism which remains i n t h e core of a n e l e c t r o magnet a f t e r t h e c i r c u i t has been broken, RESISTANCE: Resistance i s t h e opposition t o t h e passage of a d i r e c t c u r r e n t or low-frequency a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t by any substance o r m a t e r i a l . RESISTANCE COUPLING: The a s s o c i a t i o n of one c i r c u i t w i t h another by means of r e s i s t a n c e common t o both.
RESISTIVITY:

The r e s i s t i v i t y of any m a t e r i a l i s a measure of i t s r e s i s t a n c e or opposition t o t h e flow of e l e c t r i c i t y .

RESISTOR: ance

.

A device used i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s t o introduce t h e element o f r e s i s

RESONANCE: Two c i r c u i t s a r e i n resonance i f they are i n tune w i t h ea t h a t I s , i f t h e products oP t h e inductance and c a p a c i t y of each ar RESOHANCE FREQUENCY ( O F A REACTIVE CIRCUIT ): The frequency a t whi c u r r e n t and supply voltage of t h e c i r c u i t are i n phase. Def i n i t

R S N N E T A S O M R : A transformer h t h condenser load, whose c i r c u i t s EO A C R NF R E a r e adjusted a s a whole t o have t h e same frequency a s t h a t of the a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t s u p p l i e d t o t h e primary, t h e r e b y c a u s i n g the secondary v o l t a g e t o b u i l d up t o h i g h e r v a l u e s than would otherwise be a t t a i n e d . RHEOSTAT: A r e s i s t o r which is provided with means f o r r e a d i l y a d j u s t i n g i t s resistance. REVERSED G R I D CURRENT: vacuous space. The d i r e c t c u r r e n t passing t o t h e g r i d through t h e

~1ppI.E FILTER: A low-pass f i l t e r designed t o reduce the r i p p l e c u r r e n t while f r e e l y passing t h e d i r e c t c u r r e n t from a r e c t i f i e r or g e n e r a t o r .

RIPPLE V L A E : The a1 t e r n a t i n g component of u n i d i r e c t i o n a l voltage from a OT G r e c t i f i e r or g e n e r a t o r . Per c e n t r i p p l e is t h e r a t i o of t h e r . m . 8 . value of the r i p p l e v o l t a g e t o t h e a l g e b r a i c average v a l u e of the t o t a l (R . .S. i s t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r r o o t M voltage expressed i n percentage. mean square. )
SCREEN G R I D : A e l e c t r o d e of s u i t a b l e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r p o s e d between c e r t a i n n of t h e other e l e c t r o d e s of a vacuum tube t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t of t h e capacitance between them. SCREEN4RID VACUUM TUBE: A type of vacuum tube i n which t h e capacitance between c e r t a i n e l e c t r o d e s ( o r d i n a r i l y the c o n t r o l g r i d and t h e p l a t e ) i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y e l i m i n a t e d by t h e i n t e r p o s i t i o n of an a d d i t i o n a l e l e c t r o d e of s u i t a b l e p o t e n t i a l

.

S C N A Y CELL: EO D R

Same a s Storage Cell.

SELECTIVITY: The degree t o which a r a d i o r e c e i v e r i s capable of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between s i g n a l s of d i f f e r e n t c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c i e s , This c h o r a c t e r i s t i c i s not e x p r e s s i b l e by a s i n g l e numerical value, but r e q u i r e s one o r more graphs f o r i t s e x p r e s s i o n .
SELF-INDUCTANCE: Self- inductance i s t h e property of e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s which t e n d s t o prevent any change i n t h e c u r r e n t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e c i r cuit s

.

SENSE FTXDER: An a d d i t i o n t o a d i r e c t i o n f i n d e r which permits determination of tlie d i r e c t i o n without 180 degrees ambiguity.

SELF-HETERODYNE RECEPTION: A system of heterodyne r e c e p t i o n by u t i l i z i n g a device which i s b o t h an o s c i l l a t o r and a d e t e c t o r . SENSITIVITY: The degree t o which a r a d i o r e c e i v e r responds t o s i g n a l s of It i s measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y by t h e f r e q ~ e n c y o which i t i s tuned. t t h e r e c i . r o c a l of t h e Nomal Radio F i e l d I n t e n s i t y . p SERIES OR F E E D RESISTANCE (OF A MULTIPLE TUNED ANTENNA ) : The q u o t i e n t t h e power d e l i v e r e d t o the antenna by t h e square of t h e c u r r e n t i n l i n e f e e d i n g t h e antenna.

Definition

SERIES RESONANCE: A c o n d i t i o n which e x i s t s i n a c i r c u i t h a v i n g i n d u c t a n c e and c a p a c i t y connected i n s e r i e s , when t h e s u p p l y c u r r e n t and s u p p l y v o l t a g e a r e i n phase. SIDE BANDS: The bands of f r e q u e n c i e s , one on e i t h e r s i d e of t h e c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y , proeuced by t h e p r o c e s s of m o d u l a t i o n . SIDE FREQUENCY: The f r e q u e n c y on e i t h e r s i d e of t h e c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y p r o duced by t h e p r o c e s s o f s i n g l e - f r e q u e n c y m o d u l a t i o n . SIGNAL-NOISE R A T I O : The r a t i o a t a p o i n t of t h e f i e l d i n t e n s i t y of t h e r a d i o wave t o t h e r a d i o n o i s e f i e l d i n t e n s i t y .

I

SIGNAL WAVE:

A wave, t h e form of which conveys a s i g n a l .

SINE CURVE: A wave- like curve drawn t o r e p r e s e n t t h e changes i n s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t or v o l t a g e . SINGLE-SIDE-BAND TRANSMISSION: That method of o p e r a t i o n i n which one s i d e band i s t r a n s m i t t e d , and t h e o t h e r s i d e band Is s u p p r e s s e d . The c a r r i e r wave may be e i t h e r t r a n s m i t t e d or s u p p r e s s e d . SOLENOID: An e l e c t r o n a g n e t i c c o i l w i t h o u t t h e i r o n c o r e . Same a s Group Frequency.

SPARK FREQUENCY:

SPARK GAP: An arrangement of e l e c t r o d e s used for c l o s i n g a c i r c u i t ( u s u a l l y o s c i l l a t o r y ) a t a p r e d e t e r m i n e d v o l t a g e . Among t h e t y p e s of s p a r k g a p s a r e p l a i n g a p , r o t a r y gap, synchronous gap, and quenched g a p . SPARK TRANSMITTER: A r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r which u t i l i z e s t h e o s c i l l a t o r y d i s charge o f a condenser t h r o u g h a n i n d u c t a n c e a d a s p a r k gap a s t h e s o u r c e of i t s r a d i o - f r e q u e n c y power. SPECIFIC GRAVITY: The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f a n y s u b s t a n c e i s i t s weight i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h a t o f a n e q u a l volume o f w a t e r . SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITY: The s p e c i f i c i n d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of a s u b s t a n c e i s a d i r e c t measure o f i t s a b i l i t y t o s t o r e up e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y when used as a d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l i n a condenser. STATIC : C ond.uction o r c h a r g i n g c u r r e n t i n a n a n t e n n a r e s u l t i n g from p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t between t h e a n t e n n a and charged b o d i e s o r masses of g a s . Note: I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h i s term h a s come. t o be used q u i t e g e n e r a l l y a s a synonym f o r a t m o s p h e r i c s . STOPPING CONDENSER: A c o n d e n s e r u s e d t o i n t r o d u c e a c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h pedance i n some b r a n c h o f a c i r c u i t f o r t h e purpose of l i m i t i n g t h e of low- frequency a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t o r d i r e c t c u r r e n t w i t h o u t m a t e r a f f e c t i n g the flow of high- frequency a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t .
STaRAGE CELLS:

A s t o r a g e c e l l i s a t y p e of c e l l i n which t h e che of d i s c h a r g e may be r e v e r s e d by a n e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t t o c h a r t o i t s o r i g i n a l condition.

Def i n i t i

STRAYS: E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s i n r a d i o r e c e p t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h o s e produced by r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g s y s t e m s . SUPW-YETERODYNE RECEPTION: A method of r e c e p t i o n i n which t h e r e c e i v e d v o l t a g e i s combined w i t h t h e v o l t a g e f r o m a l o c a l o s c i l l a t o r and c o n v e r t e d i n t o v o l t a g e of an i n t e r m e d i a t e f r e q u e n c y which i s t h e n a m p l i f i e d and d e t e c t e d t o r e p r o d u c e t h e o r i g i n a l s i g n a l wave. (Sometimes c a l l e d " s u p e r s o n i c r e c e p t i o n " and "double d e t e c t i o n " ) . SWINGING: The v a r i a t i o n i n f r e q u e n c y of a t r a n s m i t t e d wave r e s u l t i n g from momentary changes i n t h e t r a n s m i t t e r c i r c u i t s . T h i s may be evidenced by
1.
2. A v a r i a t i o n i n t h e b e a t n o t e when a l o c a l o s c i l l a t o r is adjusted t o t h e c a r r i e r frequency, o r A v a r i a t i o n i n i n t e n s i t y of t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l .

SYNCHRONY: The a d j u s t m e n t o f one c i r c u i t t o a n o t h e r , o r o f a t r a n s m i t t e r t o a r e c e i v e r , so t h a t t h e i r time p e r i o d s a r e t h e same.

SYNTONIC CIRCUITS: S y n t o n i c c i r c u i t s a r e two o r more o s c i l l a t i n g c i r c u i t s h a v i n g s i m i l a r t i m e p e r i o d s o r n a t u r a l f r e q u e n c y of o s c i l l a t i o n .
"T" ANTENNA: ' A f l a t t o p a n t e n n a t h e l e a d - i n of which i s t a k e n from about t h e c e n t e r of t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o r t i o n .

TAhrK C I R C U I T : An i n t e r m e d i a t e o s c i l l a t o r y c i r c u i t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o u t p u t c i r c u i t o f a vacuum t u b e t r a n s m i t t e r which a b s o r b s t h e o u t p u t of the vacuum t u b e t r a n s m i t t e r i n t h e form o f e n e r g y i m p u l s e s o f h i g h v a l u e and s h o r t d u r a t i o n and d e l i v e r s the po-qer t o t h e l o a d i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i n u s o i d a l form, TELEPHONE RECEIVER: A t e l e p h o n e r e c e i v e r i s a n e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c t r a n s d u c e r a c t u a t e d b y power from a n e l e c t r i c a l system and s u p p l y i n g power t o a n a c o u s t i c system, t h e wave f o r m i n t h e a c o u s t i c system c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e wave form i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l system. TELEVISION: The e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s m i s s i o n of a s u c c e s s i o n o f images and t h e i r r e c e p t i o n i n such a way a s t o g i v e a s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n t i n u o u s r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e o b j e c t o r s c e n e b e f o r e t h e eye o f a d i s t a n t o b s e r v e r . TETRODE: A t y p e of vacuum t u b e c o n t a i n i n g a n anode, a c a t h o d e , and two a d d i t i o n a l e l e c t r o d e s ( o r d i n a r f l y t h e two a d d i t i o n a l e l e c t r o d e s a r e of t h e n a t u r e of g r i d s ) .
TICKLER: A t i c k l e r i s t h e name sometimes a p p l i e d t o the c o i l i n t h e p l a t e c i r c u i t used t o f e e d some o f t h e e n e r g y back i n t o t h e g r i d c i r c u i t .

TREEMhL RECEIVER: A t h e r m a l r e c e i v e r i s a t e l e p h o n e r e c e i v e r i n which t e m p e r a t u r e of a c o n d u c t o r i s caused t o v a r y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e c u r r i n p u t , t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g sound waves a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x p a n s i o n c o n t r a c t i o n of t h e a d j a c e n t a i r . TRER?dIONIC : R e l a t i n g t o e l e c t r o n e m i s s i o n under t h e i n f l u e n c e of

Def i n i t i o

THERMOCOUPLE AMMETER:

A ammeter dependent f o r i t s i n d i c a t i o n s on the n change i n therno electromotive f o r c e s e t up i n a thermo e l e c t r i c couple which i s heated by the c u r r e n t t o be measured. The t h r o a t of a horn i s t h e end w i t h t h e s m a l l e r cross
Of

THROAT O A HORN: F

s e c t i o n a l area.
TIME PERIOD:
TORQUE:

Ascertained by t h e amount i n the c i r c u i t .

inductance, c a p a c i t y and r e s i s t a n c e

The value of f o r c e s t e n d i n g t o produce r o t a t i o n .

TOTAL EMISSION:

The value of t h e c u r r e n t c a r r i e d by e l e c t r o n s emitted from a cathode under t h e i n f l u e n c e of a v o l t a g e such a s w i l l draw away a l l t h e e l e c t r o n s emitted,

TRANSFORMER: A transformer i s a device f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g energy from one c i r c u i t t o another. TRANSDUCER: A transducer i s a device a c t u a t e d by power from one system and supplying power t o another system. These systems may be e l e c t r i c a l , mechanical, or a c o u s t i c . TRANSNISSION-FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTIC : A graph showing the transmission e f f i c i ency of a c i r c u i t o r t r a n s m i s s i o n path a s o r d i n a t e s and t h e frequency a s abscissas. TRANSMISSION LEVEL: The r a d i o f i e l d i n t e n s i t y o r t h e s i g n a l i n g power amplitude a t any point i n a communication system, expressed e i t h e r i n some absolute u n i t or w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o an a r b i t r a r y base value. TRANSMISSION LOSS: The l o s s of power s u f f e r e d by a t r a n s m i t t e d wave i n pass ing along a transmission p a t h o r through a c i r c u i t device. TRAMSNISSION UXIT (THE DECIBEL--"dbl'): The transmission u n i t i s used f o r exp r e s s i n g c e r t a i n performance i n d i c e s of e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c t r a n s d u c e r s . This u n i t i s logarithmic i n n a t u r e and possesses a unique r e l a t i o n w i t h the p h y s i o l o g i c a l response of t h e e a r ; namely, over t h e usual range of sound i n t e n s i t i e s one t r a n s m i s s i o n u n i t corresponds very c l o s e l y t o t h e minimum p e r c e p t i b l e change i n loudness. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e performance i n d i c e s i n terms of what one may e x p w t t o h e a r i s thereby f a c i l i t a t e d by expressing them i n transmission u n i t s .
TRICKLE CHARGER: A device designed t o charge a s t o r a g e b a t t e r y a t a low r a t e continuously o r during a major p o r t i o n of t h e 24 hour day.
TRIODE:

A type of vacuum tube containing an anode, a cathode, and a t h i r d e l e c t r o d e , i n which the c u r r e n t flowing between t h e anode and t h e ca i s c o n t r o l l e d by tk voltage between t h e t h i r d o r c o n t r o l e l e c t r o d e the cathode.

TUNING:

The adjustment of a c i r c u i t o r system t o secure optimum d e s i r e d current; commonly, t h e adjustment of a c i r c u i t o r c i r c resonance. Def i n i t i

UMBRELLA A N T E N N A : A n an cone w i t h the apex a t UNDAMPED WAVE: A train wave i s e q u a l t o that An a

c o r d u c t o r s of which form e l e m e n t s of a o which t h e l e a d - i n i s c o n m c t e d .
n which t h e amplitude of e a c h s u c c e s s i v e ve preceding and f o l l o w i n g it.

UNILATERAL ANTFNNA:

r a d i o waves i n l ~ r g e r other directions.
VACUUM TUBE:
A device an e n c l o s u r e e v a c u a t subs t a n t i a l l y d u e t o

ng t h e p r o p e r t y of r a d i a t i n g o r i n some one a n g u l a r r e g i o n than a number o f e l e c t r o d e s c o n t a i n e

Note: Where

c a l l particular attention

VACUUM-TUBE MODULATOR:

element

.

A

l o y i n g a vacuum t u b e a s a m o d u l s t i

I

VACUUM-TUBE RECTIFIER:

A t u b e whidh r e c t i f i e s an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t b y u t i l i z i n g t h e e l e c t r o n f l o w between two e l e c t r o d e s i n a vacuum o r i n a gas.

VACUUM-TUBE TRANSMITTER: VACUUM-TUBE JOLTM METER: VALVE:

A r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r i n which vacuum t u b e s a r e u t i l i z e d t o c o n v e r t t h e a p p l i e d e l e c t r i c power i n t o r a d i o - f r e q u e n c y power.

A d e v i c e u t i l i z i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a vacuum t u b e f o r measuring a l t e r n a t i n g v o l t a g e s .

Same a s Vacuum Tube.

(The term " valve" i s used w i d e l y i n England).

VARIABLE CONDENSER: VARIOCOUPLER:

A v a r i a b l e condenser i s one whose e l e c t r i c a l c a p a c i t y may be changed o r v a r i e d . A v a r i o c o u p l e r i s composed of a s e t of c o i l s , g e n e r a l l y s o a r r a n g e d a s t o make it p o s s i b l e t o v a r y t h e c o u p l i n g between d i f f e r e n t circuits.

VARIOMETRR: A v a r i o m e t e r c o n s i s t s o f two c o i l s which may b e p l a c e d i n such

r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i n d u c t a n c e e f f e c t s of e a c h winding may be made t o a s s i s t o r p r a c t i c a l l y n e u t r a l i z e e a c h o t h e r .

k$

VOLT:
@$

k j

j, v o l t 1 s t h e u n i t of e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e and i s t h e e l e c t r i c a l pressure i r e q u i r e d t o send a c u r r e n t of 1 ampere t h r o u g h a r e s i s t a n c e of 1 o h .

VOLTAGE AMPLIFICATION:

The r a t i o of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g v o l t a g e produced a t o u t p u t t e r m i n a l s of a n a m p l i f i e r t o t h e a l t e r n a t i n g v o l t a g e impressed ( T h i s term s h o u l d n o t be used t o d e s c r i b e a p r o t h e input terminals.

VOLTAGE DIVIDER:

A r e s i s t o r provided w i t h f i x e d o r movable c o n s t a c two f i x e d t e r m i n a l c o n t a c t s . C u r r e n t i s passed between t h e t e r m i and t h e d e s i r e d v o l t a g e i s o b t a i n e d a c r o s s a p o r t i o n of t h e res t e r m " p o t e n t i o m e t e r " i s d f t e n e r r o n e o u s l y used f o r t h i s d e v i

Definitions

- sheet

27

VOLTMETFR: An i n s t r u m e n t of h i g h r e s i s t a n c e f o r m e a s u r i n g d i f f e r e n c e o f p o t e n t i a l i n v o l t s , o r the voltage i n a c i r c u i t . WATT: A w a t t i s t h e u n i t o f e l e c t r i c a l power, and r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o d u c t of c u r r e n t and e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e . WAVE: ( a ) A p r o p a g a t e d d i s t u r b a n c e , u s u a l l y p e r i o d i c ; a s a n e l e c t r i c wave o r a soun3 wave. ( b ) A s i n g l e c y c l e of such a d i s t u r b a n c e . ( c ) A p e r i o d i c v a r i a t i o n a s r e p r e s e n t e d by a graph.

WAVE ANTENNA:

A h o r i z o n t a l a e r i a l t h e p h y s i c a l l e n g t h of which i s o f t h e same o r d e r o f magnitude a s that of the s i g n a l i n g waves t o be r e c e i v e d , and which i s so u s e d a s t o be s t r o n g l y d i r e c t i o n a l . A change

W V F'RONT DISTORTION: AE

in the d i r e c t i o n o f advance of r a d i o waves.

WAVELENGTH: The d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d i n one p e r i o d o r c y c l e b y a p e r i o d i c d i s t u r b a n c e . The d i s t a n c e between corresponding p h a s e s o f two c o n s e c u t i v e waves of a wave t r a i n . The q u o t i e n t o f v e l o c i t y by f r e q u e n c y .
INAWETFX:

A wavemeter i s a d e v i c e a r r a n g e d and c a l i b r a t e d t o r e a d t h e l e n g t h of a r a d i a t e ? wave d i r e c t l y i n m e t e r s . ( A l s o knorrn a s f r e q u e n c y meter.)
A w a v e - t r a i n i s a s h o r t s e r i e s of c y c l e s of a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i n t e r r u p t e d or s e p a r a t e d by q ~ l i e tp e r i o d s .

WAVE-TRAIN:

ABBREVI'ATIONS Term Alternating- current Ampere Antenna Audio- frequency Cycle p e r s e c o Decibel Frequency Ground Abbreviat i o n a- c

Megohm rhicrofarad ~ic r o h e n r g Micromicrofarad MS!icrovolt rvlicrovolt p e r meter M i l l i v o l t p e r meter Milliwatt Ohm Power F a c t o r Radio - f r e q u e n c y Volt

.
mv/m mw
-

ABBREVIATIONS F R METRIC PREFIXES O

Prefix

Abbreviation

cent i
deci deka hecto kilo mega micro mi1l.i

Definitions

-

s h e e t 29

i

STANDARD

RADIO

SYMBOLS

COURTESY. INSTITUIE OF W EHGUlELRS

AERIAL

Y'

+
AMMETER COIL ANTENNA

1

_r"

THE WSlTlVE ELECTRODE IS INDICATED BY THE LONG LINE.

CONDENSER FMED

+

ARC

CONDENSER FlXEO SHIELDED

CONDENSER VARIABLE

CONDENSER VARIABLE (WITH MOVING PLATE INDICATED)

CONDENSER
VARIABLE. SHIELDED

COUNTERPOISE

CRYSTAL DETECTOR

FREQUENCY METER WAVEMETER

GALVANOMETER

GLOW LAMP

GROUND INDUCTOR INDUCTOR ADJUSTABLE

INDUCTOR IRON CORE

INDUCTOR VARIABLE

JACK

KEY

MICROPHONE LIGHTNING ARRESTER LOUD SPEAKER TELEPHONE TRANSMITTER

I
PHOTO ELECTRIC CELL

Definitions

-

sheet 3 0

STANDARD

COURTESY iNSTlTUTE OF RADIO ENGINEERS

RESISTOR SPARK GAP ROTARY

RADIO

SYMBOLS

PIKOELECTRIC PLATE

RESISTOR ADJUSTABLE

-*TELEPHONE RECEIVER

--D+
SPARK GAP
PWN

RESISTOR VARIABLE

SPARK GAP QUENCHED

THERMOELEMENT

TRANSFORMER AIR CORE

TRANSFORMER IRON CORE

TRANSFORMER
W ~ T HAL VBE I

COUPLING

TRANSFORMER WITH VARlASLE COUPLING (WITH MOVING

WIRES

WIRES CROSSED. NOT JOINED

JOINED coi~ ~NDICATEDI

VACUUM TUBES

. .
DIODE OR HALF. WAVE RECTlFlER TRIODE WITH DIRECTLY HEATED CATHODE TRIODE WITH INOiRECTLY HEATED CATHODE SCREEN GRlD WlTH DIRECTLY HEATED CATHODE

.
SCREEN GRlD WlTH INDIRECTLY HEATED CATHODL RECTIFIER, FULL-WAVE FILAMENTLESS

.
RECTIFIER. HALF-WAVE RUIMENTLESS

RECTIFIER FULL-WAVE WITH DIRECTLY HEKILO CATHODE

Definitions

- sheet

31

M A R C O N / /NST/TUTE

s u n d e d /909

FOKIWORD

-

INTRODUCTION TO R A D I O .

O November 2 , 1920 r a d i o s t a t i o n KDKA "went on the a i r " a t East P i t t s b u r g h , n Pennsylvania the f i r s t broadcast s t a t i o n i n the world t o f e a t u r e r e g u l a r broadcast programs. For t h e following seven y e a r s , or from 1920 u n t i l 1927, t h e r a d i o i n d u s t r y passed through what was probably i t s most c r i t i c a l period of development. I n d u s t r i a l c h a r t s showed t h a t more t h a n twice a s many r a d i o s e t s , t u b e s and p a r t s were s o l d i n t h e t h r e e y e a r s from 1927 t o 1930 than i n h the preb3ous seven years from 1920 t o 1927. W y was t h i s s o ? Largely because people began t o b e l i e v e i n r a d i o . During the e a r l i e r years of r a d i o broadcasting t h e average person had very l i t t l e f a i t h i n t h i s new form of e n t e r t a i n m e n t ; he considered r a d i o t o be merely a hobby f o r a l e i s u r e c l a s s of i n d i v i d u a l s who wanted a new plaything.

-

people were a s s k e p t i c a l about r a d i o a s t h e y always have been about most everything e n t i r e l y new. When Fulton invented t h e steamboat it was known a s " F u l t o n f s F o l l y ' . When the Wright brothers were l a b o r i n g i n the development of a i r p l a n e s t h e y were considered f o o l i s h and queer i n d f v i d u a l s . Hemy Ford experienced tremendous d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l those who d i d i n v e s t a few backing t o build h i s h o r s e l e s s c a r r i a g e s hundred d o l l a r s with him Were made independently wealthy years l a t e r .

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Not so many y e a r s ago t h e backers of t h e telephone were i n u r g e n t need of c a n i t a l , and telephone s t o c k t h a t was purchased a t t h a t time f o r a few d o l l a r s i s today worth a f o r t u n e . And i n r a d i o we have s i m i l a r conditions. The stock of one of the l e a d i n g American r a d i o companies r e c e n t l y increased from a l i t t l e over t h i r t y d o l l a r s a share t o more t h a n f i v e hundred d o l l a r s a share i n a period of two year*. S e v e r a l years ago the following a r t i c l e appeared i n a prominent Boston newspaper: " A man about 46 y e a r s Of a g e , g i v i n g t h e name of Joshua Coppersmith, has been a r r e s t e d i n N w York f o r attempting t o e x t o r t funds from ignorant e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s people by e x h i b i t i n g a device which he says w i l l convey t h e human voice any d i s t a n c e over m e t a l l i c wires so t h a t i t w i l l be heard by t h e l i s t e n e r a t the o t h e r end. He c a l l s t h e instrument a telephone which i s obviously intended t o i m i t a t e t h e word t e l e g r ~ p h and win the confidence of those who know of the s u c c e s s of t h e l a t t e r instrument without understanding t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon which i t i s based. Well informed people know t h a t i t i s imtmssible t o transmit t h e human voice over wires a s mag be done w i t h d o t s an2 dashes and s i g n a l s of t h e Morse code, and t h a t , were it p o s s i b l e t o do s o , t h e t h i n g would be of no p r a c t i c a l value. The a u t h o r i t i e s who apprehended t h i s c r i m i n a l a r e t o be congratulated and it i s hoped t h a t h i s punishment w i l l be prompt and f i t t i n g , t h a t i t may s e r v e a s an example t o o t h e r conscienceless schemers who e n r i c h themselves a t t h e expense of t h e i r f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s " .

It i s f o r t u n a t e t h a t Marconf d i d not l i v e i n t h a t period of ignorance bef o r e he c a r r i e d out h i s dream of spanning the A t l a n t i c Ocean by Wireless; t h i s achievement of Marconits i n the year 1901, i s considered t o be one of t h g r e a t e s t wonders of s c i e n c e . Without h i s g r e a t d i s c o v e r y t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r e s e n t d a y r a d i o comrnunicat i o n would be impossible.
s o t h a t you may g e t a b e t t e r and more comprehensive idea of the p r o g r e s s of r a d i o w have c l a s s i f i e d t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s of i t s development i n t o e t h r e e psriods, beginning w i t h t h e r e c o r d s of t h e e a r l y experimenters. EVENTS DURING THE FIRST PERIOD. Throughout the f i r s t p e r i o d , from 1600 t o 1895, t h e r e c o r d s a r e q u i t e b r i e f and widely s c a t t e r e d . Undoubtedly many v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s were made t o r a d i o science by e a r l y experimenters whose i d e n t i t y w i l l always remain unknown. I n 1660, Roger Bacon, a n English s c i e n t i s t , experimented w i t h a c i r c u l a r alphabet placed on a p a i r of magnetic compasses, expecting t h a t one compass mi@;ht be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e o t h e r f o r t h e purpose of connnunicati n g between two s e p a r a t e d p o i n t s . T h i s i d e a , however, was not s u c c e s s f u l because t h e i n v e n t o r was not aware of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r t h ' s majinetic i n f l u e n c e s f l x e d t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e compass needles. Since t h e t h e o r y of c u r r e n t and e l e c t r i c i t y were unknown during Bacon's time h i s experiments w i t h magnetic compasses a l s o proved a f a i l u r e . However, t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b y s c i e n t i s t s more t h a n t h r e e hundred years ago proves t o us t h a t even a t t h a t e a r l y d a t e t h e y were s t r i v i n g t o f i n d a way t o communicate between d i s t a n t p o i n t s without t h e a i d of i n t e r v e n i n g w i r e s or metals. These e x p e r i menters r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was some means unknown t o them by which i n t e l l i gence could be conveyed through s p a c e , without the use of a n a c t u a l p h y s i c a l conducting medium between p o i n t s oS t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n . The development of d e v i c e s capable of producing f r i c t i o n a l e l e c t r i c i t y occupied t h e a t t e n t i o n of e a r l y s c i e n t i s t s , and i n 1672 Von Guericke i n vented a f r i c t i o n machine c o n s i s t i n g of a globe of s u l p h u r mounted on an a x l e which was revolved w i t h a crank. By h o l d i n g his hand a g a i n s t t h e r e v o l v i n g globe Von Guericke found t h a t e l e c t r i c a l charqes were produced and r e t a i n e d upon t h e s u r f a c e of t h e globe. The "charged globe possessed t h e p r o p e r t y of a t t r a c t i n g l i g h t o b j e c t s , s u c h a s b i t s of paper and c l o t h . L a t e r , about t h e year 1710, a n o t h e r experimenter s u b s t i t u t e d a c i r c u l a r f l a t g l a s s p l a t e i n p l a c e of t h e globe of sulphur and produced f r i c t i o n a l o r " s t a t i c " e l e c t r i c i t y by l i g h t l y p r e s s i n g a cushion of c l o t h a g a i n s t t h e g l s s s plate. I n 1719 P r o f e s s o r Cundens of Leyden succeeded i n making a simple d e v i c e f o r f l b o t t l i n g up" an e l e c t r f j c a l oharge. This d i s c o v e r y was, i n r e a l i t y , t h e b i r t h of the "condenser t h i s i s t h e name g i v e n t o a d e v i c e used (some a u t h o r i t i e s s t a t e t h a t t o s t o r e up energy i n e l e c t r o s t a t i c form. Musschenbroek, a German p r o f e s s o r of philosophy and mathematics, was the f i r s t t o achieve t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . )

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Benjamin F r a n k l i n performed many e l e c t r i c a l experiments d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h e e i g h t e e n t h century. His i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n the formul a t i o n of t h e b a s i c e l e c t r i c a l law which s t a t e s t h a t "bodies charged with F RW R OE OD

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s i d e r a b l e h e i g h t by a k i t e ) he was g r e a t l y acclaimed and made a Fellow of t h e Hoyal S o c i e t y of London. Now, who would e v e r imagine t h a t f r o g s t l e g s could be u t i l i z e d i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d ? Yet, from abouC 1780. t o 1830, t h e y were used i n such l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s t h a t a t times t h e demand o f t e n exceeded the supply. It i s r e l a t e d t h a t i n t h e y e a r 1780 t h e wife of Galvani, an experimenter, when preparing supper f o r a group of s c i e n t i s t s a c c i d e n t l y touched a c e r t a i n nerve i n t h e l e g of a f r o g , when a t t h e same moment one of t h e s c i e n t i s t s was experimenting with a nearby s t a t i c machine. They were a l l amazed a t s e e i n g t h e f r o g ' s l e g jump and k i c k a s though it were r e a l l y a l i v e . A f t e r t h a t i n c i d e n t f r o g s t l e g s were i n demand f o r e l e c t r i c a l exp e r i m e n t a t i o n and f o r many y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r t h e y were used a s storm i n d i cators. A approaching e l e c t r i c a l storm could be f o r e c a s t e d because t h e n l e g would t w i t c h and s t r u g g l e . e And now w come t o t h e b i r t h of the s t o r a g e b a t t e r y . I n 1780, an I t a l i a n s c i e n t i s t named V o l t a , d i s c o v e r e d a way of producing e l e c t r i c i t y by means of a device c o n s i s t i n g of z i n c and copper p l a t e s between which were placed moistened p i e c e s of cardboard. An e l e c t r i c a l p r e s s u r e ( v o l t a g e ) was gene r a t e d by t h e d e v i c e due t o t h e chemical a c t i o n of t h e wet cardboard upon t h e z i n c and copper p l a t e s and tkiis p r e s s u r e , o r e l e c t r o m o t i v e force,was u t i l i z e d t o s e t up a flow of c u r r e n t i n a c i r c u i t connected t o t h e p l a t e s . The t h e o r y r e l a t i n g t o t h e flow of an o s c i l l a t o r y c u r r e n t was expounded by Joseph Henry, an American, i n l820. H e found t h a t an o s c i l l a t i n g c u r r e n t was produced when a condenser' d i s c h a r g e d through a c o i l of wire. A n o s c i l l a t i n g c u r r e n t i s an a l t e r n a t r n g c u r r e n t t h a t flows w i t h g r e a t r a p i d i t y back and f o r t h through a conductive p a t h o r medium. P r o f e s s o r Savory i n 1827 discovered t h a t when a condenser d i s c h a r g e d , some of i t s energy was a c t u a l l y p r o j e c t e d outward i n t o s p a c e , H noticed t h a t e a needle would become magnetized when placed i n t h e v i c i n i t y of a d i s c h a r g i n g condenser. This d i s c o v e r y gave c o n s i d e r a b l e encouragement t o s c i e n t i s t s and t h e y put f o r t h t h e i r most c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t s t o f i n d a means of t r a n s m i t t i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e without t h e a i d of w i r e s . Probably one of t h e most important of a l l d i s c o v e r i e s i n e l e c t r i c i t y was made by Faraday i n 1831 t h i s was t h e p r i n c i p l e of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n . Faraday found t h a t i f a c u r r e n t of e l e c t r i c i t y was made t o flow i n t e r m i t t e n t l y i n a w i r e , by opening and c l o s i n g a c i r c u i t , t h i s a c t i o n would produce an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i n a neighboring c i r c u i t not d i r e c t l y connected t o t h e c i r c u i t i n which t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t c u r r e n t was flowing. L a t e r , i n 1851, Faraday discovered t h e p r i n c i p l e of t h e e l e c t r i c motor. H e found t h a t if a conductor ( a loop of w i r e ) was f r e e t o move about i t s a x i s , and i f i t was placed n e a r the p o l e s of a magnet, t h e loop of wire would

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r o t a t e when an e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t p a s s e d t h r o u g h i t . T h i s r e s u l t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e a c t i o n between t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d s e t up a t t h e p o l e s of a magnet and t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d about a c u r r e n t c a r r y i n g c o n d u c t o r c o u l d b e made t o produce m e c h a n i c a l motion.
A few y e a r s a f t e r t h i s d i s c o v e r y Faraday i n v e n t e d and c o n s t r u c t e d a p p a r a t u s f o r g e n e r a t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y and a l s o i n v e n t e d and d e v e l o p e d t h e " i n d u c t i o n c o i l " . T h i s d e v i c e makes it p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y from one c i r c u i t t o a n o t h e r . He a l s o l a b o r e d i n c e s s a n t l y on h i s i d e a t h a t t h e s p a c e s u r r o u n d i n g o u r e a r t h could be u t i l i z e d a s a medium f o r c o n veying electromagnetic energy without t h e a i d of w i r e s .

About t h i s time Maxwell b r o u g h t f o r t h many a s t o u n d i i l g t h e o r i e s on e l e c t r i c a l phenomena, c h i e f among which was t h e one i n r e g a r d t o e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves. By m a t h e m a t i c a l d e d u c t i o n Maxwell p r e d i c t e d t h a t e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e s p r o p a g a t e d e f f e c t s t h r o u g h s p a c e i n t h e form o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves, t h u s s e t t i n g up a d i s t u r b a n c e that c o u l d be d e t e c t e d w i t h s u i t a b l e equipment a t some d i s t a n t p o i n t .

In 1842 i t was r e c o r d e d t h a t Morse, the i n v e n t o r of w i r e t e l e g r a p h y , s u c ceeded i n s e n d i n g messages s h o r t d i s t a n c e s w i t h o u t t h e a i d of w i r e s . Then t h e r e came a s u c c e s s i o n o f well-known s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t o r s ; D r . 0 Shaughn e s s e y i n 1849, P r o f e s s o r I i i g h t o n i n 1872, P r o f e s s o r Trowbridge i n 1880 and P r o f e s s o r Dolbenr i n 1882, a l l of whom u t i l i z e d F a r a d a y ' s p r i n c i p l e s and weye s u c c e s s f u l i n communicating s h o r t d i s t a n c e s b y w i r e l e s s .
H e i n r i c h H e r t z , a German, confirmed M a x w e l l f s t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves. F u r t h e r m o r e , he proved t h a t t h e s e waves p e n e t r a t e d t h r o u g h i n s u l a t o r s and m e t a l s o f a l l k i n d s , i n c l u d i n g i r o n and s t e e l , and t h a t t h e y were c a p a b l e of r e f l e c t i o r ~and r e f r a c t i o n , and t h a t t h e i r l e n g t h c o u l d be measured. It s h o u l d be b o r n e i n mind t h a t r a d i o waves and e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves a r e one and t h e same t h i n g . They a r e o f t e n c a l l e d " H e r t z i a n waves" i n honor of I i e r t z . p r o f e s s o r B r a n l y , o f t h e C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s , made a n o t a b l e cont r i b u t i o n t o r a d i o s c i e n c e between t h e g e a r s 1890 t o 1892 by p e r f e c t i n g a small d e v i c e , c a l l e d a " c o h e r e r " , t o d e t e c t t h e p r e s e n c e o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves. While t h e c o h e r e r c o u l d n o t compare i n e f f i c i e n c y w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a d a y vacuum t u b e a s . d e t e c t o r , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d e v i c e was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d , and s e r v e d a s a m a t e r i a l s t e p f o r w a r d i n the a r t of r a d i o d u r i n g i t s p i o n e e r d a y s . The c o h e r e r c o n s i s t e d o f a g l a s s t u b e c o n t s i n i n g m e t a l l i c f i l i n g s which formed a l o o s e e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n between two e l e c t r o d e s . E l e c t r i c d i s c h a r g e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e c o h e r e r , o r r a d i o s i g n a l s conveyed t o i t by means o f a s u i t a b l e w i r e a n t e n n a , would c a u s e t h e f i l i n g s t o c l i n g t o g e t h e r and t h e r e b y p a s s an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t w h i c h a c t u e t e d a t e l e phone h e a d - s e t , c a u s i n g t h e l a t t e r t o produce sound. Thus, by ernploylng b o t h t h e c o h e r e r and t h e t e l e p h o n e s t h e d e t e c t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves was mnde p o s s i b l e . Up t o t h i s p o i n t we have c o v e r e d b r i e f l y t h e f i r s t p e r i o d i n t h e d e v e l o p ment of r a d i o .

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Guglielmo Marconi, an I t a l i a n , became s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w i r e l e s s communication a t t h e age of e i g h t e e n and i n 1896 he colrlucted experiments f o r t h e B r i t i s h government. Before a c t u a l l y becoming engaged i n h i s work Warconi sought t o f a m i l i a r i z e himself with t h e a c t i v i t i e s of e a r l i e r s c i e n t i s t s i n t h i s new f i e l d of communication, and a f t e r r e a d i n g e x h a u s t i v e l y about t h i s s u b j e c t he concluded t h a t t h e t h e o r y developed by Heinrich Hertz was c o r r e c t . A f t e r innumerable t e s t s and demonstrations Marconi f i n a l l y s e n t and r e c e l v e d w i r e l e s s messages over a d i s t a h c e of one and t h r e e - q u a r t e r m i l e s Marconi, perhaps more t h a n anyone e l s e , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a k i n g r a d i o out of t h e experimental c l a s s and p l a c i n g it on a p r a c t i c a l f o o t i n g . There i s no doubt but t h a t he made r a d i o a commercial p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . H conceived e t h e i d e a of e l e v a t i n g wires a considerable h e i g h t i n t h e a i r t o s e r v e a s an "antenna". Then by means of a s i n g l e wire t h e e l e v a t e d p o r t i o n was connected t o one s i d e of t h e r a d i o a p p a r a t u s and another wire was used t o connect t h e opposite s i d e of t h e a p p a r a t u s t o t h e ground. The lowest e x t r e m i t y of t h e l a t t e r connecting wire was b u r i e d i n t h e e a r t h s e v e r a l f e e t and it became known a s the "grounded end" of t h e antenna system. A f t e r adding t h e s e features t o b o t h t r a n s m i t t i n g and r e c e i v i n g equipment, i n use a t t h e time, he noticed t h a t i n the case of a t r a n s m i t t e r t h e r a d i a t e d s i g n a l energy would c a r r y g r e a t d i s t a n c e s f o r a g i v e n power and, a l s o , t h e r e c e i v e d s i g n a l heard i n t h e telephones was much l o u l e r than t h a t ever obtained i n previous t e s t s . I n o t h e r words, t h e s e improvements made i t p o s s i b l e t o g e n e r a t e more powerf u l e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves w i t h a transrnit-cer and t o i n t e r c e p t more s i g n a l energy with the r e c e i v i n g a p p a r a t u s . Also, it should be mentioned t h a t Marconi m a t e r i a l l y improved t h e coherer by adding s i l v e r and mercury with m e t a l l i c f i l i n g s and s e a l i n g t h e s e i n an exhausted s e a l e d g l a s s tube. Through t h e use of t h e improverl c o h e r e r , r e l a y , i n k r e c o r d e r and decoherer, he was a b l e t o r e c e i v e s i g n a l s when t r a n s m i t t e d a t speeds up t o as h i g h a s 15 words per minute. From 1896 u n t i l 1901 r a p i d advancements were made i n t h e d e s i g n of r a d i o apparatus a r d t h e method of i n s t a l l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n February 1901, under conditions more f a v o r a b l e than i n t h e p a s t , Marconi e s t a b l i s h e d communication between Niton S t a t i o n , I s l e of Wight, and a n o t h e r s t a t i o n on the a d i s t a n c e of 196 m i l e s . After these remarkable achievements he Lizard planned to span the A t l a n t i c Ocean by w i r e l e s s and, a c c o r d i n g l y , i n t h e e a r l y w i n t e r of 1901 he s a i l e d from Europe w i t h h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n t h i s e n t e r p r i s e , and soon t h e y a r r i v e d i n Canada f o r t h e memorable event t h a t was y e t t o come.

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M r . Marconi, * a s s i s t e d by M r . Paget and M, Kemp, a c t u a l l y began the conr s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r t r a n s - A t l a n t i c r e c e i v i n g s t a t i o n on December 6 , 1301 i n e a n old b a r r a c k s b u i l d i n g l o c a t e d a t S i g n a l H i l l , S t . Johns, Mw Foundland. They encountered t h e i r g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o e r e c t a s a t i s f a c t o r y antenna system. They t r i e d many schemes w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y no s u c c e s s , employing balloons of various t y p e s to r a i s e t h e r e c e i v i n g antenna t o a s u i t a b l e h e i g h t , u n t i l f i n a l l y t h e y b u i l t a s p e c i a l k i t e t h a t was powerful enough t o hold t h e upper end of the antenna a t an e l e v a t i o n of approximately 400 f e e t .

Before l e a v i n g England, Marconi supervised the e r e c t i o n of t h e t r a n s F RW R OE OD

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t i c s t a t i o n l o c a t e d a t Poldhu. A f t e r t h e r e c e i v i n g s t was i n r e a d i n e s s the o p e r a t o r s a t Poldhu were n o t i f i e d by cable t o s t a r t t r a n s m i t t i n g the l e t t e r "S" a t f i x e d i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g t h e day. Shortly a f t e r noon on December 1 2 , 1301 t h e t h r e e d o t s of t h e l e t t e r 'IS" were d i s t i n c t l y heard by Marconi and h i s a s s i s t a n t , M r . Kemp. This outstanding e v e n t f u r n i s h e d t h e m a t e r i a l f o r one of t h e most b r i l l i a n t pages ever w r i t t e n down i n r a d i o h i s t o r y . However, when news of hlarconifs achievement was spread throu@;houtthe c i v i l i z e d world, many s c i e n t i s t s refused t o bel i e v e t h a t such a f e a t had been accomplished and t h e y were not convinced u n t i l Marconi himself confirmed i t s e v e r a l d a y s l a t e r . Marconi was r i c h l y rewarded f o r h i s i n d u s t r y , perseverance and f a i t h i n h i s p r o j e c t . In f a c t , t h e s e t h r e e q u a l i t i e s i n any man i n v a r i a b l y s p e l l s success. I n 1901 the Marconi l'vireless Telegraph Company of America was e s t a b l i s h e d and i n 1903 t h e deForest Wireless Telegraph Company of America was formed. A l i t t l e l a t e r t h e United Wireless Telegraph Company was organized which absorbed t h e d e F o r e s t Company i n 1907. The developments d u r i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r time were confined mainly t o improvement i n the d e s i g n of r e c e i v e r s and t r a n s m i t t e r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y . About t h i s time P r o f e s s o r Fessenden invented t h e e l e c t r o l y t i c d e t e c t o r which c o n s i s t e d of a small platinum p o i n t placed i n c o n t a c t w i t h an a l k a l i n e s o l u t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y of t h i s new type of d e t e c t o r General Dunwoody and G.W. Pickard began experimenting w i t h t h e use of m i n e r a l s f o r t h e same purpose and t h e y found t h a t g a l e n a , s i l i c o n , z i n c i t e and o t h e r minerals made v e r y s e n s i t i v e d e t e c t o r s of r a d i o s i g n a l s . Then, a l i t t l e l a t e r , Fessenden developed a p p a r a t u s yhich produced t h e t "s p ark ' form of t r a n s m i s s i o n ; t h e "spark t r a n s m i t t e r became the s t a n d a r d type of equipment from t h a t time on u n t i l w i t h i n t h e l a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s . Because of t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e which i t s s i g n a l s s e t up under modern t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s , t h e s p a r k t r a n s m i t t e r i s being r a p i d l y r e p l a c e d by t h e vacuum tube t r a n s m i t t e r . As a m a t t e r of f a c t , i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e spark type of equipment i s now p r o h i b i t e d by an a c t of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Radiotelegraphic Convention which met a t Washington i n 1927. This Convention r u l e d t h a t "no spark t r a n s m i t t e r s h a l l h e r e a f t e r be i n s t a l l e d and t h a t a l l equipment of t h i s t y p e now i n s t a l l e d s h a l l be replaced not l a t e r t h a n 1340". Und o u b t e d l y , t h e various governments a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e s p a r k t r a n s m i t t e r w i l l be employed f o r s e v e r a l more y e a r s t o come because they continue t o ask q u e s t i o n s on spark equipment i n the examixations given t o a p p l i c a n t s for radio licenses. A f t e r Ifiarconi prove3 t h a t t e l e g r a p h s i g n a l s could be s e n t long d i s t a n c e s w i t h o u t t h e a i d of wims t h e r e were many noted s c i e n t i s t s , experimenters, e n g i n e e r s , and i n v e s t i g a t o r s who took a much g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n w i r e l e s s . From 1900 t o 1917 we f i n d t h e names of men l i k e Pickard, Stone, Lammuir, d e F o r e s t , K o l s t e r , T e s l a , Armstrong, Alexanderson, Beverage, Allen, Squire and many o t h e r s , who achieved d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d . Their e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d mainly towards refinement alld improvement i n equipment which was i n more o r l e s s g e n e r a l use a t t h e time. Marconi1s g r e a t accomplishment of spanning t h e A t l a n t i c by w i r e l e s s i n 1901 proved t h a t r a d i o s i g n a l s could be sent and r e c e i v e d over long d i s t a n c e s , a s w s t a t e d b e f o r e , y e t t r a n s - o c e a n i c r a d i o communication did not e r e a l l y become a p r a c t i c a l means of communication u n t i l t h e outbrea,k of t h e F RW R OE OD

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World War. T h i s . was owing t o the more or l e s s crude apparatus employed i n crude, of course, when compared t o t h a t which i s found the e a r l i e r days i n modern i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The American Marconi Wireless Company, i n 1903, attempted t o e s t a b l i s h r e g a l a r . t r a n s - A t l a n t i c communication s e r v i c e from i t s r a d i o s t a t i o n a t Cape Cod, Massachusetts, b u t the equipment i n use was not r e l i a b l e and, t h e r e a f t e r , t h e s t a t i o n was used t o communicate only w i t h s h i p s a t sea. The B r i t i s h Marconi Company maintained a t r a n s - A t l a n t i c s t a t i o n a t Glace Bay, Bova S c o t i a , from 1907 u n t i l the World War, b u t from a commercial viewpoint t h i s s t a t i o n was not considered a success. From 1901 u n t i l t h e outbreak of t h e TJorld War most of t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n radio were confined t o marine ( s e a ) s e r v i c e . A f t e r t h e c o l l i s i o n between the steamers F l o r i d a and Republic, and o t h e r marine d i s a s t e r s , t h e United S t a t e s Government passed a law t h a t r e q u i r e d a l l passenger s h i p s t o c a r r y r a d i o equipment. Marine h i s t o r y i s f u l l of r e c o r d s which t e s t i f y t o t h e value o f r a d i o on shipboard, e s p e c i a l l y when the l i v e s of passengers and crew a r e i n danger. W o f t e n read a r t i c l e s t h a t a r e p r i n t e d i n newspapers e and magazines, about imminent o r grave d i s a s t e r s t o v e s s e l s a t s e a , where r a d i o i s r e f e r r e d t o a s "The Angel of t h e ~ e e p " . I n 1902 the e l e c t r i c a r c f o r r a d i o t r a n s m i s s i o n was developed. The a r c system made it p o s s i b l e t o convert d i r e c t c u r r e n t i n t o high- frequency a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t and was recognized as a b i g s t e p forward because t h i s type of t r a n s m i s s i o n generated r a d i o waves which did not cause i n t e r f e r e n c e l i k e those generated by o t h e r systems. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e high-power s t a t i o n s employed t h e a r c type t r a n s m i t t e r u n t i l about 1916, and even today a number of a r c s t a t i o n s a r e s t i l l i n a c t i v e operation. L i t t l e d i d Thomas A. Edison dream of the p a r t he was playing in r a d i o when Edison discovered he was experimenting w i t h h i s incandescent lamp i n 1884. t h a t i f a wire was e n c l o s e d and s e a l e d i n s i d e of an incandescent lamp and t h e r e g u l a r filament was heated t o incandescence and a b a t t e r y was s u i t a b l y arranged w i t h t h e lamp's elements, an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t would flow i n a d i r e c t i o n from t h e cold wire through the vacuous space i n s i d e the lamp and thence t o t h e h e a t e d f i l a m e n t , but t h e c u r r e n t would not f l o w i n t h e oppos i t e d i r e c t i o n . Years passed by b e f o r e t h e s c i e n t i f i c world used t h i s discovery i n a p r a c t i c a l way. I n 1905 P r o f e s s o r J . A . Fleming of England announced t h a t he had perfected a r e c t i f y i w "valve" (termed vacuum tube i n America) which u t i l i z e d a c i r c u l a r shaped copper p l a t e placed around t h e filament. The valve o n l y c o n s i s t e d of two e l e c t r o d e s and, t h e r e f o r e , i t became known a s a two- electrode valve. H found t h a t the valve possessed e t h e property of a l t e r i n g o r converting high- frequency r a d i o c u r r e n t s i n t o c u r r e n t s of c o n s i d e r a b l y lower frequency and, consequently, it could be used f o r t h e d e t e c t i o n of a r a d i o s i g n a l and made t o o p e r a t e t h e headphones i n a r e c e i v i n g c i r c u i t . The Fleming valve was used q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y a s a d e t e c t o r f o r s e v e r a l years. h e d e F o r e s t made one of h i s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o r a d i o when he added a t h i r d e l e c t r o d e , c a l l e d t h e " g r i d " , t o t h e twoe l e c t r o d e tube. This tube had t h r e e electrocles and became known a s a " t h r e e - e l e c t r o d e tube " The a d d i t i o n of t h e g r i d made t h e vacuum tube hundreds of times more s e n s i t i v e t h a n any device h e r e t o f o r e used a s a d e t e c t o r . Since t h a t time the t h r e e - e l e c t r o d e vacuum tube has proven t o be
A few y e a r s l a t e r D r .

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sheet 7

very f l e x i b l e i n o p e r a t i o n , which p e r m i t s i t t o be used i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of c i r c u i t s . For example it w i l l f u n c t i o n not only a s a d e t e c t o r , b u t a s an a m p l i f i e r o s c i l l a t o r , modulator and so on. L i t t l e use was made of the t h r e e - e l e c t r o d e vacuum tube u n t i l America entered t h e World War. A s a matter O f f a c t r a d i o up t o t h i s period was used o n l y on c e r t a i n v e s s e l s and a t a few c o a s t a l s t a t i o n s powerful enough t o communic a t e w i t h ships a t sea. Even t o t h i s day r a d i o t s g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e i s a t s e a ; it i s always ready t o send out t h e d i s t r e s s c a l l "SOS" and a s s i s t i n o t h e r ways i n safeguarding t h e l i v e s of passengers and crews. An " s 0 s f t has absolute preference over e v e r y and a l l other r a d i o communications. So w c l o s e our b r i e f o u t l i n e of r a d i o i n i t s second period of development. e The t h i r d period, from 1917 t o t h e present day, i s a n e r a i n r a d i o which has never been equalled o r surpassed i n a l l h i s t o r y b o t h i n s c i e n t i f i c and i n d u s t r i a l achievements.
I N THE THIRD PERIOD R A D I O MADE T E M S MARVELOUS PROGRESS. H OT

Perhaps the most o u t s t a n d i n g development i n r a d i o communication d u r i n g fhe e a r l y s t a g e s of t h e World War was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of the f i r s t Alexanderson a l t e r n a t o r a t N w Brunswick. New Jersey. This s t a t i o n e provided p r a c t i c a l l y continuous and u n i n t e r r u p t e d t r a n s - A t l a n t i c s e r v i c e by r a d i o f o r the f i r s t time. Since t h e war period trans- oceanic r a d i o communic a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s has developed r a p i d l y and more t h a n 10,000 messages are s e n t and r e c e i v e d a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c oceans by r a d i o d a i l y . Trans- oceanic communication i s conducted on t h e long-wave channels by t h e Alexanderson a l t e r n a t o r systems an3 a l s o by vacuum tube t r a n s m i t t e r s , and on t h e short-wave channels by tube t r a n s m i t t e r s e x c l u s i v e l y . Major Armstrong developed t h e super- heterodyne r e c e i v e r during t h e World War and i t was during t h i s period t h a t vacuum t u b e s r e a l l y became an important adjunct t o r a d i o t r a n s m i s s i o n and r e c e p t i o n .

~t i s not d e f i n i t e l y known j u s t how r a d i o broadcasting happened t o s p r i n g i n t o prominence, o r how the i d e a of broadcasting o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e minds of Westinghouse Engineers when t h e y f i r s t began experimenting w i t h t h e t r a n s mission of voice and music. During t h e war, however, r a d i o t e l e p h o n y was s u c c e s s f u l l y employed on ship- board, e x p e c i a l l y on submarine chasers. Also, s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e U.S. Navy t o provide i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s new form of communication. Immediately a f t e r t h e a r m i s t i c e was signed, and f o r s e v e r a l months t h e r e a f t e r , it was not an unccmmon t h i n g t o have phonograph music broadcasted from a s h i p equipped w i t h & radio- telephone s e t and t h e o p e r a t o r s of r e c e i v i n g s e t s w i t h i n a range of about 10 m i l e s Would "tune i n f f and l i s t e n t o t h e music. This, of course, was done merely t o f u r n i s h a l i t t l e entertainment. There i s every reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e post-war demonstrat i o n s of r a d i o may have had considerable t o do with t h e b i r t h of present- day broadcasting.
The leaders of American i n d u s t r y must have v i s u a l i z e d a b r i l l i a n t f u t u r e f o r r a d i o i n 1918, o r two y e a r s before a c t u a l broadcasting. Plans were made t o form an all- American o r g a n i z a t i o n i n order t o u t i l i z e r a d i o t o i t s b e s t advantage and thereupon, i n 1919, the Raclio Corporation of America Came i n t o existence. When t h i s c o r p o r a t i o n was formed it obtained a l l of the r i g h t s F RW R OE OD

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The L a s t Word i n Broadcasting Equipment i n 1921.

The o l d WDY s t a t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d i o t r a n s m i t t e r , t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v i n g equipment a l l q u a r t e r e d i n one room.

WJZ, t h e n l o c a t e d a t Newark, N . J.

Olga Petrova formally opening

The o p e r a t i n g room of WJZfs o l d s t a t l o n a t Newark, N.J. w i t h t h e t r a n s m i t t e r , a t t h e l e f t , c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e modulator t u b e s and two o s c i l l a t o r tubes

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Compare t h e s e photographs w i t h those on t h e followinp; page.

FOREWORD

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Broadcast Equipment of 1930. The S t u d i o s o f b o t h WJZ and W A F a r e on F i f t h Avenue, New York City.

of t h e American Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company. When it was joined l a t e r by t h e General E l e c t r i c Company and o t h e r engineering concerns t h e r e was welded t o g e t h e r , i n t o one c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e p r i n c i p a l r a d i o i n ventions and r a d i o r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s of America.
A t t h a t time small b a t t e r y operated r e g e n e r a t i v e r e c e i v i n g s e t s , c o n s i s t i n g of a d e t e c t o r and two s t a g e s of audio- frequency a m p l i f i c a t i o n , sold a t p r i c e s up t o $150 w i t h out tubes. The o r d i n a r y 201 type vacuum tube sold f o r $9, and i t was a d i f f i c u l t m a t t e r t o o b t a i n e i t h e r r e c e i v e r s o r tubes because t h e demand was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e supply.

~ l of us remember t h e r a d i o craze of 1920 and 1921. l

S t a t i o n KDKA s t a r t e d broadcasting on November 2, 1920, by giving the p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n r e t u r n s of t h e Harding-Cox campaign and i n l e s s than three years a f t e r t h a t day t h e r e were more than 500 b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s i n opera t i o n i n the United S t a t e s . I n 1920 t h e r e t a i l value of r e c e i v i n g sets,. t u b e s and p a r t s , amounted t o l e s s t h a n two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a s compared t o approximately one b i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n 1929. I n o t h e r words, i n business proportions the r a d i o i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e d f i v e hundred times i n a p e r i o d of nine y e a r s . J u s t think f o r a moment what a stupendous amount of money t h a t i s , and t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t of t h i s growth occurred s i n c e 1927, i n j u s t only s few years! R e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t t h e r e were approximately s i x m i l l i o n r a d i o r e c e i v i n g s e t s i n use a t t h e beginning of 1927, whereas, t h e r e were more t h a n f o u r t e e n m i l l i o n s e t s i n use a t the beginning of 1930. Approximately t h i r t y m i l l i o n vacuum t u b e s were s o l d i n 1927, over s i x t y m i l l i o n i n 1928, and more than one hundred m i l l i o n i n 1929. In 1920 t h e r e was only one r a d i o broadcasting s t a t i o n i n t h e United S t a t e s , but i n 1929 t h e r e were more t h a n 700.
A v a s t army of men a r e now employed i n the r a d i o f i e l d a s compared t o the I n America t h e r a d i o i n d u s t r y has grown mere handful p r i o r t o t h e year 1920. s o l a r g e t h a t it now employs almost h a l f a m i l l i o n workers, supports approxjmately t h i r t y thousand r e t a i l s t o r e s , and keeps more than a thousand f a c t o r i e s i n operation.

It may be s u r p r i z i n g t o note t h a t n o t h i w r e a l l y new h a s been developed i n t h e r a d i o i n d u s t r y s i n c e the World War. The l a t e r developments have been, f o r t h e most p a r t , i n t h e refinement of apparatus used p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e World War.
W must, however, make exceptions t o t h e above statement i n a few cases. e One i s concerning the photoradiogram apparatus developed by Major R .H. Ranger f o r t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of a copy o r a reproduction of n document, drawing o r p i c t u r e . T h i s i s c a l l e d f a c s i m i l e o r p i c t u r e transmission by t h e photoradio Another e x c e p t i o n i s t e l e v i s i o n , b u t t h i s new a r t i s s t i l l i n t h e method. l a b o r a t o r y s t a g e and w i l l probably not become a commercial proposition f o r s e v e r a l more years, according t o t h e opinions of l e a d i n g engineers. W a r e o f t e n asked t h e q u e s t i o n , %at e a r e the limitations i n radio?" FORWORD We

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might answer t h i s q u e s t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e a p p a r e n t l y no l i m i t a t i m s . Radio t o d a y i s used c h i e f l y f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g , f o r t r a n s - o c e a n i c communication ( b o t h t e l e g r a p h and t e l e p h o n e ) and on s h i p - b o a r d . But r a i l r o a d s , mining and o i l companies, and i n f a c t many i n d u s t r i e s a r e now e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h r a d i o . Radio c h a n n e l s a r e now a l l o c a t e d by t h e U.S. Government Radio Commission f o r r e n d e r i n g d o m e s t i c t e l e g r a p h i c s e r v i c e v i a r a d i o and t h e commercial companies a r e busy g e t t i n g t h i s new S e r v i c e i n t o p r a c t i c a l o p e r a t i o n . And f i n a l l y , when t e l e v i s i o n and p i c t u r e t r a n s m i s s i o n become an a c t u a l i t y , r a d i o w i l l e n t e r a p e r i o d o f a c t i v i t y comparable o n l y t o t h e d a y s when r a d i o equipment c o u l d n o t be purchased a t any p r i c e . Radio i s no l o n g e r an i n f a n t it i s a c o l o s s a l g i a n t . But t h e f i e l d i s you% and p r e s e n t s u n l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h o s e who want t o grow w i t h i t .

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I n t h e f o r e g o i n g p a r a g r a p h s we have g i v e n you a s n a p - s h o t p i c t u r e of t h e development of r a d i o . W have c o n s i d e r e d t h e s u b j e c t o n l y from t h e viewe p o i n t o f i t s h i s t o r y s o t h a t i t may be shown t h a t r a d i o h a s a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d hundreds of y e a r s t o r e a c h i t s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n where it h a s become one of t h e world Is l e a d i n g i n d u s t r i e s . If you inform y o u r s e l f a b o u t most of t h e worth- while t h i n g s w i t h which our world i s b l e s s e d , you w i l l f i n d t h a t it h a s taken y e a r s and y e a r s of d i l i g e n t r e s e a r c h and h a r d work on t h e p a r t of many i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e t h e s t a g e was reached where t h e particular a r t i c l e o r t h i n g vie h a v e i n mind was r e a d y f o r u s e by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h i s a p p l i e s j u s t t h e same i n t h e c a s e o f r a d i o , a u t o m o b i l e s , t e l e p h o n e s , e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g , and s o on. B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h o u r s t u d i e s l e t u s c l e a r up t h i s one question: "What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between r a d i o and w i r e l e s s ? " The t e r m " w i r e l e s s " i s d e r i v e d from t h e f a c t t h a t comrnunfcation may be e f f e c t e d between t w o , , p o i n t s w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f w i r e s c o n n e c t i n g t h e p o i n t s and t h e t e r m " r a d i o i s d e r i v e d from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y r e l e a s e d i n t o space i s r a d i ated i n a l l directions. W i r e l e s s and r a d i o , t h e r e f o r e , mean one and t h e same t h i n g . Uninformed p e r s o n s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e " w i r e l e s s " w i t h t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e r a d i o t e l e g r a p h i c c$de, and " r a d i o " w i t h b r o a d c a s t i n g . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e t e r m " r a d i o h a s become r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e o n l y expression t o u s e whenever r e f e r r i n g t o a n y k i n d o f communication e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t t h e u s e of w i r e s . In c e r t a i n f o r e i g n countries, the t e r m "wireless" i s s t i l l i n vogue when r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e use of r a d i o on s h i p b o a r d .
HOW TO GET THE M S O T OF YOUR STUDIES. OT U

T h i s c o u r s e o f r a d i o i n s t r u c t i o n h a s b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r s t u d e n t s who d o n o t have a c c e s s t o l a b o r a t o r i e s and l a b o r a t o r y equipment. Throughout t h e c o u r s e c o n s i d e r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h numerous p r o blems o f a p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e , a l l supplemented w i t h s u f f i c i e n t n o t e s t o make each s t e p clear. The p u r p o s e o f t h e c o u r s e i s t o t r e a t t h e s u b j e c t from b e g i n n i n g t o end i n a t h o r o u g h l y p r a c t i c a l manner s o a s t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t a sound working knowledge of t h i s s u b j e c t . The s t u d e n t who h o n e s t l y a p p l i e s h i m s e l f and r e a l l y s t u d i e s t h i s c o u r s e W i l l , a t i t s c o m p l e t i o n , f i n d hims e l f i n p o s s e s s i o n o f r a d i o knowledge f a r above t h e a v e r a g e . Before b e g i n n i n g your s t u d i e s c o n v i n c e y o u r s e l f t h a t you a r e g o i n g t o m a s t e r t h e s u b j e c t and i n t h i s way you w i l l r i d your mind f o r e v e r o f a n y d o u b t a s t o whether o r If you n o t you can o b t a i n a knowledge of r a d i o b y Home S t u d y I n s t r u c t i o n . have a n e a r n e s t d e s i r e t o make s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s you w i l l win; on t h e o t h e r hand, if you a r e t h e k i n d t h a t becomes e a s i l y d i s c o u r a g e d when somet h i n g more o r l e s s d i f f i c u l t i s g i v e n you t o d o t h e n you c a n n o t hope t o FOREWORD s h e e t 12

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sheet 13

succeed. O f course, w assume t h a t most everyone h a v i h g the ambition t o e s t a r t a course of s t u d y w i l l f o l l o w i t through t o t h e v e r y end. Ybaturally, t o l e a r n about a s u b j e c t of wide scope r e q u i r e s e f f o r t i f it d i d n o t , i t would be of l i t t l e or no value t o yo?, Anything t h a t i s a s easy a s A-B-C i s t o o easy t o be of p r a c t i c a l value. l h e f i r s t few lessons i n our course a r e comparatively sim'le because t h e s u b j e c t s t r e a t e d a r e q u i t e genyou a good background. You w i l l f i n 3 a s you proceed t o t h e work t h a t i t w i l l r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n amount of time and thought t o get everything out of a lesson t h a t i t c o n t a i n s , But remember Home Study i n s t r u c t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l . T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by f u l l y h a l f of our u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e United S t a t e s Government courses by t h e Home Study Method. Here i s a l e t t e r t h a t one s wrote a few months ago:

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"I could not understand how i n t h e world one could l e a r n , on paper, about t h i n g s that required a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . However, j u s t t o prove t o myself t h a t t h i s could not be done, I decided t o t r y your course.
But as I went along w i t h the lessons I became more and more i n t e r e s t e d . U t o t h e present I have covered p lessons 33 and 34, and I would not now give up t h e course f o r f i v e times t h e t u i t i o n p a i d , The proof of t h e pudding i s i n the e a t i n g , I f ever a man can i n v e s t t h e c o s t of t h e t u i t i o n f e e i n a Home Study course t o b e t t e r advantage and g e t more f o r h i s money than I have, I wish he would l e t m i n on it". e J u s t how and when you should study depends upon c o n d i t i o n s over which we here i n the school have no c o n t r o l . One o f t e n f i n d s t h a t he can do r e a l i n t e n s i v e studying e a r l y i n t h e morning, before t h e r e g u l a r day's work beg i n s , ard f o r a time i n t h e evening a f t e r t h e day's work. Many of our s t u d e n t s d e c l a r e t h a t they can concentrate b e t t e r a t those p a r t i c u l a r periods of t h e day. you cannot j u s t i f y your s t u d y periods You may be c e r t a i n of one t h i n g If your mind i s on t h e swimmin' hole t h e n nhen you a r e "wool-gathering", go swimming and g e t it over with. You must c o n c e n t r a t e on your work i f you expect it t o m a n much t o you. Lay out a d e f i n i t e program f o r study and o s t i c k r e l i g o u s l y t o i t . D not be misled by any thoughts t h a t your f r i e n d s w i l l forsake you because you h i b e r n a t e f o r a few months; q u i t e the c o n t r a r y , f t h e y w i l l admlre you when t h e y l e a r n O your success. And i f you can and w i l l apply a goodly amount of s t i c k - t o - i t i v e n e s s f o r a few months you w i l l make s u r p r i s i n g l y f a s t headway.

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h Addison remarked: "Knowledge i s t h a t v i c h t r u l y and e s s e n t i a l l y r a i s e s one man above another". T h i s proverb was t r u e a hu&red g e a r s ago and i n t h i s day and age of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i t i s more t r u e than ever.
W a l l have our l i t t l e ups and downs e our h i g h p e r i o d s and our low The a b s o l u t e l y p e r f e c t man has yet t o be developed, hence, we must no discouraged because our mind does not behave f o r us a t a l l times want t o concentrate.

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One of our s t u d e n t s r e c e n t l y s a i d : "I know good and w e l l t h a t I have days when I can accomplish a week's work, an2 then a g a i n t h e r e a r e occasions when It t a k e s m a week t o do a day's uvork." e Remember t h a t ambition, p e r s i s t e n c e , dogged pereeverance, d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and l a s t but not l e a s t , c o n c e n t r a t i o n - these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a man w i l l enable him t o surmount the b i g g e s t o b s t a c l e s . l'he f o r e g o i n g sentence should be your slogan i n l i f e . S t a t i s t i c s s t a t e t h a t f u l l y n i n e t y per cent Of t h e people i n t h e world a r e s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r surroundings and what t h e y ovm; a t l e a s t they seem t o be s a t i s f i e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y make no e f f o r t t o improve e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Think of it! It i s no wonder t h a t t h e r e has always been and always w i l l be more $50,000 a y e a r jobs than t h e r e a r e q u a l i f i e d persons t o f i l l them. You, no d o u b t , know of many i n d i v i d u a l s who a s p i r e only t o pos i t i o n s of r o u t i n e work and who w i l l n e v e r , a s long a s t h e y l i v e , be a b l e t o have the n i c e r t h i n g s i n l i f e . They lack ambition and t h e o t h e r q u a l i t i e s mentioned above. Some S s e s t i o n s on P r a c t i c a l Studying. e Nw t o r e t u r n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n of when and how t o s t u d y , If w advise you o when and how t o study, w i l l i t be h e l p f u l t o you i n any way? Let us answer t h i s q u e s t i o n f o r you by g i v i n g you t h e opinion and a d v i s e of t h e P r e s i d e n t of our school who has t o i l e d through a long experience of study and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y . H says: "I r e a l l y had t o l e a r n how t o study. % r i n g and s i n c e t h e e World War m e f f o r t s have been devoted wholly t o t h e s u b j e c t of r a d i o i n s t r u c y t i o n which r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e s t u d y and r e s e a r c h t o keep a b r e a s t of developments. I would not undertake s t u d y i n g d u r i n g t h e b u s i n e s s hours of the day because of t h e many d i s t u r b a n c e s t h a t c o n s t a n t l y b r e a k m l i n e of thought y and reasoning. So I confine myself i n closed q u a r t e r s a t l e a s t f i v e n i g h t s r a r e l y l a t e r t h a n midnight. I m i n t a i n each week u n t i 1 eleven o f clock t h i s schedule f m n October u n t i l May s t a r t i n g about 7:30 e a c h evening, and d u r i n g m s t u d y period I w i l l n o t t o l e r a t e i n t e r r u p t i o n s . N business day y i y i s over when I begin m p e r s o n a l s t u d y work and b u s i n e s s w a i t s u n t i l t h e y n e x t day. I would not answer a telephone c a l 1 , o r a knock on t h e door,from anyone e x c e p t i n the c a s e of s i c k n e s s o r emergency of any k i n d . As a m a t t e r of f a c t I i s o l a t e myself from people and telephones. I am not a v a i l a b l e t o anyone when I study."

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"By devoting f i v e evenings e a c h week ( f ~ o m October u n t i l May) t o s t u d y I s t i l l have two evenings e a c h week f o r p l e a s u r e , and I p l a y j u s t as hard a s I study. These two evenings e n a b l e m t o see m f r i e n d s and chase t h e bugae y boo t h a t " a l l work and no p l a y makes Jack a d u l l boy". But, on the o t h e r hand, " a l l p l a y and no work c e r t a i n l y wonst make Jack a b r i g h t boy". During the months of June, July, August and September I endeavor t o study about one or two hours every morning b e f o r e m r e g u l a r b u s i n e s s day begins. It i s y d i f f i c u l t f o r m t o apply myself d i l i g e n t l y i n t h e evening a f t e r t h e d a y l s e work e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e extremely warm weather, b u t I p a r t l y make up f o r t h i s by t h e morning study period."

"Your d a i l y working hours may d i f f e r f r o m mine, b u t you can make same adwe a l l have our " o f f " days when we do not f e e l r i g h t
f justment i n your schedule t o permit you t o f i n d time f o r s t u d y . O course, perhaps i t i s a

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s l i g h t i l l n e s s or some o t h e r d i s t r a c t i n g element t h a t handicaps us. A t o t h e r times w may become t i r e d and i t i s then t h a t w should r e l a x f o r a e e t a k e a s h o r t b r i s k walk i n t h e open a i r , but do n o t q u i t . few moments Obtain e i g h t o r nine hours s l e e p each night and even i f you do g e t t i r e d , no harm i s done".

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W want you t o remember t h a t w a r e here t o h e l p you,but b e f o r e you r e q u e s t e e h e l p from us sbout c e r t a i n p a r t s of your l e s s o n s t h a t may prove somewhat hard, make every e f f o r t t o overcome t h e o b s t a c l e y o u r s e l f . D your l e v e l o b e s t i n t h i s matter because i f you a r e a b l e t o conquer t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s alone you a c t u a l l y jump s e v e r a l s t e p s forward i n your personal development. W want you t o f e e l t h a t you have formed a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h us and t h a t it e r e q u i r e s hard work on the p a r t of us a l l t o achieve genuine success. There i s no exception t o t h i s r u l e . I n our years of teaching we o c c a s i o n a l l y come i n contact w i t h s t u d e n t s who not e l e c t r i c i t y " , It i s a s i m have exclaimed, "I want t o l e a r n r a d i o p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n r a d i o thoroughly without some study.of e l e c t r i c i t y a s it would be t o l e a r n how t o read and w r i t e without knowing t h e alphabet. A l though t h i s i s not an e l e c t r i c a l course, yet i s i s ' a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t h a t you must l e a r n t h e fundamentals of e l e c t r i c i t y a s t a u g h t i n t h e f i r s t few lessons t o understand r a d i o . You w i l l agree w i t h u s on t h i s p o i n t a f t e r you have made some headway w i t h t h e instructf'on.

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s h e e t 16

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firmer&
M A R C O N / /NST/TUTE

INC.

Technical Lesson 1

A t e x t book on preparator; mathenatics i s supplied with t h i s 1esson. It i s assumed t h a t you a l r e a d y know how t o work out simple problems i n a d d i t i o n , s u b t r a c t i o n , k l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n . E l e m e n t a r f p r i n c i p l e s a r e adeq u a t e l y t r e a t e d throughout the d i f f e r e n t chapters i n t h e book and t h i s l e s s o n i s p r i m a r i l y intended t o supplement t h i s work.

Providing you are w i l l i n g t o g i v e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s and c a r e f u l thought concerning d i f f e r e n t s t e p s t h a t are performed when computing the worked-out examples i n t h i s l e s s o n , t h e r e i s no doubt but t h a t you w i l l soon f e e l confident when handling any problems t h a t involve t h e use of any ins t r u c t i o n contained i n e i t h e r t h e t e x t book o r t h i s l e s s o n . Work out a s nany of t h e examples a s p o s s i b l e t h a t a r e given i n t h e e x e r c i s e s i n t h e book.
It o f t e n comes t o our a t t e n t i o n t h a t a student w i l l f o r g e t p a r t s of c e r t a i n mathematical o p e r a t i o n s , o r perhaps he may r e q u i r e some p r a c t i c e i n working out problems. Our purpose i n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s review of mathematics a t the beginning of t h e course i s t o a s s i s t those s t u d e n t s who f e e l t h a t t h e y need help.

Mathematics may be compared t o a language, since i t i s compose2 of numerous terms, e x p r e s s ions, and o p e r a t i o n s , a l l of which a r e founded on w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s and laws. You should make a s p e c i a l e f f o r t t o l e a r n t h e meaning of t h e various terms and t o thorough1 understand t h e r u l e s and laws n o t study t h i s lesson only s t a t e d both i n t h i s l e s s o n and i n t h e book. Our advise t o you i s t o f r e q u e n t l y read through once and then l a y i t a s i d e . t h e pages and review any p o i n t s which a r e not f i r m l y f i x e d i n your mind. Frequent reviews and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s a r e t h e only possible ways by which you w i l l be able t o c u l t i v a t e your memory t o r e t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t amount of information t o be of any value t o you. As a r u l e the p r i n c i p l e s of mathematics become very simple t o most persons a f t e r t h e y apply themselves t o t h e t a s k of studying t h e s u b j e c t .

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Guess work i n mathemntics i s a v e r y dangerous pastime and i f indulged i n v e r y o f t e n i t may block your progress, a t l e a s t it w i l l cause you t o be carel e s s and make mistakes and,furtherrnore,you a r e apt t o waste considerable time. To get t h e most out of t h i s work we advise you t o l e a r n and understand t h e r u l e s f i r s t , and then p r a c t i c e them by working out numerous problems u n t i l It i s not t o o much t o ask of anyone t h e y become a b s o l u t e l y f a m i l i a r t o you. who intends t o educate himself above the average t o work out z t l e a s t f o r t y or f i f t y problems r e l a t i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r mathematical p r i n c i p l e . It should be remembered, however, t h a t i n order t o thoroughly understand the p r i n c i p l e s involved each problem must p r e s e n t a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t appearance which may be done by changing the wording of t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e numerical Values t h a t a r e used.

Printed in U. S.A.

PART I

SQUARE ROOT DEFINED The term " r o o t " i s b e s t explained by means of an i l l u s t r a t i o n before t h e d e f i n i t i o n i t s e l f i s given. Suppose w s e p a r a t e 4 i n t o two equal f a c t o r s , 2 and 2 . This shows us t h a t e 4 = 2 x 2 and t h a t one of these f a c t o r s 2 i s t h e square root of 4. ~y I n spection i t w i l l be c l e a r l y seen t h a t t h i s i s j u s t t h e r e v e r s e or opposite process t o t h a t used when obtaining the power of a number. L e t us give another i l l u s t r a t i o n . Separate 16 i n t o two equal f a c t o r s , 4 and 4. Multiply 4 by i t s e l f , 4 x 4 = 16, or 16 = 4 x 4. Hence, 4 i s t h e square root of 16. Square r o o t i s d e f i n e d a s follows: The square r o o t of any number i s one of t h e two e q u a l f a c t o r s i n t o which t h e number i s d i v i d e d .
THE RADICAL S I G N
TO i n d i c a t e a power we make use of a n exponent and t o i n d i c a t e a r o o t w e make use of a s p e c i a l s i g n , c a l l e d t h e r a d i c a l sign. The r a d i c a l s i g n i s w r i t t e n J and i s followed by a vinculum, which i s a s t r f a g h t l i n e , 7 , drawn a s an e x t e n s i o n t o t h e r a d i c a l . I n a l l cases the vinculum i s used t o show t o what e x t e n t t h e r a d i c a l s i g n a f f e c t s the expression,or number,before whlch it appears.

For example, t h e number 16 when considered e n t i r e l y by i t s e l f simply means 16 u n i t s . However, when a r a d i c a l s i g n appears b e f o r e t h e number 16, o r i t means t h a t the square r o o t of 16 i s t o be taken.

m,

I n t h e following e x p r e s s i o n x 5 = 20, t h e r a d i c a l s i g n a f f e c t s o n l y 16, and not 5, s i n c e t h e vinculum only extends over 16, a r a d i c a l i s c d led t h e INDEX and i n d i c a t e s what r o o t i s t o be taken. Thus, would t e l l u s a t once t h a t t h e cube r o o t of 125 i s t o be found, a d nindicates t h a t t h e f o u r t h r o o t of 192 i s t o be found. Inasmuch a s square r o o t i s more f r e q u e n t l y used i n o r d i n a r y computations it Is the custom i n t h i s case t o omit the f i g u r e 2 from t h e r a d i c a l . Therefore, t o i n d i c a t e square r o o t , a r a d i c a l with i t s a s s o c i a t e d vinculum i s w r i t t e n without an index number.

-

A small number placed i n t h e Y s h a p e d opening Of

.

For example, t'he square r o o t of 16 i s always w r i t t e n a s -!/i8and never a s However, b e a r i n mind t h a t i f any r o o t h i g h e r than 2 is d e s i r e d t h e index must always be w r i t t e n .

,

Summing up a l l of t h e f a c t s i n the foregoing paragraphs we f i n d t h a t l'Involution" i s used when the power of a c e r t a i n number i s t o be found whereas, " ~ v o l u t i o n "i s used when t h e r o o t of a c e r t a i n number i s t o be found. SQUARE ROOT There a r e only a very few numbers t h a t a r e p e r f e c t squares. For example, between 1 and 100 t h e r e are o n l y 9 p e r f e c t squares, and between 1 and 1000 t h e r e a r e but 31 p e r f e c t squares. Lesson 1 sheet 2

-

The following l i s t i n c l u d e s a 1 1 of t h e numbers between 1 and 1000 t h a t a r e PERFECT SQUARES: 1, 4, 9, 1 6 , 25, 36, 49, 64, 8 1 , 100, 121, 144, 169, 196, 225, 256, 289, 324, 361, 400, 441, 484, 529, 576, 625, 676, 729, 784, 841, 900, 961. I f w e x t r a c t t h e square r o o t of any of the above numbers w w i l l o b t a i n a e e r e s u l t which i s a whole number.
HOW -TO

FIKD THE $QUARE ROOT O A PERFECT SQUJiRE F

EXmPLE:

Find t h e square r o o t of 625.

F i r s t Step: Write down t h e statement o f t h e problem, a s shown above, by using the r a d i c a l s i g n . Next s e p a r a t e the number 625 i n t o periqds of two d i g i t s each as i n d i c a t e d below where t h e r a d i c a l s i g n i s omitted when working out the problem. Begin a t the r i g h t of t h e number a s follows and place a small mark between each p a i r of f i g u r e s o r d i g i t s t o i n d i c a t e t h i s separ a t i o n , (Note: The term " d i g i t " and " f i g u r e n a r e used here i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , ) The small mark or s t r o k e i s w r i t t e n thus:

S t i s found t h a t when 625 is separated i n t h i s way i t c o n t a i n s two p e r i o d s and from t h i s w know t h a t only two f i g u r e s w i l l appear i n t h e r o o t , or e answer.

Second Step: N w s e l e c t t h e l a r g e s t f i g u r e , which when squared ( t h a t i s , o the f i g u r e s e l e c t e d f s m u l t i p l i e d by i t s e l f ) w i l l be e q u a l t o o r l e s s t h a n t h e l e f t hand p e r i o d , or 6 , Suppose w t r y 1. Squaring 1 w have 1 x l = 1 e e ; t h i s r e s u l t i s obviousfy t o o small. L e t us t r y 3, Squaring 3 we have 3 x 3 = 9. But, w a l s o f i n d 9 t o be t o o l a r g e , f o r i t i s greate>- than t h e l e f t hand e e e period. Try 2 t h i s time. Squaring 2 w have 2 x 2 = 4. W f i n d that 2 i s t h e c o r r e c t f i g u r e t o use, according t o our r u l e , because 2 squared, o r 4 , i s t h e only number below 6 which when squared w i l l not be q r e a t e r t h a n 6. Third Step: Place 4 under 6 , and therr p l a c e t h e squart. r o o t of 4 , o r 2 , i n t h e bracket t o the r i g h t which i s drawn e x p r e s s l y f o r t h i s purpose, a s f o l l o w :

Fornth s t e p : S u b t r a c t 4 from 6 and w r i t e down t h e remainder a s you would do i n any r e g u l a r proeess of s u b s t r a c t i o n , t h u s :

Lesson 1

- sheet

3

F i f t h Step: Bring down the next period of t h e number, or 25. t a t i o n w i l l now look a s follows:

Our compu-

S i x t h Step: N w m u l t i p l y t h e r o o t 2 , j u s t found, by 2. o work a t one s i d e of t h e paper, a s follows:

Write down t h i s

Seventh Step: The f i g u r e 4 , jubi faund by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e r o o t ( 2 ) b y 2, is c a l l e r l the t r i a l d i v i s o r . W must now d i v i d e t h e remainder 225 by 6 , R e e member, t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t you always d i s r e g a ~ dthe r i g h t hand f i g u r e i n t h e remainder which i s 5 i n t h i s example. A c t u a l l y , t h e n , we divided 22 by 4, and not 225 by 4. Hence, 22$+ 4 =: 5 W f i n d t h a t w have a q u o t i e n t 5 e e w i t h a remainder. Dfsregard t h e remainder b u t use t h e q u o t i e n t 5, and annex i t t o t h e 4 which was found i n t h e 6 t h s t e p by doubling the root. Our example and work w i l l appear a s f o l l o w s : 2 x 2 = 4 annex 5 makes 6'25 1 2 45 4 225

.

-

Eighth Step: The number 45 j u s t found i s c a l l e d t h e t r u e or complete d i v i s m . The s t e p s explained above a r e now repeated. Accordingly, we d i v i d e 225 by 45. By simple d i v i s i o n we f i n d t h a t 225 f45 = 5. T h i s f i g u r e 5 becones t h e seeond d i g i t i n t h e r o o t and, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s w r i t t e n i n t h e b r a c k e t t o t h e r i g h t of t h e f i r s t f i g u r e i n t h e r o o t , o r 2 . The r o o t now c o n t a i n s two f i g u r e s , o r d i g i t s , 2 and 5,

T h i s completes t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s i n t h e working out of our example, and we f i n d t h a t 25 i s t h e squere r o o t of 625. Since t h e r e i s no remainder we c a l l t h i s a perfect square. Proof: To check our computation and prove t h a t 25 i s t h e c o r r e c t r o o t w e I f the nmber merely have t o m u l t i p l y 25 by i t s e l f , t h a t i s , w s q u s r e 25. e i t s e l f and t h e r o o t , when squared, a r e e q u a l t h e n you know t h a t you have t h e c o r r e c t answer. T'hus, 252 = 25 x 25 = 625.
PART I1

HOW TO FIND THE SQUARE ROOT OF A LARGE NUErBER. The examples i n square r o o t that have been p r e v i o u s l y worked o u t consisted of numbers having only t h r e e d i n i t s , a l l of t h e numbers being p e r f e c t s q u a r e s . This s e c t i o n w i l l a l s o d e a l w i t h p e r f e c t squares, b u t , t h i s - t i m e w w i l l work with numbers c o n s i s t i n g of e more than t h r e e d i g i t s s o t h a t t h e square r o o t of any Large number may be found. Study t h e f o l l o w i n g worked o u t example. Lesson 1 s h e e t 4

1
I

EXANPLE:

Find t h e square r o o t of 516961.

Eiark off t h e p r i o d s t o i n c l u d e two d i g i t s each, t h u s :

I

I

The number whose square i s e q u a l t o , o r l e s s t h a n t h e f i r s t period, 51, i s found by t r i a l t o be 7.

Since 7 i s t o be t h e f i r s t f i g u r e i n the r o o t , it i s p l a c e d i n t h e b r a c k e t t o the r i g h t of t h e number, a s shown below:

Square t b r o o t 7, j u s t found ( t h a t i s , m u l t i p l y 7 by i t s e l f , o r 7 x 7 ) and place the r e s u l t , 49, under t h e f i r s t period of the number, 51, and t h e n s u b t r a c t 49 from. 51.

A f t e r s u b t r a c t i n g , w g e t a remainder of 2, and t o t h i s we annex t h e n e x t e period of t he number, 69, t h u s g i v i n g us a remainder of 269.

Multiplying t h e r o o t 7 by 2 g i v e s us a t r i a l d i v i s o r of 14.

By d i v i s i o n we f i n d t h a t t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r 14 w i l l go. i n t o t h e remainder 269 only once. Note t h a t w d i s r e g a r d t h e r i g h t hand f i g u r e 9 i n 269, and, e t h e r e f o r e , we r e a l l y d i v i d e 26 by 14, a s follows:

Annex t h e 1 t o t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r 1 4 , t h u s making 141 t h e complete d i v i s o r . 7 x 7 =49 7 x 2 = 1 4 annex 1

= 141

51'69161 49 269

bl__

Next d i v i d e 269 by t h e complete d i v i s o r 141 an3 use t h e r e s u l t a s t h e next f i g u r e of t h e r o o t .

Lesson 1

-

sheet 5

W f i n d 1 t o be t h e next f i g u r e of t h e r o o t , and, t h e r e f o r e , 1 i s w r i t t e n e t o t h e r i g h t of 7. N w b r i n g down 69 a s i n any o r d i n a r y d i v i s i o n . These o s t e p s a r e shown below. 7 x 7 = 4 9 7 x 2 = 14 annex 1

= 141

51'69161 49 269

1 71

M u l t i p l y 1 by 141 = 141. Write 141 under 269 and t h e n s u b t r a c t . This l e a v e s a remainder of 128. The next period of t h e number, o r 61, i s now brought down and annexed t o 128. 7 x7=49 7 x 2 = 1 4 annex 1

= 141

51'69'61 49 269

1 71

M u l t i p l y t h e e n t i r e r o o t 71 by 2 i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a product t h a t w i l l be t h e next t r i a l d i v i s o r . T h i s product is 142. 7 x 7 =49 7 x 2 = 14 annex 1

= 141

Nw d i v i d e 12861 by 142, b u t f i r s t disregal'd t h e extreme r i g h t hand d i g i t o 1 of 12861. I n r e a l i t y , t h e n , we d i v i d e 1286 by 142, o r

After annexing t h e 9 t o 142, we g e t 1429, t h e complete d i v i s o r .
7 x 7 = 4 9 7 x 2 = 1 4 annex 1 7 1 x 2 s= 142 annex 9

= 141 = 1429

51'69161 1 7 1 49 269

Next d i v i d e 12861 by t h e complete d i v i s o r 1429, o r

By d i v i s i o n it i s found t h a t 1429 w i l l go i n t o 12861, 9 times, a s i n d i c a t e d e above. This i s how t h e next d i g i t , 9,- of t h e r o o t i s obtained. W t h e n set d o w n 9 t o t h e r i ~ h of d i g i t s , 7 and 1, which w p r e v i o u s l y found, thus t e g i v i n g us t h e t o t a l r o o t 719.
~

JLesson 1

-

sheet 6

7 x 2 71 x 2

7 x 7 = 4 9 = 1 4 annex 1 = 1 4 1 = 142 annex 9 =: 1429

5 1 ' 6 9 W l 1719 49 269

M u l t i p l y t h e complete d i v i s o r 1429 b y t h e l a s t r o o t f o u n d , o r 9.

W r i t e t h e p r o d u c t 12861 u n d e r t h e r e m a i n d e r 12861. 7 x 7 = 4 9 7 x 2 = 1 4 annex 1 7 1 x 2 = 142 annex 9

= 141

= 1429

51'69'61 49 269

1 719

The example f i n a l l y works o u t w i t h e v e n v a l u e s and we o b t a i n a n answer w h i c h i s a whole number. S i n c e t h e r e i s no r e m a i n d e r 719 i s t h e complete r o o t . That i s , 719 i s t h e s q u a r e r o o t of t h e number 516961. Proof: prove t h e e the - To 719 x 719 eanswer tweemusti g isnqau la rnumber,complete r o o tt h719. youIf a tr he e product of quals h o r o r 516961, en a s s u r e d t h a t you have worked t h e problem c o r r e c t l y . The c m p u t a t i o n below p r o v e s t h a t 719 i s c o r r e c t b e c a u s e 7192 o r 719 x 719 e q u a l s 516961.

A TZST EXERCISE I N SQUARE ROOT:

Find -\12951314276. The s o l u t i o n of a t y p i c a l example i r _ s q u a r e r o o t i s g i v e n below. The s t u d e n t should work o u t t h i s e x e r c i s e i n d e p e n d e n t l y and c h e c k each s t e p w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e purpose of t e s t i n g h i s a b i l i t y t o perform a l l of t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s c o r r e c t l y .

PART 1 1 1
I!OW TO FIN3 ?HI3 SQUARE ROCT OF AN INTEGRAJ, NmBER.

To determine t h e square r o o t O f a n I n t e g r a l number which i s not a p e r f e c t square, the s t u d e n t should proceed according t o t h e o u t l i n e i n Part II w i t h exceptions a s s t a t e d below. When solving f o r t h e square r o o t of an i n t e g r a l number, which i s not a p e r f e c t square, f i r s t determine how many d i g i t s , o r f i g u r e s , a r e r e q u i r e d i n the answer, and t h e n annex a d d i t i o n a l c i p h e r s t o the r i g h t of t h e number u n t i l t h e r e are a s many decimal periods provided a s t h e r e w i l l be decimal places (meaning d i g i t s ) appearing i n the r o o t . Once t h i s has been determined t h e e x t r a c t i n g <f t h e r o o t i s done e x a c t l y a s explained i n Part 11.

The student must keep i n mind t h a t t h e exact r o o t of a nunber, which i s not a perfect square, can not be found. A example of t h i s kind i s worked out n i n t h e paragraphs immediately following.
EXAMPLLi::

Find:

The f i r s t t h i n g t h a t one must do i s t o d e c i d e upon t h e number of decimal places ( d i g i t s ) d e s i r e d i n t h e answer. Suppose you wish t o work out t h e above example t o f o u r decimal p l a c e s , then w r i t e down number 33 and annex f o u r decimal periods t o the r i g h t , c o n s i s t i n g of two c i p h e r s each, a s shown below :

The example i s now i n c o r r e c t form f o r s o l u t i o n . The square r o o t i s ex t r a c t e d by applying t h e p r i n c i p l e s and step- by- step procedure a l r e s d y g i v e n i n t h e foregoing p a r t s of t h i s lesson. The f i r s t t h i n g t o d o i s t o s e l e c t a f i g u r e which when squared w i l l be c l o s e s t t o 39 but not g r e a t e r t h a n i t . Thfs f i g u r e i s 6, and i s w r i t t e n down a s t h e f i r s t f i g u r e i n t h e r o o t , a s follows : 62 3 9 . 0 0 ~ 0 0 ~ 0 0 ~96.2449 - 00 ! 56 6 x 2 = 1 2 annex 2 makes 300 122 complete d i v i s o r 244 5600 62 x 2 = 124 annex 4 makes 4976 62400 1244 complete d i v i s o r 49936 624 x 2 = 1248 annex 4 makes 1246400 12484 complete d i v i s o r 1124001

= 36

-

6244 x 2

= 12488

annex 9 makes 124889 complete d i v i s o r

122399

The decimal point i s e a s i l y and q u i c k l y l o c a t e d i n the answer by counting off t h e same number of decimal places ( d i g i t s ) t o the r i g h t of t h e answer, beginning a t t h e decimal p o i n t , a s t h e r e a r e decimal periods i n the example, Lesson 1 sheet 8

-

Since they were f o u r decimal periods annexed t o t h e r i g h t of the decimal p o i n t , following the number 39, then t h e answer w i l l c o n t a i n f o u r decimal places as i n d i c a t e d above. e Proof: T o check t h e c o r r e c t n e s s of the above problem w must square t h e answer, t h a t i s , 6.2449 must be m u l t i p l i e d by i t s e l f . If you perform t h i s m u l t i p l i c a t i o n you w i l l f i n d t h a t t h e product w i l l not e q u a l t h e number 39, but w i l l very c l o s e l y approach 39. l ' h i s proves t h a t t h e exact r o o t of an imperfect square can not be determined.
PART I V

-

The r u l e s given i n P a r t s I , I1 and III f o r e x t r a c t i n g t h e square r o o t of a number were applied f i r s t t o i n t e g r a l numbers which were p e r f e c t s q u a r e s , and second, t o i n t e g r a l numbers which were imperfect squares. The next p a r t of our work involves only f r a c t i o n a l nwnbers. Before proceedi n g f u r t h e r , however, we w i l l s t a t e s e v e r a l r u l e s t h a t may be applied t o any example i n square r o o t i n v o l v i n g p e r f e c t s q u a r e s , imperfect s q u a r e s , o r T h i s i s more o r l e s s of a review of what has been pref r a c t i o n a l numbers. sented t o you i n t h i s l e s s o n thus f a r . The p r i n c i p l e s which you have a l r e a d y learned may be a p p l i e d t o examples where t h e square r o o t of f r a c t i o n a l numbers must be found.

RULE 1
( A ) -.-BEGIN AT TH3 DECIMAL POINT and d i v i d e t h e number, whose square r o o t i s t o be found, i n t o p e r i o d s of two d i g i t s each,

When t h e i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e number c o n t a i n s an odd number of d i g i t s t h e n only one d i g i t w i l l appear i n t h e left- hand period. This period However, i n t h e may c o n t a i n one o r two d i g i t s a s t h e c a s e may be. c a s e of a decimal proceed a s explained i n t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraph ( B ) .

( B ) ---.When t h e decimal p a r t of t h e number c o n t a i n s an odd number of d i g i t s annex a c i p h e r a t t h e r i g h t , so t h a t t h e l a s t period of the decimal w i l l c o n t a i n two d i g i t s .
Explanation of Rule 1.

m

part $ a t . 6 4 1

Separate,or p o i n t o f f , t h e number i n t o p e r i o d s of 2 d i g i t s each, beginning a t t h e decimal p o i n t , as f o l l o w s : P o i n t off t o l e f t Point off t o r i g h t 5154'32.64t1

Lesson 1

- sheet

9

~3-11have one or two d i g i t s according b t h e t o t a l number of d i g i t s comprising t h e i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e number. Since the decimal p a r t of t h e number c o n s i s t s of an odd number of d i g i t s a c i p h e r must be added t o complete t h e l a s t period on t h e r i q h t , thus : +5'54'32.64'10 One d i g i t i n l e f t &cipher i s annexed t o hand period of complete r i g h t - h a n d i n t e g r a l number. period of decimal p a r t of number.
RULE 2.
(A )

-

- l e scse rtthaai n numberi r is st speriode d whichl whenhand. T hwi si lnumber,q ucaal l lt eodoar elect squared l be e n the f on t h e e f t
A

(B)
(C)

- The above wiitlslebef number, l
(A)

p o t e n t i a l r o o t , i s squared and t h e r e s u l t i s placed under t h e f i r s t period. (not s q u a r e d ) , which was s e l e c t e d according t o t h e f i r s t d i g i t i n the r e q u i r e d r o o t . from t h e f i r s t period and

(D)

- A f t e r you s u b t rba rcitn ghdownr etahtee snext period andt h annex sit pteor i othe, remainder t e g t square from e fir t d a s suggested i n found .
(C),
2 c o n s i d e r number 55432,641 whose square r o o t i s

- The r'emainder i s w r i t t e n down.s u b t r a c t e d number, when squared, i s the

E -x p h n a t i o n of Rule 2. (A) - To i l l u s t r a t e Kule t o be found,

Separate t h e number i n t o p e r i o d s of two d i g i t s each and annex a c i p h e r t o t h e right- hand period of t h e decimal p a r t ,

Remember t h a t we a r e now e x p l a i n i n g how t o b e g i n your computation and what t o d o w i t h t h e f i r s t period. Let us t r y 3 a s t h e f i r s t d i g i t i n the r o o t . N w square '3, which e q u a l s 9. Since 9 i s o g r e a t e r t h a n t h e left- hand period 5, we must t r y some s m a l l e r f i g u r e . This time l e t us t r y 1. N w square 1, which e q u a l s 1. o t h a t f i g u r e 1 i s too small,

It i s c l e a r

(R)

-

Try 2. N w square 2 which e q u a l s 4. o Figure 2 i s c o r r e c t , inasmuch a s 12 i s t o o small and 32 i s t o o l a r g e . Therefore, 2 becomes t h e f i r s t d i g i t of t h e r o o t , and i s w r i t t e n i n the b r a c k e t a s follovis: 5'54'32.64110 1 2 Lesson 1 s h e e t 10

-

renarnder 1 which makes t h e t o t a l remainder 154; 5'54'32.64'10 4 (remainder ) 154

12

RULE 3.
(A)

- Now

Rule 3 e x p l a i n s how t o f i n d t h e second d i g i t i n t h e r o o t , double t h e r o o t a l r e a d y found, o r i n o t h e r words, m u l t i p l y t h e root by 2, and use t h e product. a s a t r i a l d i v i s o r f o r t h e t o t a l remainder.

(B)

- Determine

how many times t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r , o r t h e product obtained by doubling t h e r o o t , i s contained i n t h e t o t a l remairder d i s r e g a r d ing t h e r i g h t hand f i g u r e a s we always do i n t h i s o p e r a t i o n . This w i l l be t h e next d i g i t of t h e r o o t and i t sholuld be placed i n t h e b r a c k e t t o t h e r i g h t of t h e f i r s t d i g i t , and a l s o annexed t o t h e r i g h t of t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r t o make a complete d i v i s o r . i n the r o o t

(G)

(D)

- annexing t hi et tnoe ctehses aremainder c tjiuosnt foundt h e n bur ibntgr adownn t. h e Nnextproceedd , Perform ry subtra and perio by s ctio o w
w i t h t h e problem by r e p e a t i n g t h i s procedure f o r e a c h d i g i t i n t h e root.

- Multiplye t ht h i complete dunder rt hby tt h et alla remainder.placed e iviso st digit and w r i t s product e o

Explanation of Rule 3.
(A)

-

Double t h e r o o t j u s t found, and use t h e product a s t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r . I R 5854132.64'10 k ~ o u b l t h i s r o o t . The e Doubling t h e r o o t work i s done a t t h e l e f t 2 x 2 =4 4 154 hand s i d e of t h e problem.

-

Since r o o t 2 , when doubled e q u a l s 4 , t h e n 4 becomes t h e t r i a l d i v i s ~ .
(B)

Find how many times t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r 4 w i l l go i n t o t h e t o t a l r e mainder 154, d i s r e g a r d i t h e right- hand f i g u r e . This i s , i n r e a l i t y , d i v i d i n g 1 5 by 4 , o r 15fag+ 4 = 3. The r e s u l t of t h i s l a s t d i v i s i o n , o r d i v i d i n g 1 5 by 4 , w i l l g i v e us 3, w L h becams t h e next 3 i g i t i n t h e r o o t , and by annexing 3 t o the Kc t r i a l d i v i s o r 4 we o b t a i n t h e complete d i v i s o r , o r 43. Lesson 1

- s h e e t 11

Trial divisor. 2 x 2 = 4 annex 3 makes 43

D i g i t 3 i s now w r i t t e n t o t h e r i g h t of d i g i t 2, which was p r e v i o u s l y found, and t h e r o o t t h u s f a r i s 23. Annexing 3 t o the t r i a l d i v i s o r makes 43 t h e complete d i v i s o r , a s shown above a t the left- hand s i d e .
(C)

-

Multiply t h e complete d i v i s o r 43, j u s t found, by t h e l a s t d i g i t of t h e r o o t , o r 3, and place t h e product, o r 129, under t h e t o t a l r e mainder 154. 2 x 2

=4

annex 3 makes 43

(D)

-

The product of 43 x 3, o r 129, i s s u b t r a c t e d from 154 and t h e next
p e r i o d 3 2 of t h e number i s brought down a s follows:

-- -

129 2 5 3 2 c P e r i o d 32 brought down and added. t o 25 g i v e s 2532, t h e t o t a l remainder.
If w continue our computation t o two decimal p l a c e s according t o e t h e same r u l e s we w i l l o b t a i n the following r e s u l t :

Lesson 1

- sheet

12

RULE 4

A f t e r a problem has been worked out t o the d e s i r e d number of decimal p l a c e s then p o i n t off a s many ( d e c i m a l ) d i g i t s i n t h e r o o t , beginning a t t h e extreme right, a s t h e r e a r e decimal p e r f ods i n t h e number. There a r e two decimal p e r i o d s i n t h e above number, t h e ~ e f o r e ~ t h e r e w i l l be t w o decimal p l a c e s i n t h e answer, a s i n d i c a t e d . Explenation o f Rule 4. A f t e r completing t h e f o r e g o i n g computations and applying t h e r u l e about l o c a t i n g t h e decimal p o i n t w f i n d t h a t t h e square r o o t of e The s i g n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t.he answer i s 55432.641 i s 235.44 not complete, b u t i s c o r r e c t t o t w o decimal p l a c e s . Also, t h e 9 s i g n s i g n i f i e s t h a t t h e r e a l answer, which would be obtained i f computations were c a r r i e d beyond t h i s p o i n t , would be g r e a t e r t h a n the anslper which we accept a s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e .

+.

+

RULE 5

i

The following r u l e a p p l i e s o n l y in s p e c i a l c a s e s . 'When a t r i a l d i v i s o r i s t o o l a r g e t o go i n t o a remainder, t h e n a c i p h e r should be placed i n t h e r o o t and a c i p h e r a l s o annexed t o the t r i a l d i v i s o r . Then b r i n g down the n e x t period of t h e number and c a r r y out t h e computation i n the r e g u l a r manner, The following example i s given t o i l l u s t r a t e how t h i s r u l e i s applied.
EXAMPLE:

Find:

v m 4

By i n s ~ c t f o n t i s found t h a t t r i a l d i v i s o r 4 can not be divided i i n t o t h e remainder 16 a f t e r w d i s r e g a r d t h e r i g h t hand f i g u r e 6. e That i s , 4 w i l l n o t go i n t o 1. T h e r e f o r e , p l a c e a c i p h e r i n t h e r o o t and a l s o annex a c i p h e r t o t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r 4 making a new t r i a l d i v i s o r 40. Then b r i n g down the next period of the number 53 and continue w i t h t h e problem.
2 x 2

=4

annex 0 makes 40 t h e new t r i a l d i v i s o r .

Disregarding t h e r i g h t hand f i g l n e i n t h e remainder 1653 g i v e s us 165, and d i v i d i n g 165 by 40, w o b t a i n 4. T h e r e f o r e , t h e next d i g i t e i n the r9oot i s 4. Lesson 1

-

sheet 13

Annex 4 t o the f i n a l t r i a l d i v i s o r 40, making i t 404. Multiply 404 by 4, the l a s t d i g i t of t h e r o o t , and p l a c e t h e product umler the remainder 1653 and s u b t r a c t .
2

x 2 = 4 annex

0 makes 40 the new t r i a l d i v i s o r .

Thus, w f i n d t h a t t h e square r o o t of 41,653 i s 204 w i t h a remainder, e

PART V.
HOW TO FIND TKF SQUARE ROOT O F A DECIMAL.
To f i n d t h e square r o o t of a decimal o r f r a c t i o n i s j u s t a s simple a s when u s i n g i n t e g r a l numbers o r whole numbers, Decimals might appear more d i f f i c u l t t o handle a t f i r s t because the average s t u d e n t does not o r d i n a r i l y work w i t h them a s f r e q u e n t l y a s with whole numbers.
EXAMPLE:

Find

1

A t y p i c a l example with f u l l explanations i s given below,

Keep i n mind t h a t t h e f i r s t t h i n g t o do i n any case of t h i s kind i s t o point off the number i n t o periods of two d l g i t s e a c h beginning a t t h e decimal p o i n t , thus:

A f t e r d i v i d i n g the number i n t o p e r i o d s , a s shown above, we n o t i c e t h a t t h e right- hand period c o n t a i n s but one d i g i t , 5, and t h e r e f o r e a cipher must be annexed t o complete t h i s period.

The computation i s now s t a r t e d by s e l e c t i n g a number which i s the t r i a l d i v i s o r , This number when squared must not be g r e a t e r t h a n t h e value of t h e f i r s t period. I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e t h e f i r s t period i s 00 and i t i s q u i t e obvious t h a t t h e r e i s no number which i s e q u a l t o zero when squared, hence, a c i p h e r i s place@ i n t h e bracket a s t h e f i r s t d i g i t i n t h e r o o t .

Bring down t h e next p e r i o d , 02, and continue w i t h the example a s explained i n our i n s t r u c t i o n s which preceeded t h i s p a r t . A number i s now s e l e c t e d which when squared w i l l n o t be g r e a t e r than t h e value of t h e second period, o r 02. The number which w i l l s a t i s f y t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s found t o be 1, hence, 1 i s w r i t t e n i n the b r a c k e t a s t h e next d i g i t i n t h e r o o t . Lesson 1

-

sheet 14

A f t e r f i g u r e 1 i s w r i t t e n i n t h e bracket a s j u s t suggested, a l s o place 1 under the remainder 2, and then s u b t r a c t .

This l e a v e s a remainder of 1 t o which t h e next period 50 i s annexed. t o t a l remainder i s now 150.

The

Multiply t h e r o o t 1 (which i s w r i t t e n in the b r a c k e t ) by 2 i n order t o obtajn a t r i a l d i v i s o r and t h e n determine t h e number of times t h i s t r i a l d i v i s o r , o r 2, i s contained i n t o 150, d i s r e g a r d i n g the right- hand d i g i t i n 150. This means, of course, t h a t 15 i s t o be divided by 2, which e q u a l s 7. T h i s f i g u r e e j u s t obtained, or 7, i s c a l l e d the p o t e n t i a l r o o t . W now annex 7 t o t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r 2 g i v i n g us 27 and by multiplying 27 by t h e p o t e n t i a l r o o t 7 we o b t a i n the f i g u r e 189.

Since f i g u r e 189 i s l a r g e r than t h e t o t a l remainder 150 it i s very evident t h a t w cannot use 7 as t h e next d i g i t i n the r o o t . Therefore, we must t r y e a number which i s l e s s t h a n 7. L e t , u s t r y 6. The f i g u r e 6 now becomes the p o t e n t i a l root. The f i g u r e 6 or p o t e n t i a l r o o t , i s annexed t o t h e t r i a l d i v i s o r 2 and we have 26. Multiplying the p o t e n t i a l r o o t 6 by 26 e q u a l s 156. 16:e cannot use 6 a s t h e next d i g i t i n the r o o t s i n c e 156 i s g r e a t e r than 150, and t h e r e f o r e , w must t r y a smaller f i g u r e . Let u s t r y 5 t h i s time. e Apply the same l i n e of reasoning i n reejard t o the use of 5 a s w d i d i n t h e e c a s e of tb o t h e r t r i a l d i v i s o r s , 7 and 6, which could not be used. T r i a l d i v i s o r 2 w i t h 5 annexed e q u a l s 25. P o t e n t i a l r o o t 5 m u l t i p l i e d by 25 e q u a l s 125. Since 125 is not g r e e t e r t h a n 150 t h e n it i s evident t h a t 5 can be applied a s t h e n e x t d i g i t i n t h e r o o t . Therefore, w r i t e 5 i n t h e b r a c k e t a s t h e next d i g i t i n t h e r o o t ; then m u l t i p l y t h e f i n a l d i v i s o r , o r 25, by the r o o t 5, and place the t o t a l , o r 125, under 150. Lesson 1

-

sheet 1 5

1x 2
25 x 5

=2

annex 5 makes 25 complete d i v i s o r

I 150

= 125.

125 25

I f t h e answer i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e , f o r t h e purpose a t hand, when t h e r o o t i s c a r r i e d out t o t h r e e decimal p l a c e s , t h e n our work i s completed. B u t , suppose a n answer c o n t a i n i n g f o u r decimal p l a c e s i s required; t h e n w must go through one more computet i o n according t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s a l e ready o u t l i n e d . To g i v e you a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n working out examples of t h i s kjnd l e t us c a r r y out t h e answer t o one more d e c i m a l p l a c e , To do t h i s annex a period c o n s i s t i n g of two c i p h e r s t o t h e r i g h t of t h e l a s t period 50 and continue w i t h t h e work.

1 x 2
25 x 5 15 x 2

=2

1

annex 5 makes 25

= 125

= SO

annex 8 makes 308 complete d i v i s o r

150 125 2500 2464 36

-

i s 0.0158

Hence, w e have found t h a t t h e s q u a r e r o o t of 0.00025 answer i s c o r r e c t t o f o u r decimal p l a c e s .
EXAIV!PLF: Given t h e number c o n t a i n 4 decimal p l a c e s .

+.

This

.8006 f i n d i t s square r o o t .

The answer should

The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s example i s given below without a l l of t h e work being shown. This i s done i n o r d e r t o g i v e you a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o work t h e same example step- by- step, showing a l l of t h e work, and a f t e r w a r d t o check your computation.

-

.00~05~00*00 .0223+ 0 05

-

1

Answer.

Lesson 1

-

s h e e t 16

ROE TO FIhQ TFE SQUARE ROOT OF

EXAKPLB:

Find:

fl

A F'RACTTOE.

I n t h i s problem i t i s seen t h a t b o t h t h e numerator, o r 25, and denominator, or 8 1 , a r e p e r f e c t s q u a r e s . Therefore, t o work out this problem we simply t a k e t h e square r o o t of t h e n m m r a t o r and denominator s e p a r a t e l y and t h e n remove t h e r a d i c a l s i g n a s follows: The square r o o t of 25 is 5; and t h a t of 81 i s 9 . Hence,

Simple examples l i k e t h e one g i v e n above can be solved merely by i n s p e c t i o n . However, t h i s cannot b e done when the numerator and denominator a r e not p e r f e c t squares. I n an example of the l a t t e r kind you must f i r s t reduce t h e f r a c t i o n t o a decimal and t h e n proceed t o f i n d t h e square r o o t o f the decimal.

EXAMPLE : Find :
F i r s t reduce t h e f r a c t i o n t o a decimal by d f v f d i n g 2 by 7. T t h a t 2 = 0.28571 -#7

-

Thus, w f i n d e

The same step- by- step The next s t e p i s t o f i n d t h e square r o o t of 0,28571. procedure i s followed i n a l l c a s e s where a decimal. i s involved f n square root, A f t e r working out t h i s problem you should o b t a i n 0,5345 f o r t h e answer which f s not f u l l y complete s i n c e t h e r e i s a remainder,but, i n t h e rnajortty of c a s e s e decimal c a r r i e d out t o t h r e e o r f o m p l a c e s i s a c c e p t e d as s u f P i c f e n t l g a c c u r a t e f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, 21n e x p r e s s i n g t h i s p e s u l t we would say t h a t 0,5345 i s t h e square r o o t of c o r r e c t to f o u r decimal 7 places.

-

Lesson 1 - sheet 17

EXAMINATION

-

LESSON I

Your ansxers t o Problems 1, 2, 3, and 4 should be g i v e n i n f o u r decimal p l a c e s . DO NOT show t h e work i n t h e s e problems; o n l y t h e answers a r e r e quired.
1 . 2.
3.

What i s t h e s q u a r e r o o t of 527849? What i s t h e square r o o t of 0.94935? What i s t h e s q u a r e r o o t of 26.842? What i s t h e s q u a r e r o o t of

4.

14? 4 255

Your answers t o Problems 5, 6, 7 , 8 , 9, and 1 0 should be accompanied by a l l of t h e work necessary t o f i n d t h e a n s r e r s . 5.
6.

Add:

++g++
5 x 1 and 1
8 16 reduce t h e product found t o a decimal.

~ultiply: Divide:

9, 8.
9.

14 , 28 17 ' 32 Multiply: 1.005 x 0.175 4985.85 15.3

- --

Divide:

10.

Reduce t h e f r a c t i o n

1 to 8 35

a decimal.

Lesson 1

-

s h e e t 18
-

UNITS OF ELECTRICAL MEASURETIiWTS AND SYMBOLS
I n t h e p r e c e e d i n g l e s s o n s we b u i l t up a background f o r our f u t u r e work. From t h i s p o i n t on we w i l l d e a l more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f r a d i o and e l e c t r i c i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , we w i l l f i r s t d e f i n e t h e fundamental u n i t s o f measurement which form t h e b a s i s of e l e c t r i c a l computation and l a t e r t h e e l e c t r i c a l u n i t , s and t e r m s which a r e i n common u s e i n r a d i o , The t h r e e f undamerltal u n i t s o f measurement a r e :

(1) t h e c e n t i m e t e r , o r u n i t of l e n g t h , ( 2 ) t h e gram, o r u n i t of mass, ( 3) t h e s e c o n d , o r u n l t of t i m e ,
These t h ~ : n e u a n t i t i e s a r e combined and e x p r e s s e d below i n a simple r e q l a t i o n h2?o\vi': a s t h e c e n t ? . m e t e r - g r a m - s e c o d , o r C .G.S. system. The C ..<LS. unLt of v e l o c i t y i s t h . representing a distance of one centl.meter covered i n one s e c o n d , 1 coni;!.meter .= 0 , 0 1 m e t e r = 0.3937 i n c h . representj.ng the force The C .I? , S . unLt of f o r c e i s t h e r e q u i r s d t o move a mass o f one grar one k i n e per second, 1 gram s= 3./28th o f an ounce.
t representing the The C . 3 . 3 , u n i t of work o r e n e r g y i s t h e % work accomplished by a f o r c e of one dyne working o v e r a d i s t a n c e of one c e x t l m e t e r .

e,

m,

-

I n t h i s l e s s o n v+e g i v e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e c t r i c a l u n i t s w i t h s:r.ii:;:le problems t o e x p l a i n t h e i r meanings. These u n i t s ' a r e u s e d r e p e a t e d l y tiiroughout our c o u r s e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e y must be l e a r n e d b y t h e s t u d e : ~ ; . Sf t h e s e u n i t s a r e l e a r n e d a t t h e s t a r t t h e n no d i f f i c u l t y w i l l be enco1;r-:-L6$??ec: n t h e work b e f o r e u s , i

THE VO,LT is t!hc u n i t of e l e c t r i c a l p r e s s u r e . T h i s p r e s s u r e i s known as t h e 7'electroncti-vc! ?or ce " a n d , a l s o , a s " d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l " . E l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e i s :;bbx~?;isteC! by t h e l e t t e r s (E.M.F.) o r (e.m..f. ).
-.., --

One v o ? t i s d e f i n e d a s the amount o f e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e n e c e s s a r y . -, .-. .. i n t e n s i t y o f one ampere t o ~ l ' r o u g h c i r - : a t o cause. ...-:::::-rent c u i t ha';';ijk; s ! r e s i s t a n c e o f one ohm.
~

I n e l e c t r i c a l p r a c t i c e you w i l l h e a r r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h i s u n i t by any one of t h e following names: V o l t , Voltage, Electromotive Force , Pressure o r Difference of P o t e n t i a l , a l l of wfiich have t h e same meaning. The u n i t v o l t i s denoted by t h e symbol ( E ) . I n an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t w e x p r e s s the amount of t h e electromotive f o r c e e a s a c e r t a i n number of v o l t s . To i l l u s t r a t e t h e proper use of t h e terms "e.m.f." and " v o l t s " l e t us consider the simple c i r c u i t drawn i n Figure 1 where a 6 v o l t b a t t e r y i s connected t o a 6 v o l t lamp, INhen speaking about h he t h e pressure i n t h i s c i r c u i t it would be t h e customary t h i n g t o say: e.m.f. of 6 v o l t s , applied t o t h i s c i r c u i t by t h e b a t t e r y , f o r c e s a c e r t a i n amount of c u r r e n t through t h e f i l a m e n t of the l a m p , t h u s causing it t o light. "

THE SAME CIRCUIT SHOWN PICTORIALLY A N D BY D I A G R h M

Figure 1 E l e c t r i c a l pressure i s analogous t o water p r e s s u r e , To i l l u s t r a t e this l e t us suppose you connect up your garden hose t o a f a u c e t and open t h e valve, Providing t h e r e i s water supply a v a i l a b l e i n t h e mains we know t h a t water w i l l r u n through t h e hose. The p r e s s u r e i n the p i p e s was necessary i n o r d e r t o g e t t h i s flow of water. J u s t how water p r e s s u r e i n pipes i s obt a i n e d i n our homes and b u i l d i n g s should be q u i t e obvious to most anyone s i n c e there a r e p r a c t i c a l l y only two sources; one source i s t h e r e s u l t of mechanical work done by a pumping machine of some t y p e , while the o t h e r i s t h e r e s u l t of n a t u r a l g r a v i t y provided by a head of w a t e r , o r water supply o r i g i n a t i n g a t some l e v e l h i g h e r t h a n t h e o u t l e t where t h e hose i s a t t a c h e d . To point out t h e idea t h a t p r e s s u r e i s always e s s e n t i a l before a movement o r motion of any kind can be produced w have shown a s m a l l tank p a r t l y e f i l l e d with water i n s k e t c h ( A ) of Figure 2 . Notice t h a t t o t'he bottom of the tank t h e r e has been connected a s h o r t p i p e , bent i n t o a U shape, t h e open end of whlch i s arranged e x a c t l y l e v e l w i t h t h e t a n k connection. The valve a c t s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o a switch i n an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e flow. If t h e valve i n the pipe 13 closed t h e water pressure i s not u t i l i z e d although t h e p r e s s u r e i s always p r e s e n t by reason of t h e e height and volume of water i n the tank. But, if w open t h e valve t h e p r e s s u r e w i l l immediately a c t and water w i l l flow through t h e pipe and gush out a t i t s open end, The flow w i l l continue j u s t s o long a s t h e r e i s any water i n the tank or any p r e s s u r e . F i n a l l y when t h e t a n k i s emptied i t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e pipe s t i l l h o l d s a q u a n t i t y of w a t e r which does not flow out of t h e open end because b o t h ends of t h e pipe a r e l e v e l , a s shown B . This r e s u l t shows t h a t while t h e water remaining i n the i n sketch ( ) pipe has a p o t e n t i a l f o r c e due t o i t s own weight, y e t i t cannot be made Lesson 2

- sheet. 2

use of i n t h i s case. Thus, we see t h a t it r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n c e of pressure Level t o o b t a i n f o r c e by which t h e water may be made t o flow even though water may be a t hand. However, by merely bending t h e open end downward, a s f n ( C ) , t h e water confined i n t h e pipe w i l l begin t o flow o u t , since w e have s e t up a c o n d i t i o n where t h e f o r c e due t o t h e weight of water i s now a c t i n g . The higher t h e water l e v e l i n t h e t a m t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be t h e a v a i l a b l e pressure. Although we can see t h e water w cannot see the "pressure" . Nevertheless, e it i s e a s y t o measure water pressure i n pounds w i t h a s u i t a b l e pressure gauge. When w r e f e r t o p r e s s u r e i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l sense, w a l s o d e a l e e e with an unseen f o r c e which may be generated i n one of s e v e r a l ways. W

Figure 2 know how t o r e g u l a t e the i n t e n s i t y of t h i s e l e c t r i c a l pressure according t o c e r t a i n requirements so t h a t it may be applied t o a c i r c u i t t o s e t up a flow of c u r r e n t . It i s a l s o easy t o measure e l e c t r i c a l pressure by means of a s u i t a b l e instrument, c a l l e d a " voltmeter". S e v e r a l common sources of electrkcal pressure a r e b a t t e r i e s , g e n e r a t o r s , electromagnetic i n d u c t i o n and e l e c t r o s t a t i c induetion.
T t B AMPERE i s t h e u n i t of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t ; it r e p r e s e ~ t sa c e r t a i n amount of c u r r e n t flowing a t a g i w n r a t e ,

One ampere i s deffned a s t h e i n t e n s i t y ( o r s t r e n g t h , o r v a l u e ) of the c u r r e n t t h a t w i l l flow t h r o q h a c i r c u i t whose r e s i s t a n c e i s one ohm, when t h e q p l i e d electromotive f o r c e i s one v o l t . The following i s another d e f i n i t i o n of the u n i t of c u r r e n t s t r s n g t h , based on t h e amount of chemical 8ecomposition taking place i n a g i v e n period of "One ampere i s time, and s t a t e d i n terms of q u a n t i t y and r a t e of flow. t h a t steady flow of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t which when passed through a s t ~ n d a r d s o l u t i o n of n i t r a t e of s i l v e r i n w a t e r , w i l l deposit s i l v e r a t t h e r a t e of 0.001118 gram per second, 11 The q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r i c i t y i s measured by t h e u n i t "coulomb". Although t h i s u n i t i s d e f ined i n a subsequent paragraph l e t us a t t h i s time show t h e "When one coulomb of r e l a t i o n between "coulomb" and "ampere" a s follows: e l e c t r i c i t y passes a g i v e n point i n n c i r c u i t , every second of time, one. ampsre of c u r r e n t i s s a i d t o flow". Hence, i f 2 coulonbs of e l e c t r i c i t y pe.ss a given p o i n t i n a c i r c u i t p e r second t h e s t r e n g t h of the c u r r e n t i s I n a given c i r c u i t , t h e r e f o r e , t o f i n d t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y of 2 amperes. e l e c t r i c i t y expressed i n coulombs w must take the product of t h e c u r r e n t e Lesson 2

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3

i n amperes and t h e l e n g t h of time i n seconds t h a t t h e c u r r e n t flows. Note: The underlined d e f i n i t i o n of an ampere i s the one t h a t should be learned f o r our p r a c t i c a l work. Current i s denoted by t h e symbol (I) and i s m a s u r e d by a n instrument c a l l e d an "ammeter". Again r e f e r t o t h e drawing i n Figure 2 t o be s u r e that you have a c l e a r understanding of t h e d i f f e r e n e e between " q u a n t i t y " and " r a t e of flow", Water flowing through a pipe a t t h e r a t e of a c e r t a i n number of g a l l o n s per In minute can be compared t o c u r r e n t i n amperes passing through a c i r c u i t . n r e p r e s e n t s the q u a n t i t y and " gallons per minute" a water system " g a l l o n s t h e t o t a l amount f o r a given time, o r r a t e of flow; whereas, i n the e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t "coulomb" i s t h e q u a n t i t y and " m p e r e s " i s t h e r a t e ol" flow of a given q u a n t i t y . A importank point t o be mentioned i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t throughout t h e n whole length of t h e pipe t h e r e a r e oppositions s e t up which prevent a f r e e movement of t h e water, These oppositions a r e due p r i n c i p a l l y t o f r i c t i o n by contact of the water with t h e i n n e r w a l l s of t h e pipe, bends i n t h e pipe and t h e length and s i z e , o r c r o s s s e c t i o n , o f t h e p i p e , I n any of i t s forms, opposition must be naet and ovepcome by t h e pressure b e f o r e water flows and, of course,the o p p o s i t i o n s w i l l govern t o some e x t e n t t h e amount of water t h a t flows i n a given time ura9er a given pressupe. It i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t any opposition presented by t h e pipe i t s e l f w i l l r e t a r d t h e water flow, T h i s opposition i s comparable t o t h a t which i s p r e s e n t a t a l l t i m e s i n e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s because t h e w i r e s o r o t h e r m e t a l l i c p a r t s do not permit a f r e e movement of e l e c t r o n s , o r c u r r e n t , but r a t h e r , t h e c u r r e n t i s forced t o flow through t h e m a t e r i a l s used t o c o n s t r u c t the c i r c - l i t under t h e applied voltage. Each d i f f e r e n t kind of metal has i t s own s p e c i f i c r e s i s t a n e g , For i n s t a n c e , c u r r e n t flows more r e a d i l y through s i l v e r than through copper, and e more r e a d i l y through copper t h a n i r o n , Thus, If w have two c S r c u i t s cons i s t i n g of t h e same l e n g t h and c r o s s - s e c t i o n of wire, and Pf one c i r c u i t u s e s copper wire and t h e o t h e r i r o n wire, and i f e x a c t l y t h e same v o l t a g e i s a p p l i e d t o both c i r c u i t s it w i l l be found, under t h e s e conditions, that about s i x times a s much c u r r e n t w i l l pass through t h e copper wire a s compared t o This is because the r e l a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e of copper i s t h e iron- wire c i r c u i t . 1.075 a s compared t o 6,37 f o r i r o n , h t h e case of t h e e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t t h i s opposition of t h e m a t e r i a l i t s e l f , which governs t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e c u r r e n t flow, i s known a s t h e " r e s i s t a n c e " , T h i s s u b j e c t i s again discussed under t h e miit of r e s i s t a n c e , t h e o h . An A P R - O R is it& M E EH U u n i t i n g e n e r a l use i n b a t t e r y chargin$ s e r v i c e ; It r e p r e s e n t s a continuous flow of c u r r e n t of 1 ampere f o r 1 hour.
THE OHM

i s t h e e l e c t r i c a l u n i t of r e s i s t a n c e , Resistance i s t h e n a t u r a l opposition which a l l m a t e r i a l s o f f e s t o t h e flow of e l e c t r o n i c c u r r e n t , and since t h i s opposition i s i n h e r e n t i n a l l matter it must be overcome by t h e electromotive f o r c e b e f o r e c u r r e n t w i l l flow.

of one ampere through it. Lesson 2

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4

The following i s a d e f i n i t i o n of the u n i t r e s i s t a n c e based on a physical standard: One ohm i s the amount of r e s i s t a n c e t h a t would be offered t o a steady flow of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t by a column of mercmy of uniform crosss e c t i o n , 106.3 cm. l o n g 7 14.4521 grams i n weight a t a temperature of 32 degrees Fahrenheit, or 0 degrees Centigrade. (Note: One centimeter i s a l i t t l e l e s s than e h a l f i n c h . One ounce i s e q u a l t o 28 grams.) The o h i s denoted by t h e symbol ( R ) and is named a f t e r t h e German s c i e n t i s t e George S. Ohm. H was r e s p o n s i b l e t l f o r recognizing t h e r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between t h e "volt aget', " r e s i s t a n c e and " current * i n a l l e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s and formulating t h i s r e l a t i o n i n t o what i s probably t h e most important and widely used law i n e l e c t r i c i t y , known a s "OHMtS LAW". When a conductor has an e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h r e s i s t a n c e we use the u n i t e "megohm". For conductors having a very low r e s i s t a n c e w use the "mic~ohm'~. One megohm equals one m i l l i o n ohme. one microhm equale 1/l,000,000th of an ohm.
THE COULOhlB i s t h e u n i t of e l e c t r i c a l q u a n t i t y used t o e x p r e s s the t o t a l q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t passing tbrough a c i r c u i t i n e, s t a t e d time.

y One eoulomls is tihe ~ u m t % t of e P e c t r ~ l e i t J rt h a t will flow i n one a second ttwough a c U c u i t h a v f n ~ r e s l a t a n c e of one o h when t h e a p p l i e d ecm.f. i s one v o l t , *e ape now d e a l i n g w i t h " quantity" f n e l e c t r i c i t $ i n about t h a same m y t h a t ordinary standards, a pound o r g a l l o n f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e used t o measure s u p p l i e s such as sugar, milk, e t c , Thus, i f we wish t o know t h e number of "coulombs" o r " q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r i c i t y " passing through a c i r c u i t i n a given tinre we must m u l t i p l y t h e number of amperes by t h e number of seconds t h e current conkinues t o flow. The following example shows how t o apply t h i s m l e : Suppose t h e r a t e of c u r r e n t flow f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u i t i s 8 amperes and t h e c u r r e n t continues t o flow s t e a d f a y f o r 4 seconds. The t o t a l q u a n t i t y of e l e c t r i c i t y passed w i l l be 8 x 4 o r 3 2 ampere-seconds, o r 32 coulombs a f e l e c t r i c i t y . Also, if 2 amperes flow f o r 16 eeconds we would have 52 ampere-seconds o r 32 coulombs. The wit "cou~omb"i s a l s o a p p l i e d i n e l e e t r o s t a t f e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o placing an e l e c t r o s t a t i c charge i n a condenser and i n t h i s usage %ti s defined a s follolns: "One coulomb i s t h e q u a n t i t y of e L e c t r i C f t y n e c e s s a r y t t o r a i s e by orie v o l t t h e d i f f e r e n c e of p oI9 e n t i a l between t h e p l a t e s of a condenser whose capacf tance i s one f a r a d . The coulomb i s denoted by t h e symbol (Q).
TRE HENRY i s t h e unit of inductance, Inductance i s a c e r t a i n p r o p e r t y possessed by every e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t which e s t a b l i s h e s an electromagnetic f i e l d about i t s conductors and windings ( c o i l s ) . Inductance i s a l s o applied t o t h e p e c u l i a r property of a l l conductors and windirgs ( c o i l s ) which tend t o oppose any c u r r e n t chsnge produced by a c i r c u i t w i t h i n i t s e l f by v i r t u e of the changing magnetism which i s s e t up whenever c u r r e n t v a r i e s o r tends t o vary i n s t r e n g t h . The e f f e c t i s pronounced i n any c i r c u i t i n which the

'

LRssdn 2

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5

c u r r e n t i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing i n t e n s i t y , a s f o r example, i n a c i r c u i t carrying p u l s a t i n g d i r e c t c u r r e n t o r a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . The n e t r e s u l t of inductive e f f e c t s i s t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a second e.m.f. separate from t h e a p p l i e d e .m.f. which causes the c u r r e n t t o flow. This property of "inductance" e x i s t s i n a l l p o r t i o n s of an a c t i v e c i r c u i t because the electromagnetic l i n e s of f o r c e ( f l u x ) s e t up by t h e c u r r e n t w i l l vary i n magnitude according t o every change i n c u r r e n t i n t e n s i t y and t h e s e magnetic l i n e s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y a c t i n g upon the v e r y wires ( o r conductors and c o i l s ) which comprise t h e c i r c u i t . The term ' s e l f - inductance 1' i s commonly used t o express t h i s p e c u l i a r property e x h i b i t e d by a c i r c u i t due t o the a c t i o n of i t s own magnetic l i n e s upon i t s e l f . The tendency of a c i r c u i t t o prevent changes i n c u r r e n t i n t e n s i t y and spoken of a s the " s e l f inductance" of a c i r c u i t , a s j u s t mentioned, r e p r e s e n t s one kind of oppos i t i o n and it must not be confused w i t h a c i r c u i t 1 s i ' r e s i s t a n c e " . Resl.stance i s always p r e s e n t whether t h e c u r r e n t v a r i e s i n s t r e n g t h or Wether it flows s t e a d i l y , However, "inductance e f f e c t s " a r e not p r e s e n t i n a c i r c u i t when a s t e a d y d i r e c t c u r r e n t flows, f o r i n t h i s case the magnetic l i n e s a r e a l s o steady and consequently do not a c t upon t h e conductors,
A c i r c u i t i s s a i d t o have an inductance of one henry when an electromotive. f o r c e o f one v o l t w i l l be induced i n t h e c i r c u i t by a c u r r a n t varying a t t h e r a t e of one ampere per second.

The l e t t e r (L) i s t h e symbol used t o denote inductance.
THE FARAD i s t h e u n i t of e l e c t r i c a l c a p a c i t y and i s abbreviated "fd". This u n i t r e l a t e s t o t h e amount of charge t h a t can be s t o r e d up i n a condenser i n e l e c t r o s t a t i c f o r 3 under a g i v e n e.rn.f. measured- i n v o l t s .
A c r n 3 e ~ : : e r i s saicl t o have a capacitance of one farad i f the

c o t e n t i s l ~ i f f e r e n c ebetween i t s p l a t e s w i l l be r a i s e d one v o l t
b$ a charge of one coulomb.

From t h i s d e f i n i t i o n w s e e t h a t a condenser when connected i n a c i r c u i t e and supplied with voltage w i l l s t o r e up n d e f i n i t e amount of e l e c t r i c i t y i n s t a t i c form. The farad i s considerably too l a r g e t o be applied i n practf c a l work. W e t h e r e f o r e have two s.ub-multiples of t h e u n i t fn common use. They are : M c r o f a r a d ( a b b r e v i a t e d nfd. o r f l d . ) f Micro-microfarad (abbreviated mmfd. o r ) y . f d . ) One a i c r o f a r a d i s e q u a l t o one- millionth p a r t of a f a r a d . One micro-mfcrofarad i s e q u a l t o one- mfllionth p a r t of a f a r a d again subafvided i n t o a m i l l i o n p a r t s ; t h a t i s t o s a y , a micro- microfarad i s onem i l l i o n t h of one - millionth p a r t of a f a r a d .
EXAMPLE. E i t h e r u n P t , microfarad o r micro- microfarad, may be used t o express a c e r t a i n numerical value according t o oneqs own preference. A s a r u l e values i n t h e o r d e r of 1000 mtnfd. and h i g h e r a r e expressed i n

Lesson 2

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6

microfarads (mfd). Here a r e a few examples of how a value may be w r i t t e n i n terms of e i t h e r u n i t :
1 &d.= 250 mmfd.= 1000 mmfd.r

0.000001 mfd, 0.00025 mfd. 0.001 mfd.

It c o n s i s t s of a t h i n p i e c e of s u i t a b l e i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l , such a s mica, on e i t h e r s i d e of which i s g l u m a sheet of t i n f o i l c The t i n f o i l s h e e t s a r e c a l l e d t h e " p l a t e s " and t h e mica t h e " d i e l e c t r i c If two wires a r e connected from a source of voltage t o the r e s p e c t i v e p l a t e s t h e e.m.f. t h u s provided w i l l cause an e l e c t r o s t a t i c charge t o be s t o r e d up by t h e mica. I n Figure ;a, t h e d r y c e l l of 1 . 5 v o l t s causes a d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l of 1.5 v o l t s t o be s e t up between p l a t e s "A" and "B" of t h e a i r type condense^; t h e e l e c t r o s t a t i c l i n e s i n t h i s c a s e a r e s t o r e d up i n t h e a i r b u t i n Figure 3 t h e y a r e s t o r e d i n t h e mica. The conrlensers i n F i g u r e s 3 and 4 a r e c a l l e d f i x e d condensers because no provision i s made t o a l t e r t h e i r c a p a c i t a n c e s .

A simple condenser i s shown i n Figure 3.

.

AIR DIELECTRIC- ELECTROSTATIC LINES M I C A DIELECTRIC
PLATE "A" NEGATIVELY

/

PLATE "8" POSITIVELY

.

STATOR P L ~ T E S R O T O R

PATES

DRY CELL- 1.5 VOLTS

T;INFOIL PL'ATES

GLUED O N E I T H E R S I D E OF M I C A

:

Figure 3

DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL ''BETWEEN P L ATE S is E Q U A L TO VOLTAGE O DRY CELL F

Figure 5

Figure 4

The m u l t i - p l ~ t e va.riable a i r type condenser i n F i g u r e 5 c o n s i s t s of a s e t of f i x e d and movable p l a t e s ; t h i s t y p e i s i n g e n e r a l use i n r a d i o work f o r The c a p a c i t a n c e of t h i s condenser i s varied by r o t a t l n g tuning purposes. one s e t of p l a t e s , which a c t s t o change t h e e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b o t h s e t s of g l a t e s . The d i e l e c t r i c medium, which possesses t h e p r o p e r t y of s e t t i n g up e l e c t r o s t a t i c l i n e s of f o r c e i n a condenser of t h i s k i n d , i s the which s e p a r a t e s t h e p l a t e s . W w i l l e x p l a i n l a t e r how t h e p a r t i e c.ular kind of d i e l e c t r i c Used, whether it be a i r , mica, paper o r any o t h e r s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l , h a s an important b e a r i n g upon t h e amount of charge t h e The d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l a l s o governs t h e amount of condenser w i l l t a k e on. v o l t a g e t h a t can be a p p l i e d t o t h e condenser without p l a c i n g t h e i n s u l a t i n g q u a l i t i e s of t h e d i e l e c t r i c under an e x c e s s i v e s t r a i n t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n a breakdown. Capacity i s designated i n a l l of our w r i t i n g s and formulas by t h e l e t t e r ( C ) . Lesson 2

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7

ELECTRICAL WORK AND POWER. I n our r a d i o s u b j e c t s we d e a l considerably w i t h work and power. xhrough experience we f i n d t h a t very o f t e n the terms, f o r c e , power, energy and work a m not thoroughly understood by everyone. To avoid any confusion between t h e s e terms w w i l l e x p l a i n t h e i r meanings i n t h e e following paragraphs, a l s o g i v i n g a p r a c t i c a l example or t h e i r use.

There a r e d i f f e r e n t kinds of f o r c e t h a t w i l l produce work when properly directed. i n s t a n c e , w apply muscular f o r c e whenever w e x e r t ourselves e e e i n t h e performance O f c e r t a i n t a s k s . Also, w have mechanic* f o r c e derived from various t y p e s of motors and engines which may be operated with compressed a i r , g a s , water, steam, g a s o l i n e and s o on. There i s a l s o chemical f o r c e and e l e c t r i c a l force. Other examples of f o r c e could be c i t e d , but electromotive f o r c e i s t h e f o r c e most f r e q u e n t l y d e a l t w i t h i n our work. It w i l l be r e p e a t e d l y mentjoned t h a t an electromotive f o r c e , when properly a p p l i e d , w i l l cause o r tend t o cause a flow of e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t . FORCE. Force i s a n unseen agent whf ch a c t s t o cause some change i n t h e e x i s t i n g motion of a body, o r mass, o r i t may cauee a change i n d i r e c t i o n of motion, o r i t map i n some cases a l t e r t h e p h y s i c a l shape of t h e body a c t e d upon.
A t t h i s time l e t us review a few of t h e p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s relat5.ng.to f o r c e . If a body i s a t r e s t and f o r c e i s applied i t w i l l tend t o s e t t h e

body i n motion; o r if t ha body i s a l r e a d y i n motion a f o r c e may be applied i n such a way a s t o cause k h e body t o a c c e l e r a t e (move f a s t e r ) , or slow down, o r perhaps come t o a complete s t o p ; o r i f a body i s moving i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n a f o r c e applied i n some o t h e r d i r e c t i o n w i l l t e n d t o cause t h e body t o change i t s o r i g i n a l course of d i r e c t i o n .
It i s t o be um3erstood t h t f o r c e does not always produce motion. This i s a f a c t w i t h which you are p e r f e c t l y aware. For a simple i l l u s t r a t i o n cons i d e r what would happen i f you pushed a g a i n s t the s i d e of a house w i t h a l l your s t r e n g t h ; you know t h a t t h e energy expended would not r e s u l t i n the house being moved r e g a r d l e s s of how hard you may have worked t o accomplish t h i s purpose. These n a t u r a l laws a r e t r u e i n t h e case of e l e c t r i c i t y ; an electromotive f o r c e does not i n e v e r y case a c t t o cause a movement of current but it t e n d s t o do s o , Thus, it may be said t h a t a f o r c e a c t i n g over a d i s t a n c e o r through space i s a f a c t o r of work b u t the a c t i o n does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y produce motion.

TEE JOULE i s t h e u n l t of e l e c t r i c a l energg o r work.

-

One joule r e p r e s e n t s t h e amount of work perfbr& o r energy expendeds i n c l u d i n g t h a t consumed i n g e n e r a t i n g h e a t , when an electromotive f o r c e of one v o l t i s applied t o a c i r c u i t and a c u r r e n t of one ampere flows f o r one second of time.

W can express e l e c t r i c a l work a s t h e product of the 'felectro-notive f o r c e " e i n v o l t s and t h e " q u a n t i t y of c u r r e n t " i n coulombs. Now, s i n c e an ampere i s equal t o one coulomb of e l e c t r i c i t y m u l t i p l i e d by a time period of one second, t h e n t h i s e n t i r e r e l a t i o n can be s t a t e d a s follows: EZECTRICAL WORK (JOULES)

= VOLTS x AMPERES

x SECONDS

The symbol

( J ) i s used t o denote t h e joule.

Lesson 2

-

sheet 8

work done can be conveniently measured whether i t i s t h e r e s u l t of mechanicel chemical, e l e c t r i c a l o r heat e f f e c t s . Work, t h e r e f o r e , i s done whenever energy i s expended. T h i s statement, no doubt, i s p l a i n l y obvious t o everyone and i s intended t o p o i n t out t h e f a c t t h a t t o do work does not n e c e s s a r i l , mean t h a t a weight must be l i f t e d . For i n s t a n c e , work i s done by compressed a f r a c t i n g upon a p i s t o n i n a r i v e t machine; an explosion of a charge of g a s o l i n e vapor a c t i n g on one o r more pistons provides t h e power i n a gasol i n e motor f o r use i n b o a t s , automobiles and s o f o r t h ; steam engines u t i l i z e the expansive f o r c e of steam on t h e heads O f l a r g e p i s t o n s as a source of power. Steam may be used i n a p l a n t t o d r i v e e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t o r s which a r e i n t u r n used t o supply l i g h t , heat and power. W could go on i n d e f i n i t e l y e c i t i n g examples of how power i s obtained t o do d i f f e r e n t kinds of work.
A simple i l l u s t r a t i o n of mechanical work is one i n which a team of horses a r e i n a c t i o n , e x e r t i n g energy i n p u l l i n g up a vePy heavy weight by means

WORK. s performed whenever opposition, r r e s i a - Worka i body upon which it a cat sf ot roc e overcomes motion. Theo amounts tofn c e i n causjng be s e t i n t o

of s u i t a b l y arranged p u l l e y s and l i n e s .

An i l l u s t r a t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l work i s where an e l e c t r i c f l a t i r o n i s connected
t o a 110- volt house- lighting c i r c u i t . The work 01- energy expended i n the e l e c t r i c a l case i s represented by t h e heat developed i n the c o i l s , c a l l e d h e a t i n g element, mounted w i t h i n t h e i r o n . I n o r d e r f o r t h i s work t o be done s u c c e s s f u l l y we know t h a t t h e v o l t a g e on the l i n e was e f f e c t i v e i n overcoming a l l the o p p o s i t i o n s of tb c b c u i t , with t h e r e s u l t t h a t a c e r t a i n value of c u r r e n t was forced through the c o i l s , This teaches us how e l e c t r i c a l energy i s t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o h e a t energy,

he t o t a l amount of work done i s c a l c u l a t e d by multiplying the amount of a force and t h e d i s t a n c e through which i t a c t s ( o r i s applied ) i n overcoming r e s i s t a n c e which r e s u l t s f i n a l l y i n a t r a n s f e r e n c e of energy f r a n one form t o another,
The accomplishment of a c e r t a i n piece of work i s independent of time. That i s t o say, it may r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t amounts of time, a s f o r i n s t a n c e a day, a week or perhaps longer t o complete a given work. 'When t h e element of e time i s reckoned along w i t h t h e work w must make reference t o the t e r n power. POYER. r s ts e ex- Powera i sc etrht es i ntime r a t e ofof doing wo t h e Itl e negpt hr eofe ntimeboth rti h g which an3 du n penditure of amount

-

i t i s m f n t a i n e d . Since t h e t e r not confuse it w i t h t h e t o t a l amo

includes t h e element of time we must work a c t u a l l y performed,
WORK -- TIME

The r 0 . l a t i o n of "power", "workn and "tfeme" can be s e t down a s follows:
POWER

THE WATT i s the u n i t of e l e c t p i c a 1 power. From a l i t t l e cons i d e r a t i o n of t h e t h r e e e x p l a n a t i o n s previously given i n regard t o the ioule l o r u n i t of work), and t h e ampere ( o r t h e u n i t of c u r r e n t ) , and t h e v 6 l t ( o r u n i t of p r e s s u r e ) i t i s evident t h a t t h e amount of "power" i n any e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t must be a combination of t h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s .

Lesson 2

- sheet

9

Thus, one watt i s defined a s t h a t u n i t of power e q u i v a l e n t t o one joule divided b y one second. This r e l a t i o n may be w r i t t e n a s follows: W TS AT

=

JOULES SECONDS

N w w a l r e a d y know t h a t a j o u l e i s t h e amount of work r e s u l t i n g when one o e ampere of c u r r e n t i s maintained f o r one second under an applied e.m.f. of one v o l t . Therefore, combining t h i s r e l a t i o n i n t o one expression we have t h e well-known w a t t s formula:

-

W TS AT

= VOLTS

x AMPERES

The watts formula expressed immediately above i s f o r a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t . The same formula i s repeated below b u t using t h e e l e c t r i c a l symbols.

It i s c l e a r that i f w wish t o a s c e r t a i n the number of w a t t s of power i n a e d i r e c t current c i r c u i t , o r i n t h e p a r t s which form t h e c i r c u i t , we have simply t o m u l t i p l y t h e v o l t s by t h e amperes. However, i n our lesson on a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t ( a - c ) we w i l l l e a r n t h a t another f a c t o r , c a l l e d power f a c t o r , e n t e r s i n t o t h e computation of the wattage of a n a l t e r n a t i n g curr e n t c i r c u - i t or i t s p a r t s .
The powes o r watts formula f o r an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t i s :
W

=E

x I x POlmER FACTOR
I

The following d e f i n i t i o n of a watt should be learned: One watt i s t h e power expended when one am= of c u r r e n t flows s t e a d i l y throuuh a c i r c u i t under a pressure of one v o l t . The symbol ( W ) i s used t o denote t h e watt as used above i n t h e formulas.
A p r a c t i c a l example i s worked out below showfng how t o f i n d t h e wattage of

a simple c i r c u i t .
PROBLEM:

Find t h e number of w a t t s of energy expended i n t h e i s 120 v o l t s and c i r c u i t i n Figure 6 when the e.m.f. the c u r r e n t drawn by the lamp i s 0.5 amp. The wattage f o r t h i s c i r c u i t i s computed as follows:
W = E x I

SOLUTION:

(1)Write t h e formula:
( 2 ) S u b s t i t u t e known

values : ( 3 ) Perform the work a s shown a t t h e r i g h t :
( 4 ) Write t h e answer:

W

1

120 x 0.5 120 0.5 60.0

W

= 60

watts. Lesson 2

- sheet 10

T

abbpevletecl "R.P." In terms of horse-power, one watt i s equal t o 1/746th of an e l e c t r i c a l horne-povier. This i s e q u i v a l e n t t o saying t h a t one e l e c t r i c a l horse-power equals 746 w a t t s , or w r i t i n g t h i s i n t h e form of a n expression, we have
1 ELECTRICAL H.P.

= 746

watts. One k i l o w a t t , abbreviated

Another u n i t i n common use i s t h e " kilowatt " , "kw", i s equal t o one thousand w a t t s , or
1 kw =.lo00 w a t t s .
CURRENT PASSING

FILAMENT IS 0.5 A
110

r

VOLTS

T H E SAME CIRCUIT SHOWN PICTORIALLY AND BY D I A G R A M

Figure 6
PRACTICAL USE OF WATTS FORMULA, The w a t t s formula, For t h e law of power, can be s t a t e d i n t h r e e ways as shorn below f o r convenience i n working out p r a c t i c a l problems. Exactly s i n ~ i l a ' rr e l a t i o n s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d between t h e q u a n t i t i e s i n each of the formulas. An i n s p e c t i o n of t h e s e formulas show . t h a t f f the value of any one of t h e t h r e e q u a n t i t i e s i s unknovm 5t may be e a s i l y found providing t h e o t h e r two q u a n t F t i e s a r e known. Using the symbols, w e have

Another p r a c t i c a l example i n t h e u s e o f the w a t t s formula i s worked out be low.
PROBLEK:

Let the r a t e d power of a c i r c u i t be 660 w a t t s and t h e l i n e voltage 110 v o l t s , What i s t h e value of t h e cur r e n t passing through t h i s c i r ' c u i t ? The formula i s w r i t t e n f i r s t and t h e computation completed a s follows: E 660 I =110 I

SOLUTION:

( 1 ) Write formula:

W I=-

( 2 ) S u b s t i t u t e known values:

( 3 ) Solving, we have

=6

amperes.

Answer. Lesson

THE NATT-HOUR AND KIU)WATT-HOUR.

The watt-hour i s a convenient u n i t t o use i n p r a c t i c a l work f o r denoting the amount of energy expended in a given number of hours.

-

One watt- hour i s e a u a l t o one w a t t of e l e c t r i c a l energg expended i n one hour.

The watt- hour i s t h e u n i t of measurement t h a t i s applied i n t h e c a l i b r a t i o n of e l e c t r i c meters i n s t a l l e d i n our homes, f a c t o r i e s , o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and so on, f o r i n d i c a t i n g the amount of e l e c t r i c i t y consumed; t h e meters used f o r t h i s purpose a r e u s u a l l y equipped w i t h s e v e r a l d i a l s f o r recording and a r e c a l l e d watt- hour meters. Since a watt i s e q u a l t o a m u l t i p l i e d by an amperee i t i s easy t o see ; or stated t h a t watt- hours must equal v o l t s m u l t i p l i e d by amperes and i n a formula, we have

-

WATT HOURS -

=E

X

I X HUS OR

I n many cases the u n i t "watt-hour" i s too small f o r p r a c t i c a l computations, and f o r convenience a l a r g e r m u l t i p l e of t h e u n i t i s employed, c a l l e d a "kilowatt-hour 1 '. Remember t h a t one lcilowatt e q u a l s 1000 w a t t s . Theref o r e , a kilowatt- hour i s found by f i r s t m u l t i p l y i n g v o l t s by amperes by hours, and then d i v i d i n g t h e product found by 1000e &om t h i s w e d e r i v e t h e following formula r KILOWATTHOURS or K -C S WI R

-- KILOWATTS x
x I x HUS OR
1000

HUS OR

=E

One kilowatt - hour i s def inec' a s 'the e q u i v a l e n t of one k i l o w a t t 31000 watts ) of e l e c t r i c a l energy expended i n .one hour. EXAMPLES OF HOU THE TEXM KIWSIATT-HOUR I S USED. Suppose t h a t a genera t o r i n a power p l a n t i s kept i n operation t o f u r n i s h l i g h t and power f o r a f a c t o r y . I f t h e output o f t h i s g e n e r a t o r i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n e kvi, of e l e c t r i c a l work i s maintained f o r one hour t h e f a c t o r y w i l l use 1 kilowatt - hour; o r if 2 km. i s maintained f o r one-half hour ( 2 x $ z= 1) the f a c t o p y w i l l likewise u s e 1 kilowatt- hour; b u t , i f 4 kw, i s maintained 2% hours t h e f a c t o r y w i l l use 10 kilowatt- hours,

mt ILLUSTRATIRG THE PROPER USE O THE T R S : POVBR, FORCE, WORK and mERGY. F EM us r e f e r t o the drawing i n Fiaure 7 where a team o f horses an'e a t work r a i s ing a heavy *on beam. This P l l u s t r a t e s how f o r c e a p p l i e d through a c e r t a i n
d i s t a n c e causes or t e n d s t o cause a body t o be s e t i n t o motion, I n t h i s instance, motion i s a c t u a l l y produced because t h e horses a r e s t r o n g enongh t o perform the t a s k imposed upon them. I n t h i s a c t i o n t h e might be defined a s t h e physical e x e r t i o n put f o r t h by t h e horses i n accomplishing t h e work, The c a p a c i t y which t h e s e h o r s e s possess f o r doing work of t h i s kind i s the eneWg. (Note: The energy cannot a c t u a l l y be c r e a t e d , it i s The work done i s m e a n a t u r a l condition e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the horses.) r e s u l t of t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d , or power expended, by t h e horses i n overcoming

-

Lesson 2

- sheet

12

any opposition o r r e s i s t a n c e which t h e load presents. The heavy i r o n bean i s t h e load. The power i s t h e r a t e a t which t h e work i s done, t h a t i s , whether it t a k e s t h e h o r s e s 15 minutes, or 1 how, o r any given time t o l i f t t h e load. The t o t a l work includes t h e power expended arni the time. I n summarizing t h e foregoing f a c t s we can s a y i n a few words t h a t the energy OsSesSed by t h e h o r s e s was converted i n t o mechanical p u l l i n g or l i f t i n g power, $his gives us a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e laws governing the "conservation of energy". Conservation r e l a t e s t o t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e of energy from one s t a t e t o another. There i s nothing l o s t , p r a c t i c a l l y speaking, i n t h e t r a n s f e r ence of energy from one s t a t e t o another s o long a s our purpose i s f u l f i l l e d ; t h a t i s , s o long a s t h e work we d e s i r e t o be p e r f o r m d i s a c t u a l l y completed.

ELECTRICAL WORK

Figure 7

Figure 8

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL HORSE POWER DEFINED. -

Mechanical H,P. I n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n i n Figure 7 , we have shovm two horses l i f t i n g a heavy i r o n beam by means of a h o i s t i n g crane. The power i n t h i s case i s t h e r a t e a t which the work of l i f t i n g t h e beam i s accomplished. Mechanical work i s measured i n "foot-pounds" o r "pounds m u l t i p l i e d by f e e t " . Thus, i f a weight of 3 l b s . i s r a i s e d t o a height of 5 f t . we have an equival e n t of 15 foot-pounds of work. Suppose a 7* Ib. weight is l u t e d only 2 f e e t w would have e x a c t l y t h e sane amount of work done a s when 3 l b s . i s e r a i s e d 5 f t , o r 15 foot-pounds i n both cases.

.

Now, t o e x p l a i n t h e meaning of mechanical horse-power l e t us suppose t h a t t h e i r o n beam i n Figure 7 weights 33,000 l b s . and i s t o be r a i s e d one f o o t a g a i n s t the f o r c e of g r a v i t y , and suppose f u r t h e r t h a t t h e horses take one minute t o do t h i s . Here w have a s e t of given v a l u e s . L e t us repeat e then: 33,000 l b s i s t o be r a i s e d one f o o t i n one minute, This combinat ion of values i s the b a s i s f o r t h e r a t e of d o i m work which i s e q u a l t o one . mechanical horse-power. If twice t h i s weight, o r 66,000 l b s , , i s r a i s e d one foot i n twice t h e time a o r two minutes, the " r a t e of working" would s t i l l be t h e sane a s i n t h e p r e 6 e e d b g case, o r - one mechanical horse-power.
-

-

If the horses were r e p l a c e a by a s t r o n g z r team t h a t could l i f t the sane beam, t h e same d i s t a n c e , i n J u s t h a l f the t i m e , o r l e t us say, i n one-half minl~te, t h e n it i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t one team i s twice a s powerful a s t h e o t h e r , Thus, i f 33,000 l b s . i s l i f t e d one f o o t i n 30 seconds it would give us 2 mechanical horse-power, W see t h a t b o t h teams of horses p s r f o r n e x a c t l y e t h e same t o t a l amount of work, but, depending upon whether t h e work i s cDmp l e t e d i n one hour, one- half hour o r f i v e minutes, o r any o t h e r i n t e r v a l o f Lesson 2

I

-

sheet 13

some p r a c t i c a l work i t may be more convenient t o use foot-pounds per second. Thus :

time, w i l l d e t e r n i n e the "time r a t e of doing t h e work , or "the power". Mechanical powm is u s u a l l y estimated i n foot-pounds p e r minut&, but i n

qq

or

1 MECRANICAL H O P . = 33,000 I . B S . P R NINUTE, T E ~MECHANLCALH a p . = 550 F: LBS. PER SECOND. T

W o b t a i n t h e 550 i n t h e lower equation, f o r e x p r e s s i n g so many foot-pounds e p e r second, by d i v i d i n g 33,000 foot-pounds per minute by 68 seconds, t h a t i s , 33000 + 60 = 550, I n commercial p r a c t i c e t h e power i s estimated according t o the mount of work done i n horse-power and t h e period of time involved i n hours. E l e c t r i c a l B O P . E l e c t r i c a l power i s measured i n w a t t s , t h e measurements being based upon t h e second of time and not t h e minute which i s c h i e f l y used i n mechanical work. Let us suppose the h o r s e s , i n Figure 7, a r e replaced by an e l e c t r i c motor a s t h e source of power a s i n Figure 8. You w i l l r e c a l l t h a t power i s e s t i mated according t o t h e amount of work done d u r i n g a c e r t a i n period of tiine. Accordingly, i n our computations it w i l l be necessary t o know t h e amount of power t h a t a motor i s supplying and t h e l e n g t h of time i t i s kept i n operation, In one of the paragraphs i n t h i s lesson, under the unit "Joule", it was ex~ l a i n e dt.h a t one joule p e r second is t h e u n i t of s L e c t ~ i c a 1 paver, o r the w a t t . 'urthermore, i t was explained t h a t the rate irr vatta st w h i c h e l e c t r i c a l energy is expended i s equal t o the voltage of a c i r c u i t times the number o f amperes of c u r r e n t flowing. P u t t i n g these statements t o g e t h e r sho:lld give you an understanding of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e w a t t s formula; where
WATTS

=E x

I

Also, f r o m t h e s e statements it i s a simple matter of deduction t o determine t h a t e l e c t r i c a l horse-power i s equal t o watts d i v i d e d by time, or
ELECTRICAL H.P.

-- WATTS

Where l a r g e amounts of power a r e handled it i s o f t e n inconvenient t o use a u n i t a s small a s t h e w a t t , a s w previously mentioned, and so i n t h e practical e work of r a t i n g e l e c t r i c a l machinery t h e l a r g e r u n i t " e l e c t r i c a l horse-power" i s employed. It w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t one e l e c t r i c a l ho~se-power equals 746 watts. Now, i n order t o f i n d t h e r a t i n g of a n e l e c t r i c a l machine, i n t h e u n i t of horse-power, we have simply t o know i t s c a p a c i t y i n v o l t s and amperes; t o f i n d t h e horse-power m u l t i p l y t h e v o l t s by amperes and d i v i d e by 746. This i s t h e same t h i n g a s saying t h a t the number of w a t t s a r e divided by 746. Hence, we have. ELEXTRICAL H.P.

= VOLTS

746

x AMPERES,W T S AT 746
msson 2

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- sheet 14

The following worked out example i s given t o a i d you i n solving problems o f t h i s kind. The r e s u l t s can be expressed e i t h e r i n t h e u n i t w a t t , kilowatt o r e l e c t r i c a l H.P.
PROBLEM:.

Suppose t h e current drawn by t h e motor i n Figure 8 i s 20 amperes and t h e l i n e voltage i s 220 v o l t s . Find the number of w a t t s of energy consumed?

SOLUTION:
(1)W i t e formula
( 2 ) S u b s t i t u t e known values:

W TS AT

=E

x I

( 3 ) Solving, we g e t

WR T = 220 x 20 I TS J WATTS = 4400 w a t t s .

Answer.

I f we wish t o express t h e above answer i n horse-power maintained by t h e motor, simply d i v i d e 4400 by 746, o r
, 746S WT AT ELECTRICAL HORSE-P0'v"IER

-

- 4400
ss

Hence,

ELECTRICAL HORSE-PObW

= 5 +8 H.P.

Answer. 4.4
kw.

This answer expressed i n k i l o w a t t s i s 4 4 0 0 f 1 0 0 0

THE BASIS O COMPARISON B T E N MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL H.P. F EWE The b a s i s f o r comparing a n e q u i v a l e n t amount of mechanical energy measured i n " foot pounds" and e l e c t r i c a l energy i n "watts" was worked out mathematically many He made a d i r e c t comparison between both kinds of years ago by I)r. Joule. energy i n performing e x a c t l y t h e same work which c o n s i s t e d of h e a t i n g a glven q u a n t i t y of water u n t i l i t s temperature was r a i s e d t o a c e r t a i n value. I n t h e case of mechanical energy the h e a t was obtained from the f r i c t i o n s e t up when paddle wheels were r o t a t e d through t h e water. The amount of power required was f i g u r e d from t h e nunber of foot-pounds of work per second obtained from a c e r t a i n arrangement of pulleys and weighks used i n t h e experiment. I n t h e case of t h e e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t t h e power was computed from the amount of c u r r e n t consumed a t a c e r t a i n v o l t a g e and t h e time r e quired i n generating t h e s p e c i f i e d amount of h e a t . D r . Joule estimated t h a t 1 foot-pound per second 1,356 watts.

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W have a l r e a d y given an e q u a t i o n which s t a t e s t h a t 550 foot-pounds p e r e The. e l e c t r i c a l equivasecond i s equivalent t o 1 mechanical horse-poyer. l e n t of t h i s , o r 1 e l e c t r i c a l horse-power, would be

THE KmER i s t h e u n i t of measurement f o r wavelength. Wavelength can a l s o be expressed In terms of frequencx. These terms a r e used i n connection w i t h electromagnetic wave motion i n space, by t h i s we mean r a d i o waves i n space. The terms can be interchangeable, i t being a simple matter t o convert wavelength t o frequency and v i c e versa. T h i s i s explained i n a subsequent l e s s o n , Refer t o Figure 9 , which shows a r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g wave motion s e t up on the surf ace of water by s t r i k i n g i t with e q u a l i n t e n s i t y a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s with a wooden block.

Lesson 2

- sheet 1 5

The term ~ a v e l e n g t hcan b e s t be explained w i t h t h e a i d of a drawing of t h i s kind and a f t e r once understanding the meaning of wavelength i t can be applied t o any form of motion that occurs and reoccurs a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s .

w a v F \ FNGTH ILLUSTRATED

One wavelength i s t h e d i s t a n c e from c r e s t t o c r e s t of t h e wave i n Figure 9, or i t m y be the d i s t a n c e from trough t o trough, iwhich n a t u r a l l y would be t h e same. hloreover, we could consider any point on one wave impulse and compare it t o a s i m i l a r point on an adjoining wave impulse and say t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e s e two s e l e c t e d points i s one wavelength. Let us t r y t o v i s u a l i z e a wave motion occuring i n space, s e t up by unseen f o r c e s . Suppose t h a t an electromagnetic wave i s projected from an a c t i v e t r a n s m i t t i n g antenna and t h i s energy c o n s i s t s of a succession of r a p i d l y r e c u r r ing impulses i n space, due t o t h e disturbance s e t up i n t h e space medium. The l e n g t h of each i n d i v i d u a l wave o r complete impulse of t h e electromagnetic sve motion i s ccnsidered from a s i m i l a r viewpoint a s each water wave. The metric u n i t of measurement i s used t o compute such d i s t a n c e , Thus t h e wavelength of an e1.ectromagnetic wave s e n t out by a r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r may be 300 meters, or it mag be 1,500 meters or 14,5 meters o r any d e s i r e d l e n g t h which i s governed b y t h e e l e c t r i c a l ad juscments of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . One meter equals 39,37 inches. T h e s t u d e n t must not confuse t h e d i s t a n c e whhich a radio wave w i l l a c t u a l l y t r a v e l t o be i n t e r c e p t e d and heard i n t h e r e c e i v e r s (whioh may be s e v e s a l thousand miles i n some c a s e s ) with t h e wavelength of each i n d i v i d u a l impulse i n t h e complete wave motion.

Lesson 2

- sheet

16

EXAMINATION

-

LESSON 2

Give t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of the following u n i t s , e x p r e s s i n g them i n your own words. D not use the exact wording given i n the lesson. o ( d ) coulomb ( g ) farad ( a ) volt (b) ampere ( e ) watt ( h ) kilowatt- hour ( c ) ohm (f) henry ( i ) ampere -hour
(a) (b) (c )

What i s a megohm? Microlun? Kilowatt? ( c ) What must w f i r s t have i n e an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t before c u r r e n t w i l l flow? (d) What u n i t of time i s e l e c t r i c a l measurement based on? ( e ) Hw would you w r i t e 35 rnmfd o i n the u n i t mfd?

(b)

( a ) Can energy be c r e a t e d ? Name t w o p r a c t i c a l sources f o r obtaining e l e c t r i c a l pressure.

Suppose t h e c a p a c i t y of a g e n e r a t o r when c a r r y i n g a load i s 3500 watts. Express t h i s value i n k i l o w a t t s and horsepower, What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between work and power? What i s f o r c e and energy? Use an analogy, i f you wish, i n order t o e x p l a i n t h e meanings, ( a ) Write t h e formula you would use i f the power a r d current of a c i r c u i t were known and you were asked t o f i n d voltage. ( b ) Write t h e formula you would use t o f i n d c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h if the voltage and wattage of a c i r c u i t were known. Note: Solve t h e following problems which r e l a t e t o d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s . Use t h e form suggested i n worked-out examples i n t h i s l e s s o n where the formula i s w r i t t e n f k s t , t h e known values s u b s t i t u t e d next, and s o on.
Tf 3 amps. passes through t h e lamp i n Figure 6, and t h e l i n e voltage a t the w a l l o u t l e t i s 110 v o l t s , what power i s being expended?

Suppose an e l e c t r i c a l h e a t e r , r a t e d a t 350 w a t t s , i s placed i n operation e and by measuring t h e c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h with an ammeter, w f i n d it t o be 3 amps. Find the l i n e voltage.

n I f t h e load on a g e n e r a t o r supplying a e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t i s such t h a t a c u r r e n t of 200 amperes flows a t a p r e s s u r e of 120 v o l t s , what i s the capacity of t h i s machine i n w a t t s ? Also, i n k i l o w a t t s ?
I n t h i s problem you a r e given t h e following d a t a : The e.m.f. i s 120 v o l t s , t h e c u r r e n t drawn is 20 amperes and t h e g e n e r a t o r i s maintained i n o p e r a t i o n 12 hrs. Find kilowatt- hours of energy expended.

Lesson 2

- sheet

17

Technical Lessm 3
TKE ELECTRON THECRY

- SUBSTANCE AND MATTER - STATIC ELECTRICITY.
9

INTRODUCTION. It might be s a i d t h a t anyone who d e c i d e s t o s t u d y t h e s c i e n c e o f r a d i o and e l e c t r i c i t y i n t r o d u c e s himself i n t o a world o f unseen f o r c e s , o r i n t o what i s v i r t u a l l y a r e a l m of tremendous a c t i v i t y and a g i t a t i o n . If a l l of t h e human b e i n g s on t h i s e a r t h were p e r m i t t e d t o p e e r i n t o t h e m y s t e r i e s of our w o r l d t h r o u g h a huge magnifying g l a s s , one equipped w i t h a l e n s h a v i n g a m a g n i f i c a t i o n t h o u s a n d s o f t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e most powerful f n use t o d a y , i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t we would be p r i v i l e g e d t o g a z e upon b i l l i o n s and b i l l i o n s o f t i n y u r ~ i v e r s e sc o n s i s t i n g o f diminutitze specks o r p a r t i c l e s . Each and e v e r y one o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s i s supposed t o have a l l of t h e t h r e e q u a l i t i e s t h a t would e n t i t l e them t o be c l a s s i f i e d a s t i n y b i t s o f m a t t e r . These q u a l i t i e s a r e s i z e , weight and mass, and moreo v e r , e a c h p a r t i c l e would be founcl t o p o s s e s s a v e r y d e f i n i t e amount of e n e r g y . Energy can n o t be c r e a t e d b y man i n anyway w h a t s o e v e r ; t h e e n e r g y e x i s t i n g i n t h e p a r t i c l e s i s a n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n and is a p a r t of a l l t h i n g s c r e a t i v e , a c o n d i t i o n o v e r which we have no c o n t r o l and know l i t t l e a b o u t .

The g r e a t p r i v i l e g e of s e e i n g t h e s e b i t s of m a t t e r i s n o t y e t w i t h i n t h e r e a c l of man even w i t h a l l of t h e a v a i l a b l e s c i e n t i f i c a p p a r a t u s because o f t h e n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of our e y e s i g h t . W wonder, t h e n , horv s m a l l t h e s e v e r y e t i n y things really are.
The p r i n c i p a l c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e s e minute u n i v e r s e s have been g i v e n t h e names, molecule, atom and e l e c t r o n , For y e a r s s c i e n t i s t s have laborer! t o t e a r down t h e c l o u d s o f u n c e r t a i n t y surrounding t h e s e m i n u t e b o d i e s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y mey l e a r n more a b o u t t h e i r p h y s i c a l make-up and t h e p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y which 'has b e e n g i v e n t h e name energg. How viell t h e s e t i r e l e s s l a b o r a t o r y workers have s u c c e e d e d i n p u t t i n g n a t u r a l f o r c e s t o work could n e v e r be f u l l y r e a l f z e d e x c e p t t h a t t h r o u g h some e x t r a o r d i n a r y c a l a m i t y e v e r y t h i n g e l e c t r i c a l were suddenly t a k e n from u s .

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If you could v i s i t t h e s c i e n t i f i c l a b o r a t o r i e s of D r . Langmuir, D r . C o o l i d g e , D r . k i l l i k a n o r D r . Alexanderson and o t h e r men of e q u a l prominence, a n d w i t -

n e s s t h e many marvelous e x p e r i m e n t s i n p r o g r e s s , and s e e t h e w o n d e r f u l t h i n g s t h a t a r e accomplished when t h e power l o c k e d up i n a molecule i s u t i l i z e d , you would a p p r e c i a t e why we have i n t r o d u c e d t h i s l e s s o n on r a d i o If you c o u l d watch t h e s e s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i and e l e c t r i c i t y i n t h i s w a y . g a t o r s a t work you would u n d o u b t e d l y f o r g e t , a t l e a s t f o r t h e t i m e , a b o u t a l l of t h e o r d i n a r y t h i n g s i n your d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . The predominating s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t of today t e a c h e s u s t h a t e v e r y t h i n g we s e e o r f e e l i s e l e c t r i c a l i n n a t u r e , and t k i s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t w e may n o t be aware o f it The develcpment of such a n i d e a h a s been a slow one, because i t r e q u i r e d many p r o o f s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e i t , and t h e s e p r o o f s c o u l d be o b t a i n e ? o n l y t h r o u g h l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g and s i m p l e d e d u c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g y e a r s of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and r e s e a r c h . The i d e a i s now moulded

.

i n t o a well-fourded theory, c a l l e d t h e "Electron Theory". This theory i s used by p r a c t i c a l l y a l l s c i e n t i f i c men to account f o r d i f f e r e n t e l e c t r i c a l phenomena and, t h e r e f o r e , i t s importance t o us cannot be overestimated. The "Electron Theory", e x p l a i n e d & n subsequent paragraphs, i s based upon t h e combined a c t i o n of the "negative e l e c t r o n " , t h e v e r y s m a l l e s t speck of m a t t e r which i s n e g a t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y , and a complementary p a r t i c l e of ositive electricity. One a u t h o r i t y c a l l s t h e l a t t e r a " p o s i t i v e e l e c t r o n " , g u t i t i s more commonly spoken of a s a "proton". These e l e c t r i c a l charges not o n l y form t h e b a s i s of a l l m a t t e r i t s e l f , b u t a r e t h e cause of a l l e l e c t r i c a l actions. 'J'hus, t o b e t t e r understand e l e c t r i c a l f o r c e s and t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n it i s necesgary t o have some g e n e r a l information concerning the c o n s t r u c t i o n of m a t t e r .
MATTER. A l l normal human beings a r e g i f t e d with f i v e f a c u l t i e s o r sens a t i o n s ; t h e s e a r e s i g h t , t a s t e , hearing, touch and smell.

S c i e n t i s t s t e l l us t h a t anything which occupies space and a c t s on our senses i s matter. If w a c c e p t t h i s statement w should have no d i f f i c u l t y i n e e u n d m d i n g t h a t o b j e c t s , such a s c h a i r s , t a b l e s , houses, r a d i o s e t s , t h e w i r e s used t o connect up r a d i o p a s t s , a i r c r a f t , t h e v e r y paper and ink used t o p r i n t t h f s l e s s o n , and even t h e a i r you b r e a t h e , a r e a l l examples of matter. Again, a n y t h i w which occupies space and has weight i s s a i d t o be matter.

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Matter t a k e n a s a whole e x i s t s i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t forms, namely, SOLIDS, LIQUIDS and GASES.
A s o l i d i s a body whfch o f f e r s an o p p o s i t i o n t o any change i n i t s shape when under normal temperature and p r e s s u r e . A o b j e c t , such a s a piece of n i r o n , w i l l keep i t s shape am3 i d e n t i t y j u s t s o long a s it i s p r o t e c t e d from t h e elements, or from abnormal temperatures o r p r e s s u r e s .

However, we know t h a t i f i r o n i s placed i n a b l a c k s m i t h f s . f o r g e and heated it can be worked i n t o any d e s i r e d shape by constant pounding w i t h a hammer. S t r i k i n g t h e hot i r o n with a hammer e x e r t s a c e r t a i n p r e s s u r e and t h e hot f i r e i n c r e a s e s t h e temperature; it i s c l e a r t h a t these two provi9ions a r e necessary before t h e i r o n can be p r o p e r l y worked. Now, suppose t h f s i r o n remains i n the f i r e bed and t h e h e a t i s consfderably r a l s e d by o p e r a t i n g t h e qorge blower; it i s e v i d e n t t h a t a time w i l l come when t h e s o l f d piece of i r o n w i l l become molten ancl t h e n b e i n g converted t o a l i q u i d i t w i l l e i t h e r form a pool, o r r u n o f f , o r flow a s would any heavy f l u i d . I f the liquid iron was poured i n t o a r e c e p t a c l e , o r mould, and allowed t o c o o l i t would assume t h e shape of t h e r e c e p t a c l e . Water i s a very good e x w p l e of m a t t e r which can be e a s i l y changed i n t o any f i a t e r i n a n a t u r a l s t a t e i s a c o l o r l e s s l i q u i d ; ,when one of t h r e e forms. f r o z e n i t t u r n s i n t o a s o l i d cake of i c e ; and when h e a t e d t o t h e b o i l i n g p o i n t steam w i l l i s s u e f o r t h from i t s s u r f a c e and r a p i d l y expand i n t o the surrounding space a s a g a s . See Figure 1. I n g e n e r a l , a l l forms of m a t t e r have f o u r important p r o p e r t i e s . They a r e : POROSITY, COMPRESSIBILITY, ELASTIC D Y and DIVISIBILITY.

Lesson 3

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sheet 2

!

( a ) P o r o s i t y may be d e f i n e d a s t h e e x i s t e n c e of minute openings o r pores i n any kind of m a t t e r , t h e openings or pores being e n t i r e l y v o i d of any of the m a t e r i a l or substance of which t h e m a t t e r i s composed, Each pore, r e g a r d l e s s of i t s s i z e i s r e a l l y empty space. These openings v a r y i n s i z e f o r d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s a s may be seen by i n s p e c t i n g a s e c t i o n of s o f t wood and comparrng it with a p i e c e of marble o r i r o n . $The common b l o t t e r which absorbs i n k i s a good example of p o r o s i t y . Also, water i s capable of t a k i n g i n t o i t s pores a d e f i n i t e amount of d i s s o l v e d s u g a r w i t h o u t n o t i c e a b l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e b u l k of t k e w a t e r . ( b ) C o m p r e s s i b i l i t y may be considered t o be a g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y of a l l m a t t e r which would permit t h e small p a r t i c l e s composing the m a t t e r t o be more c l o s e l y packed t o g e t h e r . This packing would t e n d t o l e s s e n t h e amount of t h e void spaces w i t h i n t h e mass. Pressure a p p l i e d t o any substance a c t s t o compress i t . A hot i n g o t of i r o n a f t e r passing through heavy s t e e l r o l l e r s i n a s t e e l m i l l w i l l emerge i n compressed form. In t h e case of water and o i l we have fcrms of m a t t e r which almost r e s i s t compressing, but such l i q u i d s , however, may be compressed t o a very l i m i t e d degree by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of g r e a t p r e s s u r e , In a l l e v e n t s t h e amount of compression depends upon t h e pressure e x e r t e 7 a x l t h e kind of matter under compression.

WhTER IN LIQUID

WATER iN SOLID STATE

WATER IN GASEOUS STATE

Figure 1 ( c ) E l a s t i c i t y Bn m a t t e r may r e l a t e e i t h e r t o e l a s t i c i t y of p h y s i c a l form o r e l a s t i c i t y of volume. This term i s used t o d e s i g n a t e t h e p r o p e r t y possessed by s o l i d bodies t h a t permits then t o be s t r e t c h e d t o c e r t a i n l i m i t s without breaking and, i a t e r , t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l shapes a f t e r When f o r c e i s applied t o a t h e s t r e t c h i n g f o r c e o r ' p r e s s u r e i s removed. m a t e r i a l i n a way t h a t w i l l cause i t t o become t w i s t e d , b e n t , o r s t r e t c h e d , t h e molecules which form t h e ' m a t e r i a l a r e d i s t o r t e d and d i s p l a c e d under an unnatural s t r a i n . I f t h e f o r c e i s d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e molecules w i l l t r y t o a d j u s t themselves and s h i f t back i n t o t h e i r u s u a l p l a c e s a s q u i c k l y a s possible. Lesson 3 sheet 3

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T h i s p r o p e r t y , known a s ' P e l a s t i c i t y " , c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d by p u l l i n g a It i s t h i s p r o p e r t y of e l a s t i c i t y t h a t r u b b e r band a m t h e n l e t t i n g it go. p e r m i t s heavy w e i g h t s t o b e s u p p o r t e d w i t h s a f e t y . It would r e q u i r e a f a r g r e a t e r f o r c e t o p u l l a copper w i r e i n two t h a n a p i e c e of s i l k . Thus, we would s a y t h a t t h e w i r e h a s g r e a t e r t e n a t i t y t h a n t h e s i l k , o r we might s a y t h e molecules f o r m i n g t h e w i r e w i l l n o t l e t go" a s r e a d i l y a s would t h e molecules of s i l k . A 1 1 s o l i d s and l i q u i d s and g a s e s have e l a s t i c i t y t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s extent.

I f o r c e i s a p p l i e d i n c o n s t a n t l y bending a m a t e r i a l h e a t w i l l be g e n e r a t e d . f
his i s due t o t h e r u b b i n g t o g e t h e r of t h e m o l e c u l e s a s t h e y a r e f o r c e d o u t of t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s ; we s a y t h a t t h e h e a t i s due t o m o l e c u l a r f r i c t i o r

( d ) D i v i s i b i l i t x o f m a t t e r r e l a t e s t o t h e d i v i s i o n o r b r e a k i n g up o f m a t t e r i n t o i t s s r n a l l e s t c o n c e i v a b l e p a r t s w i t h o u t i n a n y way a l t e r i n g t h e form o f matter i t s e l f . J u s t how s m a l l s u c h p a r t i c l e s of m a t t e r may a c t u a l l y become, and s t i l l r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y , can be d e m o n s t r a t e d b y a l l o w i n g a few d r o p s of c o l o r e d i n k t o f a l l i n t o a g l a s s o f w a t e r . A t f i r s t , t h e i n k w i l l be If s e e n t o f orn i r r e g u l a r s t r e a k s which work downward t h r o u g h t h e l i q u i d . t h e g l a s s i s l e f t u n d i s t u r b e d f o r some time i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t a l l of Can you imagine how t i n y t h e s e d i v i d e d i n k t h e l i q u i d w i l l become c o l o r e d . p a r t i c l e s (from o n l y a few d r o p s ) must have b e e n t o p e r m i t them t o e n t e r t h e c o u n t l e s s p o r e s i n tkz c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e volume of w a t e r , and c a u s e t h e colored t h o u g h o u t ? w a t e r t o be u n i f o r m l y Hence, w l e a r n t h a t m a t t e r i s n o t a b s o l u t e l y a s o l i d homogeneous s t r u c t u r e , e but t h a t m a t t e r i s m d e up of c o u n t l e s s b i l l i o n s of e x t r e m e l y l i t t l e p a r t i c l e s w i t h n o n - m a t e r i a l s p a c e s , c a l l e d "voids ", s e p a r a t i n g the p a r t i c l e s ,
m he e x c e e d i n g l y minute p a r t i c l e s which we have b e e n s p e a k i n g a b o u t a r e g i v e n t h e name m o l e c u l e s ,

'The t i n y s p e c k s , c a l l e d m o l e c u l e s , a r e never a b s o l u t e l y m o t i o n l e s s u d e r a v e r a g e c o n d i t i ons

.

MOLECULES: A molecule i s d e f i n e d a s t h e s m a l l e s t d i v i s i o n of a n y k i n d of matter r e t a i n i n g a l l of t h e chemical and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of t h e m a t t e r itself. ?'heref o r e , a m o l e c u l e , a l t h o u g h v e r y s m a l l , c a n be i d e n t i r i e d a s b e l o n g i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of m a t t e r .
A s a body i s lowered i n t e m p e r a t u r e , t h a t i s , a s i t g e t s c o l d e r , t h e movement8 of t h e m o l e c u l e s become l e s s v i o l e n t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , when a body i s r a i s e d 1 1 temperature, t h a t is, a s it g e t s h o t t e r , t h e m o l e c u l a r movement becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y moye a c t i v e . It i s o n l y a t the v e r y l o w e s t known t e m p e r a t u r e ( a b s o l u t e z e r o ) t h a t t h e m o l e c u l e s of a l l m a t t e r a r e d o ~ m a n t ~ m e a n i ntg a t a l l a c t i o n h c e s s e s , Absolute z e s o i s about 459 d e g r e e s below z e r o and i s t h e p o i n t a t whic n o h e a t can b e g i v e n u p o r t a k e n from a body. S p e a k i n g i n b r o a d terms we c a n s a y t h a t h e a t e n c o u r a g e s m o l e c u l a r v i b r a t i o n , o r motion, whereas c o l d t e n d s t o c o u n t e r a c t it.

e means. ~ h tg n d e n c y o f aioms of a s i m i l a r k i n d ( o r s p e c i e ) i s to"assemb1e t o g e t h e r and form m o l e c u l a r g r o u p s which i n turn become u n i t s of m a t t e r . Once t h e g r o u p s a r e assembled t h e y r e s i s t a l l o r d i n a r y methods t o d i s r u p t o r t e a r them a p a r t . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f a f o r c e , o r h e a t , a r e two means f o r Lesson 3

ATOES. The molecule i t s e l f i s composed o f a n a g g r e g a t i o n o f atoms, the XTEiE b e i m t h e s m a l l e s t w a r t s i n t o which m a t t e r c a n be d i v i d e d by c h e m i c a l --- -

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4

i :

e f f e c t i v e l y overcoming t k s t r o n g m o l e c u l a r a t t r a c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n a l l m a t t e r . An atom c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y w i t h t h e atoms of t h e v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s d i f f e r i n g i n t h e i r g e n e r a l f o r m a t i o n . There a r e more t h a n n i n e t y d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s , o r k i n d s , of atoms some of which a r e f a m i l i a r t o a l l of u s ; f o r example, we have t h e cop+mr atom, Jhe I n d i v i d u a l t h e i r o n atom, t h e g o l d atom, t h e hydrogen atom, and s o on. atoms i n any one s p e c i e a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l b u t t h e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s have t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s . ELEMENTS. Every m o l e c u l e which forms a g i v e n s u b s t a n c e must c o n s l s t of t h e same number and ssme s p e c i e o f atoms, and t o e x p r e s s t h i s f a c t we g i v e t h e Taking any o f t h e e l e m e n t s s i n g l y , e a c h one s u b s t a n c e t h e name e l e m e n t . c o n s i s t s of o n l y one k i n d o f atom. Hence, we u n d e r s t a n d now why c o p p e r , s u l p h u r , i r i d i u m , oxygen, c a r b o n , l e a d , g o l d and a l l t h e r e s t o f t h e n i n e t y o r more e l e m e n t s e a c h e x h i b i t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s b y which we know them. When d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of atoms combine t h e s u b s t a n c e f orned i s c a l l e d

a COMPOUIqD.
you can b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e terms b y a n a l y z i n g how w a t e r i s formed. w a t e r , a s we know i t , i s s i m p l y a c o l o r l e s s l i q u i d . A molecule of w a t e r i s t h e s n a l l e s t d i v i s i b l e p a r t of w a t e r t h a t c a n p o s s i b l y be o b t a b e d w i t h tk molecule r e t a i n i n g t h e i d e n t i t y of w a t e r . However, t h e molecule i s com;>osed of two e l e m e n t s , n e i t h e r one of which r e s e m b l e s w a t e r . These e l e m e n t s a r e hydrogen and oxygen, two g a s e s which always combine i n t h e same a ~ o u n t s nrhen b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . To c i t e a n example: It t a k e s two atoms of hydrogen t o e n t e r i n t o combination w i t h one atorn of oxygen t o form one molecule of w a t e r , and u s i n g t h e symbols, !ye have t h e chemical e x p r e s s i o n f o r w a t e r , H 2 O . : $ a t e r m o l e c u l e s a r e a very s i m p l e arrangement i n t h e a t o m i c world when compared w i t h c e r t a i n compounded s u b s t a n c e s . W e have, f o r example, a v e r y complex a g g r e g a t i o n of d - i f f e r e n t s p e c i e of atoms i n a m o l e c u l e of s u g a r . To form one m o l e c u l e of s u g a r r e q u i r e s t w e l v e s atoms of c a r b o n , twenty-two atoms o f hydrogen and e l e v e n atoms of oxygen combined i n t o a s i n g l e group. There a r e c o u n t l e s s numbers o f pos s i b l e m o l e c u l a r combinations which p e r m i t t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of t h i n g s found i n and aL.out t h i s w o r l d of o u r s .

COHESION.

There i s a t r e m e M o u s m u t u a l f o r c e of a t t r a c t i o n between atoms of c e r t a i n k i n d s t h a t c a u s e s them t o form g r o u p s , and because t h e atoms p o s s e s s t h i s p r o p e r t y the m o l e c u l e s which t h e y f o r m a l s o have i t . Thus, we s e e why t h e r e i s a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y f o r t h i n g s t o h o l d o r c l i n g t o g e t h e r , o r t h i s p r o p e r t y of m a t t e r i s c a l l e d c o h e s i o n . remain i n t a c t

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t You might be s u r p ~ i s e d o l e a r n t h a t it i s n o t a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o p u l l a vlhy n o t t r y t o do t h i s r i g h t now and convince yours h e e t of p a p e r a p a r t . self. Take a s h e e t of w r i t i n g p a p e r , r o l l l t and t h e n g r a s p i t a t e i t h e r end and p u l l w i t h a l l y o u r e f f o r t . Were you s u c c e s s f u l i n p u l l i n g t h e p a p e r i n t o two p a r t s ? U U h i l you c a n t e a r t h i s p a p e r e a s i l y , you may n o t e be a b l e t o f o r c e t h e m o l e c u l e s t o g i v e up t h e i r c l i n g i n g h o l d on one a n o t h e r . The t e r m " a d h e s i o n " i s o f t e n confused w i t h " c o h e s i o n " . Adhesion i s u s e d t o e x p r e s s t h e m u t u a l f o r c e s t h a t h o l d m o l e c u l e s of d i s s i m i l a r k i n d t o g e t h e r . B u t t e r w i l l s t i c k t o b r e a d because o f a d h e s i o n , b u t t h e b u t t e r o r bread c o n s i d e r e d a l o n e h o l d t o g e t h e r because of c o h e s i o n . Lesson 3 sheet 5

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ELECTRICITY I S D I V I D E D G T E A L I N T O T O CLASSES. I n t h e broad sense ETR LY W e l e c t r i c i t y i s divided i n t o two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , namely: s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t and dynamic o r curpent e l e c t r i c i t z . I n t h i s l e s s o n w give a b r i e f outlin: e of important e a r l y experiments which d e a l mainly with s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y . You w i l l see t h a t many e l e c t r i c a l p r i n c i p l e s can be explained and proved by t h e simplest f a c t s of n a t u r e and by l a b o r a t o r y experiments.

Important Events IRadim UP t o t h e Establishment of t h e E l e c t r o n Theory. e Going back t o t h e year 600 B.C. w f i n d t h a t i n t h e Grecian c i t y of Miletus, t h e r e was a Greek philospher, named Thales, who pondered over the causes f o r l i g h t n i n g and t r i e d t o a s c e r t a i n why i t had such d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s . During he one of t h e s e periods of ~ t u d y discovered, q u i t e by a c c i d e n t , t h a t if an amber rod was rubbed with a piece of s i l k t h e rod a t once possessed the power t o a t t r a c t small b i t s of parchment. L a t e r , d u r i n g t h e period of 400Bc., Democritus devoted considerable time t o t h e s t u d y of m a t e r i a l s and e f f e c t s which could be produced by them, when t r e a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways. His i n t e r e s t was aroused when he observed t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s an a t t r a c t i o n was s e t up between c e r t a i n substances when rubbed t o g e t h e r , whereas, between o t h e r substances t h e r e was t h e e f f e c k of r e p u l s i o n s e t up. These experiments a r e thought t o be among t h e very f i r s t recorded concerning t h e discovery of a source of e l e c t r i c i t y , and since t h e e f f e c t s were brought about by f r i c t i o n t h i s kind of e l e c t r i c i t y became known a s " e l e c t r i c i t y a t p e s t " . B u t w now c a l l e f f e c t s of this kind " s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y w , The e a n c i e n t Greeks attempted t o account f o r the mysterious r e s u l t s obtained when rubbing t o g e t h e r m a t e r i a l s of d i f f e r e n t kinds. One of the reasons they advanced i n e x p l a n a t i o n of such e f f e c t s was t h a t d u r i n g the rubbing process small g r a i n s of one m a t e r i a l were being imparted t o t h e o t h e r m a t e r i a l . I n 1600 D r . G i l b e r t of sngland performed experiments s i m i l a r t o those of t h e Greeks. But where t h e y used amber he employed a g l a s s rod, and observed t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s could be put i n t o n c o n d i t i o n thal would g i v e them the power of a t t r a c t i o n o r r e p u l s i o n a s the c a s e may bc, It aas D r . G i l b e r t who a p p l i e d the Greek word f o r amber, which i s "elektron", t o express these p e c u l i a r e f f e c t s and he s t a t e d t h a t when t h e g l a s s rod was rubbed it became " e l e c t r i f Led". The e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f bodies when subjected t o such treatment was shown t o be merely a temporary c o n d i t i o n and although t h e e x a c t nature of the e l e c t r i c a l charge was not known t h e r e s u l t s a t t a i n e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t a t i c charge r e s t e d only on t h e o u t e r surface of t h e e l e c t r i f i e d material. I n 1733 D r . % f a y 9 when engaged i n f r i c t i o n a l e l e c t r i c a l experiments, n o t i c e d t h a t s e a l i n g wax, when rubbed with e a t ' s f u r , became e l e c t r i f i e d and possessed q u a l i t i e s unl5ke t h o s e of a piece of g l a s s which had been e l e c t r i e f i e d by rubbing w i t h c a t ' s f u r , H saw t h a t t h e s e a l i n g wax would r e p e l substances f o r which the g l a s s , on t h e c o n t r a r y , would e x h i b i t a decided attraction, Moreover, he sought t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s of opposite kind. Accordi n g l y , he gave t h e name " resinous e l e c t r i c i t y " t o the charge possessed by s e a l i n g wax when rubbed w i t h c a t 1s fur and t h e name " v i t r e o u s e l e c t r i c i t y ' ' t o t h e charge taken on by g l a s s when subjected t o f r i c t i o n a l contact w i t h t h e c a t ' s fur, Thus9 w e must l e a r n a t t h e s t a r t t h a t t h e terms g o s i t i v e and nerrative i n a l l e l e c t r i c a l science are merely r e l a t i v e and a r b i t r a r y as Lesson 3

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sheet 6

o r i g i n a t e d by F r a n k l i n . Indeed, he could have c a l l e d r e s i n o u s and v i t r e o u s e l e c t r i c i t y b y t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t names s o long a s t h e names he d i d a p p l y served t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e important f a c t : 'wenever e l e c t r i c i t y i s evident t h e r e always e x i s t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y two u n l i k e e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e s of e q u a l cjuantitf'. You cannot have one k i n d of c h a r g e p r e s e n t w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r . he words " p o s i t i v e " and " n e g a t i v e " seemed t o f i t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s and t h e y have been used a s s t a n d a r d terms e v e r s i n c e . M e a n i q o f " p o s i t i v e " and "Negative". W a r e i n d e b t e d t o Benjamin F r a n k l i n e f o r o r i g i n a t i n g what a r e u n d o u b t e d l y t h e two most commonly use? terms i n e l e c t r i c i t y ; p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . About t h e y e a r 1747, a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a l work, he o b s e r v e d t h a t whenever e l e c t r i c i t y o f one k i n d was p r e s e n t t h e r e a l s o was p r e s e n t a n o p p o s i t e k i n d . I n o t h e r words, we c o u l d n o t have one c o n d i t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y p r e v a i l i n g w i t h o u t a l s o t h e o p p o s i t e c o n d i t i on. From t h i s fundamental i d e a w e a r e a b l e t o account f o r t h e e f f e c t s of a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n . F r a n k l i n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t a t e of charge be p l v e n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r b i t r a r y terms, thus: "A s u b s t a n c e i s s a i d t o - b e p o s i t i v e l y e l e c t r i f i e d i f it i s r e p e l l e d when coning i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h a g l a s s r o d a f t e r t h e l a t t e r h a s been e l e c t p i f i e d b y r u b b i n g w i t h s i l k . On t h e o t h e r hand, a s u b s t a n c e i s s a i d t o be n e g a t i v e l y e l e c t r i f i e d , nr chsrrre!: t o 2 n e g a t i v e s e n s e . i f s e a l i n. wax repels it a f t e r t h e wax h a s g -been e l e c t r i f i e d w T t h c a t ' s f u r " .

.,

~~

~t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n t h e e a r l y d a y s l a a r n e d men b e l i e v e d Indeed, even t o e l e c t r i c i t y was due t o t h e f l o w of Ifan i n v i s i b l e l i q u i d . p r e s e n t time we use t h e word I f f low t o e x p r e s s the movement of an e l e c t r i c a l I n our e v e r y d a y work we o f t e n h e a r somecharge from one p l a c e t o a n o t h e r . one make t h e f o l l o w i n g remark: "A flow of c u r r e n t i n a c e r t a i n conductor produced such and s u c h a r e s u l t , e t c . " Thus, t h e t e r m " f l o w f f h a s been r e t a i n e d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f l u i d t h e o r y h a s lolng s i n c e b e e n d i s c a r d e d .
I n 1833 Faraday a l s o c o r % r i b u t e d t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e l e c t r i c a l e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from f r i c t i o n between s u b s t a n c e s . He conceived t h e i d e a t h a t when materials were rubbed t o g e t h e r , t h e y were p l a o e d und-r a n e l e c t r i c a l i n f l u e n c e , o r s t r e s s , and t h a t some unknown i n t e r v e n i n g me-iium was cap& l e of carrying t h i s s t r e s s along t h e material. i s p r e c i s e l y what happens T h i s c o n c e p t i o n was r e a l l y when a g l a s s rod i s rubbed w i t h a s i l k c l o t h . i m p o r t a n t because it was t h e f o r e r u n n e r of t h e i d e a t h a t t h e s u r r o u n d i n g "space medium" was a c a r r i e r o f a n e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m e n t i o n that F a r a d a y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a 'his r e l a t i o n d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between s u b s t a n c e and c u r r e n t . s h i p was obsevved by h i m when p e r f o r m i n g an e x p e r i m e n t employing a j a r cont a i n i n g a s o l u t i o n i n t o which was immersed a c o p p e r rod a n d a s i l v e r r o d . He n o t i c e d t h a t a c e r t a i n amount of c u r r e n t was r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n a chemical r e a c t i o n t h a t would remove a c e r t a i n q u a n t i t y o f s j l v e r From t h e s i l v e r r o d and d e p o s i t it on t h e c o p p e r . A f t e r S t o n e y s s s u g g e s t i o n i n 1 8 9 1 t h a t t h e " e l e c t r o n b e known a s thq n a t u r a l u n i t of e l e c t r i c i t y " t h e e l e c t r o n t h e o r y became p e r m a n e n t l y e s t a b l i s l i e d . But not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e many y e a r s of d i l i g e n t r e q e a r c h , a s j u s t o u t l i n e d i n our l e s s o n , the q u e s t i o n , "What i s e l e c t r i c i t y ? I' remains unanswered t o t h i s day. NO one i s c e r t a i n a s t o t h e a c t u a l n a t u r e o f e l e c t r i c i t y . Lesson 3

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The Electron 'Theory Accourits For E l e c t r i c a l Forces and Their E f f e c t s . ~t t h e present time t h e e l e c t r o n t h e o r y p r e v a i l s almost u n i v e r s a l l y . It i s based on t h e very n a t u r e and composition of a l l m a t t e r ; s o l i d , l i q u i d s , and gases. A l l forms of r e s e a r c h a r e v i t a l l y important because a s modern science delves c l o s e r and c l o s e r i n t o the fundamental b a s i s of our unlverse i t d a i l y c o n t r i b u t e s new knowledge which makes p o s s i b l e the r a p i d development and improvement i n r a d i o d e s i g n and equipment, G e t t i n g down t o t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s of matter, o r i t s r e a l composition, we a r e t o l d t h a t i t i s a l l made up w i t h i n f i n i t e s i m a l l y small matter p a r t i c l e s which a r e e s s e n t i a l l y e l e c t r i c a l charges. if'hese u n i t charges of matter have been g i v e n t h e names, e l e c t r o n s and ~ r o t o n s . I n b r i e f , a l l e l e c t r o n s possess a d e f i n i t e amount of negative e l e c t r i c a l energy, a l s o , t h e y cons t a n t l y w h i r l about their p o s i t i v e nucleus a t tremendous h i g h v e l o c i t i e s , b e s i d e s which t h e y occupy a c e r t a i n place i n t h e complicated sys%em i n t h e atoms of matter. I n our work we d e a l c h i e f l y w i t h t h e " e l e c t r o n and simply r e f e r t o t h e "proton" a s t h e p o s i t i v e charge o r nucleus. The exact arrangement of t h i s atornfy: system depends upon and d i f f e r s according t o various kinds of m a t t e r . &?rep. t o Figure 2, where t h e r e a r e shown t h r e e d i f f e r e n t atoms, e a c h w i t h an i n n e r group of e l e c t r o n s c i r c l i n g about a p o s i t i v e center of a t t r a c t i o n , and " f r e e " e l e c t r o n s r a c i n g about a t hfgh v e l o c i t y t o form a so- called outer group. Note t h a t because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n the f r e e e l e c t r o n s could be more e a s l l y detached from a n atom than any of t h e e l e c t r o n s forming t h e i n n e r group.
ELECTRONS I N RAPID VIBRATION HELD VllTHlN BOUNDS BY THE ATTRACTIVE FORCE OF THE POSITIVE NUCLEUS

E A C H DRAWING ILLUSTRATES A POSSIBLE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS AND T H E I R POSITIVE NUCLEUS W I T H I N THE

ATOM

Figure 2 This hypothesis, wherein atoms of m a t t e r a r e thought t o be made up of e l e c t r o n s , o r p a r t i c l e s of e l e c t r i c i t y , teaches u s t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y and mattel a r e f u n d a m n t a l l y t h e same. Before you a r e through with t h i s subject you w i l l not only l e a r n t h a t a l l matter i s made up of a very complex and wonderf u l s t r u c t u r e of atoms, but t h a t t h e b a s i s of a l l t h i n g s i s t h e small unseen e l e c t r i c a l p a r t i c l e " t h e e l e c t r o n " .

Let us now r e t u r n t o our s u b j e c t and d i s c u s s i n d e t a i l the r e s u l t s of performing a simple experiment where two d i s s i m i l a r substances a r e rubbed t og e t h e r , and e l e c t r i c a l f o r c e s a r e developed, There i s no movement t o e l e c t r i c a l f o r c e s of t h i s kind i n t h e o ~ d i n a r y sense t h a t one u s u a l l y t h i n k s or b e t t e r expressed as " e l e c t r i c i t ! of movement; t h e f o r c e s a r e " s t a t i o n a r y a t r e s t " . Forces of t h i s kind a r e known a s " s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t , " and t h e s u b j e c t i t s e l f i n r e f e r r e d t o i n g e n e r a l a s ELECTROSTATICS.

,

Lesson 3

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It w i l l be shown t h a t s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y produces e f f e c t s which a r e i n dependent and d i f f e r e n t from those r e s u l t i n g from " e l e c t r i c i t i n motion". The l a t t e r kind o f e l e c t r i c i t y i s c l a s s i f i e d i n g e n e r a l a s dynamic e l e c t r i c i t y , or a s CURRENT ELECTRICITY. T h i s i s t h e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t flows through copper wires and o t h e r conducting mediums and i s r e f e r r e d t o i n gem+& a s ELECTRODYNAMICS.
H w t o Produce S t a t i c E l e c t r i c i t y by Simple Methods. o It is an e a s y m a t t e r f o r us t o observe t h e e f f e c t s of s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y produced on m a t e r i a l s T O do t h i s f o l l o w t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a s suggested rubbing t h e n t o g e t h e r . Take a n o r d i n a r y rubber comb and with t h e back held i n Figures 3 and 4. a g a i n s t a piece of wool r u b t h e comb b r i s k l y back and f o r t h a c r o s s t h e I f you now move i t c l o s e t o s m a l l wool, The comb i s now e l e c t r i f i e d . b i t s of paper, which have been prepared f o r t h e experiment, a very s t r a n g e influence w i l l be seen t o e x i s t i n t h e r e g i o n about t h e comb. You w i l l n o t i c e a s t h e comb i s moved slowly toward t h e l i t t l e paper b i t s t h a t they w i l l be s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d t o i t ; t h e b i t s w i l l a c t u a l l y jump toward t h e comb and adhere t o i t f o r a few moments. Next, a s you watch t h i s a c t i o n , you w i l l observe another p e c u l i a r e f f e c t , f o r a f t e r a s h o r t i n t e r v a l t h e b i t s of paper w i l l s e e r t o be thrown f o r c i b l y away from the comb. That i s t o s a y , t h e paper b i t s do not merely d r o p off but seem t o be a c t u a l l y r e p e l l e d . Tn the f i r s t p a r t o f t h e experiment t h e p r o p e r t y of a t t r a c t i o n between t h e m e t e r i a l s was observed an&, l a s t l y , t h e p r o p e ~ t y r e p u l s i o n was c l e a r l y of e x h i b i t e d . This i s only one of many e f f e c t s which may be brought about by s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y due t o f r i c t i o n .

Figure 9

Figure 4

Inasnuch as the comb a t d i f f e r e n t times evidences q u a l i t i e s which were opposite e l e c t r i c a l l y , t h a t i s , a l t e r n a t e l y i n d i c a t i n g a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n , then i t s e t s us t o t h i n k l n g t h a t unseen f o r c e s muat have been c o n s t a n t l y a t work while t h i s e n t i r e experiment was under way, It i s a u i t e apparent t h a t two d i s t i n c t k i d s of e l e c t r i c ( s t a t i c ) charges were p r e s e n t i n o r d e r t o produce t h e s e r e s u l t s . Let us experimect f u r t h e r and perform a simple t e s t s i m i l a r t o one made by F r a n k l i n i n 1747. H i s purpose a t the time was t o evolve standarc' term Lcr be used i n e x p l a i n i n g a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t a e l e c t r i c a l ( s t a t i c ) f o r c e s from known conditions. Our purpose, it i s q u i t e obvious, i s merely t o l e a r n about t h i s marvelous s c i e n c e and s o l e t us s e t up t h e experiment a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 5 and 6. A g l a s s rod and a n ebony rod a r e each suspended by a s i l k Lasmn 3

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thread a t some d i s t a n c e from each o t h e r as shown i n t h e d-ruwing. A second g l a s s rod w i l l be used t o produce t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t s by touching i t f i r s t t o one of t h e suspended rods and then t h e other. Now, w i t h a b r i s k movement, rub t h e ebony with a p i e c e of f u r and then f o l l . 0 ~ by rubbing each g l a s s rod i n succession w i t h a piece of s i l k .
GLASS

ROD\,

GLASS ROD-'

, '

'-EBONY

ROD

, '
REPULSION BETWEEN BODIES HAVING L I K E
CHARGES

;
ATTRACTION.,' BETWEEN BODIES H A V I N G U N L I K E CHP

Figure 5

Figure 6

~ l of the ttkrraee rods a r e no;:. s a i d t o be s t a t i c a l l y charged or e l e c t r i f i e d . l Take the unsupported g l a s s rod and hold it near the e b o n y r o d . 'l'he ebony r o d w i l l a t once swing toward t h e g l a s s rod t h u s denoting t h e presence of a n a t t r a c t i v e influence. This time p l a c e t h e g l a s s rod, held i n the hand, close t o the supported g l a s s rod. The l a t t e r w i l l be seen +o swing away i n s t a n t l y , thus denoting t h e presence of a r e p u l s i v e i n f l u e n c e . The sketches i n Figures 7 and 8 i l l u s t r a t e a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n e f f e c t s i n gtatic electricity.

ZLECTRIC-STATIC FIzLD.The experiment i n Figure 6 shows how one e l e c t r i c a l l y charged body e x e r c i s e s a n i n f l u e n c e on another charged body when placed i n c l o s e proximity w i t h each other. The drawings i n F i m r e s 7 and 8 are a which a r e c a l l e d s t a t i c l i n e s simple means f o r showing how " l i n e s of f o r c e of f o r c e " , r e a c h out a considerable d i s t a n c e and occupy t h e space surrounding a n e l e c t r i f i e d body. These l i n e s a r e , of course, i n v i s i b l e but the s t a t i c e l e c t r i c a l a c t i o n s a r e accounted f o r by t h e i r presence.
A "force" i s always i n d i c a t e d by a l i n e and t h e d i r e c t i o n of the arrow head a t t h e end of the l i n e denotes t h e C i r e c t i o n i n which t h e f o r c e i s applied.

~ l s o ,understand t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s show r e p u l s i o n f o r one another and i t i s t h i s p e c u l a r i t y t h a t causes them t o remain a p a r t and assume t h e f o r metion shovm i n t h e drawings. A l l of the l i n e s t a k e n a s a whole a r e c a l l e d a s t a t i c f i e l d of fore$. The space surrounding a charged body i s f i l l e d w i t h t h e s e s t a t i c f o r c e l i n e s , w i t h the e f f e c t of each i n d i v i d u a l l i n e ending on t h e o u t e r surface of t h e m a t e r i a l . From t h i s t e s t w see why a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n e x i s t e d between the ebony and e e g l a s s rods and a pronounced r e p u l s i o n between t h e two g l a s s rods. W can now summarize t h i s by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s were placed i n t h i s conLesson 3

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d i t i o n by rubbing and that two klnds of e l e o t r i c ( s t a t i c ) charges were made e v i d e n t ; t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e p o l a r i t y signs ( + ) and ( - ) i n Figure 6 .
STATIC CHARGES ARE DUE TO A DISPLACEMENT O ELECTRONS W I T H I N THE ATOiv1. F with t h e t e s t s j u s t performed i n mind and explanations t o f o l . 1 0 ~ e sill l e a r n w

why m a t e r i a l s e x h i b i t t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s when e l e c t r i f i e d by f r i c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t g l a s s and fur when rubbed together show c o n t r a r y e l e c t r i c a l behavior: i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . yo give a reason why one has the power t o " a t t r a c t , and t h e o t h e r the power t o " r e p e l " , w must r e f e r back t o t h e e c o n s t r u c t i o n of m a t t e r and how i t i s based on the atom and t h e e l e c t r o n . One of the g r e a t e s t a u t h o r i t i e s of our day, "obert Andrews M i l l i k a n , e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a l l m a t t e r , which g i v e s us so many vwie'ies of t h i n g s , i s accounted f o r by the number and v a r i e t of the groupings of negative e l e c t r o n s w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i v e charges. hese opposite e l e c t r i c a l charges i n combination c o n s t i t u t e the atoms of matter. The p o s i t i v e charge w i t h i n t h e atom i s sometimes c a l l e d a p r o t o n a s s t a t e d b e f o r e .

8

ATTRACTION B E T W E E N BODIES CHARGED

REPULSION B E T W E E N BODIES CHARGED WITH ELECTRICITY OF LIKE POLARITY AND E Q U A L POTENTIAL

INVISIBLE
DIRECTION OF FORCE B E T W E E N LINES

ELECTROSTATIC LINES OF FORCE SET U P I N THE INTERVENING SPACE

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS REMAIN INDEPENDENT AND EXERT A PUSHING EFFECT UPON EACH OTHER

Figure 7

Figure 8

So w l e a r n from the study of t h e e l e c t r o n i c formation of m a t t e r t h a t t h e e q u a l i t i e s which permit a p a r t i c u l a r substance t o b e recognized a r e due ent i r e l y t o a v a r i a t i o n of t h e number of atoms, t h e i r s i z e and aggregation i n e forming the whole mass. N a r e a l s o t o l d t h a t although t h e proton of an atom may remain unchanged i n p o s i t i o n , o r q u a n t i t y , y e t it i s possible t o have perhaps one or more e l e c t r o n s added t o o r s u b s t r a c t e d from those normally revolving w i t h i n t h e atom. Any change i n t h e number of e l e c t r o n s i n an atom, however, w i l l cause i t t o become unbalanced e l e c t r i c a l l y , Under such cond i t i o n s the atoms, and l i k e w i s e the mass i t s e l f , w i l l assume e l e c t r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e e i t h e r negative or p o s i t i v e , a s explained under t h e t o p i c immediately following.

It has been proven experimentally by p h y s i c i s t s t h a t h e a t a l t e r s t h e atomic s t r u c t u r e of mass. When i n t h e a c t of rubbing the g l a s s rod with t h e s i l k cloth, as i n F i ~ u r e 5, t h e rubbing s e t up f r i c t i o n between t h e m a t e r i a l s , and t h i s i n t u r n r e s l t e d i n a c e r t a i n amount of h e a t b e i n & d e v e l q e d . Hence, under a l l c o n d i t i o n s we expect f r i c t i o n t o g e n e r a t e heat, i n varying degrees, depending, of course, upon t h e circumstances s7Jrrounding the a c t i o n . Accordingly, w may expect i n t h e case just c i t e d t h a t the temperature of e b o t h t h e s i l k and the r o 3 was increased t o some e x t e n t , although t h e h e a t may not have been s u f f i c i e n t f o r you t o d e t e c t i t . Have you ever noticed
Lesson 3

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how i r o n , when s u b j e c t e d t o i n t e n s e h e a t , w i l l a t f i r s t change i t s shape somewhat and l a t e r become a molten mass and flow l i k e a heavy l i q u i d . The e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of t h e g l a s s rod according t o t h e e l e c t r o n theory i s due t o a c e r t a i n displacement of e l e c t r o n s w i t h i n t h e atoms by which-thee a r e s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y out of t h e usual p o s i t i o n s they occupy. So long a s t-h-e e l e c t r o n s remain s h i f t e d out of the r e l a t i v e u o s i t i o n s i n t h i s wav then - - - -just so long will. e l e c t r l c f o r c e s ( s t a t i c l i n e s of f o r c e ) be i n evideLce i n t h e space about t h e r o d a
W S SAID -H E N A MASSo I Figure Referring t
-

TO BE ZLECTRICALLY I N A NEUTRAL, POSITIVE OR ??YGATIVE ST4T'E. 9 you w i l l observe three sketches ivhieh show p i c t o r i a l l y

why u n i t q u a n t i t i e s of a mass a r e capable of d i s p l a y i n g e l e c t , r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t times.

NEUTRAL OR NORMAL STATE

A POSITIVE E L E C T R I C A L CONDITION

A NEGATlVf ELECTRICAL CONDITION

Figure 9
( A ) The left - hand drawing, marked ( A ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the atoms of t h i s u n i t mass a r e i n a n e u t r a l , or normal s t a t e , because t h e charges are e x a c t l y Each atom i s e q u a l i n amount and opposite i n the15 n a t u r e ( + ) and ( - ). h e n atoms a r e i n t h i s condition, p e r f e c t l y nbalanced" or " n e u t r a l i z e d which i s a normal c o n d i t i o n , no e x t e r n a l e l e c t r i c a l i n f l u e n c e i s d e t e c t a b l e about t h e mass. U%en a body ceases t o show e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n i t i s due t o t h e r e u n i t i n g of t h e separate? charges.

.

( B ) However, upon looking a t t h e middle drawing, marked LB), you w i l l s e e ince t h e amount t h a t t h e r e a r e f i v e p o s i t i v e and f o u r negative charges. of p o s i t i v e charge i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e negative t h i s u n i t mass w i l l be o s i t i v e l y charged. It w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t the g l a s s rod i n t h e experi$nt of Figure 6 was a l s o put i n t o a s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n of possessing more p o s i t i v e than negative e l e c t r i c i t y a f t e r being rubbed with the s i l k . This was brought about, i t i s thought, by a t r a n s f e r e n c e of negative charges o r e l e c t r o n s from one u n i t mass t o another, o r from the g l a s s t o t h e s i l k , Notice t h a t t h e unit charge i n s k e t c h ( B ) , Figure 9 , d i d not become a p o s i t i v e one because more p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y had been added, b u t r a t h e r because a c e r t a i n amounb of n e g a t i v e e l e c t r o n s had been detached from t h e n e u t r a l mass i n sketch ( A ) . This means t h a t e a c h atom i n mass (B) has given up perhaps one or two of i V s e l e c t r o n s .

Summarizing these statements t e l l s u s , i n a few words, t h a t i f a mass l o s e s any of i t s e l e c t r o n s i t reduces t h e amount of negative charge and makesthe mass p o s i t i v e , 'Uhen i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e mass s e t s up a f o r c e which i s t r y i n g t o r e s t o r e i t s atoms t o normal c o n t i n u a l l y by e t t r a c t i n g the same number of e l e c t r o n s t o i t s e l f t h a t i t l o s t . ?'his e x p l a i n s why t h e mass i n sketch ( B ) i s s a i d t o be charged p o s i t i v e l y .or charged t o a p o s i t i v e potential Lesson 3 sheet 12

.

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( C ) Nw t u r n your a t t e n t i o n t o t h e right- hand s k e t c h , marked ( C ) , where a o u n i t mass i s shown w i t h more negative charge t h a n p o s i t i v e . Here the mass i s n e g a t i v e l y charged. Bear i n mind t h a t t h e r e a r e t h e same numbes of e p o s i t i v e charges i n a l l of t h e t h r e e sketches b u t t h a t i n sketch ( B ) w took away e l e c t r o n s , whereas, i n ( C ) w have put i n two a d d i t i o n a l negative e charges. It i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s a predominance ( g r e a t e r amount) of e l e c t r o n s i n ( C ) over t h a t f o r a normal condition. The n e t r e s u l t i n t h i s c a s e , where w have a n e x c e s s of el.ectrons, i s t o s e t up about t h e mass a e f o r c e which i s c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g t o discharge or give up e l e c t r o n s t o r e s t o r e i t s atoms t o n o r n a l . This e x p l a i n s why t h e mass i n sketch ( C ) i s s a i d t o be "charged nege t l v e l y " or "charged t o a negative p o t e n t i a l " . TRE ELECTROSCOPE

A Simple Experiment t o E x p l a i n "INDUCT I O N " and "CONDUCTION". A electroscope n i s a s e n s i t i v e d e v i c e used t o d e t e c t minute chal?ges of s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y . A working model can be e a s i l y assembled a s shown i n Figure 10. It c o n s i s t s of a p e r f e c t l y c l e a n and d r y g l a s s b o t t l e f i t t e d w i t h a cork through t h e middle of which i s i n s e r t e d a s t i f f copper wire long enough t o protrude from b o t h ends of t h e cork. The upper end of t h e w i r e i s bent t o form a loop while t h e lower end i s bent i n an L shape i n o r d e r t o hold a sheet of gold l e a f f o l d e d i n h a l f . This arrangement provides a p a i r of gold leaves which n a t u r a l l y f a l l t o g e t h e r a s i l l u s t r a t e d , Tho cork z c t s t o i n s u l a t e t h e metal p o r t i o n s from t h e g l a s s b o t t l e .
BRASS R O D \

i
ELECTROSCOPE

J

INDUCTION OF CHARGES IS THROUGH *' ELECTROSTATIC LINES

GOLD LEAF : FOLDED IN HALF

NO ELECTRIC CHBRGES

GOLD LEhYES REPEL BECAUSE THEY ARE CHARGED WITH SIMILAR KIND OF ELECTRICITY

Figure 1 0 The i n f l u e n c e of s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y upon b o d i e s and t h e i n d i c a t i o n s of t h e kind of charges p r e s e n t , t h a t i s , whether of p o s i t i v e o r negative s i g n , w i l l be shown by t h e f a l l i n g t o g e t h e r o r spreading a p a r t of t h e l e a v e s .
TO begin our t e s t l e t u s r u b a g l a s s rod with s i l k and t h e n c a r e f u l l y move

t h e rod toward t h e w i r e loop without p e r m i t t i n g a c t u a l p h y s i c a l contact Lesson 3

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sheet 13

between the r e s p e c t i v e s u r f a c e s , Notice how the l e a v e s spread a u a r t . r h '- in i s s a i d t o happen because an e l e c t r i c f o r c e o r charge of i i k e kind i s b u i l t up on each gold l e a f . Since t h e s e f o r c e s r e a c h out l i l - e any e l e c t r o s t a t - i c f i e l d and a r e e f f e c t i v e i n t h e r e g i o n surrounding t h e leaves we o b s e r v e t h i s r e p u l s i o n between them. The nature of the charges and t h e e n t i r e a c t i o n i s explained below i n s t e p s f o r t h e sake of c l e a r n e s s :

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~

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1.

It has been a r b i t r a r i l y decided, a s mentioned h e r e t o f o r e , t h a t a g l a s s rod when e l e c t r i f i e d by rubbing w i t h s i l k w i l l be charged with "positive e l e c t r i c i t y " .
The g l a s s rod induces a charge of opposite kind on t h e wire loop, hence, t h e loop becomes charge4 w i t h "negative e l e c t r i c i t y " .

2.

3.

It i s seen t h a t t h e wire and g o l d leaves t a k e n t o g e t h e r a c t u a l l y form a m e t a l l i c p a t h , I n o r d e r t o make t h e loop end, " n e g a t i v e " a s s t a t e d i n paragraph ( 2 ) j u s t a b w e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t e l e c t r o m b e forced t o move from one end of t h i s m e t a l l i c p a t h e t o t h e o t h e r , O r , w could e x p r e s s t h e same t h i n g by saying t h a t e l e c t r o n s were conducted through t h i s metal path by reason of t h e o t e n t i a l f o r c e s e t up a t t h e loop end. Note t h a t the a d d i t i o n a l :lectrons which c o l l e c t a t t h e loop end were o r i g i n a l l y l o c a t e d a t t h e opposite end, or a t t h e gold l e a v e s . This removal of e l e c t r o ~ sl e a v e s t h e l a t t e r point d e f i c i e n t Pn e l e c t r o n s or with This a c t i o n i s shown i n t h e e n l a r g e d view a p o s l t f v e charge. i n sketch ( C )
Thus, when the loop end i s n e g a t i v e l y chargeri or a t a negative p o t e n t i a l , the o p p o s i t e end o r gold l e a f end becomes posi,bivel;p: charged, o r i s placed a t a p o s i t i v e ~ o t e n t i a l ,;vhich i s the same t h i n g , Comparing both ends t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e ?f p o t e n t i a l between thm. Consequently, each g o l d l e a f i n d i v i d u a l l y Therefore,the leaves possesses a p o s i t i v e charge of equal amount. w i l l d i v e r g e or spread a p a r t . This i s e x a c t l y what was witnessed d u r i n g t h e experiment.

4.

It i s suggested b e f o r e p u t t i n g t h i s experiment a s i d e t h a t you again charge t h e e l e c t r o s e o p e by i n d u c t i o n u s i n g the e l e c t r i f i e d rod and w h i l e the l e a v e s a r e s e p a r a t e d p l a c e Y o u r finger on t h e w i r e loop. The moment c o n t a c t is made t h e l e a v e s will f a l l t o g e t h e r showing t h a t your boag h a s neutralized t h e charge. It would be a v e r y simple matter f o r you t o make an e l e c t r o s ~ o ~ e .
Again r e f e r The Difference Between the Terms " INDU C T ION" and " CONDUCTI ON i n g t o t h e e l e c t r o s c o p e experiment, i n s o f a r a s t h e w i r e and gold l e a f a r e concerned, t h e p o s i t i v e and negative e l e c t r i c i t y a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n t h e atoms which c o n s t i t u t e t h e s e metal p a r t s , That i s t o s a y , t h e e l e c t r i c i t y i s always p r e s e n t o r i n h e r e n t i n t h e materf a l s . But t h i s e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n was not separated i n t o p o s i t i v e and negative charges, which we know developed a t t h e opposite ends, u n t i l t h e f o r c e r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e charge on t h e g l a s s rod induced a charge of opposite kind on t h e wire loop. The f o r c e i s r e presented i n t h e drawing by the l i n e s i n space connecting t h e r e s p e c t j v e s u r f a c e s of the charged bodies. The l i n e s a r e known a s t h e e l e Q t r i c O &&LC P f i e l d as p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d . Thus, we may have INDUCTION of charges even without t h e s u r f a c e s of bodies a c t u a l l y touching e a c h o t h e r . Lesson 3

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sheet 14

In t h e c a s e of the m e t a l l i c p a t h i n t h e e l e c t r o s c o p e i t happens t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l s e t up between b o t h e n d s f o r c e s e l e c t r o n s t o move from atom t o atom t h r o u g h t h e m e t a l i n a d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e g o l d l e a v e s toward t h e l o o p end. T h i s e n t i r e a c t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e o r i g i n a l a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e e x e r t e d b y t h e P o s i t i v e l y c h a r g e d g l a s s rod upon t h e l o o p of wire.
One i m p o r t a n t p o i n t j u s t mentioned t h a t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n mind i s t h a t i n t h a t c a s e where t h e g l a s s r o d i s e l e c t r i f i e d t h e r e i s no movement of e l e c t r o n s t h r o u g h o u t the m a t e r i a l , b u t s i m p l y a d i s p l a c e m e n t o r s l i g h t s h i f t i n g of e l e c t r o n s w i t h i n t h e atoms t a k e s p l a c e . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n t h e c a s e of t h e m e t a l p a r t s , e l e c t r o n s d o move o r a r e conducted a l o n g from atom t o atom of t h e copper and g o l d p a s s i n g from one end o f t h e m e t a l p a t h t o t h e o t h e r . The movement o r d r i f t of e l e c t r o n s t h r o u g h t h e m e t a l p a r t s i s a c t u a l l y a f l o w sf c u r r e n t , I,o r c u r r e n t e l e c t r i c i t y " , which w e have a l r e a d y c l a s s i f i e d . E l e c t r o n s p a s s i n g throug3,- t h e m e t a l p a r t s i l l u s t r a t e s C O N D U C TI O N . A c c o r d i n g l y , we may h e r e a f t e r c a l l t h e e n t i r e p a t h ( t o i n c l u d e any and a l l mediums, a i r , g a s , s o l i d s , e t c . ) t h r o u g h w h i c h a t r a n s f e r e n c e o f e l e c t r i c i t y Lake p l a c e o r t h r o u g h which e l e c t r o n i c c u r r e n t ' w i l l f l o w under a g i v e n electromotive f o r c e , a conductive c i r c u i t .

The e l e c t r o s c o p e e x p e r i m e n t e n a b l e d u s ( 1 s t ) t o e x p l a i n t h e use of t h e terms " n e g a t i v e " , and " p o t e n t i a l " , and ( 2 n d ) t o o b s e r v e by means of t h e g o l d l e a v e t h a t r e p u l s i o n i s always s e t up between b o d i e s charged w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y of ,like k i n d and ( 3 r d ) t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y always -appear s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .
~ l t h o u g hs t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y and t h e e l e c t r o n s which a c c o u n t f o r i t a r e i n v i s i b l e t o u s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e f f e c t s t h e y produce can :>e i n d i r e c t l y W have e x p l a i n e d i n e subsequent l e s s o n , e o b s e r v e d under c e r t a i n condit'ions. how a f o r c e which a c t s between magnetized s u b s t a n c e s titled "~a~net;ism", a l s o e x h i b i t s i d e n t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of " a t t r a c t i o n " and " r e p u l s i o n " b u t i n t h e c a s e o f n a ~ n o t i s mt h e f o r c e i s not d e r i v e d i n t h e same manner a s i n s t a t i c electricity.
A SIMPLE EXPLANATION OF THE TERM POTENTIAL. E l e c t r o n s may b e l i k e n e d t o p o t e n t i a l c h a r g e s . The t e r m " p o t e n t i a l I' a s a p p l i e d t o f o r c e s means t h e t e n e r g y i s s t o r e d up i n some manner, n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n a n o b j e c t , op mass, b u t because of t h e p o s i t i o n t h e o b j e c t o c c u p i e s .

To e x p l a i n t h i s ide.a l e t u s c i t e t h e f o l l o w i n g comparison: A s t o n e r e s t i n g on t h e ground i s n o t c a p a b l e of p e r f o r m i n g work when compared t o t,he same s t o n e placed n e a r t h e edge of a h i g h c l i f f . The s t o n e , when r e s t i n g on t h e c l i f T , becomes a p o t e n t i a l f o r c e b e c a u s e , i f t h e s t o n e i s pushed, i t w i l l f a l l and a c e r t a i n amount of work w i l l be done. T h e work i n t h i s c a s e cons i s t s o f t h e weight of t h e mass f a l l i n g a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e t h r o u g h sp:!ce. Hence, p o t e n t j . a l d e a l s w i t h a c o n d i t i o n i n s p a c e . T h e s a m c o n d i t i o n s a r e t r u e i n t h e c a s e of s t a t i c electricity and charged b o d i e s . Hence, t o make t h e comparison we would s a y t h a t p o t e n t i a l d o e s n o t mean t h e c n o r t h e mass o r body, b u t r a t h e r a c o n d i t i o n t h a t e x i s t s a t a c e r t a i n s p a c e . R e f e r t o t h e d r a w i n g s i n F i g u r e s 7 and 8 showing t h e s t a s e t u p i n t h e space a b o u t t h e c h a r g e d b o d i e s a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e " ~ o t e n t i a l " s a term used i n connection with i merit, of t h e l i n e s . Lesson 3

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i n our work t h e term i s a p p l i e d t o b o t h s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y and c u r r e n t electricity. The t e r n " p o t e n t i a l " i s u s e d i n r e g a r d t o a n o r d i n a r y d r y c e l l o r s t o r a g e b a t t e r y . The t e r m i n a l s a r e connected r e s p e c t i v e l y t o e l e c t r o d e s , one o f which i s s a i d t o be a t a " p o s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l " and t h e o t h e r a t a "negative. potential". T h i s d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l i s what p r o v i d e s t h e e l e c t r i c a l p r e s s u r e and makes t h e C e l l o r b a t t e r y c a p a b l e of p e r f o r m i n g work. The t e r m p o t e n t i a l i s a l s o u s e d i n b u s i n e s s ; a p o t e n t i a l b u y e r o r p o t e n t i a l customer i s considered t o be a p e r s o n who h a s n o t y e t bought a n y k c h a n d i s e , b u t who h a s t h e power o r i s c a p a b l e of making a p u r c h a s e i f he s o d e s i r e s . ILLUSTRATED BY THRE4 TYPICAL CASES. HOVJ T USE THE T R POTENTIAL. O EM Case 1, I n F i g u r e 11, two b o d i e s ( A ) and $ ) a r e shown, one h a v i n g a p o s i t i v e o o t - n t i a l and t h e o t h e r a n e g a t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f e q u a l amounts. e Then d i s c u s s i n g t h e e l e c t r i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o r f o r c e s s e t up b y t w o such b o d i e s we s a y t h a t between them " t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e o f p o t e n t i a l " and because o f t h i s condition an e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d i s establishe?.
A -

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Case 2, A l s o , we have c a s e s of two charged b o d i e s w b r e e a c h one h a s a p o s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l , b u t one i s a t a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r p o s i t i v e p o t e n t i a l T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t b o d i e s ( A ) and ( B ) than t h e other. See F i g u r e 12. b o t h have a s h o r t a g e of e l e c t r o n s , but r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , body ( R ) h a s fewer e l e c t r o n s t h a n ( A ) . Thus ( B ) w i 1 s e t up a 1 which p l a c e s it a t a h i g h e r p o t e r i t i a l t h a n ( A ). Now due t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r o n s would move from t h e lower p o t e n t i a l p o i n t (A) t o t h e h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l p o i n t (R), p r o v i d i n g t h e y were
ODY HAVING

BODY H A V I N G
POSITIVE

B O D Y W I T H THE

NEGATIVE

LO W E R NEGATI VE

BODY WITH THE
H I G H E R NEGATI!

DIFFEREN CE OF

POTENTIAL

Figure 12

F i g u r e 13

f u r n i s h e d a p a t h o r medium t w o - h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d p a s s . The e l e c t r o n s would move i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n t h e i r e f f o r t t o r e d u c e t h e h i g h e r f o r c e and b r i n g i t down t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e lower f o r c e . It can be s a i d t h a t ( A ) i s i n a more unbalanced s t a t e t h a n (B). The medium we r e f e r t o could be s copper w i r e , o r any o t h e r ccmducting m a t e r i a 1 , o r p e r h a p s a g a s , o r t h e atmosphere i n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , and s o f o r t h . Case 3. ~ l s o ,t h e r e a r e c a s e s o f two charged b o d i e s where e a c h h a s a negat i v e p o t e n t i a l , b u t of u n e q u a l amount, a s shown by ( A ) and ( B ) i n F i g u r e 13. If e l e c t r o n s were given a p a t h be%vieen t h e s e b o d i e s t h e y would move from ( 8 )t o (A) s i n c e ( B ) h a s a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r a n o n n t of e x c e s s e l e c t r o n s than ( A ) . It i s s a i d t h a t (H) i s c h a r g e l t o a h i g h e r n e g a t i v e p o t e n t i a l than ( A ) . E l e c t , r o n s would. move l oward ( A ) a s s u g g e s t e d i n o r d e r t o e q u a l i z e ; t h e amounts of n e g a t i v e i n each body, a n d , m o r e o v e r , t h e y would c o n t i n u e p e s s Lesson 3

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sheet 16

from one body t o t h e o t h e r u n t i l no d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l e x i s t e d b e e n the b o d i e s . FUNDAMENTAL ELECTROSTATIC LAWS.

We n o t i c e d i n o u r e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t h e b i t s of paper and r u b b e r comb t h a t a
body upon which a n e l e c t r i c c h a r g e had b e e n b u i l t up would a t t r a c t a n e a r b y unchtirged body, b u t a f t e r p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t had b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e a t t r a c t e d body would be r e p e l l e d . T h i s a c t i o n o c c u r s b e c a u s e whenever two such b o d i e s a c t u a l l y t o u c h t h e r e i m m e d i a t e l y t a k e s p l a c e a n e q u a l i z a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c u n i t s r e s u l t i n g i n t h e a t t r a c t e d body becoming charged t o t h e same v a l u e of p o l a r i t y a s t h a t of t h e body which c a u s e d t h e a t t r a c t i o n . F i n a l l y , when b o t h b o d i e s assume l i k e c h a r g e s of e q u a l v a l u e t h e y r e p e l e a c h o t h e r . Also, we observed t h a t a body h o l d i n g a p o s i t i v e c h a r g e on i t s s u r f a c e would a t t r a c t a body w i t h a n e g a t i v e charge and v i c e v e r s a . ~ h u s s e e n a t u r e c o n s t a n t l y a t work t e n d i n g a t a l l t i m e s t o m a i n t a i n u n i t we masses i n a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m . S i n c e a l l m a t t e r i s e s s e n t i a l l y e l e c t r i c a l i n s u b s t a n c e , t h e n f o r any c o n d i t i o n where t h e s t a t e o f r e s t i s u p s e t , n a t u r e w i l l e x e r t h e r f o r c e s t o r e s t o r e normal c o n d i t i o n s a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . The fundamental laws o f e l e c t r o s t a t i c s may b e c o n c i s e l y s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s :

1.

A f i e l d of f o r c e , c a l l e d a n e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d , always e x i s t s i n t h e r e g i o n a b o u t a charged body o r between a n y two b o d i e s o r Neither a positive p o i n t s where a d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l e x ' i s t s . nor n e g a t i v e c h a r g e i s e v e r produced a l o n e .

2.

Bodies h o l d i n g c h a r g e s of e l e c t r i c i t y o f s i m i l a r k i n d o r s i m i l a r p o l a r i t y r e p e l each other. Bodies h o l d i n g c h a r g e s o f e l e c t r i c i t y o f o p p o s i t e k i n d o r o p p o s i t e polarity, a t t r a c t each other. Uociie s which have been c h a r g e d , i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e v a l u e of t h e c h a r g e , d i s p l a y an fi t t r a c t i o o f o r n e u t r a l b o d i e s , t h a t i s , b o d i e s which have not been made t o e x h i b i t e l e c t r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . An e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e c a n be t r a n s f e r r e d from one body t o m y o t h e r body ( c o n d u c t o r s and i n s u l a t o r s i n c l u d e d ) when p r o p e r i n s u l a t i o n i s provided. E l e c t r i c a l o r s t a t i c c h a r g e s r e s t o n l y upon t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e of s material.

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6.

Lesson 3

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sheet 17

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EXAMINATION

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LESSON 3
(c)
A compound?

1. 2.

( a ) What i s an element?

( b ) A molecule?

( a ) What accounts f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n m a t e r i a l s t h a t w a r e a b l e e t o recognize t h e various t h i n g s on our e a r t h ? , ( b ) D you t h i n k e l e c t r i c a l a c t i o n s could be c l e a r l y understood o by us a l l w i t h o u t some knowledge of t h e e l e c t r o n t h e o r y ? ( a ) What i s the modern conception of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a l l m a t t e r ? ( b ) What i s t h e n a m of the theory t h a t i s used t o e x p l a i n t h e reason for a l l e l e c t r i c a l e f f e c t s ? ( c ) Can an e l e c t r i c a l charge of one kind e x i s t a l o n e ? ( a ) What do neutral ( b ) When i n ( c ) When i n w mean when w say t h a t : A body or' mass i s i n a e e state? a p o s i t i v e l y charged s t a t e ? a n e g a t i v e l y charged s t a t e ?

3.

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What i s a conductive c i r c u i t ? I n t o what two g e n e r a l c l a s s e s i s e l e c t r i c i t y d i v i d e d and what i s the p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e be tween them? ( a ) Why i s i t t h a t under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a body w i l l not show any evidence of e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n when w say t h a t a l l m a t t e r i s e made up of e l e c t r i c i t y ? ( b ) What i s a flow of c u r r e n t supposed t o be ac-cording t o our modern science? In a few b r i e f sentences t e l l what you l e a r n e d from t h e e l e c t r o s c o p e experiment. ( a ) If t h e atoms of a c e r t a i n body ( c a l l e d M ) c o n t a i n more e l e c t r o n s t h a n t h e atoms of a n o t h e r body ( c a l l e d N ) which body, M or N, w i l l be charged t o t h e h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l ? And what p o t e n t i a l , positive or negative? ( b ) I n what d i r e c t i o n would e l e c t r o r ? ~ a s s i f t h e y were g i v e n a p p a t h t o f l o w from o?e charged body t o the o t h e r a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , if w conmcted a copper w i r e between them? e ( a ) S t a t e f o u r findamental laws of e l e c t r o s t a t i c s . ( b ) What i s a n e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d ? ( c ) Draw a s k e t c h showing t w o charged b o d i e s , one p o s i t i v e and one n e g a t i v e , showing the e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d , u s i n g l i n e s and arrows. ( d ) D e l e c t r o s t a t i c l i n e s e x i s t w i t h i n a charged body? \Ifhere do o they e x i s t ? ( e ) H w may an e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d be produced? Mention two ways you o know o f .

7.

8. 9.

10.

Lesson 3

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sheet 18

Technical Lesson 4
MAGNETISM Many c e n t u r i e s ago i n t h e m i n i n g r e g i o n s O f a small town named Magnesia, i n A s i a Minor, t h e r e was found a d a r k c o l o r e d s t o n e , w h i c h p o s s e s s e d a v e r y peculiar property one t h a t coulcl b e d e s c r i b e d a s a s o r t of p u l l i n g f o r c e which gave t h i s s u b s t a n c e t h e power t o a t t r a c t s m a l l p i e c e s of i r o n . It was t h e n d i s c o v e r e d t h a t i f a p i e c e of t h i s s t o n e was suspended by a t h r e a d and allowed t o move f r e e l y it would swing a b o u t s l o w l y , an? upon coming t o Early mariners r e s t would assume a p o s i t i o n n e a r l y due North and b o u t h . used t h i s stone as an a i d i n navigation, guiding t h e i r vessels according t o i t s p o s i t i o n and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e s t o n e became Known a s " l o d e s t o n e " , vrhich means ' l e a d i n g s t o n e i i , Another name g i v e n t o t h i s s t o n e (which i s a n o r e of i r o n ) i s " o x i d e of i r o n " , o r I1m a g n e t i t e " . he p e c u l i a r p r o p e r t y we and t h e s u b s t a n c e it s e l f which posr e f e r t o became known a s "NAGNETISM" s e s r e d t h e p r o p e r t y was c a l l e d a "MAGNET". The l o d e s t o n e r e t a i n s i t s m a g n e t i c p r o p e r t i e s i n d e f i n i t e l y f o r it i s t h e r e s u l t of a n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n t h e o r e it s e l f .

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I n l a t e r y e a r s i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t by a n a r t i f i c i a l p r o c e s s o r d i n a r y h a r d i r o n , o r s t e e l , c o u l d be made t o t a k e on t h e same p r o p e r t y of magnetism a s t h e l o d e s t o n e . Thus, t h e magnetic p r o p e r t y i m p a r t e d t o s t e e l gave i t t h e power t o a t t r a c t b i t s o f i r o n , and moreover, it was n o t i c e d t h a t when a t h i n s t r i p of m a g n e t i z e d s t e e l was suspended, and p e r m i t t e d a f r e e m o t i o n , i t would swing a b o u t and come t o r e s t i n a p o s i t i o n e x a c t l y s i m i l a r t o t h e l o d e s t o n e w i t h e r e g a r d t o t h e e a r t h ' s North and South p o l e s . The n e e d l e of t h e common magnetic compass, which i s i n w i d e s p r e a d u s e , i s n o t h i n g more t h a n a n a r t i f i c i a l magnet; i t i s a magnetized p i e c e o f s t e e l suspended s o t h a t it can t u r n f r e e l y . As most o f u s knom, one end o f t h e compass n e e d l e p o i n t s i n a g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n toward t h e North g e o g r a p h i c a l p o l e of t h e e a r t h and Convention, o r t h e o t h e r end p o i n t s toviard t h e South g e o g r a p h i c a l p o l e . custom i n t h e p a s t , a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e North ( N ) of a n e e d l e i s s o d e s i g n a t e d and u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e l o c a t i o n o f o u r n ' o r t h g e o g r a p h i c a l p o l e o n i g i n a g e n e r a l way a s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h .

In o r d e r t o a v o i d any m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n o u r s t u d y of magnetism, l e t us e x p l a i n now t h a t t h e n o r t h end of t h e n e e d l e i s a c t u a l l y a t t r a c t e d by t h e e a r t h ' s magnetism i s s u i r ~ gfrom t h e S o u t h m a g n e t i c p o l e . T h i s magnetic p o l e i s l o c a t e d a t a town named B o o t h i a , i n Canada, a d i s t a n c e of more t h a n a thousand m i l e s from t h e ISorth g e o g r a p h i c a l p o l e . bur e a r t h i s r e a l l y a huge magnet w i t h magnetic f o r c e s e v l d e n t a l l o v e r i t s s u r f a c e , t h e f o r c e s b e i n g v e r y pronounced and c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t h e u p p e r and l o w e r e x t r e m i t i e s , Hence, t o be s t r i c t l y a c c u r a t e i n our o r , a s we would s a y , " a t t h e p o l e s " . s t a t e m e n t we should s a y t h a t t h e "N" end of a compass n e e d l e p o i n t s towards t h e South m a n n e t i c v o l e of t h e e a r t h and t h e "S" e n d towards t h e North magnetic m ole.

To make c e r t a i n t h a t you have a p e r f e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g about p o l a r i t y a s i n d i c a t e d by a compass l e t u s l o o k a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h i s way: Consider t h a t i f t h e n o r t h (N) end of t h e n e e d l e p o i n t s toward a m a g n e t i c i n f l u e n c e , t h e r e g i o n of t h i s i n f l u e n c e must be o f o p p o s i t e a t t r a c t i o n , o r a s o u t h ( s ) p o l e . I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e s o u t h ( S ) end o f t h e n e e d l e p o i n t s toward a m a g n e t i c i n f l u e n c e t h e l a t t e r r e g i o n must a l s o be o p p o s i t e , o r a n o r t h ( N ) pole.
INDUCED M A G N S T I S M . Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e of magnetic i n d u c t i o n and a t t r a c t i o n . When a s t e e l b a r magnet i s d i p p e d i n t o s o f t i r o n f i l i n g s , i t w i l l be found t h a t a l a r g e number of t h e i r o n p a r t i c l e s w i l l c l i n g t o one a n o t h e r and t o t h e b a r w i t h g r e a t t e n a c i t y . Most o f t h e f i l i n g s w i l l c l u s t e r n e a r t h e e n d s of t h e b a r w i t h v e r y few d i s t r i b u t e d a l o n g t h e s u r c a c e and p r a c t i c a l l y none a t o r n e a r t h e m i d d l e . The i r o n p a r t i c l e s which a r e i n c o n t a c t an? c l o s e s t t o e i t h e r end of t h e b a r w i l l s e e n t o g r i p on w i t h g r e a t f i r m n e s s while those f u r t h e r o u t f r o m t h e end a r e more f e e b l y a t t r a c t e d t o one a n o t h e r and seem t o be l e s s r i g i d . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e magnetism emanating from t h e end of t h e b a r i s s t r o n g e - s t n e a r i t s s u r f a c e and a s we p r o c e e d outward i n t o s p a c e khe magnetism becomes weaker.

W u s e t h e term ''de;lsity1' t d e x p r e s s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n magnetism, s a y i n g e It s i m p l y means t h a t t h e m a g ~ e t i cd e n s i t y i s g r e a t e s t c l o s e t o t h e b a r . t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of magnetic fori:e c l o s e r t o t h e m s g n e t ' s p o l e s t h a n a t some d i s t a n c e away from i t .

SOFT I R O N

y'lya

Figure 2 a t t e m p t t o b r u s h them o f f w i t h your f i n g e r s , i t w i l l n o t prove a n easy m a t t e r t o remove a b s o l u t e l y e v e r y t i n y i r o n p a r t i c l e from the m a g n e t f s s u r f a c e . The manner i n which t h e s e s m a l l i r o n b i t s c l i n g t o one a n o t h e r , and t o t h e b a r , i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of t h e e x a c t n a t u r e of t h i s m a g n e t i c i n f l u e n c e i t s f o r c e e x t e n d s outward i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g space which i s c a l l e d t h e " s p a c e medium". The i r o n t a c k s c l i n g i n g t o t h e magnet, i n F i g u r e 2 , a l s o s e r v e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e s of i n d u c e d magnetism. The unseen i n f l u e n c e a r o u n d a s t e e l magnet c a u s e s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l f i l i n g i n F i g u r e 1 t o become a t i n y magnet p o s s e s s i n g a l l of t h e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e ! e u s u a l l y express t h i s a c t i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t V l a r g e b a r mngnet i t s e l f . t h e l a r g e magnet i n d u c e d magnetism i n t o t h e i r o n f i l i n g s . The f i l i n g s would have magnetism i n d u c e d i n them w h e t h e r t h e y were i n a c t u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Lesson 4- s h e e t 2
If a v e r y s t r o n g s t e e l magnet i s u s e d t o a t t r a c t t h e f i l i n g s , and l a t e r you

magnet, o r merely i n i t s presence. T O prove t h e l a t t e r statement place the f i l i n g s i n a g l a s s t u b e , o r b o t t l e , and then move t h e magnet against t h e o u t e r surface of t h e g l a s s and note how t h e f i l i n g s are a f f e c t e d and s h i f t around and c l i n g t o one another, assuming d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s according t o t h e magnet's influence. Also, from t h i s experiment w observe t h a t g l a s s e i s t r a n s p a r e n t t o a magnetic f o r c e . Remember t h a t each f i l i n g or t a c k assumes a p o s i t i o n t h a t e n a b l e s it t o accomodate t h e g r e a t e s t amount of magnetism coming from the e x c i t i n g magnet. The sketches i n Figures 1 and 2 a r e intended t o show t h a t magnetism i s n o t c r e a t e d but a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n Nothing h a s been a4ded t o o r t a k e n from t h e t h e i r o n t a c k s and f i l i n g s . It i s s i m-p l - a c o n d i t i o n y i r o n t o produce t h e r e s u l t s w have observed. e where t h i s p e c u l i a r f o r c e ( c a l l e d magnetism) i n t h e f i l i n g s o r t a c k s was made e v i d e n t by t h e outside magnetic influence of the s t e e l magnet. W e know of s e v e r a l p r a c t i c a l means f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g magnetism and, a l s o , ways t o r e g u l a t e i t s s t r e n g t h . This i s a f o r t u n a t e circumstarce, indeed, because i t permits us t o u t i l i z e t h i s i n v i s i b l e f o r c e i n our r a d i o work. Under o r d i n a r y conditions i f we were t o place m a t e r i a l s l i k e copper, paper, o r wood, w i t h i n t h e i n f l u e n c e of a magnet w would not expect t o observe e magnetic e f f e c t s such a s the f i l i n g s gave us i n Figure 1. A t f i r s t s i g h t it might appear t h a t any substance which i s seemingly u n a f f e c t e d when subjected t o a nearby magnetic f o r c e does not possess magnetic p r o p e r t i e s ; but t h i s i s not t h e case. The phenomena of magnetism e x i s t s i n a l l m a t t e r t o a more or l e s s degree, only i n some substances i t s d e t e c t i o n becomes apparent q u i c k l y while i n others it requires t h e most d i l i g e n t r e s e a r c h and d e l i c a t e equipment t o discover i t . To make it pronounced i n paper, wood, and a l l o t h e r soc a l l e d non-magnetic substances, would r e q u i r e an o u t s i d e magnetic i n f l u e n c e If conditions were j u s t r i g h t and i f very s t r o n g of cqhsiderable s t r e n g t h . magnetism was obtainable it could be shown t h a t a piece of paper would be f e e b l y a t t r a c t e d and would move toward the source of s t r o n g magnetism, wherea s a piece of copper would be r e p e l l e d , W d e a l e x c l ~ ~ s i v e wyi t h i r o n and s t e e l i n our s t u d i e s about magnetism bee l cause magnetic e f f e c t s a r e e s p e c i a l l y pronounced i n t h e s e m e t a l s , and f o r magnetic purposes t h e y a r e the p r i n c i p a l ones found i n commercial use. Howe v e r , i t should be known t h a t t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n compound c o n s i s t i n g of i r o n and a small percentage of n i c k e l t h a t has magnetic p r o p e r t i e s superior t o e i t h e r i r o n o r n i c k e l alone. "Permalloy" i s t h e name of one compound t h a t can be magnetized about t h i r t g times s t r o n g e r than s o f t i r o n under s i m i l h r conditions. "Permivar" i s the name of another magnetic compound.
TWO SOURCES O MAGNETISM I N OUR PRACTICAL WORK. F 1 ~ ut mention a t t h i s s n o i n t t- h a t the magnetic f o r c e s e t un bv a f a i r l y s t r o n a mamet i s capable of not o n l y a t t r a c t i n g b i t s of ironan: c u u s i n g * a t t r a c i i o n - o r r e p u l s i o n with o t h e r magnetic masses, but t h e force has the a d d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y of s e t t i n g up a flow of c u r r e n t through c o i l s , w i r e s , and o t h e r elements composing an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t . To produce a flow of c u r r e n t t h e magnetism which a c t s on t h e c o i l s and conducting w i r e s must be made t o vary e i t h e r i n s t r e n g t h , o r p o l a r i t y , o r both, and the c i r c u i t must be closed t o form a complete conductive p a t h f o r t h e c u r r e n t t o flow. O r , if a magnetic f o r c e remains s t a t i o n a r y and s t e a d y a c o i l o r conductor must be moved t h r o u g h i t t o produce a c u r r e n t of e l e c t r i c i t y t h e r e i n .
MAGNETIC PROPEFTIES ALREADY EXIST IN I R O N .

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Lesson 4

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3

It w i l l & shovm i n a forthcoming l e s s o n t h a t 'an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t passing through the t u r n s of a c o i l s e t s up i t s own magnetic lir?es which completely e n c i r c l e t h e c o i l . The l i n e s s e t up by t h e c u r r e n t have p r e c i s e l y s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s i n every way t o magnetic l i n e s produced by e i t h e r a b a r o r horseshoe magnet. Bear i n mind t h a t magnetism, r e g a r d l e s s of how o r where i t i s obtained ( e i t h e r through t h e use of magnets o r from a f l o w of c u r r e n t ) a l ways e x h i b i t s t h e same g e n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s . Therefore, a f t e r having once mastered t h e f'undamental p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s l e s s o n t h e student should f i n d i t e a s y to* apply them t o any a c t i o n where magnetism and e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t a r e involved.
From t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s i t i s seen t h a t t h e r e a r e two p r i n c i p a l sources of magnet ism:
1. Magnetic e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from the use of magne t s 2. Magnetic e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from t h e flow of e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t s .

.

The f i r s t mentioned source i s t r e a t e d under t h e t o p i c of "MAGNETISM" and t h e second, under "ELEGTROMAGN~ISM"

.

Just what t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e "space medium", o r i n a " m a t e r i & l l ' , when a e maanetic f o r c e i s p r e s e n t . or .iust what the n a t u r e of magnetism i s w do not d e ? i n i t e l y know. But t h e . r e s u i t s obtained when f o r c e s oi' t h i s kind a c t upon magnetic substances, or upon conductors of e l e c t r i c i t y , have enabled scient i s t s t o formulate numerous laws and r u l e s governing t h e i r behavior.
Very simple experiments c a n be performed t o demonstrate "magnetic'! and "electromagnetic " phenomena w i t h a minimum of equipment, a s f o r example, w i t h t h e use of a small pocket- size magnetic compass, a b a r o r horseshoe magnet, i r o n f i l i n g s , c o i l s of wire and a b a t t e r y , or d r y c e l l .
K I N D S O NAGNETS. F

Magnetic substances a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s , namely:

(1) N a t u r a l magnets, and ( 2 ) A r t i f i c i a l magnets.

It should be q u i t e obvious t h a t a l o d e s t o n e i s a n a t u r a l magnet and t h a t a l l manufactured o r man-made magnets a r e i n the a r t i f i c i a l c l a s s , The a r t i f i c i a l kind a r e plsced i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g two p o u p s :
(1 )
Temporary magnets, and ( 2 ) Permanent magnets

.

Inasmuch a s t h e s o f t i r o n f i l i n g s i n Figure 1, o r t h e t a c k s i n Figure 2 , l o s e p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e i r magnetism when removed from t h e magnetizing f o r c e t h e y a r e c l a s s e d a s temporary magnets. Suppose, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h a t t h e s e f i l i n g s , o r t a c k s , a f t e r b e i n g shaken f r e e from t h e bar nere t o r e t a i n t h e i r magnetic p r o p e r t i e s (assuming t h a t even a f t e r a period of many months o r perhaps y e a r s t h e y s t i l l p e r s i s t i n c l i n g i n g s t r o n g l y t o one a n o t h e r ) tl-.ey would be c l a s s e d a s permanent magnets. Assuming t h a t a s o l i d b a r of i r o n or s t e e l showed p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r t o t h e t a c k ? and f i l i n g s , a s w e have suggested above, t h e b a r would a l s o be c a l l e d a "temporary" magnet,or e "permanent" magnet, a s t h e c a s e may be. The p o i n t w wish t o emphasize i s t h a t t h e s i z e of a mass does not a l t e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s .

Lesson 4

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sheet 4

TYPES OF hlAGM9TS. There a r e i n g e n e r a l use t h r e e t y p e s of magnets. of t h e m g n e t i c f o r c e s i n e a c h t y p e i s shown i n F i g u r e 3.

The p a t h

(1)Bar magnet.. (Magnetic c i r c u i t c o n s i s t s p a r t l y of i r o n and a i r .) ( 2 ) Horseshoe magnet.. (Magnetic c i r c u i t c o n s i s t s p a r t l y O F i r o n and a l r . ) ( 3 ) Ring magnet (Magnetic c i r c u i t c o n s i s t s o n l y of i r o n . )

.......

......

SIXPLF VAY T MAKE A MAGNET. Suppose t h a t one- half of a b a r of hardened i r o n O o r s t e e l i s r e ~ e a t e d l ys t r o k e d w i t h t h e "N" Dole o f a strone. m a m - . and e n r h e t - , - - ----u -s t r o k e i s made-the s a k e way, b e g i n n i n g a t the middle of t h e v b a r and s t r o k i q toward one end. t h e n t h i s end o f t h e b a r w i l l m e s e n t l v become an "s" = -o- l -~ -- n Suppose t h e "s" pole o f t h e magnet i s now used- t o s t r o i ; e t h e o p p o s i t e h a l f of t h e b a r by t h e same p r o c e s s , t h e n t b e l a t t e r end of t h e b a r w i l l become If t h i s b a r of hardened i r o n , i n t o w h i c h magnetism i s b e i n g i n a n "N" pole. d u c e d , i s h e a t e d o r s l i g h t l y pounded d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s e i t h e r t r e a t m e n t w i l l a s s i s t t h e molecules i n r e a r r a n g i n g themselves i n p a r a l l e l rows ( o r i n a l i g n m e n t ) t o make t h e b a r a permanent magnet. It w i l l be e x p l a i n e d under t h e s u b j e c t of " E l e c t r o m a g n e t i s m " how a C o i l O f 'vire t h r o u g h which c u r r e n t i s f l o w i n g can be u t i l i z e d t o i n d u c e magnetism i n t o a b a r of hardened s t e e l t o make it a permanent magnet
7

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M h G N E T I C LINES

BAR MAGNET

UPGNETIC S P E C T R U M S H OWN W I T H I R O N FILINGS

RING MAGNET

Figure 3
FLUX MAGICETIC FIELD YAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE. To i l l u s t r a t e a " f o r c e " on p a p e r i s j u s t l i k e a t t e m p t i n g t o draw something one cannot s e e . For i n s t a n c e , you c o u l d n f t i l l u s t r a t e your " t h i n k i n g powers" on p a p e r , nor could you g r a p h i c a l l y show t h e " f o r c e " Of a n e x p l o s i o n . With t h i s i n rlind you w i l l a p p r e c i a t e why i t h a s become the custom t o m e r e l y draw a l i n e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e l i n e of d i r e c t i o n of a f o r c e and t h e n t o p l a c e a n arrow somewhere i n t h a t l i n e t o d e n o t e t h e e x a c t d i r e c t i o n i n which t h e f o r c e i s being a p n l i e d . T h a t i s , t h e arrow shows t h e t e n s i o n a l o n g t h e l i n e . The magnetic f o r c e s which e x i s t w i t h i n a magnet and i n t h e r e g i o n s u r r o u n d i n g it a r e , t h e r e f o r e , b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d b y l i n e s and arrows a s shown i n many o f t h e drawings.

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The t o t a l magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e s e t up i n a m a g n e t i c c i r c u i t ( e i t h e r b y a m a g n e t i c m a t e r i a l o r by an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t ) a r e c a l l e d magnetic f l u x , o r s i m p l y f l u x . The f l u x i s shown by d o t t e d l i n e s i n our drawings. These lines t a k e t h e form o f ever- widening l o o p s which may be t h o u g h t of a s a s o r t o f magnetic whirl. The f i e l d of f o r c e which i s e v i d e n t i n t h e r e g i o n o u t s i d e a magnet i s c a l l e d t h e magnetic f i e l d , The i d e a of p r e s e n t i n g a n u n s e e n f o r c e g r a p h i c a l l y on p a p e r i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t a l r e a d y used i n o u r l e s s o n on " E l e c t r o s t a t i c s " . The d i f f e r e n c e i s Lesson 4

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sheet 5

m a i n l y t h a t unbroken l i n e s a r e drawn i n t h e r e g i o n where a n e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d of f o r c e e x i s t s , w h e r e a s , d o t t e d l i n e s a r e u s e ? t o r e p r e s e n t a m a g n e t i c f i e l d of f o r c e . Note p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e i n e a c h o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of magnets i n F i g u r e 3. See how t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e l i n e s come o u t a t t h e r e g i o n around one p o l e and go i n a t t h e r e g i o n around t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e , w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y few l i n e s ~t o r n e a r t h e middle of the magnet. O f c o u r s e , i n t h e c a s e of t h e r i n g magnet t h e l i n e s a r e c o n f i n e d e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e i r o n mass b e c a u s e t h i s magnet h a s no p o l e s .
MAGBETIC LINES O Y FORCE CAFJ BE VISUALIZED O WY BY INDIRECT OBSERVATION. OL

Magnetic f o r c e s cannot be s e e n , a s you know, b u t t h e i r e f f e c t s c a n b e . Tn o r d e r t h a t you may a c t u a l l y v i s u a l i z e t h e s t r a i n l i n e s ( l i n e s of f o r c e ) - p r e s e n t about a magnetized s u b s t a n c e i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m p l e experiment be performed. O b t a i n a s m a l l b a r magnet o r h o r s e s h o e magnet, a s h e e t o f c a r d b o a r d o r g l a s s , and a s m a l l q u a n t i t y of s o f t i r o n f i l i n c s . Someone c o n n e c t e d w i t h a machine shop i n y o u r neighborhood w i l l no d o u b t g i v e you t h e f i l i n g s ; a t h i m b l e f u l o r two w i l l be p l e n t y , o r you may e a s i l y make them b y f i l i n g p a r t of a n i r o n b o l t , o r a n y p i e c e o f o r d i n a r y i r o n for t h a t matter. Let t h e b a r magnet be p l a c e d under t h e c a r d b o a r d , o r g l a s s , and l e t t h e i r o n f i l i n g s be s p r i n k l e d e v e n l y o v e r t h e f l a t s u r f a c e . Then g e n t l y t a p t h e s u r f a c e a dozen t i m e s o r more w i t h a p e n c i l and o b s e r v e how t h e i r o n p a r t i c l e s a c t u a l l y t u r n about and a r r a n g e themselves i n l i n e s o r l o o p s i n a s y m m e t r i c a l f o r m a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e diagram i n F i g u r e 3. The e n e r g y i n t h e magnet i n d u c e s magnetism i n t h e f i l i n g s , c a u s i n g e a c h one t o become a t i n y magnet h a v i n g i t s own " N " and "s" p o l e s ; i t i s t h e induce4 magnetism t h a t makes t h e f i l i n g s a t t r a c t one a n o t h e r c a u s i n g them t o f o r m l o o p s o r whirls. Each of t h e l i n e s of f o r c e completes a n i n d e p e n d e n t c i r c u i t a s shown b y t h e c o n t i n u o u s l o o p s . The l o o p s ( o r l i n e s ) t e n d t o s h o r t e n t h e m s e l v e s a t a l l p o i n t s , t h a t i s , t h e y t e n d t o t a k e t h e s h o r t e s t r o u t e i n t h e space t h e y occupy between o p p o s i t e p o l e s . However, t h e l i n e s r e m a i n s e a a r ~ t e dand s p r e a d o u t a n i n f i n i t e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e b a r because c t h e s t r o n g r e p u l s i o n which a d j a c e n t l i n e s e x e r t on one a n o t h e r . One l i n e n e v e r c r o s s e s o v e r . c u t s t h r o u g h . nor merges i n t o n e i g h b o r i n g l i n e s . See F i g u r e s 4 and 5. The f o r c e l i n e s e x e r t a t e n s i o n i n a d i r e c t i o n outward f r a n t h e "N" end of t h e magnet a s t h e y p a s s a r o u n d t h e b a r t h r o u g h space and r e - e n t e r a t the "S" e n d , t h e t e n s i o n b e i n g c o n t i n u e d on t h r o u g h t h e b a r from 'IS" t o "N" 9 a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e l o o p s and a r r o w s . When s p e a k i n g a b o u t t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t k o f magnetism we s a y t h a t L i n e s of f o r c e a r e i n a d i r e r t i o n f r o m ' I N " t o "s" around a magnet and from "S" t o "N" i n s i d e . (Note: The e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s r u l e i t a r i n g magnet which forms a c l o s e d i r o n c i r c u i t ; i n t h i s t y p e t h e r e a r e no open ends o r p o l e s and t h e r e f o r e t h e l i n e s a r e c o n f i n e d w i t h i n t h e i r o n . however, if a s e c t i o n of a r i n g magnet i s c u t o u t , t h e open e n d s t h u s made t h e n become " N " and "s" p o l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h a m a g n e t i c f i e l d s e t up i n t h e space between them.) I n t h e a c t i o n e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g p a r a g r a p h s , where t h e f o r c e l i n e s o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e b a r magnet e x e r t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r o n f i l i n g s and c a u s e t h e i r r e - a r r a n g e m e n t , it may be added t h a t t h i s a c t i o n i n t u r n p l a c e s Usson 4

- sheet

6

f i l i n g s i n a p o s i t i o n so t h a t they e x e r t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l influences on another. Keep i n mind t h a t each l i t t l e f i l i n g becomes a magnet i n t h i s process. Consequently, w have a g r e a t e r t o t a l magnetic f o r c e e x i s t i n g i n e t h e r e g i o n around t h e magnet when f i l i n g s a r e p r e s e n t t h a n without f i l i n g s , because the f o r c e l i n e s s e t up by t h e f i l i n g s when t h e y a r e magnetized add t o t h e f o r c e l i n e s coming from t h e b a r magnet.

EXPLORING A MAGNETIC FIELD WITH A SMALL COMPASS. Suppose w explore t h e e magnetic s t r a i n s e t up i n t h e region about a s t e e l magnet by moving a compass i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s a s suggested i n Figure 4. Ve w i l l see t h a t when t h e needle comes t o r e s t a t some p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n it w i l l take up a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n a c t i n g along t h e l i n e s Of f o r c e a t t h a t p o i n t , The s e v e r a l p o s i t i o n s of t h e compass i n t h e drawing shows t h a t t h e n e e d l e coincides w i t h t h e l i n e s of f o r c e i n every case.

Figure 4

Figure 5

Hence, a magnetic compass i s u s e f u l f o r d e t e c t i n g t h e presence of a magnetic f i e l d and determining t h e d i r e c t i o n i n which t h e l i n e s r u n , The diagram of t h e f i e l d about t h e magnet and t h e compass, i n F i g u r e 4, t e a c h e s you how t o determine t h e p o l a r i t y ( " N " and "S" p o l e s ) of a magnet.

MAGNETIC SPECTRUM.
rounding ward one opposite l i n e s as

In Figure 5 w observe a b a r magnet and t h e r e g i o n s u r e it placed under a s t r a i n by t h e f o r c e l i n e s l e a v i n g a t p o i n t s t o -

end of t h e b a r and r e - e n t e r i n g a t s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n s toward t h e end. T h i s g i v e s a symmetrical appearance t o t h e formation of t h e mapped out by t h e i r o n p a r t i c l e s i n t h e b a r magnet i n Figure 3.

The shape o r image of t h e magnstic l i n e s , as viewed w i t h t h e a i d of t h e f i l i n g s , i s c a l l e d a "magnetic spectrum". Since s t r a i n l i n e s always e x i s t around a magnet t h e n f o r any change made i n t h e p o s i t i o n of a magnet t h e s t r a i n l i n e s w i l l move along w i t h i t . Try moving t h e bar magnet i n Figure 1 s l i g h t l y back and f o r t h i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s and note t h e e f f e c t on t h e f i l i n g s .
TKG L W OF ATTRACTION AND REPULSION. A S

1) Magnet p o l e s of l i k e kind r e p e l e a c h o t h e r . 2 ) Magmt p o l e s of u n l i k e kind a t t r a c t e a c h o t h e r .
Lesson 4

- sheet 7

we w i l l make use of two s t e e l b ~ magnets r own and marked a s shown i n Figures 6 and 7. magnet i s suspended by a thread so t h a t i t w i l l move f r e e l y under t h e luence of t h e o t h e r magnet.

1

(1) I f one of t h e magnets Is held i n the hand and slowly moved, a s shown i n Figure 6, s o t h a t i t s n o r t h pole end i s brought near t h e n o r t h pole end of t h e suspended magnet w w i l l immediately e

see the l a t t e r move away and come t o r e s t i n a p o s i t i o n a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e from t h e f i r s t magnet. T h i s demonstrates the law of r e p u l s i o n .

Figure 6

Figure 7

N w suppose t h e s o u t h pole end of the magnet i n t h e hand i s o brought near t h e n o r t h pole end of the suspended magnet, as shown i n Figure 7 , then we w i l l o b t a i n an e f f e c t j u s t opposite t o t h e one observg? i n (1). T h i s time t h e n o r t h end of the suspended magnet w i l l swing toward the south pole of t h e approaching magnet, w i t h t h e swinging magnet coming t o r e s t i n a p o s i t i o n a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e magnet held i n t h e hand. The ends of t h e magnets w i l l a c t u a l l y come i n t o contact i f you permit them: This demonstrates khe law of a t t r a c t i o n .

Figure 8

Figure 9

The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e a c t i o n i n (1) r e l a t i n g t o r e p 2 l s i v e e f f e c t s w i l l be understood a f t e r examining t h e ' sketch i n Figure 8 and keeping i n mind t h a t t h e magnetic f o r c e s a c t along t h e l i n e s and i n t h e d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by the arrows. Observe how t h e l i n e s r e p r e s e n t i n g each f i e l d a r e d i s t o r t e d from the normal arrangement t h e y occupy when not under t h e influence Lesson 4

- sheet 8

o f each o t h e r .

The s h a m o f

a n o ~ m n l f.inlrl

3-

shnl~n

P

+

~ K .

~

~

.

(2)

The e x p l a n a t i o n governing the a c t i o n i n ( 2 ) r e l a t i n g t o a t t r a c t i v e e f f e c t s w i l l be understood by an examination of Figure 9 and r e a s o n i w a s follows : The a t t r a c t i o n or o i ~ l l i n n e f f e c t between a d j a c e n t magnetic poles o.$ u n l i k e kind i s caused b s t h e l i n e s coming out from the N" end of t h e first -- -magnet & d going i n a t t h e "S" end of t h e second magnet, t h a t i s , t h e t e n s i o n of t h e l i n e s a r e a c t i n g along t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s shown i n the drawing.
A ~ ~~

THEORY OF MAGNETISM I S BASED ON THE ENERGY STORD UP I N A MO1,ECULE AND ATOM. Now. exqmine t h e d r a w i w s i n Figures 10. 11. and 12 f o r t h e ouroose of studv-

i n g ' t h e molecular a c t i o n within- an iron-bar when i t i s demagnetized, o r magnstized, o r s a t u r a t e d w i t h magnetism. Before w go i n t o a d e t a i l e d exe p l a n a t i o n of t h e s e drawings l e t us f i r s t mention a few Pacts about "energy:' and the general conception t h a t a l l m::gnetic e f f e c t s i n i r o n are t h o u ~ h tt o be due an s l t e r a t i o n i n t h e p o s i t i o n the molecules normally occupg. You should. a t t h i s point. r e c a l l some of the e m l a n a t i o n s g i m n i n a previous lesson'about the-composition of m a t t e r . YOU- learned that a l l substances a r e compose4 of molecules, and t h a t the molecules i n t u r n c o n s i s t of atoms, and f i n a l l y the energy w i t h i n t h e atom i s a combination of p o s i t i v e and negat i v e e l e c t r i c a l forces. The negative f o r c e s a r e the r a p i d l y v i b r a t i n g e l e c t r o n s as previously explained.

e

to

Figure 10

Figure 12

Our e m l a n a t i o n s a l s o s t a t e d t h a t mametism and e l e c t r i c i t y a r e i n s e p a s a b l-s assoc<ated i n a l l k i n d s of "matter", and t h a t e n e r g y i n d i f f e r e n t f o r i s i s accounted f o r by the a c t i o n of e l e c t r o n s i n constant motion. It may be of more . than nassinp: i n t e r e s t t o mention t h a t according t o t h e b e l i e f of scient i s t s theAmanyd i f f e r e n t kinds of substances found-on our e a r t h and t h e energy t h e y ppssess were produced ages ago when our e a r t h was i n the process of cooling and formation.
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f t is quite evident t h a t e n e r a a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n i r o n and s t e e l molecules and t h i s energy i s capable of doing "work" when p r o p e r l y d i r e c t e d . The r e s u l t s of t h e "work" performed by a magnetic f o r c e was observed i n Figures 1 and 2 when i r o n p a r t i c l e s and t a c k s were a t t r a c t e d toward a bar magnet and t h e i r weight was supported by i t . Also, we saw t h a t magnetic p r o p e r t i e s , e x a c t l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of t h e s t e e l magnet i t s e l f , were 1nd.uced i n t h e i r o n p a r t i c l e s . This a b i l i t y of i r o n and s t e e l t o become magnetize3 and t o do work p e r n i t s u s t o c o n s i d e r any m a t e r i a l d i s p l a y i n g such q u a l i t i e s a s a storehouse of energy. Lesson 4

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sheet 9

and, i f two unlike p o l e s , n o r t h and south, a r e brought together t h e b a r s w i l l move toward one another, and w i l l touch if permitted t o do so, due t o attraction.
If you o b t a i n some s o f t i r o n f i l i n g s and a c t u a l l y t r y the experiment prev i o u s l y suggestecl i n F i g u r e 3 you will. n o t i c e t h a t a f t e r t h e f i l i n g s are shaken off and removed from the magnet they cease t o c l i n g t o g e t h e r ; as f a r as a l l outward signs a r e concerned t h e y have l o s t t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l magnezic p r o p e r t i e s . I n o t h e r words, j u s t s o long a s t h e f i l i n g s a r e subjected t o t h e m ~ g n e t i z i n gi n f l u e n c e t h e y continue t o remain magnets, but when t h e y a r e not subjected t o t h i s i n f l u e n c e they lose p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of t h e i r power I n t h i s process t h e f i l i n g s were t o a t t r a c t one another a s you observed. f i r s t magnetized and t h e n demagnetized.

There a r e c e r t a i n k i n d s of i r o n t h a t , a f t e r being magnetized, w i l l r e t a i n t h e i r magnetism f o r much longer periods t h a n t h e s o f t i r o n f i l i n g s which we used. This subject i s t r e a t e d under " Retentivity " .
NON- MAGNETIZED IRON BAR. The energy c ~ n t a ~ n e n a magnet id t o perform work is s t o r e d up i n t h e molecules of t h e subs t a n c e , a s w have previously explained. A-single glance a t the drawing i n e Figure 10 shows t h a t every m o ~ e c u l e (molecules a r e m%rely suggested by the r e c t a n g l e s ) i s a magnet i n i t s e l f havings i t s own "N" and ItS It poles. Also, t h e d o t t e d l i n e s d e n o t i n g the f o r c e s a r e seen t o reach out through the void spaces between a d j a c e n t molecules thereby l i n k i n g them t o g e t h e r t o form numerous closed and i r r e g u l a r shaped groupings.

CONDITlONS I -enables Ni A that t

The extreme ends o f l l e a c h molecule a r e c a l l e d " poles 1 ', and by condention they a r e known as " north and "south" poles, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The % I 1 pole e n l s o f the molecules a r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s k e t c h by s o l i d black squares and the "St' pole ends by white o u t l i n e d squares. Observe how t h e r e i s a n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i o n between neighboring molecules which causes them t o arrange themselves i n a somewbat i r r e g u l a r order w i t h t h e i r n o r t h and s o u t h p o l e s p r a c t i c a l l y together. When an i r o n mass i s i n t h i s condition, t h a t i s , w i t h i t s magnetic f o r c e s confined i n closed paths by v i r t u e of t h e closed molecular groups, the i r o n w i l l not d i s p l a y any not.ic.eable outward magnetic e f f e c t s . The i r o n i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s s a i d t o - .- - . . be non-magnetized o r demagnetized. I n o t h e r words, although magnetism i s v r e s e n t within t h e b a r i t Is not evident i n t h e region o u t s i d e and, conseq u e n t l y t h e r e i s no magnetic f i e l d produced.
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A

CONDITIONS I N AND AROUND A MAGNETIZE3 I R O N BAR.

I f a p i e c e of s o f t i r o n i s brought near a s t e e l magnet the i r o n w i l l become magnetized a s mentioned i n an e a r l y p z r t of the l e s s o n . The molecules of s o f t i r o n , when under the e x c i t i n g magnet's i n f l u e n c e , a r e f o r c i b l y t u r n e d about on t h e i r axes and Lesson 4

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t h i s alignment of m o l e c u l e s i s b r o u g h t about t h e e n e r g y i n e a c h moler -- --n t h e same g e ~ e r a l i r e c t i o n toward one end o f t h e b a r and t h e " S ' p o l e s d oward t h e o p p o s i t e end. Thus, t h e magnetized i r o n h a s a l l of the p r o p e r t i e s o f a magnet, t h a t i s , i t h a s a n o r t h p o l e and s o u t h p o l e of i t s own. W h a v e , e t h e n , a c o n d i t i o n where t h e m a g n e t i c e n e r g y i n t h e m o l e c u l e s now e x e r t s i t s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e r e g i o n o u t s i d e t h e b a r , s e t t i n g up s t r a i n l i n e s i n t h i s r e g i o n , t h e s t r a i n l i n e s b e i n g c a l l e d a "magnetic f i e l d " . As i n d i c a t e d by t h e l i n e s and arrow-heads t h e f o r c e l i n e s a b o u t a magnet l e a v e a t t h e n o r t h p o l e and r e - e n t e r t h e s o u t h p o l e .
A

1 The magnetic c i r c u i t i n t h e d i a g r a m i n F i u r e 1 c o n s i s t s o f a i r and i r o n . The a i r p a t h i s t e c h n i c a l l y known a s t h e 'space medium". However, i n p r a c t i c e you w i l l f i M t h a t a m a g n e t t c c i r c u i t may c o n s i s t of a i r o r i r o n a l o n e , o r a combination of b o t h . Magnetic f l u x e n c i r c l i n g a c o i l when c u r r e n t f l o w s i s a n example of a complete a i r p a t h , whereas, a r i n g magnet, such a s t h e one i n F i g u r e 3, i s an example of a n a l l - i r o n p a t h . A r i n g magnet may be employed where no e x t e r n a l f i e l d i s d e s i r e d .

From t h e f a c t s s t a t e d h e r e t o f o r e t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d r e a d i l y g r a s p t h e i d e a However, t o make t h i s p ~ i n tp o s i t i v e l y t h a t a magnetic f o r c e i s c o n t i n u o u s . c l e a r l e t u s suppose t h a t i n F i g u r e 5 t h e r e a r e 100,000,000 l i n e s o f f o r c e w i t h i n t h e b a r (we have shown o n l y s e v e r a l . s t r a i n l i n e s f o r s i m p l i c i t y ) t h e n we would a l s o have 100,000,000 s t r a i n l i n e s a c t i n g on t h e s p a c e medium. I n o t h e r words, f o r e a c h l i n e e x i s t i n g i n t h e b a r t h e space o u t s i d e i s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s t r a i n o f one l i n e f o r the s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t e v e r y l i n e is c o n t i n u o u s ; i t h - s no b e g i n n i n g o r end. J'~oreover, t h e s p a c e a b o u t a magnet opposes b e i n g p l a c e d under a s t r a i n a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , it e x e r t s a c o n s t a n t e f f o r t t o r e c o v e r i t s normal s t a t e .

I

I t i s of utmost importance that t h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d t h i n k o f m a g n e t i c f l u x a c t i n g e n t i r e l y around a m a g n e t i c c i r c u i t and n o t t h a t t h e l i n e s s t a r t o r end a t any p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t .
The d r e v r i x i n I t !s o n l y n a h a l t o e x p e c t t h a t s u c h s t r a i g h t rows of m o l e c u l e s , when e x a c t l y en; t o e n d , w i l l e x e r t t h e g r e a t e s t s t r a i n o r t e n s i o n i n r e g i o n s o u t s i d e t h e magnet. I n p r a c t i c e , however, m o l e c u l e s d o n o t a s a r u l e form a b s o l u t e l y s t r a i g h t I n any e v e n t the l i n e s b u t t h e i r r e - a r r a n g e m e n t i s more o r l e s s imperf'ect. e x t e n t of m o l e c u l a r r e - a r r a n g e m e n t i s dependent upon t h e k i n d of s u b s t a n c e Each l i n e c o n t r i b u t e s b e i n g magnetized and the s t r e n g t h of t h e i n d u c i n g f o r c e . i t s i n d i v i d u a l m a g n e t i z i n g f o r c e t o t h e t o t a l produced b y t h e magnet. If a l l of t h e m o l e c u l e s o f a n i r o n o r s t e e l b a r were r e - a r r a n g e d a s p e r f e c t l y a s t h o s e shown i n F i g u r e 1 2 t h e n no f u r t h e r magnetism c o u l d be induced i n t h e b a r s i n c e t h e r e i s l l n o t h i n g more t h a t could be done t o t h e i r o n t o make it " t a k e on1' or "hold more m g n e t i s m . I n t h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e i r o n would be s a i d t o have r e a c h e d the " s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t " , known a s " magnetic s a t u r a t i o n " . Theref o r e , i t s magnetic s t r e n g t h c o u l d n o t be i n c r e a s e d beyond t h i s l i m i t r e g a r d l e s s o f how s t r o n g might be t h e m a g n e t i z i n g f o r c e . Lesson 4 CC:;3ITIONS IIJ IZOR - e 1:)shows s e v08r aSTEZL :HEN p SATURATEDa!','ITHn KAG1FTIcSLI. Figur e l rows of erfectly l i ~ e d molecules.

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sheet 1 1

f

EFFECT O BREAKING A M G E INTO SMALLER PIECES. The s k e t c h i n F i g u r e 13 F A NT i s i n t e n d e d t o convey t h e i d e a t h a t magnetism i s due t o a c e r t a i n m o l e c u l a r a-rangenent and , a l s o , t h a t magnetic l i n e s form a c o n t i n u o u s c i r c u i t ; t h e y cannot be t h o u g h t of a s h a v i n g a n y b e g i n n i n g o r e n d . A c c o r d i n g l y , i f a b a r magnet i s broken i n t o s e v e r a l p i e c e s , a s i l l u s t r a t e d , e a c h p i e c e becomes a s e p a r a t e msgnet v i i t h "N" and "S" p o l e s o f i t s own and w i t h s t r a i n l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e surrounding space.

Figure 13
W E TWri MAGNZTIC FORCES ACT SIMULTANEOUSLY I N THR SPME REGION. The purpose HN o f showing t h e w e a t h e r v a n e , i n F i g u r e 1 4 , i s t o e x p l a i n by a s i m p l e comp a r i s o n w i t h two a i r c u r r e n t s what would happen if two i n d e p e n d e n t m a g n e t i c f i e l d s , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e same r e g i o n , a c t e d on e a c h o t h e r . Suppose we have t h e f o r c e of one a i r c u r r e n t , marked A , a c t i n g i n t h e d i r e c t t o n i n d i c a t e d by t h e a r r o w s , and a second a i r c u r r e n t , marked B, a c t i n g from some o t h e r d i rection. If t h e tvio c u r r e n t s meet a t a p l a c e where a weat,her vane i s e r e c t e d t h e vane w i l l move a b o u t and f i n a l l y come t o r e s t p o i n t i n g i n a d i r e c t i o n The f i n a l d i r e c t i o n d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r of t h e oncoming a i r c u r r e n t s . assumed by t h e vane iz a r e s u l t a n t e f f e c t of t h e two f o r c e s a c t i n g on e a c h If two m a g n e t i c f i e l d s a r e b r o u g h t o t h e r . So it i s w i t h m a g n e t i c f o r c e s . t o g e t h e r i n t h e same r e g i o n t h e f i e l d s w i l l be d i s t o r t e d and t h e f i n a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e m a g n e t i c l i n e s , o r t h e r e s u l t a n t f i e l d , w i l l be governed by t h e angle a t which t h e f i e l d s meet and t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of t h e f o r c e s acting.
RESUL T ANT DIRECTION OF
COMBINED WIND CURRENTS

D I R E C T I O N OF ONE WIND CURRENT\,

F i g u r e 14

when s u b j e c t e d t o r a p i d changes i n magnetism, r e p r e s e n t s one source of energy loss. T h e r e f o r e , i f we wholly o r p a r t i a l l y magnetize and demagnetize a p i e c e of i r o n s t e a d i l y f o r a given length of time, Which we can do by v a r i o u s means, the i r o n w i l l become war11 and under c e r t a i n conditions i t may even become very hot. The h e a t i s s a i d t o be due t o molecular f r i c t i o n between t h e i r o n p a r t i c l e s , and note t h a t a l l of t h i s happens d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t w can see nothing of e the i n v i s i b l e f o r c e s t h a t a r e a c t i n g . It i s obvious t h a t h e a t i s a waste of energy when i t i s not d e s i r e d , or when i t i s not put t o some u s e f u l purpose.

It i s more d i f f i c u l t and r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r magnetic i n f h e n c e t o a l t e r t h e m o l e c u l ~ rarrangement of s t e e l than i r o n , t h a t i s t o s a y , s t e e l n a t u r a l l y r e s i s t s being magnetized or demagnetized t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i r o n . The energy l o s s t h a t occurs i n i r o n o r s t e e l when s u b j e c t e ? t o r a p i d changes i n t h e i r molecular a r r a n g e m n t s i s c a l l e d " h y s t e r e s i s

".

RELUCTPXCl3 EXPLAINET) BY PLACING A BAR O SOFT I R O N B E T ' ~ ~ E ZTlidO STEEL MAGENTS. F I The opposition which a i r , o r i r o n , or any m a t e r i a l used i n a magnetic c i r c u i t p r e s e n t s t o magnetic f l u x i s c a l l e d " r e l u c t a n c e " . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n o i s spoken of w t h e case of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t the o p p o s i t i o as "resistance".

Figure 1 5

Figure 16

The r e l u c t a n c e of a i r i s about a thousand times as g r e a t a s t h e r e l u c t a n c e of o r d i n a r y i r o n . Because the r e l u c t a n c e of i r o n and s t e e l i s lower t h a n a i r exp3ains why l i n e s of f o r c e w i l l always t a k e an i r o n o r s t e e l p a t h i n p r e f e r e n c e t o an a i r path. Refer t o Figures 1 5 and 16 which show t h a t when a b a r of m a g n e t i z e d s o f t i r o n i s placed between two s t e e l magnets a g r e a t e r number of l i n e s of f o r c e w i l l be accomodated i n t h e i r o n and a s t r o n g e r f l u x w i l l be s e t yy: i n t h e magnetic c i r c u i t t h a n would be t h e case i f w e simply had an a i r space s e p a r a t i n g t h e two s t e e l magnets. The shape of t h e magnetic f i e l d s of t h e two magnets a r e normal when t h e i r o n b a r is removed, a s t h e drawing i n Figure 1 5 shows. However, when t h e i r o n i s i n s e r t e d between t h e magnets, a s i n t h e drawing i n Figure 16, t h e i r f i e l d s a r e d i s t o r t e d and t h e l i n e s seek t h e path t h r o u g h t h e i r o n r a t h e r than through t h e a i r . So long a s t h e i r o n b a r i s kept i n t h e presence of t h e s t e e l magnets t h e i r o n w i l l have magnetism induced i n it and t h e r e f o r e w i l l remain a magnet having "N1' and "3" poles of i t s own. The p o l a r i t y i s due t o t h e i r o n molecules being f o r c e d i n t o alignment, a c o n d i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t p i c t u r e d i n Figure 11. Note f o r one t h i n g how t h e magnetic c i r c u i t i n Figure 16 i s formed and, a l s o , t h a t t h e r e i s a t t r a c t i o n between t h e t h r e e b a r s s i n c e t h e i r u n l i k e p o l e s a r e n e a r each other. the three bars closer together shorter ourse, t h e r e l u c t a n c e of t h e complete m a d

:

ding17 w i t h the r e s u l t that more l i n e s of for.ce w l l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s increase the a t t r a c t i o n e x i s t i n g between t h e t h r e e bars and make t h e i r o n a stronger magnet. I f , on the o t h e r hand, the t h r e e bars are moved f a r t h e r t the reluctance Of t h e e n t i r e magnetic c i r c u i t w i l l be increased due t o wider a i r gaps w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t l e s s l i n e s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d , and e i r o n bar w i l l become a weaker magnet. I n order t o understand t h e reason f o r the r e s u l t s obtained i n Figures 1 5 and 16 i t i s only necessary t o bear i n mind t h a t a i r o f f e r s a n i n f i n i t e opposition t o t h e s e t t i n g up of magnetic l i n e s , whereas, i r o n n a t u r a l l y o f f e r s an e a s i e r path f o r l i n e s of f o r c e . This i s why i r o n i s a t t r a c t e d t o a megnet. The reluctance of a magnetic c i r c u i t i s dependent upon the following t h r e e f a c t o r s , namely: ( a ) t h e length of t h e complete magnetic path or c i r c u i t ; ( b ) the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area of the c i r c u i t ; and ( c ) the permeability of t h e c i r c u i t , which v a r i e s according t o the m a t e r i a l s used and the l e n g t h of any a i r gaps or spaces present through which l i n e s of f o r c e must pass.
RETENTIVITY PEP&iFABILITY. The term " r e t e n t i v i t y " i s used t o denote the power of substances t o r e t a i n or hold t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of magnetism imparted t o them. The ternLr e t e n t i v i t y should n o t be confused w i t h permeability, The term "permeability" expresses t h e q u a l i t y of a m a t e r i a l t h a t permits i t t o become s t r o n g l y magnetized, o r , i n o t h e r words i t i n d i c a t e s the ease w i t h which a magnetic substance can be magnetized i r r e s p e c t i v e of how long t h e substance may r e t a i n magnetic p r o p e r t i e s afterwards. A piece of hardened s t e e l r e s i s t s being magnetized, but a f t e r magnetism i s once induced i n t h e s t e e l it w i l l hold o r r e t a i n t h i s property f o r comparaIt r e q u i r e s a g r e a t magnetizing f o r c e (cdl l e d coercive t i v e l y long p r i o d s . f o r c e ) t o completely demagnetize a s t e e l magnet, t h a t i s t o say, t o r e t u r n i t s molecules t o such a p o s i t i o n o r arrangement t h a t t h e s t e e l w i l l no longer show e magnetic p r o p e r t i e s . So w f i n d t h a t molecules of s t e e l a r e not e a s i l y moved out of t h e i r a l i g n e d p o s i t i o n s a f t e r they once assume a c e r t a i n arrangement. For t h i s reason, s t e e l i s used i n the manufacture of ermanent magnets. A aermanent mamet should always be handled w i t h care; ff droppea o r subjected Eo shocks, j a r s , o r h e a t , it i s l i k e l y t o l o s e a considerable p a r t of i t s magnetism due t o the breaking up of the molecular alignment.

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O the other hand, s o f t i r o n i s used arfiere a temporary magnet i s required n because the molecules of this material w i l l arrange and re- arrange themselves m i t h r o m n n r n t i ve ease vibn laced fn and O a t of the influence of an outside be apparent t h a t s o f t i r o n a c t s as a magnet magnetic force. It should only a t such times as when a magnetizing f o r c e i s present. DENSITY. It stands t o reason t h a t f a r more p a r a l l e l rows of molecules can be packed i n t o a given mass of i r o n when molecules form e x a c t l y s t r a i g h t l i n e s an3 t h e l i n e s a r e very close together a s i n Figure 1% than i n t h e case where the 1 molecules a r e more or l e s s haphazard a d p a r t l y i n alignment as i n Figure 1 . The number of l i n e s t h a t can be crowded i n t o a given magnet determines i t s magnetic s t r e n g t h ; the number of l i n e s per u n i t area being known a s the d e n s i t g . The s t r a i n a t any point near a magnet i s i n d i c a t e d by the density of the l i n e s a t t h a t p o i n t . It then follows t h a t a magnetic f i e l d of high d e n s i t y possesses g r e a t s t r e n g t h and i s bapable of doing considerable work while a f i e l d of lower d e n s i t y w i l l be comparatively weaker. Lesson 4

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sheet 14

RESIDUAL MAGNETISM. If a n i r o n mass, a f t e r b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o a m a g n e t i z i n g i n f l u e n c e , i s removed from t h e e x c i t i n g f o r c e and t h e i r o n t h e n h o l d s a p e r c e p t i b l e amount of magnetism, t h e remaining magnet ism i s known as " r e s i d u a l ma g netism t1. It s i m p l y means t h a t t h e m o l e c u l e s d o n o t a l l move back i n t h e o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n s t h e y occupied b e f o r e m a g n e t i z a t i o n t o o k p l a c e , b u t a c e r t a i n number remain permanently $ixed i n m y e o r l e s s i r r e g u l a r l i n e s which produces a weak magnetism. Remanance i s a term u s e l when compering t h e t o t a l number o f l i n e s of f o r c e of r e s i d u a l magnetism remaining i n d i f ~ f e r e n t k i n d s of i r o n and s t e e l a f t e r t h e removal o f t h e m a g n e t i z i n g f o r c e . MAGNETIC SHIELD AIR AND SPACE MEDIUM. W d o n o t r e a l l y c o n s i d e r a i r a s e t h e space medium i n which m a g n e t i c l i n e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d around a magnet a l t h o u g h t h e t e r m air i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o d e n o t e t h i s empty r e g i o n . just what t h e medium i s h a s n e v e r b e e n a s c e r t a i n e d , b u t i t i s known t h s t it i s something o t h e r t h a n a i r . F o r i n s t a n c e , suppose we exhaust t h e a i r from a s e a l e d g l a s s chamber and suppose a compass o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n i n t h e v e r y c e n t e r of t h e vacuous s p i c e . I t would be found t h a t i f a s t e e l magnet was b r o u g h t n e a r t h e c h a n b e r t h e magnetic l i n e s emanating from t h e magnet would p e n e t r a t e through b o t h t h e g l a s s w a l l and t h e vacuum and c a u s e t h e compass needle t o d e f l e c t .

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It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e from t h i s t e s t t h a t n e i t h e r g l a s s n o r a vacnum w i l l a c t a s a s h i e l d t o block magnetism. I r o n i s used i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c a s e s where a magnetic s h i e l d i s d e s i r e d . The p r i n c i p l e of a n i r o n s h i e l d i s a s f o l l o w s : Magnetic l i n e s from some s o u r c e w i l l not p a s s d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h and o u t on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e of a n i r o n s h i e l d , b u t r a t h e r t h e f o r c e of t h e l i n e s a c t on t h e i r o n molecv.les t e n d i n g t o r e a r r a n g e them a n 6 make t h e s h i e l d i t s e l f a magnet. % h a t happens i s t h i s : t h e s b i e l d t a k e s up t h e magnetism end i n t h i s way s h u n t s t h e m a g n e t i c f o r c e s around t h e r e g i o n which 4s t o be p r o t e c t e d o r i s o l a t e d from magnetic e f f e c t s . Thus, when a s h i e l d i s enployed m s g n e t i c l i n e s c a n n o t s p e a d outward i n d e f i n i t e l y i n t o s p a c e , a s t h e l i n e s n a t u r a l l y would do o t h e r w i s e . The p r i n c i p l e e x p l a i n e d h e r e i s one of m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n , and i t h o l d s t r u e i n t h e c a s e of any magnetic f o r c e a c t i n g on i r o n which t e n d s t o make t h e i r o n a magnet.
EXAKINATION

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LESSON 4

Name t h r e e t y p e s o f magnets and draw a s i m p l e s k e t c h of each. What m a t e r i a l would you u s e t o make: ( a ) A permanent magnet? Why? ( b ) A t e m p o r a r y magnet? Why? Answer b r i e f l y : ( a ) What i s induced magnetism? ( b ) %,hat d o e s t h e t e r m "dens ity" mean? ( c ) a h a t d o e s t h e t e r m "flux" mean? ( d ) What i s a magnetic f i e l d ? Name s few o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i n e s o f f o r c e . E x p l a i n i n a few word? t h e meaning of e a c h of t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r n & : (a ) Pern~eability ( b ) r e t e n t i v i t y ( c ) reluctance ( d ) magt:etic s a t u r a t i o n ( e ) r e s i d u a l magnetism ( f ) h y s t e r e s i s . E x p l a i n t h e laws o f a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n . How c o u l d you e a s i l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s e laws t o someone? What i s t h e e f f e c t o f b r e a k i n g a s t e e l magnet b a r i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s ? What i s t h e m o l e c u l a r c o n d i t i o n i n an i r o n o r s t e e l b a r : ( a ) When d e m a g n e t i z e d ? ( b ) When m a g n e t i z e d ? ( c ) when s a t u r a t e d w i t h nagr.e t i sm? Draw a disgr,am o f t h e magnetic spectrum o f a h o r s e s h o e magnet. Why should a permanent mngnet be handled w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t c a r e ? Lesson 4

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Technical Lesson 5
ELECTROMAGNETISM

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ELECTROXAGEETIC I N D U C T I O N .

A FUW OF CUERERT PRODUCES MAGNETIC EFFECTS. The r u l e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t i n g t o magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e produced by a s t e e l magnet may be applied t o a l l cases where l i n e s of f o r c e a r e produced by an e l e c t r i c cur r e n t . Magnetic e f f e c t s a r e always s e t up i n the region surrounding a flow of current. A strean: of negative e l e c t r o n s moving from one place t o another through any path which a c t s a s a conducting medium i s considered t o be a flow of c u r r e n t ; t h i s i s i n accordance w i t h t h e " Electron ~ h e o r y " .Thus, a movement of e l e c t r o n s , o r c u r r e n t flow, through a conductor ( a wire f o r example ) s e t s up about t h a t c ductor magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e , f orniinff a magnetic whir 1 uhich begins a t t h e center of the wire and extenc's an i n f i n i t e d i s t a r c e outward i n t o space.

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EFFECT AROUND A STRAIGHT WIRE

EFFECT AROUND ONETURN OF WIRE

Figure 1

Figure 2

The magnetic f i e l d , o r w h i r l , can be d e t e c t e d e a s i l y by means of a magnetic compass, o r n i t h t h e aid of i r o n f i l i n g s , a s shown by the experiment i n Fi&u?e 1. It shows t h a t a w i r e of s u i t a b l e l e n g t h ( e i t h e r i n s u l a t e d o r bare w i r e ) i s t h - u s t v e r t i c a l l y through t h e c e n t e r of a sheet of cardboard upon which i s sprinkled a t h i n uniform l a y e r of s o f t i r o n f i l i n g s . The opposite ends of the wire a r e connected r e s p e c t i v e l y t o the p o s i t i v e ( + ) and negativf ( - ) terminals of a d r y c e l l which f w n i s h e s the electromotive force necess a r y t o send current through t h e wire. The d i r e c t i o n of c u r r e n t flow i s i n d i c a t e d by arrows. h ' i t c u r r e n t flowing t h e cardboard i s tapped l i g h t l y which causes the f i l i n g s t o move and arrance themselves i n concentric c i r c l e s each c i r c l e being a l i n e of f o r c e . O f course, the f i l i n g s cannot c l e a r l y n map out a l l of t h e l i n e s because of t h e i r v a s t numbers. A important f a c t onl i n e s of f o r c e e x e r t t h e i r e f f o r t i n a c e r t a i n t o be remembered i s t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n around the wire and a t r i g h t angles t o i t .

our experiment o f f e r s a convenient means f o r i n d i r e c t l y observing how t h e
passage of c u r r e n t through a wire s e t s up magnetic e f f e c t s . Although t h e s e w h i r l s of magnetic l i n e s e x i s t along t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h of t h e wire c h c u i t (whenever c u r r e n t f l o w s ) w a r e only v i s u a l i z i n g them a t one l o c a t i o n on t h e e

e . , a t the p o i n t where our cardboard i s placed. To prove t h a t t h e isn e x i s t s a l l along t h e wire move t h e cardboard up and down a t t h e ime observing t h e behavior of t h e f i l i n g s . The t o t a l number of l i n e s ~ r c l i n g h e wire i s an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e magnetic f i e l d s t r e n g t h , o r t s i t y , and i n t h i s c a s e i s c h i e f l y dependent upon t h e number of amperes of r e n t flowing. A c u r r e n t of low value w i l l produce a comparatively weak ' l e l d , whereas, a c u r r e n t of l a r g e r value w i l l produce a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g e r f i e l d . The magnetic l i n e s ( o r f l u x ) . around t h e wire have p r e c i s e l y every q u a l i t y possessed by l i n e s e x i s t i n g .about a s t e e l magnet. The l i n e s a c t upon t h e space medium about t h e wire t o p l a c e it under a s t r a i n a s any magnetic

N w l e t us o bend t h e s t r a i g h t w i r e i n Figure 1 i n t o a loop as i n Figure 2 , It i s seen t h a t t h e magnetic l i n e s a r e p r e s e n t but t h a t by forming a loop w have obe t a i n e d a c o n d i t i o n where the d i r e c t i o n of t h e l i n e s a r e a l l upward i n s i d e t h e loop and a l l downward o u t s i d e t h e loop. S t a t i n g t h i s i n a d i f f e r e n t way w coulz say t h a t a l l of t h e l i n e s s e t up by t h e c u r r e n t emerge from one end e of t h e loop, surround t h e loop and r e - e n t e r a t t h e o p p o s i t e end, with t h e r e s u l t t h a t a continuous magnetic f l u x e n c i r c l e s t h e s i n g l e t u r n of wire. Figure 3 shows t h e magnetic f l u x s e t up by c u r r e n t flowing through a c o i l . The magnetic w h i r l around each t u r n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s i n g l e t u r n i n Figure 2 but by t h e c o i l arrangement t h e l i n e s around one t u r n combine w i t h those o f an a d j a c e n t t u r n , and so on, throughout the l e n g t h of t h e c o i l . This r e s u l t s i n t h e l i n e s assuming a s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n around t h e c o i l and through t h e c n o t h a t i s , t h e y emerge a t one end and a f t e r continuing around t h e c o i l r e - e n t e r a t t h e opposite end. Thus, a c o i l can be made t o produce s t r o n g magnetic f e f f e c t s because t h e l f n e s s e t up by each O i t s t u r n s add up c o l l e c t i v e l y .
y u should now s e e from t h e drawing i n Figure 3 t h a t a c o i l througk, which o

THE MAGNETIC EFFECT ABOUT A " L O O P " OF WIRE INHEN CURRENT FLOVS.

c u r r e n t i s flowing i s s i m i l a r t o a s t e e l magnet i n s o f a r t h a t both produce a magnetic flux and, consequently, b o t h have "N" and 'IS" p o l e s a t t h e i r opposit ends. Since magnetic l i n e s of force always have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , reg a r d l e s s o f how t h e y a r e produced, t h e n any e f f e c t s o r work which a bar o r o t h e r type magnet i s capable of doing could l i k e w i s e be done by any s u i t a b l e c o i l of wire when c u r r e n t flows through i t s t u r n s , The following important f a c t s concerning a c u r r e n t - c a r r y i n g c o i l should be remembered: (1)The c u r r e n t produces a magnetic f l u x ; ( 2 ) t h e c o i l has d e f i n i t e "N" and "s" p o l e s ; ( 3 ) t h e end of t h e c o i l from which t h e l i n e s of f o r c e leave i s t h e "N" pole and the o p p o s i t e end where t h e y r e - e n t e r i s t h e "S" pole.

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Lesson 5

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d i r e c t i o n of t h e l i n e s a s t h e y e n c i r c l e it a t right anglesucan be ly understood by t h e s t u d e n t a f t e r examining t h e diagram i n Figure 4 and l y i n g t h e following right -hand thumb r u l e :
FIRST RIGHT-H4ND THUMB RULE: If a conductor i s grasped w i t h t h e r i g h t hand, w i t h t h e thumb p o m t i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t flow the

~.

f i n g e r s w i l l e n c i r c l e the wire i n a d i r e c t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t taken by I n o t h e r words, t h e f i n g e r s coincide w i t h t h e the l i n e s of f o r c e . d i r e c t i o n of tension which tk.a l i n e s s e t up i n space.

Figure 4 ~y placing a compass f i r s t above and t h e n below a wire when c u r r e n t i s flowi n g t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f o r c e 1j.nes can be determined s i n c e they e x i s t ent i r e l y around t h e wire i n c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . W have shown i n Figure 4 how e t h e compass needle p o i n t s i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n when it occupies a p o s i t i o n over t h e wire, b u t , when under t h e w i r e , the needle p o i n t s i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n . If we were t o r e v e r s e t h e connections a t t h e d r y c e l l and cause c u r r e n t t o flow through the wire i n a n opposite d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t shown by t h e arrows t h e compass needle would i n d i c a t e t h i s change since it would p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n s j u s t t h e c o n t r a r y t o t h o s e i n d i c a t e d f o r p o s i t i o n s above and below the wire d u r i n g t h e o r i g f n a l connection. The drawings i n Figures 5 and 6 a r e almost self- explanatory. Figure 5 shows t h e end view of a w i r e with t h e c u r r e n t flowing through it i n a d i r e c t i o n away from t h e r e a d e r ( i n d i c a t e d by a c r o s s ) and the l i n e s of f o r c e a r e i n a clockwise d i r e c k i o n about t h e wire. Fjgure 6 shows t h e s a w wire w i t h t h e c u r r e n t reversed and flowing toward the r e a d e r ( i n d i c a t e d by a heavy d o t ) and t h e l i n e s a r e i n a counter- clockwise d i r e c t i o n about t h e w i r e . Figure 3 i l l u s t r a t e s a c o i l w i t h a cut-away s e c t i o n p e r m i t t i n g you t o r e a d i l y visua l i z e t h e magnetic e f f e c t s around each t u r n and the t o t a l f l u x i n alid around a c o i l when c u r r e n t flows, a s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. The a t t r a c t i o n between t h e magnetic f i e l d s s e t by two p a r a l l e l w i r e s when t h e c u r r e n t flows through e a c h one i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n i s shown i n Figure 7. The r e p u l s i o n between two such f i e l d s when c u r r e n t flows i n each w i r e i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s i s shown i n Figure 8. Lesson 5

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sheet 3

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T IG D A - 5 Grasp t h e c o i l with t h e r i g h t hand, place t h e f i n g e r s p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e t u r n s , p o i n t them i n the d i r e c t i o n of' t h e c u r r e n t flow and t h e thumb w i l l p o i n t toward t h e "N" pole of t h e c o i l .
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M AGNE T I C WHI RLS
ARE CLOCKWISE WISE &ROUND THE WIRE

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Figure 5

Figure 6

SOLENOID HELIX. If a c o i l c o n s i s t s of but a few t u r n s of wire it i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d a h e l i x (meaning s p i r a l shaped) b u t a c o i l wound w i t h a conI n o r d i n a r y cons i d e r a b l e number of t u r n s i s more o f t e n c a l l e d a solenoid. v e r s a t i o n c o i l s a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o a s "windings".

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Figure 7

Figure 8

1
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A I R CORE AND m N CORE. When t h e i n s i d e of any c o i l c o n s i s t s merely of an O a i r space t h e c o i l i s s a i d t o have a n a i r c o r e , l i k e t h e one i n Figure 9. But, if w i n s e r t a b a r of s o f t i r o n i n t o t h e c o i l t o f i l l t h e a i r space, e a s i n Figure 10, the c o i l i s t h e n s a i d II t o have an i r o n core and the whole u n i t i s given t h e name "electromagnet.

The magnetizing e f f e c t of a s o l e n o i d , o r t h e number of l i n e s of f o r c e produced by a . g i v e n . solenoid, a r e e x p r e s s i o n s mhich mean p r a c t i c a l l y the same thing. The number of l i n e s depend mainly upon two Lesson 5

MEANING O "ABUTRE-TURNS". F

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o r s , nanely: (1 t h e value of t h e current i n amperes flowing through a i n g and ( 2 ) t h e number of t u r n s of wire comprising a winding. Hence, t h e mn II ampere-turns" r e p r e s e n t s t h e product of t h e number of t u r n s of wire on c o i l a& the number of amperes flowina i n each t u r n . we can s e t down t h i s r e l a t i o n f o r ampere-turns a formula, thus:

in

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AMPERETURNS = NUMBER O TURNS x AMPERES F According t o t h i s formula a c u r r e n t Of 0.2 amperes flowing through a c o i l c o n s i s t i n g of 500 t u r n s w i l l produce e x a c t l y t h e same amount of magnetic s t r e n g t h as w i l l a c u r r e n t , of 20 amperes flowing through a s i m i l a r l y formed c o i l Sut which has only 5 t u r n s . I n b o t h cases w have 100 ampe~e-turns e

.

Figure 9

Figure 1 0 '

ELECTROMAGNET. When c u r r e n t flows through t h e windings of an electromagnet t h e i r o n used i n the c o r e becomes magnetized by i n d u c t i o n t h e same as would any mass of i r o n i f brought i n t o the presence of a magnetizing force. When t h e i r o n molecules a r e arranged i n p a r a l l e l rows t h e i r o n c o r e i t s e l f s e t s up i t s own f o r c e l i n e s and t h e l a t t e r are added t o the l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e c o i l . Thus, i n any electromagnet t h e magnetic f i e l d s t r e n g t h i s t h e sum of t h e l i n e s s e t up by the i r o n core and those s e t up by the c o i l . By employing an i r o n c o r e , a s i n Figure 10, t h e magpetic f l u x s e t up around a p a r t i c u l a r c o i l by a c e r t a i n c u r r e n t i s m u l t i p l i e d many times over t h a t of a s i m i l a r c o i l with an a i r core. When i r o n i s used and t h e i r o n protrudes beyond t h e ends of t h e coi? it w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t most of t h e l i n e s pass e n t i r e l y through t h e i r o n before t h e y emerge from t h e i r o n and a c t on t h e surrounding space medium. However, i n t h e case of a c o i l w i t h an a i r c o r e the l i n e s begin t o spread out i n t o space a t the opposite ends of t h e c o i l i t s e l f , or where t h e t u r n s end. This i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i r o n h a s a h i g h e r p e r m e a b i l i t y t h a n a i r . See Figures 9 and 10. An example of how powerful an electromagnet can be made i s g i v e n i n the drawi n g i n Figure 1 showing a modern l i f t i n g magnet moving l a r g e pieces of i r o n . 1 The l e r g e p i e c e s of i r o n a r e l i f t e d by means of t h e s t r o n g magnetism produced when a very high c u r r e n t , perhaps 50 amperes o r more, flows through c o i l s c o n s i s t i n g of a few thousand t u r n s . A magnet of t h i s kind o f t e n weighs over 5000 l b s . i t s e l f , h a s over 100,000 ampere-turns, and i s capable of l i f t i n g i r o n pieces weighing thousands of pounds. B y d i s c o n t i n u i n g t h e c u r r e n t i n sheet 5 Lesson 5

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e of how the p r o p e r t i e s of an electromagnet a r e u t i l i z e d t o a c t u a t e an n armature which produces c l i c k s t h a t may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t o the chare r s forming t h e t e l e g r a p h code. Keep i n mind t h a t the s t r e n g t h of a n electromagnet or any c u r r e n t carrying c o i l depends mainly upon i t s a m p e r e - t m . MAGNETONOTIVE FORGE. (Abbreviated m.m.f. ) T h i s i s the name given t o t h e unseen f o r c e which i s accountable f o r t h e s e t t i n g uu of maanetic f l u x i n a magnetic c i r c u i t . This force i s necessary before magnet is& can be e s t a b l i s h e d i n j u s t t h e same way t h a t electromotive f o r c e i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e c u r r e n t w i l l flow i n an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t . There i s a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n between f l u x and magnetomot i v e f o r c e . For example, when i r o n i s magnetized and demagnetized p a r t of t h e work necessary t o arrange t h e molecules is converted i n t o h e a t , due t o molecular f r i c t i o n . The movement of the molecules, however, l a g s behind t h e f o r c e i n e i t h e r case. This l a g of molecular arrangement i s known a s " h y s t e r e s i s " . It i s always present i n i r o n when used i n any c i r c u i t where t h e c u r r e n t v a r i e s continuously a s i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t .

i l s the magnetism drops out of the l i f t i n g magnet and t h e i r o n pieces t o m a t i c a l l y r e l e a s e d . The t e l e g r a p h sourder i n Figure 1 2 i s another ex-

-

Figure 1 2

Figure 1 1 S M A Y The important f a c t s t o be remembered from t h e s u b j e c t of " ElectroU MR, magnetism, " besides t h e two "right- hand thumb r u l e s n , a r e a s follows:
(1)A magnetic f i e l d i s always e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e region around a wire

c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t of e l e c t r i c i t y .
( 2 ) When c u r r e n t passes through a c o i l of w i r e e a c h t u r n produces l i n e s .

Those l i n e s extending f u r t h e r out from a given t u r n combine with t h e l i n e s of neighboring t u r n s t o s e t u p a magnetic f l u x e n c i r c l i n g t h e e n t i r e c o i l . This e f f e c t i s c l e a r l y shown i n Figures 3 and 7. (3) A c o i l carrying current exhibits " N " %'' poles a t i t s opposite ends, since a magnetic f i e l d i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e surrounding space. ( 4 ) Both a bar magnet end a c o i l through which c u r r e n t is passing produce s i m i l a r magnetic e f f e c t s . ELFCTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION. Electromotive. Force and Current Induced i n Wires by Lines of Magnetic Force.

W learned i n the e a r l i e r p a r t of t h i s l e s s o n t h a t fin e l e c t r i c current move
Lesson 5

-

- sheet

6

a wire, o r any conductor, s e t s up a magnetic f i e l d surrounding t h e a l s o , the l i n e s of f o r c e comprising t h e f i e l d r e a c h out a considerstance i n t o space. The e x t e n t o r magnitude ( c a l l e d d e n s i t y ) of t h e bout a c u r r e n t - c a r r y i ~ gwire depends mainly upon the s t r e n g t h of the

,

a g n e t i c c i r c u i t , i , e . , whether-it be a l l a i r o r p a r t l y iron. o t h e r f a c t s t out were t h a t if a conductor i s wound i n t h e form of a c o i l ( h e l i x e n o i d ) it produces a magnetic f i e l d s i m i l a r t o t h a t of a permanent bar gnet when c u r r e n t passes through t h e t u r n s of t h e c o i l and t h a t the c o i l 1 e x h i b i t n o r t h and south poles a t i t s opposite ends according t o t h e 1 e r e c t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e t u r n s . W w i l l r e p e a t e d l y make use of t h e s e e a c t s throughout our present d i s c u s s i o n . However, w must now become f a m i l i a r with ~ r i n c i w l e swhich a r e the converse o f the above s t a t e m e n t s . t h a t i s . =netic l i n e s of f o r c e are capable of producing a movement o f ' e l e c t r i c ~ c u r r e n t i n conductors under c e r t a i n conditions.
T t was Michael Faraday who made t h i s discovery which i s one of the most i m ~ o r t a n ti n a l l r a d i o and e l e c t r i c a l science because from t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s have sprung many forms of r a d i o and power apparatus, such a s generators, transformers, and so on. He n o t i c e ? during one of h i s e x p e r i me - ts ...- -n- - t h a t when a conductor was moved through a maanetic f i e l d i n such a wav t h a t it cut across t h e l i n e s of f o r c e an e l g c t r i c a i pressure ( e .m:f. ) wouldWbe s e t up along t h e conductor, i .e , induced i n t h e conduct or. That an e .m. f o r a 7 n c t r i c charge was made a v a i l a b l e was wroved by a t t a c h i n a the conductor t o - -. . t h e gold l e a v s s of an e l e c t r o s c o p e and observing t h e movement of t h e leaves while the conductor was being moved. H a l s o observed t h a t i f a conductor e i n which an e.m.f. was induced formed p a r t of a closed e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t t h e induced e .m.f. would cause a movement of current through t h e e n t i r e c i r c u i t . "Induced e.rn.fW i s o f t e n c a l l e d "induce3 voltage". Let u s e x p l a i n i n regard t o the l a t t e r statements t h a t a n e.m.f. i s induced i n an open conductor ( t h i s mefins a conductor whose ends a r e l e f t f r e e or disconnected) when a c t e d upon - . ..-. by l i n e s of magnetic f o r c e , whereas, an e.m.f. and c u r r e n t -a r e induced -a closed conductor under s i m i l a r conditions. .When d i s c u s s i n g t h e a c t i o n occurring i n a close,l conductor w r e f e r sometimes only t o the induce? c u r r e n t , keeping e i n mind, however, t h a t w must f i r s t have the inducecl-electromotive f o r c e e

.

.

-~

in

.

Among s e v e r a l e f f e c t s observed by Faraday one was t h a t i f a conductor, a f t e r being placed i n a magnetic f i e l d , remained a t r e s t ( t h a t i s , t h e conductor was not moved w i t h r e s p e c t t o the l i n e s of f o r c e ) no induced e.m.f. could be obtained. Nor could an induced e.m.f. be obtained i f the conductor was moved i n t h e magnetic f i e l d i n such a way t h a t i t s d i r e c t i o n of motion was p a r a l l e l t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l i n e s of f o r c e . I n o t h e r words, i n t h e l a t t e r motion t h e conductor would not cut o r pass through t h e f i e l d , i t would merely t r a v e l along and coinpide with t h e d i r e c t i o n of the l i n e s , , But, he found t h a t i f a conductor remained i n a s t a t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n and the magnetic l i n e s were made t o move so t h a t they passed through or cut a c r o s s t h e conductor an e.m,f. would be induced i n the wire under such d n d i t i o n s . Notice p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t i n a l l cases involving induced e .m.f. and c u r r e n t w e have t o consider t h e r e l a t i v e motion of t h e conductor and t h e magnetic l i n e s s i n c e e i t h e r may remain s t a t i o n a r y . That i s , we must take i n t o account the following conditions, namely: (1)Whether a conductor i s moved through a s t a t i o n a r y f i e l d , o r ( 2 ) Whether magnetic l i n e s move p a s t o r cut a c r o s s a s t a t i o n a r y conductor. Lesson 5

- sheet 7

s f o r 3 the b a s i s of t h e study of

" E l s c t r o n n g n e t i c In-

t i s always p r e s e n t i n t h e s p a c e where a m a g n e t i c f i e l d e x i s t s .

t a i n e d from t h e u s e of a permanent magnet, a s i n F i g w e 13, o r from a n romagnet, a s i n F i g u r e 14. I n our p r a c t i c a l work we f i n d c o i l s of b o t h g a i r - , c o r e and i r o n - c o r e t y p e i n use. The d e s i g n of a c o i l i s governed b y s p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n i n t h e c i r c u i t . W do know, however, t h a t when i r o n e used f o r t h e c o r e m a t e r i a l i t s e t s up a magnetic f l u x which i s hundreds t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from a g i v e n c o i l when o p e r a t e d w i t h n l y an a i r c o r e .

-INDUCED CURRENT

DIRECTION OF

F i g u r e 13

Figure 14

I n t h e experiment i n Fi,we 1 4 the induced e .m.f. 1s and c u r r e n t s f o r movements of t h e l o o p of wire w i l l be d e t e c t e d b y t h e d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e p o i n t e r o f a s e n s i t i v e g a l v a n o m e t e r . B e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g w i t h our s u b j e c t l e t us f i r s t g i v e a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . It c o n s i s t s of a s m a l l movable c o i l c a r r y i n g a p o i n t e r , t h e c o i l b e i n g mounted on a b e a r i n g and p l a c e d i n t h e magnetic f i e l d of a h o r s e s h o e t y p e magnet, and it o p e r a t e s on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a p a s s a g e o f c u r r e n t t h r o u g h t h e c o i l c a u s e s it t o r o t a t e , one way o r t h e o t h e r , d u e t o t h e f o r c e o f t h e magnetism s e t up b y t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e c o i l a c t i n g upon t h e f o r c e o f t h e magnetisr- of t h e magnet. A s p r i n g h o l d s t h e c o i l and p o i n t e r i n a z e r o , o r c e n t e r p o s i t i o n . The p o i n t e r w i l l move r i g h t o r l e f t of t h e z e r o mark a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t s u p p l i e d t o t h e c o i l t h r o u g h t h e c o n n e c t i o n s a t t h e two b i n d i n g p o s t s on t h e t o p of t h e m e t e r c a s e . The amount of t h e p o i n t e r d e f l e c t i o n i s t a k e n as t h e measure of t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c u r r e n t i n d u c e d i n t h e c i r c u i t when t h e l o o p of w i r e moves a c r o s s t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a s i l l u s t r a t e d . I f t h e l o o p i s s u d d e n l y moved v e r t i L e t u s now p r o c e e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t . c a l l y downward a d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e g a l v a n o m e t e r p o i n t e r w i l l b e s e e n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c u r r e n t momentarily f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e c l o s e d c i r c u i t c o n s i s t i n g of t h e l o o p , t h e c o i l i n t h e g a l v a n o m e t e r , and t h e c o n n e c t i n g w i r e s . The p o i n t e r w i l l move a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e a c r o s s t h e s c a l e and i m m e d i a t e l y d r o p back t o i t s n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n of r e s t . ASSUme t h a t t h e p o i n t e r moves t o t h e r i g h t . If t h e l o o p i s s u d d e n l y moved upnrard t h e p o i n t e r w i l l m o m e n t a r i l x d e f l e c t i n Lesson 5

- sheet

8

$&ion o p p o s i t e t o i i s f i r s t movement a n d , a c c o r d i n g l y , i t w i l l move a g a i n d i s t a n c e a c r o s s t h e s c a l e t o t h e l e f t o f z e r o . It i s e v i d e n t t h a t when : ' l o o p s t o p s c u t t i n g t h e l i n e s t h e induced c u r r e n t d i e s o u t . Bear i n mind t h e induced. e l e c t r o m o t i v e i s g e n e r a t e d o n l y momentaril& o r w h i l e t h e u c t o r i s a c t u a l l y moving and c u t t i n g l i n e s . galvanometer r e a d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n d u c e d c u r r e n t i n t h e loop a l a t e s ;i8ith e a c h r e v e r s a l of i t s movement t h r o u g h t h e f i e l d . If t h e l o o p Ove? q u i c k l y a c r o s s t h e l i n e s a h i g h e r d e f l e c t i o n w i l l be r e a d on t h e anometer t h a n i f o n l y moved slowly. Also, i f i n s t e a d o f moving t h e l o o p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l j - n e s w e now move it f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t , r i g h t t o l e f t , e i t h e r way ( t h a t i s , p a r a l l e l t o t h e d - i r e c t i o n of t h e l i n e s ) l i n e s w i l l b e c u t a n d , t h e r e f o r e , no e.m.f. o r c u r r e n t w i l l be o b t a i n e d . P . r s o n performing a n e x p e r i m e n t of t h i s k i n d c o u l d e a s i l y move t h e l o o p up nd down s o r a p i d l y t h a t t h e p o i n t e r , due t o i t s w e i g h t , c o u l d n o t f o l l o w t h e a r i a t i o n s o r r e v e r s a l s o f t h e induced c u r r e n t and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e p o i n t e r ould remain a t z e r o , o r p o s s i b l y it might make a s l i g h t q u i v e r i n g motion vithout giving any d e f i n i t e reading.
,

DIRECTION OF FLUX'.

. .

DIRECTION OF (INDUCED CURRENT

UPWfiRO FLUX-.,

MOTION

GPLVANOMETER

F i g u r e 15

F i g u r e 16

There a r e two more i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s t o be mentioned i n r e g a r d t o F i g u r e s 13 and 14. If t h e l o o p i s h e l d s t a t i o n a r y a n d e i t h e r t h e magnet o r e l e c t r o magnet i s moved u p and down s o t h ~ t h e l i n e s a r e made t o c u t through t h e l o o 2 t h e same r e s u l t s w i l l b e o b t a i n e d a s f o r c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d i r , t h e f o r e g o i n g --- - p a r a g r a p h s where t h e l o o p i s made t o c u t t h r o u g h t h e l i n e s . And i f t h e magn e t i c f i e l d s were r e v e r s e d , w i t h "N" t o t h e r i g h t and "S" t o t h e l e f t , t h e i n d u c e d p r e s s u r e s would t h e n be s e t up i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e same motions of t h e loop r e l a t i v e t o t h e f i e l d . Flemingls F c l e f o r D e t e r m i n i n g t h e D i r e c t i o n o f Induced 3.M.F. i n a Conductor, e x p l a i n t h e r u l e it i s b e s t t o perform t h e e x p e r i m e n t s i n F i g u r e s 1 5 and 1 6 w i t h a s t r a i g h t c o p p e r r o d . It i s e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n d u c t i v e e f f e c t s n - - ua i n a rod a@ t h e n l a t e r you can a p p l y t h e same r u l e t o any n u i b e r o f -et c o n d u c t o r s , o r t u r n s of w i r e . A - g a l v a n o m e t e r i s a g a i n used t o i n d i c a t e t h e s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of t h e i n d ~ c e dc u r r e n t , t h e i n s t r u m e n t b e i n g shown connected t o t h e e n d s o f rod AB.
TO
A

-

The laws r e l a t i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e e.m.f. induced i n a c - n d u c t o r when i t c u t s t h r o u g h a magnetic f i e l d must be l e a r n e d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s of t h e e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t o r , which w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n one of our. Lesson 5

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sheet 9

e (1). I f r o d AB i s moved down a c r o s s t h e rnsgnetic f l u x , a s i n F i g u r e 15, i n d u c e 3 p r e s s u r e i n AB w i l l . b e m-d%tion from R t o A . a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e a r r o w - i n t h e r o d . T h i s e.m.f. sends c u r r e n t t h r o u g h t h e r o d and t h e galvanometer c o i l a d , t h u s , a momentary d e f l e c t i o r , of t h e p o i n t e r i s seen. L e t u s assume t h a t t h e pointermoves t o t h e r i g h t o f zero and drops back i m e d i a t e l g . Case ( 2 ) . l?ow. if r U B i s moved up a c r o s s t h e f l u x , a s i n F i g u r e 1 6 , t h e induced e.m.f. w i l l be s e t u p i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , o r from A t o B, a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a r r o w drawn i n t h e r o d . T h i s r e v e r s a l o f induced p r e s s u r e w i t h a r e v e r s e d movement o f t h e r o d sends c u r r e n t t h r o u g h t h e ro? and g a l v z n o m e t e r c o i l i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t o b t a i n e d d u r i n g the down movement as i n c a s e (1)above. D u r i n g t h e up movement o f t h e r o d t h e p o i n t e r w i l l d e f l e c t momentarily t o t h e l e f t and r e t u r n t o z e r o .

F i g u r e 17 Hence, we f i n d t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e induced e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e depends upon t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e s of f o r c e and t h e d i r e c t i o n of motion of t h e c o n d u c t o r with r e s p e c t t o t h e l i n e s . An e a s y way f o r rernenbering t h e s e r e l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o f i n d t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e ind-uced e.m.f. i s t o a p p l y a r u l e , known a s F l e m i n g ' s Right-IIand Rule 9 a s shown i n t h e d i a . gram i n F i g u r e 1 6 and e x p l a i n e d a s f o l l o w s : With t h e THUMB, FOREFIICGm, and MIDDLE FINGER of t h e r i g h t hand a l l h e l d a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o one a n o t h e r , l e t t h e THUMB p o i n t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m o t i o n , t h e FOREFIXGER i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e l i n e s o f f o r c e , anr: t h e MIDnLE FINGER w i l l p o i n t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e indv-ced e.m.f. C a r e f u l l y examine t h e h m d s i n t h e diagram i n F i g u r e 1 7 which c l e a r l y show t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of F l e m i n g ' s r u l e t o t h e e f f e c t s s e t up i n a r e c t a n g u l a r Lesson 5

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sheet 10

r e a d e r on t h e r i g h t s i d e of the loop and toward t h e r e a d e r on t h e l e f t side.

I

~t w i l l be noticed t h a t whenever t h e rod i s moved i n a v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n a c r o s s t h e l i n e s , e i t h e r up o r down, the galvanometer p o i n t e r sill d e f l e c t a

FL U X

A CIRCUIT

E X P A N D ~ N G &T T H E " M K E " O F A S C U R R E N T RISES.

FLUX C O L L A P S I N G &T T H E "BREaK" OF A C l R C U l T AS C U R R E N T DECI(EA5ES.

Figure 18 c e r t a i n amount f i r s t t o one s i d e and then t o t h e opposite s i d e of zero. If t h e rod were moved a c r o s s t h e l i n e s i n such a way t h a t it followed a diagonal p a t h then l e s s e r amounts of c u r r e n t would be obtained a s indicclted by small d e f l e c t i o n s of t h e p o i n t e r , providing, of course, t h a t f o r a l l cases the same r a t e of movement of t h e r o d i s maintained. O r , i f t h e r o d i s moved p a r a l l e l t o t h e l i n e s and, t h e r e f o r e , does not c u t through t h e l i n e s , no induced curr e n t w i l l be obtained nor w i l l any d e f l e c t i o n of the p o i n t e r be observed. The f a c t s just mentioned e x p l a i n , i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s u l t s t o be expected f o r various chzrges i n the p a t h which a conductor could be made t o take across a magnetic f i e l d . When a C i r a i t is " ~ l o s e d "and 1)Opened" the Current does n o t Rise from a Zero t o Maximum Value I n s t a n t l y Nor does the Current F a l l f r o m ~ a x i m u mt o Zero A Short I n t e r v a l of Time i s Required f o r t h e s e Changes t o Occur. Instantly The purpose of the s e v e r a l views i n Figure 18 i s t o i l l u s t r a t e p i c t o r i a l l y t h r e e conditions, namely: (1)ROW c u r r e n t g r a d u a l l y r i s e s i n s t r e n g t h on the "make" o r c l o s i n g of a c i r c u i t by throwing a switch (views A and B ) . ( 2 ) HOW t h e current flows a t a s t e a d y value a n i n s t a n t o r two a f t e r a c i r c u i t i s closed and does n o t vary i n i n t e n s i t y if t h e c i r c u i t remains closed, provided the c i r c u i t conditions remain unchanged (view C). ( 3 ) How t h e c u r r e n t g r a d u a l l y dec r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h from i t s s t e a d y value and drops t o zero, on t h e "break" o r opening of a c i r c u i t by p u l l i n g a switch (views D and E ) .

-

-

Since every change i n c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h w i l l produce a corresponding change i n t h e number of l i n e s of f o r c e produced by t h e c u r r e n t t h e n we can assume t h a t while current flows t h r o u g h a w i r e , and p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s e s i n value, b t h e l i n e s of f o ~ c e u i l d up and expand outward i n t o space f o r some d i s t a n c e . Lesson 5

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sheet 1 1

t h e c u r r e n t f l o w becomes s t e a d y or consta eg do not vary i n numbe-, o r d e n s i t y . A " constant current'" i s an arying c u r r e n t . When current i n a wire p r o g r e s s i v e l y decreases t h e l i n e s g r a d u a l l y diminish i n number, c o n t r a c t back on t h e wire and, f i n a l l y , when t h e c u r r e n t ceases t o flow the l i n e s disappear e n t i r e l y . ~ h u s ,from Figure 18, we l e a r n t h a t on the "make" and I' break" of a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t t h e r i s e and f a l l i n the i n t e n s i t y of the c u r r e n t c s u s e s a corresponding change i n t h e magnitude of t h e magnetic f i e l d and, a l s o , t h a t t h e changes i n c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h and v a r i a t i o n s i n f l u x s t r e n g t h a r e only momentarg. H w an E.K.F. i s Induced i n a Secordary C i r c u i t by Variations of t h e Magnetic o Flux s e t up by a Lhanging CUrrent i n t h e Primarx. The p r i n c i p l e s a l r e a d y explained r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e t t i n g up of a current i n a conductor by causing a f l u x t o cut across it w i l l a g a i n be used, but t h i s time t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be obtained without moving e i t h e r one o f the wires. The c i r c u i t arrangement i s shown i n Figures 1 9 and 20.
OlRECTlON OF ,GALVANOMETER MAGNETIC LINES SET UP BY INDUCED CURRENT MAGNETIC LINES CONTPJlCTlNG DURING THE FALL IN PRIMARY CURRENT:

M A G N E T I C LINES

PRIMARY

CIRCUIT

A C T I O N D U R I N G T H E "MAKE"OF THE PRIMARY

ACTION D U R I N G THE

"BREAV OF THE PRIMARY

Figure 1 9

Figure 20

Figure 19 shows t h e a c t i o n d u r i n g th3 "make" of the primary. A t t h i s i n s t a n t t h e c u r r e n t begins t o r i s e and t h e l i n e s O force i t produces a l s o i n c r e a s e f i n nunbers and i n another i n s t a n t t h e y w i l l have reached out s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r t o cut through t h e seccndary conductor. T h i s e f f e c t of t h e primary on t h e secondary induces an e.m.f. i n t h e seconclary i n t h e d i r e c t i o n designated by t h e arrows, and the l i n e s s e t up by the momentary flow of c u r r e n t a r e shown a s small magnetic w h i r l s along t h e gecondary. Figure 20 shows t h e a c t i o n d u r i n g t h e "break of t h e primary. A t t h i s i n s t a n t t h e primary c u r r e n t begins t o f a l l and t h e l i n e s , a s t h e y contract and fall back on t h e primary, cut through the secondary conductor? i n a d i r e c t i o n opposite t o t h e i r movement d u r i n g t h e "make" of t h e primary. The c u t t i n g a c t i o n o f t h e l i n e s t h i s time induces an e.m.f. i n t h e secondary i n the oppos i t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e previous induction. This change i n d i r e c t i o n i s denoted by arrows. Observe t h c l t t h e secondary e.m.f. and primmy e.n.f. are now i n the same d i r e c t i o n , and a l s o t h a t t h e magnetic w h i r l s assume s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n The above two a c t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e t h e f a c t t h a t the secondary opposes the i n duction. of c u r r e n t i n i t by t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t i t s l i n e s t a k e when compared t o t h e primary's f i e l d , and t h e secondary a l s o opposesof the Lesson 5
It

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12

I

opposed and i n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e t h e y a i d each o t h e r .

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The e f f e c t of magnetic l i n e s expanding and c o n t r a c t i n g f o r i n c r e a s e s and dec r e a s e s i n c u r r e n t through one c i r c u i t i s made use of t o produce an e . . f . m and c u r r e n t i n some o t h e r c i r c u i t . Both c i r c u i t s , or t h e i r p a r t s , altho-ugh u s u a l l y independent a r e i n c l o s e mechanical r e l a t i o n s h i p , i .e , coupled t o each o t h e r but w i t h no p h y s i c a l connection between them. S t a t e d i n a few words t h e p r i n c i p l e i s simply one where a changing magnetic f l u x s e t up by t h e conductors of one c i r c u i t reach o u t and l i n k through, or c u t through, t h e conductors of a neighboring c i r c u i t . Coils a r e employed t o provide t h i s coupling between two such c i r c u i t s s o t h a t t h e proper magnetic e f f e c t s w i l l be s e t up by one c i r c u i t and the d e s i r e d amount of voltage w i l l be a v a l i a b l e from t h e o t h e r c i r c u i t . This p r i n c i p l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i . t h e diagrams i n r Fi&ures19 and 20. This i s one method f o r g e n e r a t i n g a n e . m . f . by e l e c t r o magnetic i n d u c t i o n without the n e c e s s i t y of moving wires of c o i l s , a s w e have h e r e t o f o r e been doing i n our experiments.

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L,aw R e l a t i n g t o t h e Amount of Induced E 3 . F . Suppose i n F i g u r e 16 t h a t t h e magnetic f l u c o n s i s t s of 100,000,000 l i n e s of f o r c e . It would be foynd t h a t i f rod AB was made t o c u t t h e s e ~00,000,000 l i n e s i n e x a c t l y one second, t h e p r e s s u r e s e t up along t h e rod ( t h a t i s , between i t s o p p o s i t e ends, ox between A and B) would be one v o l t . This r e l a t i o n between t h e anount of t h e induced e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e measured i n v o l t s , t h e s t r e n g t h o r d e n s i t y of t h e f l u x , and tb r a t e of c u t t i n g t h e l i n e s should be l e a r n e d .

L O N G & I R G AP BE TWEE N POLES DECREASES FLUX

SHORT A l R G b P BETWEEN

SFRIFS MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.

POLES INCREASES

FLUX

PARlhLLEL MAGNETIC CIRCUIT FORMED BY A SOLID I R O N FRAME & N O AIR GAP.

Figure 21

I

All. of t h e following c o n d i t i o n s have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h e mount of t h e pressure induced i n a conductor whan c u t t i n g , o r being c u t , by l i n e s of f o r c e :
( A ) The s t r e n g t h or d e n s i t y (number of l i n e s p e r u n i t area) of magneti

f l u x a t t h e p o i n t w k r e t h e conductor i s a c t i n g a t any i n s t , a n

(B) The number of t u r n s i n t h e c o i l or l e n g t h of t h e conductor ac
being a c t e d upon by t h e l i n e s . ( G ) The angle which t h e conductor makes w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n o a s determined by t h e path t h r o u g h which t h e conductor m o cuts across the l i n e s . ( D ) Rate of motion, or t h e number of l i n e s c u t p e r seco

i n F i g u r e 21 each have a more e f f i c i e n t form of m a g n e t i c c i r c u i t t h a n t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t a t t h e l e f t b e c a u s e t h e l e n g t h of t h e a i r gap t h r o u g h which t h e l i n e s must p a s s a r e s h o r t e r i n one c a s e t h a n t h e o t h e r . A s h o r t a i r g a p s t r e n g t h e n s t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d f o r a g i v e n s e t of c o n d i t i o n s and, t h u s , f o r c e r t a i n movements o f a l o o p O f w i r e t h r o u g h t h e f l u x more l i n e s of f o r c e w i l l be e n c l o s e d o r c u t b y t h e l o o p . I n some t y p e s o n l y one e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c winding i s mounted on t h e i r o n c o r e w h i l e i n t h e o t h e r t y p e s more t h a n one winding i s used, t h i s b e i n g done t o i n c r e a s e t h e a m p e r e - t u r n s . The d i s t a n c e between t h e p o l e s which governs t h e s i z e Of the a i r g a p i s c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n p r a c t i c a l machinery t o keep t h e r e l u c t a n c e of t h e magnetic c i r c u i t minimum. The c o i l s a r e connected i n s e r i e s s o t h a t c u r r e n t f l o w i n g t h r o u g h o r e must a l s o p a s s t b r o u g h t h e o t h e r , a n d t h e i r t u r n s a r e s o wound a s t o make t h e a d j a c e n t e n d s of t h o windings n o r t h and s o u t h p o l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .

MARY

F i g u r e 22

F i g u r e 23

L e n z t s Law. T h i s law i n c o n c i s e form s t a t e s t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e i n d u c e d e.m.f. i s always s u c h a s t o oppose t h e motion p r o d u c i n g i t . A n other way o f s t a t i n g t h i s law (which i s p e r h a p s e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d i n view of t h e f a c t t h a t we a r e now f a m i l i a r w i t h e f f e c t s produced b y magnetic l i n e s o f f o r c e ) i s t h a t a n e.m.f. i s always produced i n a d i r e c t i o n such t h a t t h e magn e t i c l i n e s i t s e t s up oppose any chmge i n t h e e x i s t i n g magnetic l i n e s . R e f e r t o F i g u r e 2 2 showing two C o i l s , one a p r i m a r y and t h e o t h e r a seconda r y ; t o g e t h e r t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a t r a n s f o r m e r . A p r a c t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n of Lenz 1s law i s g i v e n below w i t h r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e diagram: Let u s assume t h a t t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e primary c o i l i s s u c h t h a t i t makes t h e p o l a r i t y a t t h e l e f t hand end n o r t h , vVhen t h e p r i m a r y i s moved i n t o t h e s e c o n d a r y t h e f l o w of i n duced c u r r e n t i n t h e l a t t e r c o i l makes i t s p o l a r i t y a t t h e r i g h t - h a n d end a l s o n o r t h . Thus, t h e a d j a c e n t e n d s of b o t h c o i l s have o p p o s i t e p o l a r i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e e f f e c t s e t up between t l e m i s one of r e p u l s i o n . However, when t h e s e c o n d a r y i s withdrawn from t h e p r i m a r y t h e induced c u r r e n t i n t h b l a t t e r i s r e v e r s e d and r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y w i l l be s e t up a t t h e r i g h t - h a n d end of t h e coiL W now have a c o n d i t i o n where t h e l e f t -hand end of t k p r i m a r y i s n o r t h ( n o t e e t h a t t h e p o l a r i t y of t h e p r i m a r y d o e s n o t change b e c a u s e i t i s s u p p l i e d w i t h a s t e a d y s o u r c e of e.m.f. b y t h e d r y c e l l s ) and t h e r i g h t - h a n d end of t h e seconda r y i s of s o u t h p o l a r i t y . A m a g n e t i c a t t r a c t i o n now e x i s t s between t h e c o i l s It i s o n l y w h i l e t h e c o i l s a r e moved t h a t t e n d s t o oppose t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n . w i t h r e s p c t t o e a c h o t h e r and t h e induced c u r r e n t f l o w s and r e v e r s e d magneti s m i s s e t up about t h e s e c o n d a r y t h a t we have t h e s e e f f e c t s of a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n . It i s s e e n i n e v e r y case t h a t t h e magnetic a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n t e n d s t o oppose t h e m o t i o n of t h e primary c o i l . S e l f I n d u c t i o n T h i s i s t h e nane g i v e n t o t h a t p r o p e r t y o f an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t w h e r e i n it t e n d s t o oppose any change ( i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e ) i n t h e s t r e n g t h Lesson 5

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s h e e t 14

of t h e current i n t h e c i r c u i t . The e f f e c t s of s e l f - i n d u c t i o n a r e present only a t such times as when a c u r r e n t i s changing I n i n t e n s i t y . The magnetic l i n e s which always accompany a c u r r e n t begin i n a wire a t t h e very clenter of i t s c o r e . Thus, when c u r r e n t r i s e s t h e l i n e s b u i l d U outward and pass through t h e very P w -- - which i s ~ r o d u c i n ~ ire them. O t h e c o ~ t r a r v . n when c u r r e n t f a l l s t h e l i n e s r e cede inward-onAthe wire and cut the wire i n i h e opposite d i r e c t i o n t o t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e c i t e d . This c u t t i n g a c t i o n on a conductor by i t s own l i n e s induces an e.rn.f. i n the conductor f i r s t i n one d i r e c t i o n f o r an i n c r e a s e i n c u r r e n t and, secondly, i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n f o r a decrease i n c u r r e n t . Thus, w see e t h a t t h e induced e.m.f. a t one time t e n d s t o oppose t h e establishment of a c u r r e n t i n a conductor and a t another time i t tends t o prevent the c u r r e n t from l y i n g out. The induced e.m.f. i s known as the induced e.m.f. of s e l f - i n d u c t i o n . The student must understand t h a t the e.m.f. of self - inductance i s another e .n.f. acting on a c i r c u i t and s e p a r a t e from t h e u s u a l e.m.f. which i s appli'ed t o any conductor i n order t o make c u r r e n t flow i n t h e f i r s t place.
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induced e .m.f. i s s e t up i n a secondary by changes i n t h e secondary f i e l d r e s u l t i n g a c t s on t h e primary f i e l d s i m i l a r l y t o a primary a c t i n g on a secondary. Thus, w h e n two independent c i r c u i t s are so a s s o c i a t e d t h a t n s g n e t i c e f f e c t s s e t up by one c i r c u i t induce e.n.f.'s and c u r r e n t s i n t h e o t h e r c i r c u i t , and t h e l a t t e r a l s o s e t s up magn e t i c e f f e c t s of t h e i r own, t h e two c i r c u i t s a r e s a i d t o r e a c t on each o t h e r . This i s known as mutual i n d u c t i o n and the c i r c u i t s a r e s a i d t o possess t h e property of mutual inductance. Figures 19 and 20 show two independent f i e l d s r e a c t i n g on each o t h e r . One magnetic f i e l d i s due t o t h e inducing c u r r e n t flowing i n the primary (P) and t h e o t h e r i s due t o the induced current in tb secondary (S). Inductance. This term r e l a t e s t o t h e energy s t o r e d up i n t h e magnetic f l u x a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c o i l o r c i r c u i t through which an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t flows. Inductance i s a m a s u r e of t h e amount of t h i s magnetic f l u . The p r o p e r t y known a s inductance possessed by a c i r c u i t tends t o prevent any change i n t h e value of c u r r e n t flovring t b o u g h t h e c i r c u i t . This may a l s o be c a l l e d t h e s e l f - inductance of t h e c i r c u i t . The a m u n t of inductance, measured i n t h e u n i t I1h e n r y " , i s determined by t h e amount of voltage t h a t w i l l be induced i n a c o i l o r c i r c u i t by t h e c u r r e n t c h ~ n g i n g t a given r a t e . Thus : " A c i r c u i t 19 said t o have an inductance of a 1 henry when a c u r r e n t changing a t the r a t e O f 1 ampere per second w i l l induce t h e r e i n an e .m.f. of 1 volt " .

Mutual A n - Induction. and primary c u r r e n t ,

Non-Inductive H ec s O f f -NeutraLized.Circuit f i-l d ow sE tf f up t alongStehl e be The e s e
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Inductance w i t h i n a C i r c u i t max t u r n s of a c o i l can be made t o n e u t r a l i z e one another i f the t u r n s of t h e c o i l a r e wotud so t h a t t h e f i e l d around each t u r n opposes i n d i r e c t i o n t h e f i e l d around a n ad j o i n i n g t u r n . The . c u r r e n t i n e a c h tu&l must be e q u a l , and adjacent t u r n s should be close t o gether. A c o i l wound t o produce t h i s r e s u l t i s shown i n Figure 23. The c o i l Is said t o be non- inductive because p r a c t i c a l l y no f i e l d i s e s t a b l i s h e d around t h e c o i l when c u r r e n t flows. Coils of t h i s g e n e r a l type a r e employed f o r r e s i s t o r u n i t s i n instruments such a s Wheatstone b r i d g e s , meters and i n any c i r c u i t s where r e s i s t a n c e i s r e q u i r e d b u t inductive e f f e c t s a r e undesired. Sucking Action of a Solenoid. Since a l l magnetic f i e l d s possess s i m i l a r prop e r t i e s a solenoid w i l l a t t r a c t i r o n when c u r r e n t flows through i t i n t h e same way a bar magnet w i l l a t t r a c t i r o n as shown i n Figure 24. The f l u x seeks the path through t h e i r o n plunger i n preference t o p a s s i n g e n t i r e l y through a i r Lesson 5

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and t h i s magnetizes the plunger, causing it t o be. a t t r a c t e d by t h e c o i l . The plunger i s drawn i n t o , o r sucked i n t o t h e c o i l , and does not s t o p moving u n t i l it c e n t e r s i t s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n where it w i l l accomodate t h e g r e a t e s t amount of f l u x . It remains unmoved i n the c o i l so long a s the c u r r e n t flows a t the proper value t o provide t h e r e q u i s i t e amount of f l u x t o hold t h e plunger from
SUCKING ACTION OF A SOLENOID

IRON P L U N G E R

-SOLENOID

being p u l l e d back by the s p r i n g . This p r i n c i p l e i s u t i l i z e d commercially i n t h e o p e r a t i o n of p r o t e c t i v e devices c a l l e d " c i r c u i t breakers " These devices a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r i p , open a c i r c u i t and shut o f f t h e power when the c u r r e n t becomes excessive f o r any reason. A s p r i n g i s a d j u s t e d t o t h e proper t e n s i o n s o t h a t t h e plunger i s sucked i n t o t h e c o i l only under extreme conditions. This i d e a can be used f o r r e l a y operation,or any form of t r i p p i n g device. EXAMINATION

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IESSON 5

1. What phenomenon always e x i s t s when c u r r e n t flows? 2. S t a t e t h e right- hand thumb r u l e f o r determining t h e p o l a r i t y of a s o l e noid and draw a simple s k e t c h i l l u s t r a t i n g same. 3 S t a t e t h e right- hand thumb r u l e f o r determining t h e d i r e c t i o n of a .

m a p t i c f l u x around a current - carrying wire. 4 !Yhat i s Flemingfs right- hand r u l e ? . 5. If a n a i r - c o r e c o i l i s c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t and a b a r of s o f t i r o n i s i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e c @ i lwhat e f f e ~ w i l l be produced? t 6. ( a What happens when a n "open ,,conductor moves a c r o s s a magnetic f i e l d ? ( b What happens when a "closed conductor moves a c r o s s a magnetic f i e l d ? 7. S t a t e b r i e f l y two methods f o r producing c u r r e n t i n a s e c o ~ l d a ~ y r c u i t . ci 8. Ex l a i n b r i e f l y what i s meant by t h e following terms: ( a ) Self- inductance, (by 'Mutual inductance, ( c ) Ampere-turns. 9. . - What does Lenz's l a w s t a t e ? . . 10. E i t h e r one of two c o n d i t i o n s must be s a t i s f i e d b e f o r e an e .m.f. can be induced i n a wFre o r c i r c u i t . What are these c o n d i t i o n s ?

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Lesson 5

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INC.
M A R C O N / /NST/%'TE

Technical Lesson 6
PR DIARY CELLS
The p r i n c i p a l sources of e l e c t r i c vower t h a t a r e u t i l i z e d i n p r a c t i c a l l y every r a d i o and power i n s t a l l a t i o n , including t r a n s m i t t e r s , r e c e i v e r s , a m i l i a r y equipment and types of apparatus of unlimited v a r i e t i e s , a r e t h e e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t o r and t h e e l e c t r i c b a t t e r g . When w say source of e l e c t r i c e power we mean a source of electromotive f o r c e . It i s customary f o r some persons t o t h i n k that a g e n e r a t o r o r b a t t e r y s t o r e s up e l e c t r i c i t y and supp l i e s c u r r e n t t o any d e v i ce t o which i t may be connected, but t h i s i s not a f a c t r A generator or b a t t e r y merely f u r n i s h e s an electromotive f o r c e ( o r p r e s s u r e ) which when applied t o any device, o r c i r c u i t , w i l l s e t e l e c t r o n s i n motion and cause them t o flow through t h e d e v i c e , o r c i r c u i t . Always keep i n mind t h a t t h e movement of e l e c t r o n s through w i r e s (and a l l conductors of e l e c t r i c i t y ) i s the s o - c a l l e d c u r r e n t flow. Now, s i n c e e l e c t r o n s already e x i s t i n t h e wires and o t h e r elements t h a t form a c i r c u i t t h e n it cannot be s a i d t h a t a g e n e r a t o r o r b a t t e r y s u p p l i e s them; what t h e generator or b a t t e r y does i s t o f o r c e t h e s e e l e c t r o n s t o move through t h e w i r e s from one place t o another, t h a t i s , t h e e l e c t r o n s which c o n s t i t u t e t h e c u r r e n t are forced t o flow through a c i r c u i t by t h e e.m.f. ( o r p r e s s u r e ) applied t o the c i r c u i t . Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t c u r r e n t w i l l not flow i n any c i r c u i t u n l e s s an electromotive f o r c e i s a p p l i e d t o i t from some source.
ZINC (OUTSIDE:
NEGATIVE-

Figure 1

In t h e case of t h e e n e r a t o r t h e electromotive f o r c e is obtained by making p r a c t i c a l use of t h e aws of e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c induction. According t o t h e explanations i n our preceding l e s s o n on t h i s s u b j e c t one law s t a t e d t h a t when a c o i l of wire is moved through a magnetic f i e l d a n electromotive f o r c e is produced a c r o s s t h e t e r m i n a l s of t h e c o i l ; t h i s i s e x a c t l y t h e p r i n c i p l e upon which t h e generator works s i n c e it i s constructed t o provide a s t r o n g magnetic f i e l d through which a number of c o i l s a r e r o t a t e d by mechanical means am3 fPom t h e s e c o i l s we a r e able t o g e t an eleotromotive f o r c e , or e l e c t r i c

+

Figure %

power. I n the c a s e of t h e b a t t e r y , however, t h e electromotive f o r c e i s obt a i n e d through t h e e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l a c t i o n t h a t occurs between t h e combin a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e used. Ve l e a r n , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a g e n e r a t o r i transforms mechanical energy i n t o e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y and a b a t t e r y transforms chemica 1 energy i n t o e l e c t r i c a l energy. Hence, i n s o f a r as m a r e concerned a t t h e p r e s e n t , a g e n e r a t o r and a b a t t e r y e both produce s i m i l a r r e s u l t s , t h a t i s , e i t h e r one w i l l provide an e l e c t r o motive f o r c e . O c o u r s e , you w i l l understand t h a t many p r a c t i c a l and ecof nomical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s determine whether a g e n e r a t o r o r b a t t e r y w i l l be used t o f u r n i s h power f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of c e r t a i n t y p e s of equipment. I n many of t h e modern r a d i o broadcast and commercial t e l e g r a p h i n s t a l l a t i o n s i t has been found necessary t o employ both g e n e r a t o r s and b a t t e r i e s t o o b t a i n the best e l e c t r i c a l results. CLASSIFICATION -OF BATTERIES AND CELLS. Let U s f i r s t e x p l a i n the d i s t i n c t i o n A c e l l i s a complete u n i t c o n s i s t i n g between t h e terms " b a t t e r y " and " c e l l ' ' . of a chemical s o l u t i o n i n t o which i s placed two d i f f e r e n t kinds of m a t e r i a l s which a r e not allowed t o touch each o t h e r and from which an electromotive f o r c e can be o b t a i n e d by t h e chemical a c t i o n s e t up between t h e s o l u t i o n ( e l e c t r o l y t e ) and t h e m a t e r i a l s . When two o r more c e l l s of s i m i l a r kind a r e connected t o g e t h e r i n a combination t h a t permits t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e .m.f. 1s t o be u t i l i z e d a l l a t t h e same time, t h e whole combination i s lmown a s a I'batteryfl. Hence, a b a t t e r y i s a number of c e l l s a l l f u n c t i o n i n g i n conj u n c t i o n w i t h one another t o provide a c e r t a i n amount of e l e c t r i c a l pressilrg, measured i n v o l t s , from i t s t e r m i n a l binding p o s t s .
MOISTURE-PROOF INNER CONTAINER

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WATER. PROOF i CONTAINER

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TOP SEA1

M015TURE.PROOF -CELL WRAPPER

M0lSTURE.PROOF /CELL WRAPPER ----SEAMLESS ZINC CAN MOISTURE-PROOF .-' N E R BASE IN

MOISTURE-PROOF -INSULATION

Figure 3 Figure 4
A s i n g l e c e l l of t h e d r y c e l l type i s shown i n Figure 1 while . i t s i n t e r i o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p i c t u r e d i n t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n 8 1 iriew i n Figure 2. This c e l l has an e.m.f. of approximately 1.5 v o l t s when i n good condition. S e v e r a l c e l l s may be connected t o form a b a t t e q y a s follows: Suppose w have 3 c e l l s e of t h i s type connected t o g e t h e r t o form a b a t t e r y t h e n t h e t o t a l e.m.f. a t e t h e t e r m i n a l s would be 3 x 1.5 o r 4.5 v o l t s . Again, suppose w had 30 c e l l s of t h i s kind connected t o form a b a t t e r y t h e n t h e t o t a l e.m.f. a v a i l a b l e a t t h e b a t t e r y t e r m i n a l s would i n t h i s case be 30 x 1.5 o r 45 v o l t s . I n many d r y b a t t e r i e s t h e r e a r e connections taken from d i f f e r e n t c e l l s i n o r d e r t o provide s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t voltages from the same b a t t e r y f o r convenience.

Lesson 6

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sheet 2

A b a t t e r y c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e small d r y c e l l s connected t o g e t h e r

i a shown i n Figure 3. Notice t h a t t h r e e t e r m i n a l s a r e supplied s ( o r v o l t a g e ) of e i t h e r c e l l may be used s e p a r a t e l y , o r the vo t h e two c e l l s may be used by making connections t o t h e outer two term1 A d r y b a t t e r y c o n t a i n i n g t h i r t y small c e l l s compactly arranged i n a c o n t a i n e r i s shown i n Figure 4 ; t h e 0.in.f. a t the o u t s i d e two terminals i s 45 v o l t s . I n t h i s b a t t e r y a t a p t a k e n between t h e 15th and 1 6 t h c e l l s i s -b r o u g h t t o t n e c e n t e r t e r m i n a l on t h e t o p s o t h a t one-half of t h e t o t a l voltage, o r 2 2 3 v o l t s , i s a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r between t h e f i r s t and second t e r m i n a l s . o r between t h e second and t h i r d t e r m i n a l s ,
0.m.f. T h e d r y c e l l and b a t t e r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d are t y p i c a l of t h e kind found i n widespread use f o r r a d i o and e l e c t r i c a l work. A b a t t e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e one i n Figure 3 i s mostly used f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s t o supply a negative voltage t o t h e g r i d s of vacuum tubes and it i s , t h e r e f o r e , known a s a "C" b a t t e r g . The b a t t e r g i n Figure 4 i s e x a c t l y the same a s the one j u s t mentioned s o f a r a s i t s p r i n c i p l e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n are concerned, except t h a t it has more c e l l s than t h e one i n Figure 3 . The l a r g e r b a t t e r y i n Figure 4 i s employed p r i n c i p a l l y t o f u r n i s h t h e p l a t e voltage t o operate vacuum tubes i n c e r t a i n types of equipment and, consequently, i t i s known a s If s e v e r a l c e l l s of the type i n Figure 1 a r e used t o f u r n i s h a "B" b a t t e r x . an e .m.f. t o the f i l a m e n t s of vacuum tubes i n r e c e i v i n g s e t s , t o provide t h e h e a t i n g c u r r e n t , t h e c e l l s a r e then r e f e r r e d t o a s an " A " b a t t e r % . Later on i n your work you w i l l become accustomed t o using t h e terms " A " , B ", and IIC II f o r i d e n t i f y i n g b a t t e r i e s of any type according t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r duty. ~t should now be c l e a r t h a t t h e terms b a t t e r y and c e l l are n o t t o be used interchangeably and, t h e r e f o r e , i n your conversation and w r i t i n g be c a r e f u l t o make the c o r r e c t d i s t i n c t i o n between them. Say " c e l l f ' when you mean c e l l and " b a t t e r y " when you mean b a t t e r y .

EO D R DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRJXARY AND S C N A Y CELLS. There a r e two types of c e l l s i n general use, namely: d r y c e l l s and s t o r a g e c e l l s . A d r y c e l l i s one t h a t de p ends f o r -i t s o p e r a t i o n upon the consu6ption of one of the m a t e r i a l s by t h e chemical a c t i o n of the s o l u t i o n on i t when currenk flows k h r n i-- r r h t h e c e l l and through the c i r c u i t t o which it i s connected. While --- - ~ c u r r e g t flows t h e m a t e r i a l - i s g r a d u a l l y e a t e n u and i n due time it w i l l be e n t i r e l y consumed and as a r e s u l t of t h i s ac i o n the voltage ( o r e.m.P.) of t h e c e l l w i l l d r o p so low t h a t the c e l l becomes u s e l e s s f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, When t h i s happens t h e c e l l must be d i s c a r d e d and replaced by a new one. A storage c e l l , on t h e othei hand, i s one t h a t must f i r s t be chargec by passing a c u r r e n t through it i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s o t h a t i t s m a t e r i a l s w i l l be put i n t o t h e proper c o n d i t i o n t h a t w i l l enable them t o produce an e l e c t r i c a l pressure. A f t e r t h e storage C e l l has been on c i r c u i t and d e l i v e r s a c e r t a i n amount of c u r r e n t i n a s t a t e d time, i t s e.m.f. w i l l f a l l below t h e proper working value because t h e chemical r e l a t i o n s of the cell. a r e t h e n a l t e r e d . Since t h e m a t e r i a l s merely undergo a change and a r e not e a t e n away, a s i n a d r y c e l l . it i s only necessary t o pass c u r r e n t again through t h e s t o r a g e c e i l t o Gestore t h e - m a t e r i a l s t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l condition. With i n t e l l i g e n t c a r e a s t o r a g e c e l l w i l l l a s t f o r years s i n c e i t only r e q u i r e s charging and t h e adding of water a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s t o maintain i t i n a proper condition. The l i f e of a d r y c e l l , on the o t h e r hand, i s a more o r l e s s fixed c o n d i t i o n because it i s governed by t h e r a t e a t which the a c t i v e m a t e r i a l , z i n c f o r i n s t a n c e , i s consumed and t h i s i n t u r n depends upon t h e For the reasons j u s t amount of e l e c t r i c a l energy d e l i v e r e d by t h e c e l l .

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Lesson 6

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sheet 3

advanced a d r y c e l l i s c a l l e d a primary c e l l and a s t o r a g e c e l l i s c a l l e d a secondary c e l l . A l e s s o n i s devoted t o s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s and storage c e l l s I n t e r i n our course. Primary c e l l s a r e a l s o known a s galvanic c e l l s . Another important t h i n g t o mention i s t h a t a d r y c e l l i s not r e a l l y d r y a s t h e name would lead most anyone t o believe. The use of t h e word "dry" no doubt became popular owing t o the f a c t t h a t a l l of t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e c e l l a r e s e a l e d up i n a moisture- proof c o n t a i n e r without any outside evidence of a l i q u i d s o l u t i o n i n i t l i k e i n a "wet" b a t t e r y , f o r example. During the manufacture of a d r y c e l l a c e r t a i n amount of water i s added t o t h e m a t e r i a l s and t h e l i q u i d i s t h e r e f o r e r e t a i n e d i n the moist p a s t y f i l l i n g which w e e could see i f w broke open a good c e l l .
It i s R known f a c t t h a t h e r e i s always an e.m..f. of a c e r t a i n number of v o l t s s e t up between any twc pieces of metal Of d i s s i m i l a r kind when immersed i n a l i q u i d ; When c e r t a i n combinations of m a t e r i a l s a r e used, and t h e l i q u i d i s a chemical s o l u t i o n of a s h i g h a s 2 v o l t s and more can be obtained. T h e a p a r t i c u l a r kind, e.m.f. metal pieces r e f e r r e d t o a r e c a l l e d ''plates" and the chemical s o l u t i o n the The e.m.f. o r voltage of a c e l l i s determined s o l e l y by t h e kind of m a t e r i a l s used f o r t h e p l a t e s and t h e n a t u r e of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e . The theory i s t h a t t h e e l e c t r o l y t e a c t s more r e a d i l y on one m a t e r i a l t h a n t h e o t h e r and i t i s t h i s chemical a c t i o n t h a t causes both p l a t e s t o possess an e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l , but because of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i n c h a r a c t e r one p l a t e w i l l have a higher p o t e n t i a l than the o t h e r . The higher p o t e n t i a l p l a t e i s c a l l e d the ~ o s i t i v e l a t e and the lower p o t e n t i a l p l a t e i s t h e p negative plate. The d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l i s e l e c t r i c a l pressure and it i s capable of sending c u r r e n t through a c i r c u i t . The s i z e o f the p l a t e s , t h e i r a c t u a l s u r f a c e a r e a i n contact wit'n t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , o r the amount of s e p a r a t i o n between p l a t e s have no bearing whatsoever on t h e voltage of t h e c e l l . However, t h e s e f a c t o r s do have some e f f e c t on t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e c e l l and t h i s i n t u r n w i l l govern t o some e x t e n t t h e amount of c u r r e n t t h a t the c e l l w i l l be capable of d e l i v e r i n g . WHY AN ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE I S PRODUCED BY A DRY CELL.

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Hence, i f w have one v e r y l a r g e c e l l and one very small c e l l and each one e i s made up of a s i m i l a r combination of m a t e r i a l s and e l e c t r o l y t e it w i l l be found t h a t the voltage reading t a k e n between the p l a t e s w i l l be a l i k e f o r t h e two c e l l s . T h i s would prove Our statement t h a t only the m a t e r i a l s and t h e e l e c t r o l y t e govern t h e e.m.f. o r voltage a c r o s s t h e p l a t e s . A c e l l cons i s t i n g of a zinc p l a t e and a copper p l a t e immersed i n a l i q u i d of d i l u t e s u l p h u r i c acid g i v e s an e.m.f. of approximately 1 v o l t r e g a r d l e s s of the s i z e of t h e elements (elements means t h e m a t e r i a l s ) . Another c e l l , however, having a d i f f e r e n t combination of m a t e r i a l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , z i n c f o r one p l a t e carbon f o r the o t h e r , and a s a l ammoniac e l e c t r o l y t e , s e t s up an e.m.f. of approximately 1.5 v o l t s between i t s p l a t e s .
POLARIZATION. To e x p l a i n t h i s term l e t u s consider t h a t w have a c e l l cone s i s t i n g of a z i n c p l a t e and a carbon p l a t e being a c t e d upon by a s a l ammoniac e l e c t r o l y t e s o l u t i o n . When a c e l l of t h i s type i s connected I n a c i r c u i t and c u r r e n t flows t h e z i n c i s slowly d i s s o l v e d , o r e a t e n up, by the chemical a c t i o n of the s a l anmoniac (ammonium c h l o r i d e ) . It i s the combining of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e chemically with t h e zinc and t h e amount of t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e a c t i o n f o r th3s p a r t i c u l a r s e t of m a t e r i a l s t h a t makes t h e c e l l capable of between i t s p l a t e s and, a l s o , t o f u r n i s h a given anount developing an 8 . m . f . of c u r r e n t t o a c i r c u i t f o r a given time.

Lesson 6

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sheet 4

I
t

a c t i o n goes on and c u r r e n t flows through the c e l l a ne bubbles of hydrogen gas are l i b e r a t e d which immediately form carbon. The bubbles c o l l e c t very r a p i d l y i f t h e c e l l passes a high value continuously f o r any l e n g t h of time and t h e i r presence e p o s i t i v e carbon p l a t e causes a very not$ceable reduction i n the current ength. Thus, we see t h a t t h e hydrogen gas has a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on amount of e l e c t r i c a l energy supplied by t h e c e l l . T h i s weakening of t h e c e l l i s c a l l e d p o l a r i z a t i o n and i f allowed t o continue t h e c e l l w i l l cease functioning e n t i r e l y . The f a l l i n g O f f of t h e c u r r e n t caused by t h e hydrogen g a s i s due t o two ccnd i t i o n s s e t up w i t h i n t h e c e l l ; f i r s t , the gas being a non-conductor of e l e c t r i c i t y a c t s a s an i n s u l a t o r and i n c r e a s e s the i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e c e l l and, t h e r e f o r e , a c t u a l l y tends t o block t h e flow of c u r r e n t ; Second13 the gas l a y e r on the carbon reduces t h e amount of a c t i v e s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l t h a t the carbon can p r e s e n t t o t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e qas a c t s t o s e p a r a t e the carbon from t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , Moreover, i f a c e l l of t h i s kind i s s t r o n g l y p o l a r i z e d i t S e t s up a small o p p o s i t i o n e.m.f. because t h e c h a r a c t e r of the p l a t e s a r e a l t e r e d inasmuch a s t h e carbon p l a t e v i r t u a l l y So f a r a s the chemical a c t i o n of the c e l l i s conbecomes a hydrogen p l a t e . cerned i t w i l l behave a s though i t had z i n c and hydrogen p l a t e s and not z i n c and carbon. It has been mentioned before t h a t d i f f e r e n t combinations of t h e m a t e r i a l s of which a c e l l i s composed w i l l cause t h e e.m.f. produced between i t s p l a t e s t o a l s o change, hence, t h e e.m.f. of t h e c e l l i s considerably lowered by t h e polarized c o d i t ion. P o l a r i z a t i o n i s prevented i n a c e l l when it i s Operated t o g i v e an i n t e r m i t t e n t c u r r e n t of average value f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r type of c e l l i n question. I n the type a l r e a d y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s t r o n g o x i d i z i n g substance, such a s manganese d i o x i d e , i s used f o r t h i s purpose a s i t combines r e a d i l y w i t h t h e hydrogen and, t h e r e f o r e , removes the gas from around t h e carbon. It i s t o be understood t h a t if a n e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e c u r r e n t i s d e l i v e r e d s t e a d i l y by t h e c e l l the chemical a c t i o n between t h e o x i d i z i n g m a t e r i a l and t h e hydrogen may be too slow t o prevent p o l a r i z a t i o n and t h e c e l l w i l l become i n a c t i v e i n a s h o r t time. However, i f a c e l l when i n t h i s condition i s disconnected from t h e c i r c u i t and permitted t o remain on open c i r c u i t f o r a b r i e f i n t e r v a l it w i l l r a p i d l y r e c u p e r a t e , o r r e c o v e r , which meaw t h a t i t w i l l be r e s t o r e d t o normal by t h e cleaning up of t h e hydrogen by t h e dep o l a r i z i n g agent. The carbon *hen i s once more l e f t f r e e t o a c t a s a p l a t e and conductor f o r t h e passage of current. Have you e v e r noticed when u s i n g a pocket f l a s h l i g h t t h a t t h e l i g h t suddenly " became dim, but a f t e r allowing t h e switch t o remain i n t h e n ~ f f p o s i t i o n f o r a h a l f minute o r so t h e lamp when next l i g h t e d would glow w i t h i t s former b r i g h t n e s s ? This dimming of t h e l i g h t was caused by t h e f a l l i n g off of t h e c u r r e n t through the c e l l due t o p o l a r i z a t i o n . The same weakening e f f e c t i s o f t e n n o t i c e d i n t h e r i n g i n g of a door b e l l , o r i n the o p e r a t i o n of a buzzer, e s p e c i a l l y when they a r e o p e r a t e d s t e a d i l y f o r a time.
LOCAL ACTION. If a c e l l , l i k e t h e one p i c t u r e d i n Figure 5, i s l e f t on open c i r c u i t (which means t h a t t h e r e i s no conductor of e l e c t r i c i t y connected t o i t s r e s p e c t i v e p l a t e s ) t h e n t h e r e should be no chemical ac%ion occurring between the m a t e r i a l s composing t h e c e l l . If t h e zinc p l a t e i s a b s o l u t e l y pure ( i . e . , without f o r e i g n m a t t e r o r i m p u r i t i e s ) an i n t e r n a l a c t i o n cannot be s e t up and c u r r e n t cannot be produced by the c e l l 1 s own materi.als. However,

Lesscaz 6

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5

o r d i n a r y commercial z i n c contains many f o r e i g n p a r t i c l e s , such a s carbon, n t i n , i r o n , and so on, and t h e s e s m a l l f ~ ~ i gp a r t i c l e s a c t with t h e zinc t o s e t up t i n y e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t s t h a t flow i n a s h o r t - c i r c u i t p a t h a s shown i n Figure 5. This l o c a l a c t i o n causes t h e zinc t o be e a t e n away continubusly and i n time i t w i l l a f f e c t the normal output energy of t h e c e l l . To prevent this consumption of the z i n c when t h e c e l l i s n o t used t o operate a c i r c u i t i t i s customary t o rub a s m a l l q u a n t i t y O f mercury i n t o the s u r f a c e of thezinc. This process i s c a l l e d amalgamation. Amalgamation, t h e r e f ore, s t o p s l o c a l a c t i o n when a c e l l i s l e f t on open c i r c u i t because t h e mercury does n o t combine w i t h the carbon, o r o t h e r f o r e i g n p a r t i c l e s , but it does a c t chemicallg with t h e z i n c t o form zinc-mercury amalgam t h a t works i t s way over t h e z i n c p l a t e s and covers up the p a r t i c l e s .

ELECTROLYTE

POSITIVE-. ELFCTRODE

.~ I R E C T or~ C U R R E ~ T I ~ THROUGH INTERNAL CIRCUIT

LOCAL ACTlON

Figure 5

Figure 6

A C T I O N O A SINlPLE PRIMARY CELL. Suppose t h e simple c e l l i n Figure 6 i s F composed of a p o s i t i v e copper (Cu) e l e c t r o d e , a n e g a t i v e z i n c (Zn) e l e c t r o d e ,

and d i l u t e d s u l p h u r i c acid. I n t h i s combination of m a t e r i a l s t h e a c i d u n i t e s more r e a d i l y with t h e zinc t h a n w i t h t h e copper. The chemical symbol f o r s u l p h u r i c acid i s H ~ S Q w h i c h denotes t h a t a molecule of t h i s l i q u i d c o n s i s t s of t w o atoms of h y d r o ~ e n , one atom of sulphur, and f o u r atoms of oxygen. The a c t i o n i s explained according t o t h e " e l e c t r o n tlieory". The important t h i n g t o b e a r i n mind i s t h a t atoms c o n s i s t of a n a g g r e g a t i o n of e l e c t r o n s and if some of t h e s e e l e c t r o n s can be s e t f r e e by chemicd means the f r e e e l e c t r o n s w i l l move through t h e conductors forming t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t around t h e c e l l . As w have j u s t s t a t e d t h e movement of c u r r e n t through t h e e load c i r c u i t connected t o t h e c e l l i s simply a movement of e l e c t r o n s . T h e i r d i r e c t i o n of flow i n the e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t connected t o a c e l l i s from t h e negative t e r m i n a l t o t h e p o s i t i v e t e r m i n a l of t h e c e l l . T h i s i s i n accordance w i t h t h e theory a s explained i n our l e s s o n on " S t a t i c E l e c t r i c i t y " . It was s t a t e d t h a t a t a p o s i t i v e l y charged e l e c t r o d e t h e r e i s a d e f i c i e n c y of e l e c t r o n s and a t a n e g a t i v e l y charged e l e c t r o d e t h e r e i s a s u r p l u s of e l e c t r o n s w w i l l attempt t o make the following e x p l a n a t i o n a s e a s y t o understand a s e possible although it i s n o t necessary t h a t you l e a r n t h i s explanation. When chemical a c t i o n s e t s u p i n t h e c e l l each molecule of s u l p h u r i c acid s e p a r a t e s i n t o two o p p o s i t e l y charged p a r t s ; namely, p o s i t i v e i o n s which a r e t h e H 2 o r hydrogen p a r t of t h e acid,and negative ions whf ch a r e t h e SO4 or s u l p h u r i c p a r t of t h e acid. The negative ions a r e made up of a c e r t a i n number of Lesson 6

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6

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o t h e r w i s e ) causes them t o move through t h e z i n c e l e c t r o d e , and tkrough t h e conductors forming t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t , and thence through the copper e l e c t r o d e and t h e a c t i o n j u s t described continues on s o long a s t h e c e l l i s connected t o t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t and t h e m a t e r i a l s used i n (The e x t e r n a l c i r c u t t c o n s i s t s of t h e conthe c e l l are i n good condition. n e c t i n g leads and the l o a d a s i n d i c a t e d by the r e s i s t a n c e symbol.) The f a c t t h a t each one of t h e two p a r t s of the e l e c t r o l y t e go t o opposite p l a t e s when i t s e p a r a t e s a s s t a t e d above ( t h a t i s , t h e H2 p o s i t i v e i o n s go t o t h e copper p l a t e and t h e SO4 n e g a t i v e charges go t o t h e z i n c p l a t e ) cause.8 the respective p l a t e s t o become charged e l e c t r i c a l l y t o p o s i t i v e and negative p o t e n t i a l s . T h i s r e s u l t s i n t h e s e t t i n g up of a d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l between t h e p l a t e s , or t e r m i n a l s , of t h e c e l l and t h e movement of the e l e c t r o n s t h o u g h t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n from n e g a t i v e t o positive. The arrows i n the drawing i n Figure 6 a r e not t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e movement of the e l e c t r o n s i n t h e explanation J u s t given. The arrows merely i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n O f merit flow according t o t h e u s u a l convention or custom i n p r a c t i c a l use f o r many years. Note t h a t t h e c u r r e n t arrows a r e i n a dlrect'ion i n t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t from t h e p o s i t i v e t o t h e n e g a t i v e e l e c t r o d e and i n t h e i n t e r n a l c i r c u i t from t h e n e g a t i v e t o t h e p o s i t i v e e l e c t r o d e .
C O N S TRUCTION AND OPERATION OF TKE COMMON DFE CELL. The i n t e r i o r view of a t y p i c a l d r y c e l l i s p l a i n l y marked i n Figure 2 t o i d e n t i f y a l l of t h e p a r t s t h a t e n t e r i n t o i t s construction. Dry c e l l s of t h i s type a r e u s u a l l y 6 inches high and 23 inches i n diameter. The z i n c c y l i n d r i c a l can i s the negative e l e c t r o d e . The terms e l e c t r o d e and p l a t e a r e used interchangeably. The z i n c can holds t h e moist b l a c k p a s t e i n t o which i s embedded a l a r g e carbon rod t h a t forms the p o s i t i v e e l e c t r o d e , or p l a t e . The paste u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of a mixture of ammonium c h l o r i d e ( o r s a l a m o n i a c , the chemical name of which i s NRqCl), p l a s t e r of P a r i s , powdered coke, a small q u a n t i t y of g r a p h i t e , zinc c h l o r i d e (ZnClz), and a de- polarizing a g e n t , such as manganese dioxide (MnO). Enough water i s added t o t h e e l e c t r o l y t e t o moisten t h e absorbing paper which l i n e s the z i n c can and s e p a r a t e s the z i n c from t h e paste. A f t e r t h e p a s t e and carbon r o d a r e f i r m l y packed i n , t h e f whole assevbly i s covered w i t h sand and on t o p O t h i s i s placed a s e a l i n g compound t o make t h e c e l l moisture proof and thus prevent evaporation.

The g r e a t advantage of t h i s type of c e l l i s t h a t i t can remain on open c i r c u i t f o r long p e r i o d s without appreciably s h o r t e n i n g i t s u s e f u l l i f e . After a period of a y e a r , o r more, it w i l l begin t o d e t e r i o r a t e r a p i d l y i f unused and t h e drying out of t h e c e l l w i l l be hastened i f i t i s kept i n a very warm It i s always b e s t t o keep a d r y c e l l i n a cool place whenever atnosphere. possible where the temperature i s n o t much h i g h e r than 70° F.
A d r y c e l l i s a very convenient means f o r o b t a i n i n g an electromotive f o r c e

but i t i s adapted o n l y f o r use on i n t e r m i t t e n t work such a s , r i n g i n g door b e l l s , telephone i n s t a l l a t i o n s , o r where t h e s e r v i c e demands only a small

Lesson 6

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7

use of i t s low i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e a d r y c e l l i n good condition w i l l dei v e r a c u r r e n t of about 18 t o 3 0 amperes, o r more, when measured on momentarn s h o r t c i r c u i t by means of a low r e s i s t a n c e anmeter. Short c i r c u i t t e s t s should not be made o f t e n on the same c e l l a s it places a heavy d r a i n on t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s . A v o l t a g e t e s t can be made by u s i n g a good high-grade v o l t meter with a low r e a d i n g s c a l e . %'he average e.m.f. of a l l new d r y c e l l s in good condition i s about 1.5 o r 1.6 v o l t s . I n c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of work a f t e r a c e l l has dropped t o about 1 v o l t it i s removed f r o s a c t i v e service and a new one i s s u b s t i t u t e d . Also, i f two or more c e l l s a r e used i n conjunction w i t h one another t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l voltages should be measured f r e q u e n t l y t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e y a r e n e a r l y a l i k e , o r whether one c e l l i s considerably lower than the r e s t i n which event the o p e r a t i on of the c i r c u i t wallld be s e r i o u s l y impaired.

ZINC (-)A NEGATIVE

-- CARBON bt)
POSITIVE

LECLANCHE CELL. The standard d r y c e l l i s p r a c t i c a l l y a ~ e c l a n c h d e l l made c both employ s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . up i n a d i f f e r e n t form The Leclsnche c e l l c o n s i s t s of two c y l i n d r i c a l l y shaped p l a t e s , one of zinc and one of carbon placed. i n a s a l atimoniac s o l u t i o n , the carbon p l a t e being corrugated i n shape t o form a porous cup i n which t h e manganese dioxide L h n d e l i v e r i n g c u r r e n t the s a l ammoniac soVe and powdered coke a r e placed. l u t i o n a t t a c k s the z i n c and,as i n the case of the simple d r y cel1,bubbles of hydrogen gas a r e l i b e r a t e d and c o l l e c t on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e carbon. The gas combines with t h e manganese dioxide and i s removed, thus preventing p o l a r i z s t i o n of the c e l l . A c e l l of t h i s kind w i l l keep i n good working c o n d i t i o n f o r years and p r a c t i c a l l y t h e only a t t e n t i o n it needs i s an occ a s s i o n a l f i l l i n g w i t h water and sometimes w i t h a f r e s h supply of s a l ammoniac.

-

METHOD OF CONNECTING CELLS.

-

a common d r y c e l l i s shown i n Figure 7. The center t e r m i n a l connects t o the carbon rod and t h i s t e r m i n a l i s c a l l e d t h e " p o s i t i v e p o l e " of the c e l l ; t h e ( ) s i g n i s used t o denote p o s i t i v e p o l a r i t y . W e do not as,,a r u l e c a l l t h i s a 'plus" s i g n i n t h i s work; w most g e n e r a l l y say e " p o s i t i v e sign. The terminal. a t t h e o u t e r edge of the c e l l connects t o t h e z i n c can, o r s h e l l , of t h e c e l l and t h i s t e r m i n a l i s c a l l e d the "negative pole"; t h e s i g n ( ) i s used t o denote negative p o l a r i t y . %e do not c a l l t h i s a "minus" s i m a s a r u l e but r a t h e r a " negative" s i g n . Hence, w s a y e t h a t a d r y c e l l has two t e r m i n a l s , one a p o s i t i v e and the o t h e r a negative. The small sketch t o t h e r i g h t i n Figure 8 i s one way of drawing t h e t o p view of a c e l l and i n d i c a t i n g t h e amount of electromotive f o r c e i n v o l t s t h a t t h e c e l l i s r a t e d a t , o r i n t h i s c a s e , the c e l l i s seen t o have a "terminal" e.m.f. of 1.5 v o l t s . I n s t e a d of drawing a p i c t u r e of a d r y c e l l each time w e
A t o p , o r plan view,of

+

-

Lesson 6

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I
I

d e s i r e t o i n d i c a t e One on a diag5a.m we make u s e of t h e standard symbol as shown i n your l e s s o n on "Symbols The long t h i n l i n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o s i t i v e pole, whereas, t h e s h o r t heavy l i n e r e p r e s e n t s t h e negative pole. There a r e two ways i n which t h e c e l l s of a b a t t e r y may be arranged t o vary t h e c u r r e n t output O f the c e l l s ; (1)By a s e r i e s combination; and ( 9 ) by a p a r a l l e l combination.

.

1

I
I

--

of t h e b a t t e r y i s increased because t h e s i n g l e c e l l s a r e connected i n a wag t h a t permits t o be a v a i l a b l e . When c e l l s the sum of a l l of t h e i r e.m.f.(s a r e joined i n s e r i e s t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of the combination i s eoual t o t h e sum of t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e s of t h e individim? - -. . - - -. . c e l l s . I n Figure 9 t h r e e c e l l s a r e shown joined i n s e r i e s and connected t o a b e l l . ( 2 ) By the p a r a l l e l method the e.m.f. of t h e b a t t e r y w i l l n o t be g r e a t e r than t h a t of a s i n g l e c e l l but t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of the b a t t e r y decreases w i t h each a d d i t i o n i n t h e number of c e l l s used. Refer t o Figure 10 shoring t h r e e c e l l s joined i n p a r a l l e l and the combination connected t o a b e l l and c o n t r o l l e d by a push b u t t o n .

(1)By t h e s e r i e s method t h e e.m.f.

-

SERIES COMBIKATION. standing just how t h e c e l l s a r e a c t u a l l y connected. Notice t h a t i n the s e r i e s combination i n Figure 9 t h e connecting w i r e s a r e put on according t o t h e following system: The negative terminal post o f c e l l 1 i s joined t o t h e f p o s i t i v e of c e l l 2; t h e negative O c e l l 2 i s joined t o t h e p o s i t i v e of c e l l 3; t h e negative of c e l l 3 i s joined t o one t e r m i n a l on t h e b e l l ; t h e o t h e r b e l l t e r m i n a l i s joined t o one t e r m i n a l on t h e push button; t h e other t e r minal on t h e push b u t t o n i s connected t o t h e p o s i t i v e t e r m i n a l of c e l l 1. ~ h u s , e have made a complete c i r c u i t , beginning a t c e l l 1 and r e t u r n i n g t o w
BELL OR LOAD

~0th Fjgures 9 and 1 0 a r e p i c t o r i a l d i a g r a m drawn t o a s s i s t you i n under-

CELL l

CELL

2

CELL 3

i t . In t h i s arrangement the same amount of c u r r e n t t h a t flows through one p a r t of the c i r c u i t must a l s o pass through a l l o t h e r p a r t s since t h e r e i s 1 o n l y one continuous c i r c u i t formed. Nw r e f e r t o t h e diagram i n Figure 1 o which i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c i r c u i t i n Figure 9 i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form. The 1 purpose of Figure 1 i s t o show t h a t when we connect two c e l l s from p o s i t i v e t o negative w a r e i n r e a l i t y connecting t h e carbon of one c e l l t o the z i n c e T t i s a simple m a t t e r t o t r a c e out t h e "continuity" of t h e a d j o i n i n g c e l l . of t h i s c i r c u i t . The word " c o n t i n u i t y " expresses j u s t what w were doing, e t h a t i s , t r a c i n g out a c i r c u i t from beginning t o end t o see t h a t it i s cone t i n u o u s and unbroken s o t h a t w may be sure t h a t c u r r e n t w i l l flow through
Lesson 6

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9

us study t h e schematic diagram i n Figure 12 showing 3 c e l l s joined e s . I f each c e l l h a s an e .m.f. of 1.5 v o l t s the sum of t h e e .m.f. 1s 1 determine the amount of voltage a v a i l a b l e a t t h e output termina'ls, o r 1 t h i s case, 3 x 1.5 e q u a l s 4.5 Volts, a s marked on t h e diagram. Consider group of c e l l s jolned i n s e r i e s ir Figure 13, t h e v o l t a g e supplied t o any c i r c u i t connected t o t h e two o u t s i d e t e r m i n a l s of t h i s b a t t e r y , marked + and -, would be 6 x 1.5, o r 9 v o l t s .
Figure 14 i l l u s t r a t e s s e r i e s groupings of c e l l s s i m i l a r t o those a l r e a d y given but t h e y a r e drawn i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form. The s i n g l e c e l l a t t h e l e f t i s shown t o p o i n t out t h e r e l a t i o n between a c e l l and i t s symbol. llle have arranged t h e s e diagrams i n s l i g h t l y dif'ferenk form s o t h a t you w i l l be-

Figure 10 come accustomed a t t h e v e r y s t a r t of your work t o r e a d a schematic diagram cfrawn i n any manner. Example: Suppose we have a b a t t e r y c o n s i s t i n g of 12 c e l l s , each r a t e d a t 1.5 v o l t s , w i t h t h e c e l l s i n s e r i e s . What i s t h e t o t a l v o l t a g e a v a i l a b l e ? Example: If t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e The answer i s 12 x 1.5, o r 1 8 v o l t s . of each of t h e c e l l s i n a group of 12 connected i n s e r i e s i s 0 - 5 o w w h a t i s

DIRECTION OF CURRENT INSIDE OF CELL

Figure 1 1 t h e t o t a l i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e c e l l s ? 6 ohms. The answer Is 1 2 x 0.5 ohms, or

From the foregoing e x p l a n a t i o n s w l e a r n t h a t t o f i n d t h e r e s u l t a n t v o l t a g e , e of any number of c e l l s connected i n a s e r i e s combination i t i s o r e.m.f., only necessary t o m u l t i p l y t h e voltage of any one of t h e c e l l s , providing Lesson 6

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s h e e t 10

t h e y a r e a l l a l i k e , by t h e number of c e l l s i n the group. Also, t o f i n d t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of a l l of t h e c e l l s taken t o g e t h e r i n a s e r i e s combination we must m u l t i p l y t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of one of t h e c e l l s , providing they a r e a11 a l i k e , by t h e number connected i n t h e group.
+

-I

* -

4.5 VOLTS

I

I

9 VOLTS

Figure 12

Figure 13

The drawing i n Figure 1 5 of t h e t h r e e locomotives moving a h e a v i l y loaded box c a r i s presented a s a n e a s y way f o r most persons t o v i s u a l i z e how t h e t o t a l pressure a p p l i e d t o t h e c a r i s t h e sum of t h e i n d i v i d u a l f o r c e s t h a t e a c h locomotive i s e x e r t i n g . Suppose t h e box c a r were a long t r a i n of c a r s and i t was found t h a t one locomotive could only move the t r a i n very slotvly, then, by coupling a second locomotive t o t h e f i r s t t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e t r a i n could be move2 a t a f a s t e r r a t e and, again, i f a t h i r d locomotive weye coupled t o t h e f i r s t two t h e t r a i n could be moved a t a s t i l l f a s t e r r a t e . \ye have a s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n i n an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t when c e l l s are connected i n s e r i e s , t h e voltage of every c e l l i n t h e b a t t e r y c o n t r i b u t e s i t s p r e s s u r e
DRY CELL..
DRY

C E L L S - 1.5 VOLTS EPiCW

DRY CELLS

- q.5 VOLTS

EKH

J

SERIES

COMBINATIONS

s,
9 VOLTS

+
Figure 1 4

-

a d d i t i v e l y and s i n c e a l a r g e r voltage i s a v a i l a b l e a s t r o n g c u r r e n t can be forced through a given c i r c u i t t o perform a c e r t a i n amount of e l e c t r i c a l work.
BOX CAR O U LOAD

ENGINE I --

ENGINE 3

Figure 1 5
PARALLEL CONBINATION.

Figure 1 6 i s a p i c t u r e d i a p m of a p a r a l l e l o r m u l t i p l e g r o u p i w of c e l l s where the e.m.f. o r voltage of t h e whole combination i s o n l y t h e e.m.f. of a are s i n g l e c e l l . The drawing shows t h a t a l l of the n e g a t i v e t e r m i n a l s ( - ) Lesson 6 sheet 1

-

,

connected t o g e t h e r and, t h e r e f o r e , w have but one l e a d coming from the e negative s i d e of t h e c e l l s t h a t i s common t o a l l of negatives. The p o s i t i v e terminals ( ) are a l s o a l l connected t o g e t h e r Which provides only one common lead coming from t h e p o s l t i v e s i d e of the c e l l s . Observe t h a t t h e connecting wires are put on according t o t h e following system: The z i n c of c e l l 1 i s joined t o t h e zinc of c e l l 2 ; t h e z i n c of c e l l 2 i s joined t o t h e z i n r of c e l l 3:and from t h i s point a l e a d i s c a r r i e d t o t h e b e l l . Next we have the carbon of c e l l 1 joined t o the carbon of c e l l 2; t h e carbon of c e l l 2 joined t o t h e carbon O f c e l l 3 and t h e n a second connection i s c a r r i e d f r o m t h i s p o i n t t o t h e o t h e r t e r m i n a l on t h e b e l l . Thus, w have completed the e c o n t i n r u i . of t h i s p a r a l l e l arrangement of c e l l s . The path of the c u r r e n t s ----furnished by t h e i n d i v i d u a l c e l l . ~and t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t flowing t o t h e b e l l i s represented by t h e arrows.

+

I n t h i s arrangement t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t k e b a t t e r y is reduced i f c e l l s a r e added t o t h e group. For example, t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e 3 c e l l s i n t h e b a t t e r y i n Figure 16 i s one- third t h a t of any s i n g l e c e l l . If t h e r e a r e two c e l l s i n a p a r a l l e l poupillg, as i n Fjgure 17, the i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e i s one-half t.hat of e i t h e r c e l l .

We learned i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s l e s s o n t h a t t h e amount of z i n c exposed t o t h e a c t i o n of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e determined t h e amount of cwrrent t h a t would be d e l i v e r e d by the c e l l and t h a t t h e voltage of a l l c e l l s a r e e x a c t l y a l i k e , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r s l z e , when the same combinations of m a t e r i a l s a r e eme ployed. Hence, i n a p a r a l l e l grouping of c e l l s w have t h e e f f e c t of i n c r e a s ing the a r e a of the p l a t e s s i n c e the z i n c s of a l l the c e l l s a r e connected t o gether; but w do not o b t a i n an increase i n t h e e.m.f. according t o t h e cnne s i d e r a t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n combinations of m a t e r i a l s g i v e a known e.rn.f, and tho s i z e . ar a r e a . of the m a l e r i a l s has no i n f l u e n c e on t h j s voltage. The advantage of connecting c e l l s i n p a r a l l e l i s t h a t each c e l l c o n t r i b u t e s an equal anount of t h e c u r r e n t d e l i v e r e d by t h e b a t t e r y .

Figure 16 Hence, suppose t h e b a t t e r y i n Figure 18 c o n s i s t i n g of 4 c e l l s i n p a r a l l e l i s connected t o a c i r c u i t which i s passing 2 amperes, t h e n each c e l l of t h i s group would c o n t r i b u t e one- fourth of 2 amperes, o r 0.5 ampere t o t h e c i r c u i t . I f a l l of t h e Thus, the load would be divided e q u a l l y among the c e l l s . c e l l s were forced t o pass 2 amperes through them t o supply such a c i r c u l t the c e l l s would d e t e r i o r a t e very r a p i d l y . I n Figure 1 6 suppose t h e a c t u a l current passing through t h e b e l l i s 0.15 amperes; each c e l l then would f u r n i s h onet h i r d of t h i s amount, o r 0.15 4 3 e q u a l s 0.05 amperes. hand b a t t e r y i s 1.5 v o l t , o r the e.m,f, of any one of t h e c e l l s ; an of the right- hand b a t t e r y i s a l s o 1.5 v o l t , o r t h e e.m,f:~of any ce group

.

The water analogy i n Figure 20 gives a c l e a r i d e a of t h e e f f e c t of connecting c e l l s i n p a r a l l e l where t h e pressures a r e not added up but each c e l l merely c o n t r i b u t e s it's s h a r e o r Q u a n t i t Y of c u r r e n t t o t h e c i r c u i t t o which i t i s connected.

Figure 17

Figure 18

Suppose tanks T i , T ~ and T 3 e a c h supply 10 g a l l o n s p e r minute'; the t o t a l I q u a n t i t e of water running over t h e wheel w i l l be 30 g a l l o n s per minute, but t h e pressure w i l l n o t b e g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t f i r n i s h e d by any one of the t h r e e tanks.

DRY CELLS -<.5 VOLTS E K H

DRY C E L L S

- 1.5

VOLTS EACH

Figure 19 g e para -l l e l - Sienr i a spCombination.i eThe schematic d i a n ~tahmisn cFiguret connected a r a l l e l - s e r s arrangement. I i ircui
2 1 shows 9 c e l l s

w have t h r e e e s e p a r a t e s e r i e s groups each of which consis'ts of 3 c e l l s connected i n s e r i e s , and t h e t h r e e s e r i e s groups a r e joined i n p a r a l l e l . By r e a d i m t h e dianram w see t h a t a p a r a l l e l - s e r i e s combination i s a p a r a l l e l connection of a-number e of s e r i e s arranged c e l l s .

,. , u .

Figure 20

The s.m.f. a c r o s s e a c h s e r i e s connection i s 4.5 v o l t s . I n a p a r a l l e l comb i n a t i o n of c e l l s t h e e.m.f. i s t h e sane a c r o s s t h e component p a r t s , hence, t h e e.m.f. a c r o s s t h e t h r e e g r ~ u p i n g si s 4.5 v o l t s a s marked on the diagram. Lesson 6

- sheet 13

s e r i e s - P a r a l l e l Combination. The c i r c u i t i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 22 c o n s i s t s n- 1 2 c e l -s connected i n a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l arranfzement. Observe t h a t t h e r e -f -- -- l a r e t h r e e s e p a r a t e p a r a l l e l groupsLeach of which- consists of 4 c e l l s connected i n p a r a l l e l , and the t h r e e p a r a l l e l groups a r e joined i n s e r i e s . Hence, a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l combination i s a s e r i e s connection of a number of p a r a l l e l arranged c e l l s .
-

The e.m.f. a c r o s s the b a t t e r y i n Figure 22 i s 4.5 v o l t s because the e.m.f. a c r o s s each p a r a l l e l group i s 1.5 v o l t s , i.e., t h e t o t a l e.m.f. of t h e 3 groups i n s e r i e s i s t h e i r sum, or 4.5 v o l t s , a s marked on the diagram.
E M.F. O EACN SERIES F :CONNECTION I S 4.5 VOLTS;

E.M.F. OF EPCH CELL IS 1.5 VOL?S

I S 1 . 5 VOLTS

L0ll0~ PAR~LLEL-SERIES COMBINPTION

,

L O ~ D ~ SERIES-P&RPILLEL COMBINATION

Figure 2 1

Figure 22

SUMMARY. The p r i n c i p a l f a c t s t h a t should be remembered from t h i s l e s s o n a r e G l i s t e d below. In our l e s s o n on " ~ l e c t r i c a l j r c u i t s and O h m ' s Law" t h e mathe m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n between t h e r e s i s t a n c e , t h e v o l t a g e and t h e current i n a c i r c u i t w i l l be expl.ained. It i s advisable t h a t you p r a c t i c e drawing c e l l s i n various combinations s o t h a t reading simple schematic diagrams w i l l not cause you any confusion.

I n a primary c e l l one p l a t e i s consumed by t h e a c t i o n of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e when t h e c e l l produces an e.m.f. p o l a r i z a t i o n i s caused by a l a y e r of hydrogen gas bubbles c o l l e c t i w on one of t h e p l a t e s . Local a c t i o n i s due t o i m p u r i t i e s and f o r e i g n p a r t i c l e s such as carbon, i r o n e t c . , i n commercial zinc.

Lesson 6
..&*"',:r

-

sheet 14
.i..-.;

.~. . ,

.. .

,

..

,

...

...,

.

i',..,., . . c ,

-

R e s u l t s Obtained From Various C e l l Combinat i o n s . V LA E OT G SERIES arrangement of c e l l s .
VOLTAGE.. ..The

- RESISTANCE - CURRFfPT

-

t o t a l e.m.f. of a s e r i e s combination of c e l l s i s t h e sum of the e.m.f.cs of t h e i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s .

RESISTANCE.T~~ n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of c e l l s i n s e r i e s i s increased i by adding c e l l s . The t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i s t h e sum of t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ce 11s.
CUR RE NT ..

. .In c pera scet i ch e c e.m.f.) r e when atlhl e rconnectede i n s ehr ee loadt o a e e l l s -a usu y i s ( e s i s t a n c of t in r t
c i r c u i t ( o r external c i r c u i t ) i s high i n order t o obtain a large current. oP c e l l s .

PARALLEL - arrangement
VOLTAGE..

. .Theu atloonlye.m.f.t h e ofe.m.f.p a rofl lanycombination e ofgroupl l sprovidtal a a el ce is eq to c e l l i n th
i n g they a r e bf s i m i l a r kind.

RES1STAKCE.The i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of c e l l s i n p a r a l l e l i s decreased by adding c e l l s . The t o t a l i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e i s e q u a l t o t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of one c e l l d i v i d e d by t h e number of c e l l s .
CURmNT..

.

.In p r a c t i c e c e l l s a r e g e n e r a l l y connected i n p a r a l l d when t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e load c i r c u i t i s low s o t h a t each c e l l cont r i b u t e s i t s share of t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t ,
EXAMINATION

-

LESSON 6

1, 2
3.

4. 5.
6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

What i s a primary c e l l ? Name the m a t e r i a l s used i n some one type of primary c e l l . ( a ) What determines t h e e .m.f. of a d r y c e l l ? ( b ) What determines t h e u s e f u l l i f e of a primary c e l l ? ( a ) ;Vhat i s p o l a r i z a t i o n ? ( b ) H w may p o l a r i z a t i o n be reduced? o ( a ) 'Vhat i s meant by l o c a l a c t i o n ? ( b ) D yo11 know of any remedy f o r Local a c t i o n ? Explain. o Can a primary c e l l be charged and used a g a i n l i k e a s t o r a g e c e l l ? Why? What i s t o e d i f f e r e n c e between a c e l l and a b a t t e r y ? ( a ) Mhen would you u s e a s e r i e s connection of c e l l s ? ( b ) What i s the advantage of connecting c e l l s i n s e r i e s ? ( c ) Hw i s the t o t a l e.m.f. of a s e r i e s combination of c e l l s computed? o ( a ) When would you use a p a r a l l e l grouping of c e l l s ~ ( b ) What i s the advantage of a p a r a l l e l connection of c e l l s ? ( c ) Eow i s t h e t o t a l e.m.f. of a p a r a l l e l combination of c e l l s f i g u r e d ? If you were given 1 5 d r y c e l l s and asked t o connect them i n a group which you would supply a c e r t a i n c i r c u i t w i t h an e.m.f. of 4.5 v o l t s how ~ o u l d do i t ? Draw a schematic diagram using symbols.

Lesson 6

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s h e e t 15

Technical Lesson 7
RESISTANCE AND CONDUCTION

Resistance i s a term known t o a l l of us and it means opposition or an opposing force. This force of opposition can be i n two forms; it may be stationary o r i n motion. N matter what work i s done resistance i s present i n some form o r o other. When you walk resistance tends t o r e t a r d your action; when you pow a boat the water offers resistance t o the forward motion of the boat. Water running through a pipe i s retarded by f r i c t i o n caused by the water making contact with the sides of t h e pipe. It i s readily seen then that resistance i s something t h a t must be overcome. If a pipe i s clean water w i l l flow through with comparative ease; ifwe allow rust, and s i l t t o c o l l e c t i n t h e same pipe it w i l l require more pressure t 6 force the water through, hence the r u s t and s i l t i s an obstruction or resistance t o the flow o f water and a greater pressure i s required t o overcome t h i s resistance offered t o the passage of water. I n an e l e c t r i c a l circu5,t resistance i s also present and, before current can flow* the resistance must be overcome i n the c i r c u i t by a pressure or force. A electromotive force of s u f f i c i e n t pressure must be apn plied t o the c i r c u i t t o force the current through the conductor thus overcoming i t s resistance. N e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t canbe devised without some resistance but c e r t a i n o c i r c u i t s may offer l e s s resistance t o a cnrrent of e l e c t r i c i t y than others, depending upon the conductors used. I f the resistance i s low the conduction i s good, o r , ak w say when speaking of c e r t a i n wire, e it i s a good conductor of e l e c t r i c i t y . Conversely, i f the r e s l s t a n c s of a material i s high w have poor conduction; i n other words, the e material i s a poor conductor. Certain materials o f f e r such a very high resistance t o the passage of e l e c t r i c current t h a t there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no conduction; such materials a r e called non-conductors or insulators. I n materials capable of carrying e l e c t r i c current the molecular s t r u c t u r e i s such t h a t the electrons, a p a r t of matter, can be forced i n t o motion thereby producing a flow of e l e c t r i c current. Materials classed a s insulators are substances, t h e molecular structure of which i s s o arranged t h a t electrons cannot make any appreciable movement, because they am t i g h t l y held withinthe atom of which t b i n s u l a t o r 1s composed. e With these two classes of materials w can make up a c i r c u i t of materials t h e natme of which w i l l e i t h e r obstruct or allow current t o flow.

To f o r c e e l e c t r o n s t o move from one p a r t of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t t o another r e s i s t a n c e must be overcome and f o r c e must be applied. This f o r c e i s c a l l e d electromotive f o r c e and abbreviated E.M.F. When an E.M.F. has been a p p l i e d t o a conductor a c u r r e n t i s fo-md t o flow through t h e conductor, providing t h e conductor f o r m s a complete -called-ampere. (Note. Bear i n mind t h e . path. 'The-unit of c u r r e n t .-c i r c u i t must be complete. A g r e a t E.M.P. may b@ auulied t o a conductor but u n l e s s t h e c i r c u i t i s coniinuous no e l e c t r o n s move, hence no c u r r e n t flows. )

- --

then, i s t h e e l e c t r i c a l f o r c e necessary t o move e l e c t r o n s i n a conductor a g a i n s t t h e r e s i s t i n g f o r c e s of t h e atom which tend t o prevent t h e e l e c t r o n s from mooing from one atom t o another.
E.M.F.

The m a t e r i a l , i t s s i z e , and i t s p h y s i c a l s t a t e , such a s i t s temperatsue, e t c . , determines j u s t how much it w i l l oppose t h e f r e e movement of e l e c t r o n s , or, i n o t h e r words, i t s r e s i s t a n c e . The ohm i s t h e u n i t of r e s i s t a n c e , shown i n symbol a s n , and denotes t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f f e r e d t o an e l e c t r o n movement ( e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t ) through a substance. Conductance i s t h e it i f we s p e l l OHM conductance o r t h e t r o n s can be moved opposite of r e s i s t a n c e and we can f i n d t h e terms f o r backwards, g i v i n g us MHO. Mho t h e n i s t h e u n i t of measure by which w i n d i c a t e t h e e a s e which t h e e l e c e through a substance.

Any e l e c t r i c a l conductor has b o t h r e s i s t a n c e axid conductance and, I n e l e c t r i c a l p r a c t i c e , we s e l e c t f o r our purpose m a t e r i a l which o f f e r s s m a l l r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e flovi of c u r r e n t when we d e s i r e h i h conductance. If low conductance i s d e s i r e d w u s e another c l a s s of m e r i a l which has e a a h i g h r e s i s t a n c e and which o b s t r u c t s o r opposes t h e f l o w of c u r r e n t .

-+

Resistance i n any e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t o f f e r s a wide range of study and t h e purpose of t h i s l e s s o n i s t o p o i n t out t o t h e s t u d e n t t h e v a r i o u s forms of r e s i s t a n c e which may be encountered i n r a d i o p r a c t i c e , and t h e terms used t o c l a s s i f y such r e s i s t a n c e . ohmic r e s i s t a n c e of d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s may b e determined by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of O h m ' s Law when t h e c u r r e n t and voltage values a r e known. Resistances necessary t o c o n t r o l c u r r e n t and voltage values of vacuum tube c i r c u i t s may be c l a s s i f i e d under t h e following names,-- R e s i s t o r , Rheostat and Potentiometer. D i f f e r e n t n a t e r i a l s a r e used i n making t h e s e v a r i o u s u n i t s of r e s i s t a n c e , such as carbon or t h e combinations of d i f f e r e n t m e t a l s which, when combined, a r e termed a l l o y s . By winding german s i l v e r o r climax r e s i s t a n c e wtre on a s u i t a b l e support, such a s p o r c e l a i n o r a non-lnflamable composition form, a u n i t t o a c t a s an opposition t o t h e flow of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t may be had. Such a form i s suggested i n F i g u r e 1 and c o n s t i t u t e s f i x e d r e g i s t a n c e . Lesson 7

1
1

i

i

- sheet 2

most ang eolELfit10n. Radio receivers.

Figures 2 and 3 show types of Resistors used i n

Figure 1

"Rheostat " i s a term applied t o a form of resistance which i s adjustable. B the use of a rheostat current y flow can be controlled a t t h e w i l l of t h e operator by simple adjustment of the r h e o s t a t . T h i s form of r e s i s t a n c e I s shown i n Figure 4.

The Potentiometer i s another form of r e s i s t a n c e employed t o perform a c e r t a i n function i n controlling t h e action of c e r t a i n p a r t s of radio c i r c u i t s . It usually c o n s i s t s of resistance wire wound i n t o u n i t s having a value of from 200 t o 1,000 ohms. The use of the potentiometer i s t o divide p o t e n t i a l s between p a r t s of a single c i r c u i t or t o divide a p o t e n t i a l difference between two or more c i r c u i t s . E x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n concerning the use of e these u n i t s w i l l be given when w g e t t o t h a t point i n our studies wherein w employ these devices. e
INDUCTIVE REACTANCE

Current flow i n a l t e r n a t i n g current c i r c u i t s i s a f f e c t e d by inductance which i s a form of resistance termed inductive reactance, and which i s measured i n ohms.
CAPACITIVE REACTANCE

Figure 2

Capacity also c o n s t i t u t e s a form of r e s i s t a n c e and i s c a l l e d capacitive reactance, also measured i n o m .

The combination of inductive reactance and capacity reactance and pure ohmic resistance o f f e r s opposition t o current flow i n a l t e r n a t i n g current c i r c u i t s . This t o t a l opposition i s termed im edance. Impedance i s a l s o which displaces "Rw measured i n ohms and i s designated by the s m o y i n the Obmls L w formula. Further d i s c u s s i o n c n t h i s subject i s presented a under "Inductance and Capacity".

Figure 3 It i s c l e a r l y seen t h a t r e s i s t a n c e i s a f k t o r which must be taken i n t o account i n a l l e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s . A l l substances a r e found t o r e s i s t the passage of e l e c t r i c i t y but the r e s i s t a n c e of metals Ss l e s s than a l l other substances, t h a t of course being the reason f o r the adoption of metals t o serve as carrying agents of e l e c t r i c i t y . Lesson 7

- sheet 3

CNUTR O D COS The b e s t conductor Of e l e c t r i c i t y i s s i l v e r because i t o f f e r s t h e l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e O r o p p o s i t i o n t o c u r r e n t flow and i s t a k e n a s t h e b a s i s of comparison i n computing t h e r e s i s t a n c e of o t h e r metals. The s p e c i f i c r e s i s t a n c e of any m a t e r i a l i s t h e r e s i s t a n c e of a u n i t l e n g t h of t h a t m a t e r i a l and t h e u n i t c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a a t a predetermined degree of temperature. It i s i n r e a l i t y t h e r e s i s t a n c e of any substance one c u b i c i n c h square when measured a t a temperature The t a b l e shows t h e r e l a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e of of melting i c e (32'F). chemically pure metals a t t h e temperature of 32"Fahrenheit.
METAL

RELATIVE RESISTANCE

RESISTANCE I N MICROHMS PFR CUBIC I N C H

Annealed s i l v e r Annealed copper Hard drawn s i l v e r Hard drawn copper Annealed gold Annealed aluminum Pressed z i n c Platinum Annealed ' i r o n Lead German s i l v e r By studying the r e s i s t a n c e very s i l v e r not only is in as t a b l e i t i s seen t h a t German s i l v e r has a s p e c i f i c . n e w l y 14 times a s g r e a t a s annealed s t l v e r . German has a h i g h r e s i s t a n c e but t h e r e s i s t a n c e s o offered more o r l e s s constant, t h a t i s , i t does not f l u c t u a t e r e s i s t a n c e value w i t h changes of c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h t o g r o a t an e x t e n t a s o t h e r metals.

It has been found by experiment t h a t t h e t o t a l r e s i s t m c e of a conductor v a r i e s d i r e c t l y a s t h e s p e c i f i c r e s i s t a n c e Figure and l e n g t h , and i n v e r s e l y a s t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l area. These q u a n t i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d a s shown by t h e following formula: 'Resistance e q u a l s t h e m a t e r i a l times t h e l e n g t h of t h e conductor divided by i t s c r o s s s e c t i o n a l area."
when w know t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a and t h e l e n g t h of a conductor e t h e s p e c i f i c r e s i s t a n c e of t h e wire may be obtained from t h e t a b l e j u s t given and, by s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e values i n t h e above formula, t h e r e s i s t a n c e can e a s i l y be Pound. Temperature changes w i l l a f f e c t t h e r e s i s t a n c e of an e l e c t r i c a l conductor and, i n g e n e r a l , t h e r e s i s t a n c e of metals i n c r e a s e a s t h e

Lesson 7

- sheet 4

a t u r e of t h e s o l u t i o n r i s e s . Carbon f i l a m e n t s , such a s used e a r l y t y p e s o f e l e c t r i c lamps, have but h a l f a s much r e s i s t a n c e when white hot a s when cold. The r e s i s t a n c e of a conductor, however, w i l l remain constant i n value a s long e s t h e temperature remains constant. To g r a s p the i d e a of one ohm r e s i s t a n c e examples of conductors having approximately t h a t value of r e s i s t a n c e are given. For example, two hundred and f i f t y f e e t of number s i x t e e n "Brown and sharp* gauge copper wire having a diameter of one t w e n t i e t h of an i n c h has a r e s i s t a n c e of one ohm. One thousand f e e t of number thirty- two "B & S" bare copper wire has a r e s i s t a n c e of one hundred and seventy and seven t e n t h s ohms. From t h i s i t i s seen t h a t a l a r g e gauge copper wire has a r e s i s t a n c e value l e s s t h a n one of s m a l l e r gauge. INSULATORS Other substances may be s e l e c t e d which have h i g h e r r e s i s t i n g powers e e t h a n metals. W may continue t o s e l e c t m a t e r i a l s u n t i l w a r r i v e a t t h e p o i n t here i t becomes very hard t o f o r c e e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t through t h e substance s o s e l e c t e d . Such substances a r e termed I n s u l a t o r s and t h e y have extremely high r e s i s t a n c e . APT m a t e r i a l may be classed a s an i n s u l e t o r which w i l l not allow e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t t o flow, t h a t i s , which w i l l prevent t h e passage of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t through t h e mass of the substances.

It i s well t o s t a t e a t t h i s point t h a t t h e r e i s no p e r f e c t i n s u l a t o r any more t h a n t h e r e i s a p e r f e c t conductor. If a p o t e n t i a l of s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h i s impressed a c r o s s an i n s u l a t o r t h e i n s u l a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s w i l l break down and a flow of c u r r e n t t a k e s place, t h i s flow of c u r r e n t o f t e n being termed "leakage

'.

The i n s u l a t o r s shown i n Figure 5 a r e f a m i l i a r t y p e s and a r e g e n e r a l l y made of m a t e r i a l which o f f e r g r e a t opposftion t o c u r r e n t flow. The corrugations o r i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the s u r f a c e a r e purposely placed t h e r e t o i n c r e a s e t h e surface a r e a of t h e i n s u l a t o r . A f i l m of moisture sometimes c o l l e c t s on i n s u l a t o r s and t h i s f i l m i s more or l e s s a conductor of e l e c t r i c i t y . The c o r r u g a t i o n s o r i r r e g u l a r surface a i d s i n reducing what i s termed " s u r f a c e leakage'! Other forms of i n s u l a t o r s shown I n Figure 6 a r e known a s p o r c e l a i n c l e a t s . Figure 6A shows a c l e a t i n place, holding two wtres, and n a i l e d or screwed t o a j o i s t o r t'imber. The i n s u l ~ t o r sshown i n Figures 7 and 7 A a r e p o r c e l a i n tubes and a r e used f o r passing e l e c t r i c a l conductors through w a l l s and p a r t i t i o x h , Figure 8 i n d i c a t e s t h e manner of connecting i n s u l e t o r s t o t h e two supported ends of t h e antenna used f o r broadcast r e c e i v i n g work.

or must withstand t h e s t r a i n of 30.000 v o l t s and. i n some i n s t a l l a t i o n s , even g r e a t e r values of p o t e n t i a l . T h i s type l s known a s t h e e l e c t r o s e moulded i n s u l a t o r . A heavy b r a s s rod i s moulded s e c u r e l y i n t o i t which t e r m i n a t e s a t e i t h e r end i n a connection lug. The outs i d e of t h e i n s u l a t o r i s threaded a s shown a t "A" A f i v e i n c h hole i s c u t i n t h e Radio cabin and t h e upper h a l f of t h e i n s u l a t o r "B",

.

Figure 6 carrying t h e threaded p o r t i o n "A" i s dropped through t h e h o l e and t h a t part of t h e i n s u l a t o ~ r e a t s on rubber washers which i n s u l a t e s it from t h e deck. The lower h a l f which i s threaded i n s i d e a t "Dn i s t h e n screwed onto t h e threaded p a r t " A" and drawn up t i g h t l y w i t h a wrench.

Fiaure 5

-

F i g u r e 6A

marked'"^"

Another form of i n s u l a t o r , c a l l e d t h e B r e d f i e l d type, i s shown i n Figure 10. A long hard rubber t u b e "T", about two inches i n diameter, The tube i s threaded a t t h e c e n t e r t o t a k e two h a s a b r a s s l u g , "L". wooden blocks B 1 and B2, one being placed above t h e deck and t h e o t h e r below. Washers a r e used between t h e deck and each block. The blocks a r e then drawn up t i g h t l y by means of screws. The cone shaped m e t a l l i c hood Ti" serves t o prot,ect t h e rod from dampness.

Figure 7 Figure 7 A Other i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i e l s used i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s a r e given below i n order of t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g r e s i s t i v e value: *y a i r , p a r a f f i n e , r e s i n , sulphur, wax, g l a s s , mica, I n d i a rubber, s i l k , paper and o i l s . Theser e s i s t i n g elements i n t h e r a d i o c i r c u i t a r e cornonly used a s i n s u l a t i o n around c o i l s o r a s d i e l e c t r i c mediums. The r e s i s t a n c e of such m a t e r i a l s i s measured i n ohms and i s c a l l e d the i n s u l a t i o n r e s i s t a n c e . It i s computed from t h e voltqge a p p l i e d under e x a c t i n g c o n d i t i o n s when temperature, e x a c t s i z e of m a t e r i a l , humidity, e t c . , a r e t a k e n i n t o account during t h e measurements. The a i r between t h e p l ~ t e s v a r i a b l e condensers i s an i n s u l s t o r and of i f you w i l l examine a f i x e d condenser, you w i l l o f t e n f i n d e i t h e r Lesson 7

-

sheet 6

p a r a f f i n e d paper, mica, o r perhaps o i l e d s i l k , u medium. These m a t e r i a i s a l l a c t a s such because high resistance. When c o m p u t i n g t h e r e s i s t a n c e of antennae a l l 10s They are, f i r s t , t h e Ohmic r e s i s t a n c e of t h e wires second, leakage over t h e s u r f a c e s o f i n s u 1 a . t o r s and, l o s s e s when the antenna i s i n t h e proximity of b u l and o t h e r s i m i l a r o b j e c t s . When high frequency c u r r e n t s a r e used, as i n r a d i o wor i s the t o t a l of a l l oppositions and l o s s e s due t o t h e c u r r e n t . The Ohmic r e s i s t a n c e of a l l wires of t h e c i r considered a s w e l l a s c a p a c i t y , inductive and eddy c u r of which' i n c r e a s e t h e r e s i s t a n c e . Resistance, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o be found i n many forms through t r i c a l c i r c u i t . I n some places i t i s u s e f u l while i n o t h e r p t h e c i r c u i t it i s d e t r i m e n t a l and wholly u n d e s i r a b l e .

I n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e r e s i s t a n c e of conductors t h e

Figure 8

Figure 1 0

employed. A wire one f o o t i n length and one m i l i n diameter i s a mil- foot and i f t h i s wire has a r e s i s t a n c e o f two ohms, it i s s a i d t o have a r e s i s t a n c e of two ohms per mil- foot. I n e l e c t r i c a l parlance,

Resistance per mil- foot x l e n g t h i n f e e t D squared

M i s a constant Thrs formula m be w r i t t e n a s follows: a L equals t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a dependent upon t h e m a t e r i a l used, D i n c i r c u l a r m i l s and L i s t h e l e n g t h of t h e conductor i n p a r t . W q hn t h e r e s i s t a n c e of copper wire i s being computed M equals 10.4 ohms, s o i f you were s o l v i n g f o r the r e s i s t a n c e of copper wire t h e formula would read,
R

= m, where

ML

I n t h e following wire t a b l e h e l p f u l information i s compiled f o r u s e i n r e s i s t a n c e c a l c u l a t i o n . From t h i s t a b l e v a l u e s may b e obtained f o r s u b s t i t u t i o n i n t h e above formule f o r r e s i s t a n c e of copper wire.

-Dia. l miis 2 4.3 8.5 4.4 11.9 '0.74 80.81 1.96 84.08 81.07 80.82 15.26 10.30 15.89 11.96 28.46 !5.35 !2.51 20.10 17.90 15.94 14.20 i2.64 11.26 10.03 8928 7.950 7.080 6.305 5.615 5.m 4.453 3.965 3.531 3.145

Area
Cir. mils Sgvare inches

-.I620 ,1443 .I285 ,1144 ,1019

Dia. n inhe*

6250 0820 6510 3090 0380

- 25' C. .02M ,01635 ,01297 .01028 .008155 ,4028 .5080 .6405 ,8071 1.018 1.284 1.619 2.042 2.575 3.247 4.094 5.163 6.510 8.210 10.35 13.05 16.46 20.76 26.17 33.W 41.62 52.48 66.17 83.44 105.20 132.70 167.30 211.00 266.00 335.50 423.00 533.40 672.60 848.10 1W9.W ,006467 .005129 ,004067 ,003225 .W2558 ,002028 .WX609 .001276 .001012 .0008023 ,0006363 .0005046
.OOD4M)Z

Ohma aLO O0 ft. at F. 01

l

-wnds
per K.0 ft.
I.u~lar.

WIRE TABLE
B & S GAUGE Dia. C. C. I mils.

.

Max. Die. . C. C. l miis
19. 13.30 12.5 27.4 i2.9 31.7 91.8 53.0 15.1 68.1 60.8 55.3 50.3 45.9 42.0 38.5 33.3 30.60 28.10 25.90 23.04 22.20 20.64 19.36 18.03 16.93 15.95 15.08 14.31 13.61 13. 12.45 11.96 11.53 11.15

-

Dia. in
). S.

,116
.02 .98 .63 .43 .92 .77 .68 .43 ,858 318 .2W ,917 .899 ,.092 !.452 ..945 :.542 1.2223 ,9699 ,7692 .61W ,4837 ,3836 ,3042 2413 .I913 ,1517 :I203 .0954: .07561
. 1 m

C. [G. E. co.1

mils

'urns per
CO.)

Appro=.

T-s

....... .......

-

inch 'G. E.

..............
.............. ..............
,T..

--

Emmeled

inch

per

.......

.......

.......
....... ....... ....... .......
....... ......
....... ......

,0974 ,08081 .01196 ,06408 ,05707 ,05082 ,04526 ,0403 ,03589 ,03196 ,02846 .02535 ,02257 ,02010 .01190 ,01554 .01420 ,01264 ,01126 ,01003 ,00892 .Wl95 .00108 .W630! .00561! .W5 ,00445 .W396 ,00353 $0314

8234 6530 5178 4101 3257 2583 2048 1624 1288 1022 810.1 642.4 509.5 404.0 320.4 254.1 201.5 159.8 126.7 100.5 19.70 63.21 50.13 39.75 31.52

.......

.............. .............. ........ ..

......
29.00 26.00 24.00

......

......

.OOt~3173 .0002517 .W01996 .0001583 .OW1255 .0000995: .0000789< .OW0626( .WW496' .W00393: .W00312: .WOO2471

22.W 20.W 18.60 17.04 15.00 13.90 13.00 12.00 11.30 9.6

-

25.W .W00196' 19.83 .OWO155' 15.72 .OOWL23! 12.47 .WOW91' 9.888 .0000077~

--

.0475, ,0377, ,0299.

....... 8.00 .......

9.00

--

7.00

Lesson 7

-

sheet 8

Conductance, a s s t a t e d before, i s the e a s e with which e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i s forced through t h e c i r c u i t . Conductance i s most e a s i l y remembered a s being e x a c t l y the opposite of r e s i s t a n c e . For exkmple, suppose t h r e e r h e o s t a t e s have. a resistanrre of 20 ohms, 10 ohms and 5 ohms r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e conductance would be 1/20 mho, 1/10 and 1/5 mho.
A t times, i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e r e s i s t a n c e of a p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t , It i s expressed i n terms of conductance a s follows: ''TO f i n d t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n terms of conductance add t h e conductance of t h e s e v e r a l branches t o o b t a i n t h e t o t a l conductance of t h e combination; t h i s r e s u l t I n v e r t e d gives the resistance."
EXAMINATION

- LESSON '7

I s t h e r e a p e r f e c t i n s u l a t o r o r a p e r f e c t conductor? For a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes what substances make t h e b e s t conductors? Does a i r o f f e r r e s i s t a n c e ? Give a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of "impedance".. J u s t why a r e i n s u l a t o r s used? What would happen t o t h e r e c e i v e d r a d i o s i g n a l s i f t h e i n s u l a t o r s shown on t h e a e r i a l i n Figure 8 were removed?

I s It p o s s i b l e f o r e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s t o have no r e s i s t a n c e ?
What does t h e t e r n " a l l o y " mean?

Why i s it t h a t some r e s i s t a n c e s , or r e s i s t o r s , o f f e r more r e s i s t a n c e than others?
What i s t h e t o t a l conductance of a c i r c u i t i n which t h r e e r e s i s t o r s of 5 ohms 10 ohms and 20 ohms a r e connected i n p a r a l l e l ? What m a t e r i a l , I n your e s t i m a t i o n , o f f e r s t h e g r e a t e s t amount of r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e flow of c u r r e n t ?

Lesson 7

- sheet 9

.
INC.
fi,-rne>-r,.

M A R C O N / /NST/TUT£

Technical Lesson 8
EIXCTRICAL CIRCUITS
fill substances (according t o the e l e c t r o n t h e o r y ) a r e e l e c t r i c a l i n nature. Supported by t h e e l e c t r o n t h e o r y w e find that i f a p r e s s u r e o r f o r c e , e l e c t r i c a l l y c a l l e d an electromotive f o r c e i s a p p l i e d t o a copper w i r e t h e e l e c t r o n s , which a r e a p a r t o f t h e copper atoms, w i l l move from one p a r t of t h e copper t o t h e other. Copper wire i s used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r r a d i o and e l e c t r i c a l purposes i n general.

I n previous l e s s o n s w l e a r n e d t h a t , years ago, s c i e n t i s t s discovered e methods t o c r e a t e t h i s e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e and when it was applied t o a metal i t a g i t a t e d t h e s e small e l e c t r o n s a t such v e l o c i t y a s t o s h i f t o r move t h e e l e c t r i c energy around a t a g r e a t r a t e of speed. Copper ore, which i s mined, i s s e n t t o a r e f i n i n g p l a n t a n d t h e pure copper i s e x t r a c t e d from it. T h i s , i n t u r n , can be made i n t o any shape, such a s wire, by h e a t i n g i t and sending it through small holes i n a s t e e l p l a t e , which i s c a l l e d a die. If t h e wire i s too l a r g e it can be s e n t through a succession of t h e s e s t e e l d i e s each having a smaller opening t h a n t h e preceding d i e u n t i l t h e s i z e d e s i r e d i s obtained.
O u r study of primary c e l l s t a u g h t us t h a t an electromotive f o r c e i s produced when two elements a r e placed i n a n a c i d s o l u t i o n . When z i n c i s employed a s one of t h e elements it i s a t t a c k e d by t h e a c i d which causes a d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l and which, i n t u r n , pushes e l e c t r o n s through t h e a c i d s o l u t i o n out of t h e carbon connection of t h e c e l l . The f o r c e a p p l i e d r e s u l t s i n an e l e c t r o n movement which we c a l l c u r r e n t .

I n Figure 1 and 1 A we have a eel% capable of developing one v o l t of e electromotive force. If w connect a wire fromthe p o s i t i v e t e r m i n a l t o t h e negative t e r m i n a l of this- c e l l c u r r e n t w i l l flow i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e arrows. Figure 1 r e p r e s e n t s t h e p i c t u r e of t h e c e l l while Figure 1 A i s t h e e l e c t r i c a l symbol o r short- hand way of showing t h e same t h i n g . T h i s i s a simple e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t and, around it m i l l i o n s of e l e c t r o n s a r e i n motion.
If you secure a d r y c e l l and connect it Up a s shown, and then hold t h e s h o r t wire w i t h one hand a t any p o i n t between X and X I , you w i l l not receive a shock a s you mighk suppose but if you a r e not * c a r e f u l you may r e c e i v e a burn such as you would experience by touqh5ng a h o t iron.

Something i s wrong here, can you imagine what it i s ? Let us disconnect one end of t h i s c i r c u i t b e f o r e it r u i n s t h e c e l l . F i r s t , you should know you have caused what i s c a l l e d a SHORT CIRCUIT; i f you had s e v e r a l c e l l s connected t o g e t h e r t h e wire might become r e d h o t and even melt.
B y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h r e s i s t a n c e and conductance i t was found t h a t s i l v e r was a v e r y good conductor but i t s c o s t i s high. Copper i s used commercially because of i t s lower c a s t and r e l a t i v e l y higH conductivity. Copper has a h i g h c o n d u c t i v i t y because i t s molecular s t r u c t u r e i s such t h a t t h e atoms do not have t h e e l e c t r o n s bound up v e r y t i g h t l y . Therefore i f a n E.M.F. i s applied t o t h e copper wire t h e e l e c t r o n s s t a r t off a t a t e r r i f i c r a t e of speed and they have so many c o l l i s i o n s a t such a t e r r i f i c r a t e of speed i n t h e i r endeavor t o move ahead of t h e electromotive f o r c e o r v o l t a g e t h a t t h e e n t i r e wire g e t s hot due t o t h i s v i o l e n t a g i t a t i o n . T h i s causes a s h o r t c i r c u i t . You e i t h e r d e s t r o y t h e b a t t e r y because t h e z i n c w i l l be consumed i n a s h o r t time or t h e wire, i f small enough, a i g h t burn and melt, t h u s opening the c i r c u i t . Short c i r c u i t s must be prevented.

When you s t u d i e d t h e l e s s o n on r e s i s t a n c e you found t h a t c e r t a i n substances would not a l l o w such f r e e movement of e l e c t r o n s ; now w e e a r e g e t t i n g t o it. W want something t h a t w i l l put a brake on t h e e l e c t r o n s , preventing them from burning up %he v e r y conductor of which they a r e a p a r t and i n which they move. Resistance then, i s what we need; something t o r e s i s t o r oppose t h e movement of e l e c t r o n s and hold them down t o a slower pace. N w i s o t h e time we a r e going t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e what we learned about elect r i c a l u n i t s , and our f i r s t problem i s going t o be w i t h t h e c i r c u i t of . Figure 1 We found t h a t t h e wire which made up t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t became hot, s o we must f i n d a r e s i s t a n c e t h a t w i l l check the flow of current. Let us work out a problem t h a t you can apply i n your r a d i o c i r c u i t s . W w i l l redraw Figure 1 t o look l i k e t h e c i r c u i t , Figure 2, and work e out t h e conditions of t h e problem which i s a s follows: With a b a t t e r y having an E.M.F. of s i x v o l t s f i n d t h e r e s i s t a n c e necessary t o allow one h a l f ampere t o flow. From Ohmts Law:

R

= T substituting

E

R

.5)60(U

o r , 1 2 OHMS

r e s i s t a n c e i s necessary t o pass one h a l f ampere of c u r r e n t I n our c i r c u i t of Figure 2. Lesson 8

- sheet 2

R

=f

E

and s u b s t i t u t i n g R

= m=

4

10)4.0(.4 o r a

r e s i s t a n c e of f o u r t e n t h s (0.4) of a n ohm i s required. It i s e v i d e n t &at i f we know any two f a c t o r s we can f i n d t h e t h i r d by Ohm's Law i n any d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t . If t h a t i s so, suppose we c o n s i d e r Figure 4 and prove our statement. R = .4 ohms, I = 10 amperes and, we w i l l say, t h e voltage o r E.M.F. i s unknown. Prom Ohm's Law E = I x R, t h e r e f o r e E : 10 x .4 10 : f o u r v o l t s p r e s s u r e o r E.M.F. necessary o t o d r i v e t e n amperes through t h e c i r c u i t . N w l e t us r e f e r t o the c i r c u i t i n Figure 5. Here t h e r e s i s t a n c e and t h e v o l t a g e i s known, and t h e current flow, we w i l l say, i s unknown, s o from O h m l s Law:
I
.4 m, o r

=

E r, s u b s t i t u t i n g

I

= 3 = 10

4

amperes,

or t e n amperes w i l l flow i n t h e c i r c u i t .

EzUYOLTS

1''

Figure 2

Figwe 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

W have now worked out a l l t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s , - r e s i s t a n c e , voltage and e c u r r e n t which a r e found i n a l l e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s of t h i s kind. It i s problems such a s t h e s e t h a t you encounter i n your Radio work so we w i l l now consider an a c t u a l c i r c u i t .

Our f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be f i l a m e n t c i r c u i t s a p p l i e d t o r a d i o tubes. The filament c i r c u i t i s a very important p a r t of the set and one which seems t o confuse t h e average student.

Lesson 8

-

sheet 3

i

You a l r e a d y know t h e meaning of voltage, amperage, and ohms but l e t us r e p e a t them b r i e f l y . , Volts (E) hperes (I)= Ohms (R or& ) = t h e electromotive f o r c e applied. t h e c u r r e n t flow i n t h e c i r c u i t . t h e opposition or r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e current flow.

1

I
I

The voltage w i l l be found t o be a very important f a c t o r of O h m f s Law f o r t h e reason t h a t upon i t depends t h e amount of c u r r e n t flowing through a given r e s i s t a n c e . Further, if E.M.F. i s h e l d constant and f o r any reason we change t h e value of t h e r e s i s t a n c e , t h e value of c u r r e n t flow w i l l change. Also, i f a constant r e s i s t a n c e i s maintained N w w can g e t o e and t h e E.W.F. i s v a r i e d t h e c u r r e n t w i l l change. r i g h t down t o f a c t s , - t h i n g s you want t o know. Suppose you have a UX-199 tube and wish t o know t h e c o r r e c t value of t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o be used i n s e r i e s with t h e b a t t e r y and filament t o p a s s t h e c o r r e c t value o f c u r r e n t through t h e tube filament.

E =6

VOLTS

Figure 6B Figure 6 A Figure 7 A

Figure 7B

To begin w i t h the manufacturer t e l l s you on the c a r t o n enclosing t h e tube t h a t t h e normal c u r r e n t flow i n t h e f i l a m e n t of a UX-199 i s .06 amperes and t h e normal o p e r a t i n g voltage 1s 3 v o l t s . I n p r a c t i c e , however, we must use a source of voltage s l i g h t l y higher t h a n t h e r a t e d v o l t a g e of t h e tube t o compensate f o r a voltage drop o r l o s s i n t h e c i r c u i t and s t i l l have t h e r e q u i r e d 3 v o l t s a t t h e tube terminals. Three d r y c e l l s a r e used each d e l i v e r i n g 1.5 v o l t s , connected i n s e r i e s which g i v e s a t o t a l voltage of 3 c e l l s times 1.5 I n Figure 6 we have r e p r e s e n t e d a filament A v o l t s o r 4.5 v o l t s . c i r c u i t of one UX-199 tube and a r h e o s t a t , t h e r e f o r e , from Ohm's Law we can c a l c u l a t e t h e r e s i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d t o h e a t t h e filament by allowing the proper c u r r e n t t o flow.

R

= 7 substituting

E

R

=

4.5

=

7 5 h Resistance.

B u t i n t h i s c i r c u i t a s shown i n Figure 6B t h e r e a r e two r e s i s t a n c e s e i.e., tube f i l a m e n t r e s i s t a n c e and r h e o s t a t r e s i s t a n c e . W w i l l a g a i n r e s o r t t o O h m ' s Law and determine what the r e s i s t a n c e of t h e filament i t s e l f i s from t h e f i g u r e s given by t h e manufacturers.
R
I 1

=T

E

substituting R

=

3

= 50

Ohms. Lesson 8

-

sheet 4

I

next and final step i s t o substraa
lem, 5 0 * , ( t h e r e s i s t a n c e of f i l our f i r s t problem. or 7 5 A , or 75 50 = 25 ohms. 25 i s t h e required rheostat resistance t o be used i n - a s e r i e s c&&it using one .UX-199 tube.
DX-201~ tube.

-

e Figures 7 and 7B show a similar c i r c u i t . This time w w i l l use a A The f i g u r e s denote the values t o be used i n solving the problem. F i r s t l e t us f i n d t h e resistance of the filament. The manufacturer s t a t e s t h a t f i v e v o l t s should be applied t o the filament and, a t t h a t voltage the tube w i l l pass .25 amperes. T h i s i s the normal current a t which the filament functions best.
R 2

T

E

substituting,R

= =

5 8 .25

=
=

20 O h m s .

When using a s i x v o l t b a t t e r y then, E R = T substituting,R

6 + .25

24 Ohms.

24 ohms minus 20 ohms = 4 ohms. Therefore 4 ohms w i l l be the proper r h e o s t a t r e s i s t a n c e t o use t o secure the correct filament current i n s a UX-201A tube under these conditions. A you may have d i f f i c u l t y i n h securing a variable 4 o m rheostat you must te.ke the next larger s i z e made which i s 5 ohms. From these few problems and diagrams you w i l l be able t o v i s u a l i z e what an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t is. It i s possible t o build up an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t which i s r e a l l y complex, t h a t however i s not our i n t e n t i o n just yet. W want you t o master the simple e c i r c u i t s f i r s t and i n doing t h i s t h e more complex c i r c u i t s t o come l a t e r w i l l be easy.

TYPES O ELECTRICAL C I R C U I T S F
There a r e three general types of e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s i n use. The f i r s t i s a simple s e r i e s c i r c u i t such as you have just studied, then comes t h e p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t and following t h a t i s the s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l circuit. Don't you think t h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g ? Suppose you want t o know what r e s i s t a n c e t o enploy with three UX-201A tubes connected i n p a r a l l e l , and using a 6 volt battery. Before w work t h i s out l e t us go over t h a t p a r t of Ohm's Law which e r e f e r s t o p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t s and which t e l l s us t h a t i f w connect a e number of r e s i s t a n c e s of equal value i n p a r a l l e l , the current flowing through t h a t divided c i r c u i t w i l l equally divZde through each e resistance. For example, i n F i p e 8 w have an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t e i n whtch w have placed t h r e e resistances i n p a r a l l e l t o the l i n e , ( t h e l i n e i s the connecting leads which carry t h e current from the b a t t e r i e s t o the r e s i s t a n c e s and from the r e s i s t a n c e s back t o t h e b a t t e r y ) . Now, a s the current leaves the b a t t e r y it flows as indi-

Lesson 8

- sheet 5

I

I

I

cated by the arrows i n Figure 8 through l i n e X u n t i l i t a r r i v e s point A. ~t t h i s point it w i l l divide i t s e l f and flow throug R 1 , R2, and R3. If these t h r e e paths are equal i n t h e r e s i s t they o f f e r t o t h i s c u r r e n t , t h e current w i l l divide i t s e l f equa between the t h r e e paths, one t h i r d of the t o t a l c u r r e n t going t h r Let us say, f o r example, the t o t a l l i n e current i s .7 each path. .25 ampere then w i l l flow through R1, .25 ampere thr an ampere. R2 and .25 ampere through R3. A s soon as i t passes through t h i s d i vided c i r c u i t a r r i v i n g a t point B t h e t o t a l current; r e t u r n s t o t h e b a t t e r y through l i n e X 1 as .15 amperes. Since we have combined t h r e e r e s i s t a n c e s i n p a r a l l e l t h i s combined r e s i s t a n c e w i l l be l e s s than e i t h e r r e s i s t a n c e taken separately. For example, i f R 1 equals R2, and R 2 equals R 3 then t h e t h r e e together i n p a r a l l e l w i l l o f f e r l e s s r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e current than e i t h e r R 1 , R 2 , o r R 3 taken separately. Nw suppose R 1 , R2 o r R3 taken separately are 20 ohms each. When cono nected i n p z r a l l e l t h e r e s i s t a n c e of the t h r e e together equals 6.66 Nw w can continue with our three o e ohms, o r the t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e . tube r a d i o c i r c u i t which w show i n Figure 9. By studying Figure 9 A e you can see it i s t h e same, and i f you f'urther n o t i c e the d o t t e d l i n e s of Figure 8 you w i l l see the same c i r c u i t drawn d i f f e r e n t l y .

Figure 9 Figure 8 With t h a t s e t t l e d w can g e t a t our problem. e The manufacturer s t a t e s the tube w i l l function a t I t s b e s t 1st s t e d c t l y 5 v o l t s i s applied and .25 amperes flows through the f i l a ment. The r e s i s t a n c e of t h e filament of one tube then i s found by Ohm's Law. E 5 volts R T substituting,R = .Zs amperes o r .25)5.0(20-h

.

=

or R t 20 ohms f o r one filament when 5 v o l t s i s applled causing a current of .25 amperes t o flow. o 2nd step. The r e s i s t a n c e of one filament i s 20 ohms. Nw the law of r e s i s t a n c e i n p a r a l l e l t e l l s us t h a t i f w connect t h r e e equal ree s i s t a n c e s i n p a r a l l e l t h e combined r e s i s t a n c e of the t h r e e w i l l be l e s s than any one taken alone and as R 1 , I12 and R 3 a r e equal (20 ohms each), then their t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i n p a r a l l e l w i l l equal t h e r e s i s t a n c e of them divided by the number of r e s i s t a n c e s i n p a r a l l e l , i.e., 20 ohms divided by 3 or 3)20.00(6.66~ f o r t h e t o t a l t h r e e p a r a l l e l filaments. 18

Lesson 8

- sheet 6

T h i s a s s w e s us of 5 v o l t s c o n s t a n t l y f o r q u i t e long periods before t h e b a t t e r y r e q u i r e s charging. The c u r r e n t through e a c h filament i s .25 amperes and we have t h r e e filaments, t h e r e f o r e 3 f i l a m e n t s times .25 amperes e q u a l s .75 amperes, t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t required.

3rd S t e . The p d E.M.F. of o l t s must in dhighernat tphwalinilel5be oconstant.e rvaTherefore obet constantE.M.F.t eorder he c u r r e we use a n supply v lts, gen lly a 6 v l storage bat ry. slightly
5

4th s t e . W h t h a t fi pass a t 6 vo p te a d .75i tamperesknown ourl t sjob onown tiisa l t, oandn d sout what r e s i s t a n c e

R

= T and

E

substituting, R

-'

6 volts .75 amperes

and worked out .75)6.00( 6 00

-

8.

it l r e a d y have a r e s i s t 5th s t e . the f i l a m n e c i u i repr t dr cButt frome sset enpe d by was found ewet sathemselves amountinga nt coe 6.66 ohms.
2

o r 8 ohms, t h e value of r e s i s t a n c e required.

.

a
E: 5
VOLTS

Therefore we s u b s t r a c t t h a t from the r e s u l t found i n s t e p ohms 6.66 ohms and worked 8.00 -6.66 ohms

-

Figure 1 0

1 Figure 1

7th ste . gives t the r e q u i r c r n dl This vmethodleedr h u orsethaett o con r o need a two oh?n a r i a b e

o r approximately 1.34 ohms of r h e o s t a t r e s i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r o l t h e f i l a m e n t s of t h r e e UX-201A tubes.

exact amount of r e s i s t a n c e necessary f o r t h r e e UX-2O1A tubes. Inthis case ycu and,if t h e s t o r e does not c a r r y t h i s s i z e , you w i l l probably have t o buy t h e next l a r g e r s i z e or 6 ohms.

N w w w i l l consider t h e s e r i e s c i r c u i t a s shown i n Figure 10. The o e c u r r e n t flowing throughout t h i s c i r c u i t w i l l be t h e same a s t h a t through e v e r y r e s i s t a n c e r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r value. Suppose t h e r e s i s t a n c e of R 1 i s 20 ohms and that of R 2 i s 20 ohms; t o f i n d t h e The c u r r e n t t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e simple add, t h u s 20+ 20 40 ohms. a t a p o t e n t i a l of 5 v o l t s a s found by O h m ' s Law w i l l be

=

I

=

E

s u b s t i t u t i n g the above v a l w a we have I

=

5

volts ohms

Lesson 8

-

sheet 7

d out, I

= 40)5.000(.125
-Zbb
80

or

.125 amperes, t h e same c u r r e n t flowing through R 1 and R2.

200 -

When f i l a m e n t s a r e connected i n p a r a l l e l t h e v o l t a g e a c r o s s each t u b e is t h e same, but when connected i n s e r i e s t h e v o l t a g e supply must equal t h e voltage r e q u i r e d by one tube times t h e number of tubes. I n Figure 1 w have r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f i l a m e n t s of t h r e e UX-201A tubes. Each tube 1 e i s designed t o o p e r a t e a t an E.M.F. of 5 v o l t s . There a r e t h r e e i n s e r i e s , however, and 3 t u b e s x 5 v o l t s e q u a l s 1 5 v o l t s . While it only r e q u i r e d 5 v o l t s t o o p e r a t e 3 t u b e s connected i n p a r a l l e l it r e q u i r e s 3 times t h e v o l t a g e , namely 1 5 v o l t s , t o do the same t h i n g when you I n a l l c a s e s of s e r i e s connect t h e f i l a m e n t s i n a s e r i e s arrangement. arrangements It i s b e s t t o have a b a t t e r y supply s l i g h t l y over t h e r e quired voltage necessary, s o i n Figure 1 we have i n d i c a t e d t h a t v o l t a g e 1 a s 18 v o l t s . Three s i x v o l t s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s a r e e a s y t o o b t a i n and the t h r e e i n s e r i e s g i v e us a margin of 3 v o l t s t o spare over t h e r e q u i r e d voltage. The c u r r e n t throughout t h e l i n e w i l l be t h e same a s r e q u i r e d by one tube, (Remember i n p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t s the c u r r e n t flowing was t h e sum of a l l t h e tubes.) With t h e s e f a c t s i n mind f i n d t h e r e s i s t a n c e , R 4 , necessary t o c o n t r o l t h e voltage. Proceeding w i t h O h m ' s Law
R

=T

E

substituting, R

=

15 v o l t s
.25 amperes

=

.25)15.00(60 15 0

-

ohms

o r 60 ohms, t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e tubes a t 15 v o l t s and .25 amperes flowing. But we a r e going t o use 18 v o l t s t o allow f o r a drop of v o l t age E i n t h e l i n e t h e r e f o r e R =.'25 = .25)18.00('72 ohms t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e . 17 5
j
i

5 0

72 60 = 1 2 ohms r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r h e o s t a t , R4, t o c o n t r o l the t h r e e UX-20111 t u b e s i n s e r i e s .

-

50

N w i f we know the amount of t h e c u r r e n t flow and t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i n o t h e c i r c u i t given we could compute t h e voltage r e q u i r e d by proceeding a s follows; where t h e t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i s 72 ohms and t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t f l o w i s . 2 5 t h e n E = I x R , or 72 .25

36 6 144 18.00

volts. hsson 8

-

sheet 8

I n t h i s work w have neglected a l l r e s i s t a n c e of o t h e r p a r t s of t h e e c i r c u i t . However, i f a v e r y c l o s e measurement were t o be made, every s i n g l e p a r t of t h e c i r c u i t r e s i s t a n c e would have t o b e known; each l e n g t h oP wire, e v e r y switch, i n f a c t a l l p a r t s of any e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t has some r e s i s t a n c e , b u t f o r the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s t h i s f a c t o r i s so small it i s not considered. c o n t a c t and we w i l l g i v e you a formula f o r each one, t h e n when you have a problem you can e a s i l y work i t out. T h i s may a p p l y t o t h e student who wishes t o go i n t o O h m f s Law more thoroughly. W e w i l l t a k e a s e r i e s c i r c u i t f i r s t , a s shown i n Figure 12. The t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e , R, e q u a l s R 1 + R 2 4 R 3 - k R4+ R 5 +R6 + R 7 + RE.
W e can review t h e t h r e e g e n e r a l c i r c u i t s w i t h which you w i l l come i n

R4, 5, 6 , 7, i s t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e b a t t e r y , while RE equals the r e s i s t a n c e of t h e connecting wires. I n our c a l c u l a t i o n s

Figure 12 Figure 13 which do not have t o b e very c l o s e R4, 5, 6, 7, 8 can be omitted, and then t h e formula becomes: R = R1 + R 2 + R3. Figure 13 i l l u s t r a t e s a p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t wherein we have t h r e e p a r a l l e l r e s i s t a n c e s . If t h e r e s i s t a n c e s R 1 , R 2 and R 3 a r e equal t h e n t h e c u r r e n t d i v i d e s e q u a l l y between them.
If t h e r e s i s t a n c e s a r e n o t equal t h e c u r r e n t d i v i d i n g between them i s i n i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e s i s t a n c e s . That i s t o say, t h e lowest r e s i s t a n c e w i l l c a r r y t h e most c u r r e n t . Furthermore, t h e t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d t o t h e flow of c u r r e n t by such a p a r a l l e l connection i s always l e s s than t h e s m a l l e s t r e s i s t a n c e i n such a c i r c u i t . I n o t h e r words, a s more r e s i s t a n c e s a r e connected i n p a r a l l e l i n a c i r c u i t , i t ' s t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i s decreased.

20 ohns, R 3 1 0 ohns. What i s t h e t o t a l I n Figure 13 R 1 = 30 ohms, R 2 r e s i s t a n c e of t h e t h r e e , d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e connecting l e a d s ? The formula. f o r t h i s w i l l be:

=

=

and s u b s t i t u t i m our values w have e

obtain a common denominator of 60,
1 1

then

R

=

m+66+ 66
I

11)60.00(5.45

% 44

-

77s
55 -

ohms, t h e answer, and the t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e of 3 and 10 ohms connected i n p a r a l l e l . T h i s value, w i l l note, i s l e s s t h a n t h a t of t h e smallest r e s i s t a n c e of 10 ohms.

W w i l l consider a problem now w i t h r e s i s t a n c e both i n s e r i e s and e p a r a l l e l , making a s e r i e s - p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t a s shown i n Figure 14. I n t h i s problem we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g , t h e e n t i r e c i r c u i t . I n any e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t every p i e c e of wire, every p i e c e of apparatus, no matter how small, has r e s i s t a n c e and t o know a c c u r a t e l y t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n any g i v e n c i r c u i t w must know it a l l , t h e r e f o r e , i n t h e problem shown e i n Figure 14 we a r e considering t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e b a t t e r y (Rote: A d r y c e l l i s l e s s t h a n 0.1 ohm. Shelf l i f e and a s one ohm. use however, i n c r e a s e t h i s and t h e r e s i s t a n c e may, w i t h i n a year, i n e c r e a s e t o 0.5 ohm.) The wire used t o connect up t h e r e s i s t a n c e s w w i l l assume i s one ohm. This r e s i s t a n c e i s i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e l i n e while i n other p a r t s r e s i s t a n c e s a r e connected f i r s t i n !n O 4h 2n ,: s e r i e s , and i n s e r i e s arrangements, t h e n R~,, connected i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e source of 8n In': e ; - electromotive f o r c e . ;;

<= -

-=

R9

B n

6n

4 n

R5

R1 4n

Figure 14

W w i l l work t h e problem out s t e p by s t e p e i n order t h a t you w i l l be a b l e t o follow it e a s i l y . Taking our values from Figure I 4 our formula w i l l be:

Lesson 8

- sheet 10

R

=

1 + 1+ 3i5'6 c l e a r i n g denominator

-

0.3638+ 360)131.0000 108 0

Tm7r
- u7 n t
2160 1080

3F7m

2880 -

R

=

l+l+2.74 4.74, answer.

R

=

The r e s i s t a n c e t h e n of t h i s c i r c u i t having r e s i s t a n c e both i n s e r i and p a r a l l e l i s 4.74 ohms. Voltage drop, p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e , and voltage l o s s a r e terms should be well understood. I n r a d i o o p e r a t i n g you f r e q u e n t l y t o take measurements having t o do w i t h a c o n d i t i o n where t h e a apply. It I s w e l l t h e n t o have a p r a c t i c a l workdng knowledge them. Voltage drop, p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e and voltage l o s s a l l p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same t h i n g and have t o do w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e values found a t v a r i o u s p a r t s of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t . This s t a t e d a s follows;- the p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e , expressed i n along any conductor c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t , w i l l decrease i n va p o r t i o n t o the r e s i s t a n c e of s a i d conductor and t h e amount expressed i n amperes ( I ) , flowing through t h e c a l l g , t h e v o l t a g e drop along any p o r t i o n of an e l e c t r i equal t o the r e s i s t a n c e of t h a t p o r t i o n of t h e c i r c u i t the c u r r e n t i n amperes flowing t h e r e i n . I n formula f o drop, E = IR.

dropn. To explain the above expression we will use Figure 1 . Here 5 we have a circuit consisting of a battery, a lamp and a rheostat with the necessary connecting wires, and a key "K". The lamp represents a resistance of four ohms, while the rheostat represents a resistance of 2 ohms. Now close switch "Kn and place the terminals of a voltmeter across the battery as at position A. The voltmeter reads 12 volts. We can apply Ohmts Law to find the current flowing and, as the resistances are in series, the current will be the same in all parts of the circuit Therefore the total external resistance is equal to R1+ R2, and substituting the known values of the resistances: R1 = 4 A ; then R equals 4 + 2 = 6 h . Figuring the current flow.

In electrical parlance voltage drop is often referred to as the "IR

I = A or I

E

=

6)12(2 12

-

or 2 amperes.

Remove the voltmeter from position "An and, connecting it at point "Bn across the filament terminals of the lamp, you will notice that it reads 8 volts, Indicating there is an 8 volt drop of potential across this filament resistance. Now place it as shown at point "C" and again take a reading: This time it will read 4 volts, indicating a drop of four volts across this resistance.
zaMpEREs.,

8 volts then is the proportion of the

:

:

total of 12 volts required to force 2 amperes through the lamp resistance of 4 o h m , while 4 volts is that proportion of 12 volts required to force a current of 2 amperes through the rheostat resistance.
MEASURING UNKNOWN RESISTANCE

Figure 15

ammeter and voltmeter and the second is by the use of the Whe

value of t h e r h e o s t a t r e s i s t a n c e . ammeter method.

This w

Note t h e arrangement of t h e c i r c u i t . some p o s i t i o n convenient t o you when t h e c i r c u i t ; - from t h e p o s i t i b e s i d e o s i d e of t h e r h e o s t a t , t h e n secure s i d e of t h e r h e o s t a t and connect t t h e o t h e r s i d e of t h e ammeter r u n another wire back t o t h e negative s i d e of t h e b a t t e r y . the voltmeter a c r o s s t h e r h e o s t a t a s shown and c l o s e the c i r c u i t i s closed and c u r r e n t flow reading of t h e voltmeter and a l s o t h e s u b s t i t u t e d i n t h e following f o r n u l a :
R

= T,find

E

out t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e r h e o s t a t .

For example, when we c l o s e t h e key suppose t h e voltmeter reads 5 v o l t s and the ammeter r e a d s .25 amperes. S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e s e values i n t h e

Figure 16 above formula w have e
R

Figure 17

= T or

E

R

= 5 volts

.25 amperes

=

.25)5.0(20 ohms 5 0

-

answer.

Twenty ohms t h e n i s t h e value of t h e r h e o s t a t .

The Wheatstone Bridge method of measuring r e s i s t a n c e s i s a very a c c u r a t e method a n d i s u s e d i n l a b o r a t o r i e s where t h e r e s i s t a n c e of c e r t a i n l e n g t h s of wire and other e l e c t r i c a l apparatus must b e d e f i n i t e l y known. There a r e bridges of v a r i o u s t y p e s and c a p a c i t i e s on t h e market, t h a t i s , t h e physical appearances of some a r e d i f f e r e n t t h a n o t h e r s and some a r e designed t o measure s m a l l r e s i s t a n c e s while o t h e r s a r e used f o r measuring very l a r g e r e s i s t a n c e values. Some w i l l measure any unknown r e s i s t a n c e from a value of l e s s t h a n one ohm t o thousands of ohms. The p r i n c i p l e however, i s t h e same and, knowing t h e p r i n c i p l e of one, you can e a s i l y

Lesson 8

-

eheet 13

apply it t o another design. The general l a y out of t h e Wheatstone Bridge i s shown i n Figure 1 7 and c o n s i s t s of a c i r c u i t i n mhtch known r e s i s t a n c e i s connected and connections provided f o r t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o be measured. Beginning w i t h a b a t t e r y "H", a mire i s r u n from the p o s i t i v e s i d e t o A t t h i s p o i n t t h e c i r c u i t i s s o arranged t h a t it d i v i d e s a s p o i n t "X". A t " X I an arm i s r u n t o p o i n t "E n ; t h i s i s c a l l e d an arm shown a t "X" of the bridge and i s designated i n the drawing a s arm "A" I n t h i s arm a connection i s made f o r plugging i n r e s i s t a n c e u n i t s of known value . From "X" t o "F" arm "D" i s r u n w i t h t h e same p r o v i s i o n s shown a s 1 A m "A" and I'D" have a re f o r plugging i n or out r e s i s t a n c e u n i t s . s i s t a n c e of 2 r r e a c h . From "E" t o " X l n and from "F" t o " X I " arms "B" and "R" a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y connected. A r m " B n i s provided w i t h b r a s s plugs which t i g h t l y f i t i n t o a b r a s s s t r i p so t h a t the non- inductive r e s i s t a n c e c o i l s 3, 4, 5, 6, may be s h o r t e d or cut out of t h e c i r c u i t a t t h e w i l l of t h e operator. The r e s i s t a n c e s of t h e s e c o i l s a r e a l s o a c c u r a t e l y known and indicated.

.

.

A r m "R" i s t h e arm or branch of t h e bridge c i r c u i t i n which t h e unknown

r e s i s t a n c e t o be measured i s connected, binding p o s t s being provided t o connect t h e ends of t h e unknown r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e b r i d g e c i r c u i t a s indicated, When the switch "S" i s closed, c u r r e n t flows from t h e b a t t e r y "R" t o through arms "A" and "Bn t o p o i n t "Xu where it d i v i d e s , p a r t f l o v i pofnt X 1 and p a r t through arms "Dl1 andqR" t o point X 1 , - here it r e turns t o the battery. With c u r r e n t flowing a s i n d i c a t e d we a r e ready t o work on t h e unknown r e s i s t a n c e "7" i n arm "R"; t h a t i s , w a r e t o f i n d out what the value e of t h a t r e s i s t a n c e i s . The p r i n c i p l e on which t h e b r i d g e c i r c u i t works i s t h a t t h e c u r r e n t flowing from t h e b a t t e r y "Hn must, when it reaches p o i n t X, d i v i d e i t s e l f e q u a l l y , provided t h e r e s i s t a n c e s of t h e f o u r arms of t h e bridge a r e balanced. Then t h e c u r r e n t flowing from t h e b a t t e r y "HI' through p o i n t s X, A, E , B, t o X 1 w i l l be t h e same a s t h a t which flows through p o i n t s X, D, F, R , t o X1. For example, i f t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t through t h e c i r c u i t i s 4 amperes, then 2 amperes must flow through t h e arms "A" and "B" and 2 amperes through arms "D" and "R". N w supposing t h i s i s t h e case, i f w c l o s e t h e switch "K" , t h e glavao e nometer w i l l not be d e f l e c t e d , i n o t h e r words, it w i l l remain on zero a s shown, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l between p o i n t s "En and "Fn of the d i v i d e d c i r c u i t . A s a g e n e r a l r u l e , however, when a bridge i s used and a l l necessary connections made, on c l o s i n g key "K" t h e galvanometer needle i s d e f l e c t e d a s shown by t h e d o t t e d arrow. This denotes a d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l a c r o s s p o i n t s "E" and IIFW t h u s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t more c u r r e n t flows i n arms "A" and "B" t h a n through arms "D" and "R" o r v i c e versa. Our o b j e c t now i s t o vary t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n arm "B" t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s between p o i n t s ?E" and "F" a s determined when no d e f l e c t i o n of t h e galvanometer needle i s obtained or i n o t h e r words, e x a c t l y t h e same c u r r e n t w i l l t h e n flow through p o i n t s X, A , E, B, X 1 , a s through p o i n t s X, D, F, R , X1. When t h a t c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s we can f i n d t h e

,

,

Lesson 8

- sheet 14

unknown r e s i s t a n c e "R" by t h e following formula: Unknown r e s " R n equals t h e r e s i s t a n c e of the arm "Bn times t h e r e s i s t a n c e "D" divided by t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e arm " A ".
R

=

-

BxD .
A

.

The e n t i r e procedure can be summed up a s follows;- by t h e us e known variable r e s i s t a n c e ( B ) w can e s t a b l i s h a c o n d i t i o n o t r i c a l balance between p o i n t s E and F ( a s denoted by no d e f l of the galvanometer needle). There a r e t h e n i n t h e c i r c u i t known and one unknown r e s i s t a n c e s . When' such a balance i s o (by a d j u s t i n g B ) we can apply t h e s e t h r e e 'known values t o t o give the f o u r t h , or unknown value. This method of d e t e r values of unknown r e s i s t a n c e s i s very accurate w h e n c a r r i e d p r e c i s i o n instruments. EXAMINATION What i s an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t ? What i s a s h o r t c i r c u i t ? What value of r e s i s t a n c e w i l l pass one ampere under a pressure of 6 volts? To what e x t e n t w i l l t h r e e p a r a l l e l r e s i s t a n c e s of e q u a l value i n crease t h e t o t a l number of amperes i n a c i r c u i t over t h a t when only one i s used? 'What i s meant by t h e term "voltage drop"? What i s a Wheatstone Bridge used f o r ? I f t h e tubes i n a r a d i o r e c e i v e r r e q u i r e 5 v o l t s would you use a 5 v o l t source of supply? Draw a diagram of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t i n which five r e s i s t a n c e s a r e connected i n s e r i e s . Draw a diagram of an e l e c t r i c a l cLrcuit w i t h f o u r r e s i s t a n c e s i n p a r a l l e l , and two i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e l i n e ; H w would you d e t e r m h e t h e value of an unknown r e s i s t a n c e by the o ammeter-voltmeter method?

-

LESSON 8

Technical Lesson 9
D C

. . MOTORS

I n our study of electro- magnetic induction it was pointed out t h a t , should electro- magnetic induction cease t o be, numerous e l e c t r i c a l appliances would be rendered u s e l e s s . I n e l e c t r i c motors e l e c t r o magnetic induction i s a very important f a c t o r and when you have f i n i s h e d t h i s paper you w i l l come t o r e a l i z e j u s t how important it is.
The Direct Current E l e c t r i c Motor i s going t o be t h e t o p i c of d i s cussion, but u n l e s s you r e a l l y understand magnetism and e l e c t r o magnetic induction it w i l l be well f o r you t o review t h e s e two s u b j e c t s again i n order t o r e f r e s h your memory on j u s t what t a k e s place about a conductor carrying c u r r e n t a l s o what happens when t h i s conductor i s forced through a magnetic f i e l d . The motor i s c o n s t r u c t e d from m a t e r i a l s you a r e a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h and it operates according t o t h e laws of magnetism, electro-magnetism and electro- magnetia induction. So you see it i s impossible t o know ( f i g u r a t i v e l y speaking) j u s t what makes the wheels go around i n t h e operation of a motor u n l e s s you a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e above mentioned phenomena. T E PURPOSE QP THE D.C. H
-,

MOTOR

F i r s t , what i s an e l e c t r i c motor and what i s i t s purpose? The motor i s a machine s o designed and constructed t h a t t h e e l e c t r i c current applied t o it w i l l be changed i n t o mechanical power. J u s t what does e t h a t mean? Suppose m e x p l a i n it a s follows, t a k i n g f o r our explan a t i o n a t r o l l e y c a r . Over t h e t r a c k on which t h e c a r runs you n o t i c e + a wire which i s s t r e t c h e d from pole t o tl, ole. worn t h i s wire the t r o l l e y c a r p o l e - c o l l e c t s c u r r e n t , a s shown i n Figure 1, and conducts i t t o t h e e l e c t r i c motor of t h e c a r causing the motor armature t.. revolve. The armature i s o .- - . . . . Figure 1 geared t o t h e wheels of t h e car. The c u r r e n t , a f t e r passing through t h e motor, i s conducted tworough t h e wheels and p a s s e s i n t o t h e r a i l s , thence t o t h e ground where i t r e t u r n s t o the powerhouse generator. T h i s simple e x p l a n a t i o n w i l l serve t o show you t h a t e l e c t r i c a l energy i s converted i n t o mechanical energy when t h e c a r moves.

.' -

Printed i U.S. A. n

THE PARTS OF A D.C. MOTOR
I n t h e e l e c t r i c motor t h e r e a r e t h r e e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s . The f i r a t p a r t i s t h e f i e l d pole which i s a p i e c e of s o f t i r o n made i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r shape f o r t h e purpose it i s t o be used. On t h i s f i e l d pole i s wound a c e r t a i n number of t u r n s of wire making i t an electro-magnet. The second p a r t known as t h e armature, i s another electro-magnet made s o t h a t i t can be revolved between t h e f i e l d poles. The t h i r d Is a d e v i c e c a l l e d a commutator which l e a d s t h e c u r r e n t i n t o t h e armature windings. Referring t o Figure 2 we have drawn two electro- magnets and these w i l l b e c a l l e d t h e f i e l d poles, some times r e f e r r e d t o a s f i e l d magnets. T h i s i s the f i r s t e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t h e motor and when c u r r e n t flows through t h e windings of t h e s e electro- magnets an electro- magnetic f i e l d i s created, a s shown by t h e d o t t e d l i n e s , which f i l l t h e space between t h e two pole pieces. You a l r e a d y know the g e n e r a l n a t u r e of t h i s f i e l d from your experiments w i t h t h e permanent magnets and i r o n f i l i n g s . The armature core of t h e motor i s made up of t h i n stampings of a good grade of s o f t i r o n o r s t e e l a s shown i n Figure 3. A number of these

Figure 3 Figure 2 stampings a r e used t o make up the armature core and t h i s core i s t h e n c a l l e d a "laminated" core. Figure 4 w i l l serve t o show you how t h e armature core looks when a l l these i n d i v i d u a l d i s c s have been placed, one a g a i n s t t h e other, making t h e completed core. The d i s c s are held i n p l a c e by 'various methods. I n small m o t o r s b o l t s a e sometimes employed r which run through t h e d i s c s ; i n o t h e r s lock nuts which a r e threaded t o t h e s h a f t , and i n some makes a c o l l a r i s shrunk on the s h a f t holding t h e d i s o s i n place under g r e a t pressure. The s l o t s along t h e o u t s i d e of t h e laminated core c a r r y t h e c o i l s of wire on t h e armature, h e l d i n place by small p i e c e s of wood which fit i n t o the s l o t s i n t h e core, preventing the c o i l s from being thrown out of t h e s l o t s by c e n t r i f u g a l force. A c r o s s s e c t i o n of how t h i s i s done i s shown i n Figure 5.

The arm~iturei s made up of t h e s e laminations t o reduce eddy c u r r e n t l o s s e s . This l o s s i s brought about when t h e armature revolves i n a magnetic f i e l d . The Induced c u r r e n t s w i t h i n the r e v o l v i n g metal

Lesson 9

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sheet 2

r e p r e s e n t a p a r t of t h e energy being used t o operate t h e motor and does no a c t u a l good. I n f a c t an armature so constructed, f o r example, made of one s o l i d piece of metal would have produced i n i t eddy c u r r e n t s of such magnitude a s t o cause t h e armature t o become very hot. This heat r e p r e s e n t s a l a r g e waste of energy. The armature c o i l s absorb a considerame porblon of t h i s h e a t which causes damage t o t h e i n s u l a t i o n and overheates t h e bearings. It i s then advantageous t o see t h a t such eddy c u r r e n t s a r e kept t o a minimum. The l o s s e s a r e very m a t e r i a l l y reduced by b u i l d i n g up t h e armature of
WOOD STRIPS..

'WIRE

'-SLOTS

Figure 6

Figure 6 A

Figure 5 t h e t h i n d i s c s of s o f t i r o n and i n s u l a t i n g each d i s c from t h e o t h e r a s described. By using laminations t h e magnetic c o n d u c t i v i t y of t h e core i s reduced and t h e c i r c u l a t i n g eddy c u r r e n t s a r e confined t o each d i s c , t h u s preventing t h e s e undesirable c u r r e n t s f'ron becoming of such prop o r t i o n s a s t o h e a t t h e armature excessively. Figure 6A r e p r e s e n t s a n i r o n core cut i n h a l f w i t h t h e laminations purposely enlarge2 t o show how the eddy c u r r e n t s a r e confined t o each d i s c . Figure 6 r e p r e s e n t s a s o l i d I r o n core showing how t h e eddy c u r r e n t s move through t h e e n t i r e core.
COWtR SEGMENTS
COPPER CUPPER (SEGMENT ENDS OF ARMATURE COILS S O L O ~ ~ D INTO THESE SLOTS.; MICA INSULATION STRIPS BETWEEN ./ SEGMENTS',

S€GUZUI

, -? +, '

'MICA

Figure 7C

Figure 7B Figure 7A Figure 7E Figure 7F When t h e armature c o i l i s passing under one magnetic pole t h e eddy c u r r e n t s revolve i n one d i r e c t i o n b u t a s soon a s t h e armature comes under t h e i n f l u e n c e of a magnetic pole of opposite p o l a r i t y t h e s e currents are reversed i n direation. When t h e armature i s revolving a t high speed t h e eddy c u r r e n t s a r e a l s o r a p i d l y r e v e r s e d i n d i r e c t i o n thus causing f r i c t i o n between t h e molecules of t h e i r o n . F r i c t i o n c r e a t e s h e a t which, i f allowed t o become excessive, not only r a i s e s t h e temperature of t h e copper

INSUL~TION BE SEGMENTS LND

Leason Q

- sheet 3

conductors but may cause t h e i n s u l a t i o n of t h e conductors themselves t o burn. T h i s r a p i d r e v e r s a l of t h e molecules c r e a t e s what i s known a s " h y s t e r e s i s l o s s e s n and i s considered a s one of t h e harmful e f f e c t s t o be avoided i n armature design and construction.
The commutator, t h e next and t h i r d e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t h e motor, i s a very ingenious device and w e l l worth becoming acquainted with. F i r s t A we w i l l see how t h e commutator i s constructed. Figures 7 t o 73, i n c l u s i v e , show t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e commutator. Figure 7 i s t h e A conmutator f i n i s h e d r e a d y t o be placed on t h e s h a f t . Figure 7B shows locking r i n g s which hold t h e segments i n place.

Figure 7B i s one s o l i d p i e c e of i r o n o r s t e e l c a s t i n t h e shape shown. The c o m u t a t o r r e q u i r e s g r e a t c a r e i n a s s e m b l i x even though t h e p r i n c i p l e of assembly i s simple. The following b u i l d i n g up process w i l l give

; RING-"---..

LOCKING

Figure 7D

Figure 7G

Figure 7H

Figure '75

you t h e i d e a of how t h e p a r t s a r e assembled. Figure 7B i s t h e p a r t we begin w i t h , t h e f i r s t requirement being t o i n s u l a t e t h e p a r t a s marked f o r i n s u l a t i o n . O t h i s i n s u l a t e d s e c t i o n i s t h e n placed t h e n copper segments which a r e i n s u l a t e d from each other, Figure '7F ill u s t r a t e s t h e a l t e r n a t e arrangement of mica s t r i p s and copper segments. After t h e r e q u i r e d number of segments have been placed on t h e s e c t i o n , Figure 7B, and i n s u l a t e d p e r f e c t l y , both from t h e holder and from each other, a s shown i n Figure ?F, t h e l o c k i w r i n g , Figure 7 D , i s moved i n t o p l a c e shown i n Figure 7G. The segments are' locked i n t o place by t i g h t e n i n g t h e threaded s t u d s which r u n through t h e l o c k i n g ring, i n t o t h e s e c t i o n , and shown i n Figure 7H. Figure 75 i l l u s t r a t e s the segments a s t h e y would appear w i t h a s e c t i o n c u t out of a f i n i s h e d c o m u t a t o r , while Figure 7 i s t h e f i n i s h e d commutator, f i t t e d t o t h e armature s h a f t A ready f o r connection t o t h e armature windings. The beginnings and ends of t h e armature c o i l s a r e brought out and s o l d e r e d i n t o t h e s l o t s of t h e segments a s shown i n Figure 7F. T h i s completes t h e t h r e e major p a r t s of t h e motor. Our next problem i s t o assemble t h e s e p a r t s i n t o a completed machine which i s shown i n Figure 8, w i t h t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s marked.
OPERATING PRINCIPLE

A s t h e motor i s a machine which converts e l e c t r i c a l energy i n t o mechanical energy we must have some means provided t o f e e d t h e c u r r e n t

into the armature coils. This is accomplished by the use of brushes which rest on the copper segments to which the armature coils are s'oldered. You see each segment acts as the end of an armature coil. Figure 9 illustrates the brush holder and brushes resting on the commutator through which the E.Iv1.F. is applied to the armature coils. Now let us consider one armature coil wound on an actual armature. In Figure 10 we can trace the position of this coil from the copper segment
ARMPlTURE CORE AND WINDING BRUSH HOLDERS COMMUTATOR .,'PINO BRUSHES LUGS) MAGNEJ YOKEl ,,FIELD COILS SPRINGS FOR MI\INTAINING BRUSH TENSION

Figure 9 Figure 8 on which the brush rests across the armature core around the back of the core, as illustrated in Figure 11, into the armature slot on the opposite side of the core and finally out where the end is taken to a copper segment of the comutator diametrically opposite the segment from which the coil started. Ordinarily coils are wound in all of the slots but they have been omitted here to enable you to easily trace the position that the one shown occupies on the core. The continual
ARMATURE COIL
IN ARMATURE CORE..,

.

ARMATURE COIL CONNECTED TO SEGMENT %.

7

CURRENT FLOWINVN

COlL AT .TACK /OF ARMPilURE

COIL a c - t ~ l ~ ~ lARMITURE COlL AT. ~ t i

' COIL THROUGH '..ARMMURE SLOT
OUT

ARMATURE SLOT

FINISH OF TURN CONllfCTEO TO SEGMENT OPPOSITE THE STARTING SEGWNT

Figure 1 0

Figure 11

rotation and speed of the motor is dependent upon a great number of coils as you will learn later. That we may better understand the thewy of why this armature revolves when placed in a magnetic field we are going to use only one coil. Figure 12 pictures two field magnets attached to the frame of the

Lesson 9

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sheet 5

motor. (See a l s o Figure 8.) Note t h a t t h e magnetic f i e l d moves around t h e i r o n frame. This i s shown t o you a s It more c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r e a l motor, To f u r t h e r a i d us i n studying t h e motor a c t i o n w w i l l use only the e f i e l d magnets and the space where t h e armature revolves, a s i n F i s u r e 13. Here you n o t i c e a round c i r c l e i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e f i e l d which r e p r e s e n t s only one s i d e of an armature c o i l . Note c a r e f u l l y t h a t t h e l i n e s of f o r c e of t h e f i e l d a r e moving from the "N" t o 'ISn pole of t h e magnets i n a uniform manner, t h a t i s , t h e y appear t o be moving i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s ending on t h e " 8 " magnet very n e a r l y opposite t o t h e p o i n t a t which they l e f t t h e ON" magnet. T h i s proves t o us t h a t a l though t h e armature c o i l i s i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e f i e l d , t h e f i e l d has not been influenced by t h e presence of the c o i l .
T h i s i s t h e n a t u r a l course a magnetic f i e l d assumes; it tends a t a l l times t o move i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e and should anything happen t o d i v e r t it from t h i s course it w i l l endeavor t o r e g a i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e a t t h e expense of whatever attempts t o change it.

Figure 13 Figure 1 4 e Suppose w f i n d out if t h a t i s t r u e . W throw t h e s w i t c h and allow e o c u r r e n t t o pass through t h e armature c o i l and observe Figure 14. N w g o b s c k and t h i n k what happens when a wire c a r r i e s c u r r e n t . A f i e l d springs up a t once a s shown i n Figure 148. Study Figure 14 and note t h e wire marked denoting t h a t t h e c u r r e n t i s moving through t h e tvire away from you w i t h i t s consequent f i e l d i n d i c a t e d by t h e small arrows. This f i e l d of the wire i s opposing t h e f i e l d of t h e magnets on the l e p t s i d e and moving w i t h t h e f i e l d on t h e r i g h t s i d e of t h e wire. N w what happens. o The f i e l d moving from t h e "N" pole of t h e magnet O t h e l e f t s i d e of t h e wire n moves downtoward t h e pole marked "S". it meets the f i e l d around t h e wire a t p o i n t "A" which i s moviq3 a a i n s t or opposing it. T h i s t e n d s t o n e u t r a l i z e o r weaken t h e f i e l d on t h i s s i d e of t h e wire.

Figure 12

'v

Lookfng a t the r i g h t s i d e , a t poi& "Bn, t h e f i e l d about t h e wire i s Let the arrow moving i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s the f i e l d from p o l e "N". "C" r e p r e s e n t a l i n e of f o r c e coming from pole "NV; when it a r r i v e s a t

Lesson 9

- sheet 6

They have no o b j e c t i o n p o i n t "B" it meets t h e f i e l d of t h e wire t o t r a v e l l i n g i n the same d i r e c t i o n but t h e y must have room t o d o so, so l i n e of f o r c e "C" moves outwards t o make room f o r t h e f i e l d around t h e wire and, i n so doing, a l l t h e l i n e s of f o r c e i n t h i s s i e e of t h e wlre a r e bunched o r crowded i n t h i s p o i n t , i n c r e a s i n g the f i e l d s t r e n g t h on t h e r i g h t s i d e of "@". This bunching of t h e l i n e s of force o f t h e f i e l d i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h voltage increase which causes t h e current t o r i s e i n t h e concluctor I & " .

"@".

* .

F i g w e 14A
--.---

Figure 15 These d i s t o r t e d o r bent out l i n e s of force a c t a s t a u t rubber bands and a t any i n s t a n t tend t o s t r a i g h t e n themselves. Ehen t h i s happens t h e conductor '" w i l l move a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e arrow D @ . Figure 1 5 ' i l l u s t r a t e s t h e wire n e a r l y forced out of t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e pole pieces a s t h e l i n e s of f o r c e r a p i d l y r e s t o r e themselves i n t o straight lines*

Figure 17 Let us study Figure 16; here w can b e t t e r see how r o t a t i o n takes e place. You recognize a t once the f i e l d magnets "N" and "s" but w e have drawn a complete l o o p (armature c o i l ) t o f u r t h e r enable you t o understand why t h e armature revolves. This c o i l i s f r e e t o revolve on the a x i s X and X 1 which m i l l allow s i d e " A " t o move down when s i d e "B" i s moving up.
i g n

Figure 16

Studying the f i e l d a s it l e a v e s pole "N" the small arrows show a bunchof l i n e s of f o r c e over t h e t o p of s i d e "A" of t h e loop, thus t h e

Lesson 9

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magnetic f i e l d of t h e wire has added i t s e l f t o t h a t of t h e f i e l d magnets making a s t r o n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f o r c e above t h e w i r e , while underneath t h e f i e l d of t h e conductor i s moving against t h e f i e l d of the magnets t h u s weakening t h e f i e l d a t t h i s point. O s i d e "B" of t h e c o i l t h e opposite e f f e c t i s evident which t e n d s t o n f o r c e t h i s h a l f of t h e c o i l upward. This e n t i r e c o i l being f r e e t o move on a x i s X, and X 1 , r o t a t i o n t a k e s place. O a p r a c t i c a l motor armature t h e r e a r e many c o i l s of wire and n t h e a c t i o n you have j u s t s e e n t a k i n g place i n one c o i l w i l l a l s o t a k e place i n a l l t h e c o i l s on t h e armature. Thus, i t can be r e a d i l y app r e c i a t e d t h a t when t h e number of t u r n s on t h e armature c o i l s and t h e amount of c u r r e n t flowing t h e r e i n i s increased, e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y or t o g e t h e r , t h e amount of f o r c e developed by t h e armature a s i t t u r n s upon i t s a x i s , i s increased. The motor i s designed t o produce a turning ( o r t w i s b i n g ) motion which i s c a l l e d Tor ue and on t h i s torque depends t h e work t h e motor i s capable magnetic f i e l d s t r e n g t h ( o r f l u x ) times t h e number of of doin&e t u r n s of wire on t h e armature, times the c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e arnature c o i l s , g i v e s t h e torque o r t u r n i n g power of a motor. For example, i n a s e r i e s motor t h e f i e l d c o i l s a r e i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e armature, and i f we i n c r e a s e t h e c u r r e n t flowing the f i e l d s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s so t h a t t h e torque v a r i e s approximately a s t h e square of t h e current. That i s , i f w have f i v e amperes flowing t o t h e motor e and we i n c r e a s e t h i s t o t e n amperes then t h e torque or turning power w i l l be i n c r e a s e d n e a r l y f o u r times. I n a shunt motor t h e f i e l d c o i l s a r e shunted a c r o s s t h e armature c o i l s and t h e f i e l d s t r e n g t h , i n r e g a r d s t o the varying armature c u r r e n t , i s n e a r l y constant. I n c r e a s i n g t h e armature c u r r e n t twice a s much w i l l o n l y double t h e torque.

It may be necessary t o r e v e r s e t h e d i r e c t i o n of r o t a t i o n of a motor. This can be done a s follows:
2 ,- ,

(1) Reverse t h e p o l a r i t y of t h e magnetic f i e l d , o r Ravnrnn t. - .- - . . -. . - - - - .h e ctmrent f l o w i m through t h e armature, but . . DO NOT REVERSE BOTH FIELD XND ~ T U R C R E T a% t h e same time EU R N I f a r e v e r s a l of direction i s desired.
-

Refer t o F i g u r e . 16, With t h e d i r e c t i o n of armature c u r r e n t and f i e l d a s shown t h e r e s u l t i n g r o t a t i o n i s anti- clockwise.

In Figure 1'7 t h e armature c u r r e n t remains t h e sane a s i n Figure 1 6 but t h e f i e l d i s r e v e r s e d . The r o t a t i o n of the armature i s reversed and moves i n a clockwise d i r e c t i o n .
I n Figure 1 8 t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e f i e l d i s the same a s i n Figure 16 but t h e armature c u r r e n t has been r e v e r s e d causing a clockwise r o t a t i o n of t h e armature.

I n Figure 19 both t h e f i e l d and armature c u r r e n t have been reversed but the d i r e c t i o n remains a s i n Figure 16. This proves t h a t t o change t h e d i r e c t i o n of r o t a t i o n of a d i r e c t c u r r e n t notor reverse EITJIER t h e FIELD or ARMATURE connections but reverse both.
THE PURPOSE OF THE COMMUTATOR

The f u n c t i o n of t h e commutator on a motor i s t o keep t h e applied c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e armature c o i l s always i n the same d i r e c t i o n a s t h e y come under t h e ma$netic i n f l u e n c e of the same f i e l d magnets. e Refer t o Figure 20 where w have an armature c a r r y i n g e i g h t colls. Each c o i l , 1 t o 8, i s wound on a core and brought out t o a c o m u t a t o r segment a s shown i n Figure 10. To make i t a s easy a s p o s s i b l e for. us t o study t h e fundamental a c t i o n of t h e conmutator we w i l l r e p r e s e n t each o f t h e

Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 18 c o i l s a s shown i n Figure 20. Tracing t h e c u r r e n t from the b a t t e r y w e see t h a t it flows from the p o s i t i v e s i d e t o b r u s h "A", t o segment number A t point "K" it d i v i d e s , 1, where it goes i n t o tlie c o i l t o p o i n t "K" p a r t going through c o i l 7-8-1-2, t o p o i n t "Kl", t o segment 5, i n t o brush "B", and r e t u r n s t o the negative s i d e of t h e b a t t e r y . Returning t o point; "K" t h e o t h e r h a l f of t h e c u r r e n t flows through c o i l s 6-5-4-3 i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n t o p o i n t "Kl", t o segment 5, i n t o brush "B", a l s o r e t u r n i n g t o t h e n e g a t i v e s i d e of t h e b a t t e r y .

.

h'ow l e t us compare c o i l 1 w i t h the "A" s i d e of t h e c o i l i n Figure 16 and c o i l 5 w i t h t h e "B" s i d e . The s w i t c h i s now closed and c u r r e n t i s flowing t o t h e brushes on t h e commutator and c o i l s a s described above and a s i n d i c a t e d i n Figure 20. A s c o i l number 1 comes under t h e i n f l u e n c e of gagnet "N" t h e p r e s s u r e of t h e combined f i e l d of c o i l 1 and t h e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e from p o l e "N" w i l l f o r c e t h e c o i l down, i n d i c a t e d by t h e A t t h e same time c o i l 5 has arrow "x" a s shown i n Figure 16 s i d e "A". been forced up, a s i n d i c a t e d by arrow " X l " , and a s shown a t "B" s i d e of c o i l of Figure 16. As t h i s happens c o i l 2 has been forced i n t o t h e f i e l d of pole "N" while c o l l 6 goes under p o l e "s" and, since t h e c o m u t a t o r revolves w i t h t h e armature, segment s i x w i l l come under and make c o n t a c t w i t h brush "B"

Lesson 9

- sheet

9

and segment 2 w i l l make c o n t a c t w i t h brush " A". The same act,ion now t a k e s place a s when c o i l s 1 nnd 5 were under t h e s e poles. The purpose of t h e commutator then i s t o maintain t h e c u r r e n t flow i n each armature c o i l i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s each c o i l i n t u r n comes under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e same magnetic pole.
COUNTER ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE

Counter E.M.F., a s you learned from Lenzfs Law, t e n d s t o oppose t h e applied E.M.F. i n t h e l i n e and I t s e f f e c t i s very important i n motor operat i o n because it a c t s a s a r e s i s t a n c e holding back or l i m i t i n g t h e amount of c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e armature c o i l s . When t h e armature of a motor r e v o l v e s i n a magnetic f i e l d t h e armature c o i l s cut t h e l i n e s of force produced by t h e f i e l d magnets e x a c t l y the same a s though t h e c o i l s were being d r i v e n by mechanical power, a s i n a generator armature. An electromotive f o r c e i s i n d u c e d i n t h e armature i s opposite i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h e a p p l i e d c o i l s and t h i s induced E.M.F. electromotive f o r c e which i s f u r n i s h i n g t h e power. This induced E.M.F. i s c a l l e d t h e back o r counter electromotive f o r c e because of i t s oppos i t i o n t o t h e a p p l i e d electromotive force. The r e s i s t a n c e of a n a r n a t u r e c o i l i s very low and t o p l a c e the l i n e voltage, of say 110 v o l t s , on an armature c o i l when it i s not i n motion would be t h e same a s connecting a s h o r t wire around t h e t e r m i n a l s of a b a t t e r y ; t h a t i s t o say, t h e armature would cause a s h o r t - c i r c u i t on t h e 110 v o l t l i n e . I n our study of t h e motor, however, w discovered t h a t a s soon a s an e E.M.F. was a p p l i e d t o t h e commutator segments through t h e brushes, c u r r e n t moved i n t o t h e armature c o i l and t h e c o i l a t once was f o r c e d t o move, thus b r i n g i n g another c o i l under t h e brushes where it r e c e i v e d So you s e e t h e a p p l i e d E.M.F. an E.M.F., and a s q u i c k l y was forced away. only has the opportunity t o d e l i v e r a s h o r t impulse t o each c o i l . I n t h i s s t a r t i n g of t h e motor armature, however, t h e c u r r e n t t a k e n by each c o i l i s more t h a n i s required t o d r i v e i t . I f you connect an ammeter i n the c i r c u i t i t may read 25 amperes a t f i r s t , but a s t h e armature ghins speed, you w i l l see t h e ammeter needle g r a d u a l l y drop back u n t i l , when t h e armature i s revolving a t f u l l speed, t h e meter may only read 4 or 5 amperes. N w why d i d t h e c u r r e n t d ~ o p o from 2 5 t o 5 amperes? A t t h e s t a r t t h e armature c o i l s were p r a c t i c a l l y s h o r t c i r c u i t e d , which allowed an exc e s s i v e c u r r e n t t o flow; but a s t h i s excessive c u r r e n t flows i n t h e c o i l s f o r a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d of time no damage i s done i n t h e c a s e of a small motor. When t h e c o i l i s forced out of t h e f i e l d the armat u r e t u r n s with it, and a s each c o i l comes under t h e pole pieces, t h e same t h i n g occurs, w i t h t h e armature speed g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g .
A s t h e motor armature begins t o revolve i t s c o i l s a c t s i m i l a r t o t h o s e .of a generator, t h a t i s , an electromotive f o r c e i s developed i n t h e

Lesson 9

- sheet 10

c o i l s , c a l l e d counter E.M.F. This counter E.M.F. opposes t h e c u r r e n t wllich i s causing t h e armature t o revolve and by v i r t u e of t h i s oppos i t i o n , l i m i t s t h e m o u n t of c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e armature. A s t h e speed i n c r e a s e s t h i s back o r counter E.K.F. becomes g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r , allowing l e s s and l e s s c u r r e n t t o flow i n t o t h e c o i l s .
T h i s continues u n t i l t h e f u l l speed i s reached when t h e back E.M.F. may, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e a c h a v o l t a g e of 105 volts. I f t h e r e i s 110 v o l t s app l i e d and 105 "bucking n o r opposing i t then 110 105 5 v o l t s which w i l l be t h e t o t a l 3 M F . . . f o r c i n g c u r r e n t through t h e armature c o i l s . E . Suppose t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e armature i s one ohm. B y Ohm's Law I = F I = 5 t 1 = 5 amperes, o r t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e armature when i t i s up t o f u l l speed. By Ohm's Law f i g u r e out what t h e c u r r e n t flow would be i n t h e armature c o i l s i f the armature d i d not r o t a t e .

-

-

E 110 v o l t s I = R o r I = 1 ohm

=

110 amperes.

This would c e r t a i n l y p l a c e a s h o r t i n the l i n e and cause t h e f u s e s t o blow, thus p r o t e c t i n g t h e armature c o i l s from burning. Therefore you can r e a l i z e t h e importance of C.E.M.F. a s applied t o t h e ,motor; it a c t s t o renulste the current.

-

STARTING

t

I f 0 Y MAIN LINE

Figure 2 1 Figure 21A So f a r t h e motor has merely been revolving without d r i v i n g any machinery. suppose now t h e motor i s connected t o a load; t h e motor w i l l momentarily w i l l , a t t h e same time, become l e s s and slow down and t h e counter E.M.F. more c u r r e n t w i l l flow i n t o t h e armature windings. N w disconnect t h e o load; t h e speed of t h e armature i n c r e a s e s and so does t h e counter E.M.F. Any v a r i a t i o n i n t h u s reducing t h e c u r r e n t flowing i n t o t h e armature. speed of t h e armature w i l l cause a v a r i a t i o n i n t h e counter E.M.F.
T h i s counter E.M.F. t h e n a c t s t o automatically r e g u l a t e t h e flow of c u r r e n t i n t o t h e armature when t h e load on t h e motor i s varied.

Motors, such a s w a r e going t o use I n r a d i o , r e q u i r e some means of e controlling the EMF . . . a p p l i e d t o t h e armature a t t h e time of s t a r t i n g t h e motor, t h e r e f o r e a r e s i s t a n c e i s placed i n t h e motor l i n e t o regul a t e t h e c u r r e n t f l o w t o t h e armature c o i l s . When t h e normal speed of t h e motor i s reached t h i s r e s i s t a n c e i s cut out.

Lesson 9

- sheet 11

$ h i s r e g u l a t i n g device i s call-ed a s t a r t i n g box and i s shown i n Figures 2 1 and 21A. F u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n of s t a r t i n g boxes w i l l be taken up l a t e r i n t h i s lesson. TYPES O M T R F OO S There a r e t h r e e types of d i r e c t c u r r e n t motors used i n r a d i o p r a c t f c e . They a r e t h e S e r i e s , Shunt, and Compound. The d i f f e r e n t t y p e s a r e used according t o t h e work t h e y have t o perform. The s e r i e s motor, although not found e x t e n s i v e l y i n r a d i o use, w i l l be b r i e f l y explained h e r e i n order t o e n l i g h t e n you on t h e f i e l d winding connections. This motor i s used mostly i n e l e c t r i c a l h o i s t i n g equipment and i n e l e c t r i c t r a c t i o n work. It d e r i v e s i t s name from the f a c t t h a t t h e f i e l d c o i l s a r e connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e armature. on t h e motor c i r c u i t , a l l When the switch i s c l o s e d , p l a c i n g an E.M.F. t h e c u r r e n t flowing through t h e armature c i r c u i t must a l s o flow through t h e f i e l d c o i l s . T h i s i s c l e a r l y shown i n t h e s e r i e s motor connection i n Figure 21. 'Tihen a l o a d i s thrown on a s e r i e s motor, t h e speed of t h e allowing more c u r r e n t t o flow armature decreases, a l s o t h e counter E.M.F. i n t o t h e f i e l d windings. This strengthens t h e f i e l d and decreases t h e speed. A weak f i e l d i n c r e a s e s t h e speed and a s t r o n g f i e l d decreases t h e speed. The f i e l d c o i l s a r e wound with a few t u r n s of heavy wire.
THE SHUlJT MOTOR

This type of motor i s used where a c l o s e r e g u l a t i o n of speed i s r e q u i r e d under loads which a r e c o n s t a n t l y varying. The f i e l d c o i l s of t h e shunt motor a r e wound w i t h many t u r n s of f i n e wire, thus making t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e f i e l d c o i l s high. This allows only a small c u r r e n t t o flow of more o r l e s s constant value no m a t t e r how much c u r r e n t i s flowing i n t h e armature c i r c u i t . As i n t h e case of t h e s e r i e s motor, when t h e f i e l d of a shunt motor i s weakened the armature speed i n c r e a s e s . The increased speed generates more c o u n t e r E.M.F. and t h e armature i s a t once reduced i n speed. Caution should be e x e r c i s e d i n the operation of t h i s t y p e of motor regarding the speed c o n t r o l ; the r e g u l a t i o n of t h e speed may be accomplished by t h e use of a v h r i a b l e r e s i s t a n c e i n s e r i e s with the f i e l d c o i l , o r by a r e s i s t a n c e i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e armature c i r c u i t . The f i e l d c i r c u i t must not be opened thereby c u t t i n g t h e current off suddenly. I f t h e f i e l d c i r c u i t suddenly opened t h e f i e l d would become v e r y weak and t h e motor would o p e r a t e by t h e r e s i d u a l magnetism i n the f i e l d magnets. The armature would i n c r e a s e i t s speed because s u f f i c i e n t and counter E.M.F. could not be generated t o reduce t h e applied E.Y.F. p o s s i b l y be t o r n a p a r t i f abnormally h i g h speed was t h e armature might a t t e i n e d . Precautions t o guard s g a i n s t an open f i e l d w i l l be described l a t e r under motor c o n t r o l .
THJ3 COMPOUND MOTOR

The purpose of t h i s type of motor i s t o obtain a constant speed under a l l load conditions. It d i f f e r s from t h e two t y p e s j u s t described Lesson 9

- sheet 1 2

because the f i e l d i s composed of two s e t s of windings; a s e r i e s and a shunt winding. The s e r i e s winding i s mound i n such a manner a s t o oppose t h e f i e l d created by t h e shunt windings. The shunt motor i s used t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n r a d i o t h a n t h e compound type motor. You may not have a s much t o do with e i t h e r t h e s e r i e s or compound machines a s w i t h t h e shunt wound machine.
MOTOR STARTING BOXES

C o n t r o l l i n g t h e s t a r t and s t o p of e l e c t r i c motors and g e n e r a t o r s i s accomplished by e i t h e r t h e manual type of c o n t r o l o r t h e automatic or remote c o n t r o l . The modern r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r i s equipped with t h e l a t t e r type s o t h a t t h e operator may s t a r t an6 s t o p t h e apparatus The o l d e r methods r e a u i r e t h a t t. -e h - motor from t h e o u e r a t i n a t a b l e . g e n e r a t o r s e t s to- be s t a r t e d and stopped by manually manipulating t h e l e v e r of t h e s t a r t i n g r h e o s t e t .
A

~ - -

~

The two methods w i l l be taken up now with d i a g r m s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . The s t o r t i n g r e s i s t a n c e of d i r e c t current motors, a s explained, cont r o l s the c u r r e n t flowing i n the armetwe of the machines. A f u r t h e r c o n t r o l of t h i s applied c u r r e n t t o the armature i s e f f e c t e d by t h e counter E.M.F. developed by t h e armature a f t e r it begins t o r o t a t e FIE D AnuaruaE and then t h e s t a r t i n g r e s i s t a n c e nay be c u t out of t h e c i r c u i t gradually.
A s the r e s i s t a n c e of t h e armature i s low t h e s t a r t i n g r e s i s t a n c e i s necessary t o l i m i t t h e current t o a safe value u n t i l . the armature has a t t a i n e d i t s f u l l speed.

SPRING,

Figure 23 Figure 22 i l l u s t r a t e s what i s known a s a f o u r t e r m i n a l s t a r t i n g box while Figure 23 i s t h e t h r e e t e r m i n a l box. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two s t a r t i n g boxes i s t h e connecting of t h e holding magnet i n the c i r c u i t . I n Figure 22 t h e holding magnet i s connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e r e s i s t a n c e "R" and a c r o s s t h e 110 v o l t circuit a s shown. The s t a r t i n g box, Figure 23, has t h e holding magnet connected i n s e r i e s with t h e shunt f i e l d of t h e motor. Figure 24 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e method o f connecting a shunt motor t o a f o u r t e r m i n a l s t a r t i n g box. Figure 24A i s a schematic diagram of t h e same motor and box. Figure 25 shows t h e proper connections f o r a compound wound motor w i t h a schematic diagram shown i n 25A. When it i s d e s i r e d t o s t a r t a motor w i t h t h i s type of c o n t r o l t h e s t a r t i n g arm "H", Figure 23, i s moved slowly across t h e c o n t a c t s . When t h e armature i s on c o n t a c t number 1 c u r r e n t flovrs from l i n e 1 t o the s t a r t i n g arm through t h e a m t o r e s i s t a n c e contact 1, through t h e r e s i s t a n c e c o i l s 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 t o contact 8 where it i s l e d t o t h e t e r m i n a l marked armature and from

t h e r e t o t h e motor armature. A s the arm i s slowly moved over t h e c o n t a c t s t h e r e s i s t a n c e i s g r a d u a l l y c u t out and t h e c u r r e n t slowly i n c r e a s e s . Knen arm "Hn reaches t h e point a g a i n s t t h e holding magnet "M" an& r e s t s on c o n t a c t 8 a l l the r e s i s t a n c e i s out and c u r r e n t flows d i r e c t l y from l i n e 1 t o the armature. The magnet "Mn h o l d s t h e arm "R" which i s made of s o f t i r o n , i n t h e runninp, p o s i t i o n a s shown by t h e d o t t e d arm. T h i s magnet i s connected t o the f i r s t contact and it r e c e i v e s f u l l voltage a t f i r s t but a s t h e ~m moves over t h e c o n t a c t s l e s s E.M.F. i s impressed across t h e magnet

--I10 V MAIN LINE

Figure 25A windims due t o t h e increased r e s i s t a n c e through "R" a s t h e arm i s moved t o f u l l running p o s i t i o n . Hence, when t h e arm i s i n f u l l running p o s i t i o n , just enough c u r r e n t flows through t h e magnet windings t o a t t r a c t and hold t h e arm. The r e s i s t a n c e p r o t e c t s t h e magnet winding from heating.
If t h e f i e l d or armature c i r c u i t o r t h e l i n e s w i t c h i s opened f o r any reason t h e magnet c u r r e n t i s cut off and t h e arm i s pulled back t o t h e "off" p o s i t i o n by a spring l o c a t e d i n t h e s h a f t supporting t h e handle.

Figure 24

F i g m e 24A

Figure 25

A automatic or remote c o n t r o l type of s t a r t e r i s shown i n Figure 26 n and i s used where t h e motor generator i s l o c a t e d a t some remote point from the Radio o p e r a t i n g room i n order t o prevent t h e n o i s e of the s e t from i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e s i g n a l s t o be received. This arrangement not only a c t s a s an automatic s t a r t e r but p r o t e c t s t h e motor by t h e functioning of an overload r e l a y i n t h e event of excessive current flow i n t h e armature.
This r e l a y has a magnet winding #18 which i s c a l l e d the t r i p p i n g magnet. C o i l 17 t h e second magnet of t h e r e l a y , i s t h e holding magnet. Magnet 18 i s i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e armature on t h e negative s i d e of t h e l i n e , and i f more t h a n a predetermined number of amperes flow t h r o w h winding #18 t h e arm #15 i s drawn up by t h e increased magnetism t h u s breaking t h e c i r c u i t of t h e e n e r g i z i n g solenoid #5 through t h e c o n t a c t s 1 4 and 1 5 which i s normally i n t h e down p o s i t i o n . This arm, when drawn up, makes t h e contact w i t h c o n t a c t #16 and c o i l #17 i s then energized being prot e c t e d by t h e f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e #20. The holding l e v e r #15 w i l l remain . . l i n e switch i s opened or t h e i n the up p o s i t i o n u n t i l t h e main D C t r o u b l e causing t h e overload t o occur i s l o c a t e d and removed.

Lesson 9

- sheet 14

To s t a r t t h e motor t h e o p e r a t o r c l o s e s switch # l 9 and switch 1/21. Relay arm #15 i s normally down, bringing c o n t a c t s 1 5 and 14 together. Nw t r a c e from t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e of switch #21 around the l i n e t o 13, o from 13 t o p r o t e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e 12 (which i s c u t i n when the arm 7 nas reached i t s f u l l upward t r a v e l ) through solenoid windlng #5, t o contact 14, t o r e l a y arm 15, through switch 19, which the operator has j u s t closed, out of 1 9 t o connection 25, where it r e t u r n s t o tfie negative s i d e of s w i t c h 21. When c u r r e n t flows through t h i s c i r c u i t it e n e r g i z e s c o i l 5 and through electro- magnetic i n d u c t i o n arm 7 i s drawn upward, being regulated by a dash pot arrangement which permits it t o t r a v e l a t a predetermined speed.
-4s t h e plunger arm 7 mpves upward t h e f l a t p o r t i o n of t h e bar 8 makes contact f i r s t w i t h contact #l. Current t h e n flows from p o i n t 13 t o 26,
1

a

Figure 26 i n t o t h e r e s i s t a n c e u n i t s 4, 3, 2 and t o c o n t a c t 1, a c r o s s arm 8 t o Now t o connectlon t h e r i g h t where it passes through a f l e x i b l e p i g t a i l . #9 t o t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e of t h e motor armature, through t h e armature where it r e t u r n s t o t h e negative s i d e of l i n e switch #21. The motor armature i n c r e a s e s i t s speed a s arm 7 r i s e s , and c o n t a c t s 2 and 3 a r e cut out. When b a r 7 i s on contact 4, c u r r e n t flows through t h e arm 8 and t o t h e motor without passing through any of t h e s t a r t i n g r e s i s t a n c e . When switch 2 1 o r 1 9 i s opened c o i l 5 becomes tle-energized and arm 7 c a r r y i n g bar 8 w i l l drop, and c o n t a c t 10 which i s f i t t e d t o arm 8 makes c o n t a c t with c o n t a c t 1 . By t r a c i n g t h i s c i r c u i t you w i l l f i n d r e 1 s i s t a n c e 27 t o be connected d i r e c t l y t o both brushes of t h e motor armat u r e ; t h e motor running i d l e a c t s a s a generator and r e s i s t a n c e 27 a c t s a s a load which q u i c k l y b r i n g s t h e armature t o a stop. This p o r t i o n of t h e c i r c u i t i s c a l l e d a n electro-dynamic brake.

EXAMINATION
1 . 2. 3. 4.

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LESSON 9

5.
6.

7. 8 . 9. 10.

Upon what p r i n c i p l e does t h e e l e c t r i c motor operate? What i s t h e f u n c t i o n of an e l e c t r i c motor? What a r e t h e t h r e e e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of a motor? Row i s a motor armature constructed? What i s t h e purpose of t h e commutator? %hat i s t h e purpose of t h e armature? What i s meant by t h e word "torque"? Explain b r i e f l y what you know about Counter E.M.F. Row i s t h e speed of a shunt motor r e g u l a t e d ? Draw a diagram of an automatic motor s t a r t e r . Explain t h e purpose of each p a r t . Lesson 9 sheet 1 5

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Technical Lesson 10
D .C

.

GENERATORS

The theory of t h e e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t o r and t h e e l e c t r i c motor a r e very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b o t h i s p r a c t i c a l l y the same. The action, however, of t h e g e n e r a t o r i s opposite t o t h a t of t h e motor. The generator, o r dynamo, a s i t i s sometimes called, converts mechanical energy i n t o e l e c t r i c a l energy while, a s you j u s t l e a r n e d , t h e motor conv e r t e d e l e c t r i c a l energy i n t o mechanical energy. E l e c t r i c a l energy i s t a k e n from a generator when it i s d r i v e n by an e l e c t r i c a l motor o r by o t h e r means such a s a steam o r gas engine, o r by a water t u r b i n e . The dynamo can be used e i t h e r as a generator o r motor. The term used t o designate a machine depends upon whether it i s t o be used a s a motor I n shop p r a c t i c e t h i s method of having one machine o r a s a generator. which can be e i t h e r used a s a motor o r g e n e r a t o r i s employed t o some extent.
HISTORY O THE GENERATOR F

W have t o look backward a good many y e a r s t o f i n d when t h e f i r s t e g e n e r a t o r was used. I n 1821 Michael Faraday, an E n g l i s h s c i e n t i s t , found t h a t he could produce r o t a t i o n of a magnetic needle when it was brought near a conductor carrying an e l e c t r i c current. He d i d t h i s while experimenting and applying t h e d i s c o v e r i e s of Oersted i n electromagnetism. In 1831 Oersted's g r e a t discovery of electromagnetic i n d u c t i o n was made and, from t h a t d a t e , you might s a y t h e e l e c t r i c generator was born, f o r it was on t h i s p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e dynamo was Since t h e n many men have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s discovery and founded. i t has t a k e n y e a r s of c o n s t a n t study and a p p l i c a t i o n t o b r i n g t h e generator t o i t ' s p r e s e n t day perfection. T E PRINCIPLE H Generator;- - from t h e name many people t h i n k t h e dynamo generates e l e c t r i c i t y . To e n t e r t a i n t h i s i d e a , however, i s wrong. A dynamo can no more g e n e r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a n a windmill can generate water. The water i s t h e r e ; t h e windmill merely f o r c e s it out of t h e well. E l e c t r i c i t y i s a l r e a d y t h e r e , and t h e dynamo only c r e a t e s a f o r c e which moves t h e e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t through a wire. I n your e a r l i e r l e s s o n s you spent some time w i t h electromagnetic was induced i n a wire when it induction, l e a r n i n g how an E.M.F.

Printed in U.S.A.

moved through a magnetic f i e l d . You were t h e n a c q u i r i n g knowledge which w i l l now enable you t o understand the p r i n c i p l e of the generator. I f you make a loop of wire and b r i n g the ends out t o two " c o l l e c t o r " r i n g s as,shown i n Figure 1, and place t h i s loop i n a magnetic f i e l d , and so arrange t h e loop t h a t i t may be r o t a t e d i n t h i s magnetic f i e l d , you w i l l have an experimental devi-ce s u i t a b l e . t o i l l u s t r a t e the p r i n c i p l e of a simple g e n e r a t o r .
If t h i s loop i s now revolved so t h a t t h e l i n e s o f f o r c e between t h e ' two magnets are c u t an E.M.F. w i l l be induced i n t h e loop and c u r r e n t w i l l flow through t h e loop "A.A." and "B.B." The c u r r e n t which i s being forced around t h i s loop by t h e induced E.M.F. w i l l flow t o t h e c o l l e c t o r r i n g "C", t o t h e brush "Dm, and through t h e meter "M" t o

Figure 1 brush "F", t o c o l l e c t o r r i n g "E" and r e t u r n t o s i d e "B.B." of t h e loop. The current has caused t h e meter needle t o move so w know t h a t c u r r e n t e flows i n t h e loop.
If t h e loop i s tnrned from t h e p o s i t i o n a s shown i n t h e diagram by t h e of t h e loop ill begin t o move handle "H" t o t h e l e f t , t h e s i d e "A.A." through and c u t t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a t an angle. A s t h e s i d e "A.A." moves i n t h e d i r e c t i o n shorn by t h e l a r g e arrows w i l l cause c u r r e n t t o flow through the loop a s shown t h e induced E.M.F. by the small arrows on t h e l o o More l i n e s of f o r c e a r e cut a s it moves toward t h e d o t t e d l i n e s %.K.", which r e p r e s e n t s t h e loop a t t h e p o i n t where it c u t s t h e greatest.number of l i n e s of f o r c e o r a t r i g h t angles, and when it reaches t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e m a x i m u m E.M.F. i s induced and the g r e a t e s t c u r r e n t flow n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t s .

As t h e 'loop moves out of t h i s p o i n t of g r e a t e s t f i e l d s t r e n g t h toward p o s i t i o n "B.B." l e s s and l e s s E.M.F. i s induced a s t h e loop g r a d u a l l y approaches t h e point "B.R."; a t p o i n t "B.B." t h e loop moves p a r a l l e l t o t h e magnetic f i e l d and no l i n e s of f o r c e a r e c u t consequently no E.M.F. r e s u l t s . Lesson 10

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2

W l e s i d e "A.A." h a s been moving down, s i d e "B.B." has been moving up, end t h e induced E.M.F. i n s i d e "A.A." i s i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t i n s i d e "B.B." W s a i d t h a t when t h e t o p of the loop moved downward from p o i n t "A.A." e t o p o i n t "K.K." E.M.F. was induced I n t h a t s i d e of t h e loop which i n creased in s t r e n g t h u n t i l a t p o i n t " . . K K " the maximum E.M.F. was reached. A s t h e loop continues beyond p o s i t i o n "K.K.", t h e induced E.M.F. gradua l l y became less u n t i l , a t point "B.B.", it drops t o zero. The induced E.M.F. g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d from zero a t p o i n t "A.A.", t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t and t h e n decreased a g a i n t o zero.
..M)IXIMUM

POINT

"MAXIMUM POINT

Figure 1 A Suppose we study Fl'gure 1 A and s e e what we can g e t out of t h a t p i c t u r e or voltage, r i s e and f a l l . t o h e l p us understand t h i s E.M.F., Here we have something t h a t looks l i k e a c a r t wheel; a t t h e c e n t e r i s a hub and from t h i s hub a r e r a d i a t i n g l i n e s o r arrows which point a t f i g u r e s around t h e r i m of t h e wheel. S t a r t a t t h e hub now and study t h e arrow which p o i n t s t o zero. Just opposite z e r o you w i l l see a l i n e which w w i l l c a l l the zero l i n e ; t h i s zero l i n e extends, we w i l l e say, f o r 1 5 inches, and t h e numbers 0 , 1 , 2 , 3,4, 5, 6, ?,8,9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, w i l l t h e n be a t i n t e r v a l s of a n inch. 13, The arrow above and t o t h e l e f t of arrow 0 p o i n t s t o 1, t h e next arrow above and t o t h e l e f t of arrow 1 p o i n t s t o 2, and s o on around the r i m of t h e c i r c l e u n t i l w r e t u r n t o arrow zero. e W a r e going t o l e t t h e arrow which p o i n t s t o zero r e p r e s e n t t h e p o s i t i o n e of t h e loop i n Figure 1 . of s i d e "A..4."

W want you t o follow t h i s very c a r e f u l l y f o r you a r e going t o c o n s t r u c t e
a curve which i s t h e method used by a l l e l e c t r i c a l men t o show how e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t moves i n an A.C. c i r c u i t . It i s important f o r you t o know t h i s f o r you a r e going t o s e e many s i m i l a r curves b e f o r e you f i n i s h t h i s work and we want you t o understand how t h e curve i s obtained. The loop w i l l be r o t a t e d through t h e magnetic f i e l d . Before moving t h e loop, however, l e t us look over t h e s p e c i a l meter we have arranged a t M, Figure 1, t o i n d i c a t e t h e amount of t h e induced v o l t a g e a s it i n c r e a s e s and d e c r e a s e s i n t h e loop during i t s journey through the l i n e s of f o r c e . Lesson 10

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sheet 3

O the i n n e r c i r c l e of t h e meter you f i n d numerals 0 t o 15; t h e s e n correspond t o t h e movement of the loop. O t h e o u t e r c i r c l e 10 v n (10 v o l t s ) 20 V, 30 v, 40 v appear and, following t h e c i r c l e around, 40 V , 30 v, 20 v, 1 0 v, 0 v o l t s appear. NOW l e t us s t a r t the loop and, i f i t were p o s s i b l e t o observe t h e i n d i v i d u a l readings a s t h e loop i s turned, t h e following r e s u l t s would be noted. The loop moves from p o i n t zero, t h e n e u t r a l or zero p o s i t i o n , t o point
1, and has cut l i n e s of f o r c e f o r a d i s t a n c e of one inch. Glancing e quickly a t t h e meter M, Figure 1, w f i n d t h a t t h e v o l t a g e has increased from zero v o l t s t o 10 v o l t s . A t t h i s p o s i t i o n , o r p o i n t "a", Figure l A , plhce a dot. The loop moves on, and a t our next point of observation i s a t point 2. Again reading the meter w f i n d t h e v o l t a g e has i n c r e a s e d e t o 20 v o l t s , so a t p o i n t "b" Figure l A , another d o t i s pleced. As the loop revolves, and a r r i v e s a t p o i n t 3, Figure l A , we take our reading of

30 v o l t s , and another dot i s placed a t p o i n t "c" (Note t h a t t h e voltage i s i n c r e a s i n g a s t h e loop approaches t h e point where i t i s cutt.ing more l i n e s of force a t r i g h t a n g l e s ) . A t p o i n t 4, another reading i s t a k e n and we f i n d t h e meter reads 40 v o l t s . So we place a d o t a t "dm. The arrow p o i n t i n g t o number 4 Figure 1 A r e p r e s e n t s t h e loop i n p o s i t i o n "K.K.", of Figure 1. i n Figure 1 t o point "B.B.", t h e r e s u l t i n g p o s i t i o n s a r e shown i n Figure 1 A by numbers 5, 6, 7, 8. We f i n d t h a t a t p o i n t 5 t h e voltage has dropped t o 30 v o l t s , or 10 v o l t s O u r next reading l e s s than a t p o i n t 4, anda dot i s placed a t p o i n t "E n . i s a t 6. The meter r e a d s 20 v o l t s and a dot i s placed a t "FV*a t point , seven the v o l t a g e has dropped t o 10 v o l t s and a dot i s placed a t "G" and, a s point 8 i s reached, t h e meter shows zero v o l t s and a dot i s placed a t
ll~ll.

,

A s t h e loop moves downward from p o i n t "K.K."

The foregoing i s c a l l e d one alterziation; t h e voltage a t t h e s t a r t was zero and it g r a d u a l l y increased u n t i l t h e maximum of 40 v o l t s was reached when it receded again t o zero value.
AS t h e p o r t i o n of t h e loop '.. BB" continues it begins t o t r a v e l upward through t h e l i n e s of f o r c e inducing an E.M.F. opposite i n p o l a r i t y t o t h a t induced on i t s downward t r a v e l . N a t u r a l l y t h e c u r r e n t w i l l change i t s d i r e c t i o n of flow. W e w i l l show you how t o p l o t t h i s by using Figure 1A.

The loop i s now moving from p o s i t i o n "B.B." towards "L.L."; and a s it l e a v e s point 8, Figure l A , and reaches point 9 w f i n d t h a t t h e meter e r e a d s 10 v o l t s . Following out our l i n e t o p o i n t "I" another dot i s placed. (Note t h a t t h e voltage i s i n c r e a s i n g a g a i n but i n t h e opposite direction.) Point 10 i s now reached i n t h e upward t r a v e l of t h e loop a s i t comes under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e "s' pole of t h e magnet, and our meter reads 20 v o l t s ; another dot i s placed a t "J" When 1 i s reached 1 t h e meter r e a d s 30 v o l t s and another dot I s placed a t "Kn; p o i n t 12 i s next with a meter r e a d i n g of 40 v o l t s o r t h e maximum voltage of t h e alternation.

.

Lesson 1 0

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The voltage now begins t o drop and, a s p o i n t s 13, 14, and 15 a r e passed, w read a voltaqe of 30A 20 and 10 v o l t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w i t h d o t s placed e a t I 1 ~ l 1 llEdll, "N and "0 9 F i n a l l y when t h e loop reaches zero, t h e s t a r t i n @ ; p o i n t , the v o l t a g e has dropped t o zero and, w i t h a f i n a l dot a t " P R Y a cycle of values has been completed, i.e., two a l t e r n a t i o n s .

.

NOW

s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e d o t a t zero draw a continuous l i n e through A , B,
,--MPIXIMUM

C,

D, 3, F, G, H, I@ J, K, L, M, N, 0, t o P and you w i l l have a curved
VOLTAGE

l i n e a s shovvn i n Figure 2. Draw a s t r a i g h t zero l i n e beginning a t zero through "H" t o "P", and a t r u e s i n e curve i s t h e r e s u l t , shown i n F i g u r e & From t h i s study it i s seen a s t h e . p o r t i o n of t h e loop l e a v e s the p o i n t I f ~ . ~ . " i t moves downward and c u t s the l i n e s of f o r c e under t h e i n f l u e n c e D I R E C T I O N OF I N D U C E D of t h e magnet "Nw ( n o r t h p o l a r i t y ) and t h e CURRENT IN SIDE ' A induced E.M.F. i s i n one d i r e c t i o n while t h e loop l e a v i n g t h e p o s i t i o n "B.B." i s c u t t i n g t h e l i n e s of f o r c e under the magnet "S" ( s o u t h polarity)upwards, inducing an E.M.F. i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n . To l e a d t h i s induced a l t e r n a t i x c u r r e n t out of t h e loop two c o l l e c t o r r i n g s " C n and "E n a r e mounted on t h e s h a f t , i n s u l a t e d from each o t h e r , t o which a r e connected t h e ends of t h e loop and on which r e s t t h e brushes "D" and "F" a s shown i n Figure 1 Leads connect the . brushes t o t h e meter and, a s j u s t explained t o you, a s t h e loop revolves, t h e needle of t h e meter i n d i c a t e s t h e r i s e and f a l l of induced c u r r e n t a t t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s of t h e Figure 4 r e v o l u t i o n or c y c l e . These r e s u l t s may be p l o t t e d s i m i l a r t o the curve you have j u s t made. J l t e r n n t i n g c u r r e n t i s used t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , and we w i l l d i s c u s s t h a t i n t h e next lesson. However, a t t h i s time w a r e d e a l i n g w i t h d i r e c t e c u r r e n t dynamos, t h e r e f o r e it i s necessary t o provide some means f o r changing a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t o a d i r e c t c u r r e n t , o r a c u r r e n t which flows i n t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t i n one d i r e c t i o n . This may be done by removing t h e c o l l e c t o r r i n g s , shown i n Figure i, from t h e s h a f t and s u b s t i t u t i n g a commutator about which you have a l ready studied. This i s shown i n Figure 4. Here only one loop i s used

Lesson 10

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sheet 5
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4 , The loop " A " and "B", a s shown i n t h e diagram i f p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e magnetic f i e l d and t h i s i s t h e p o s i t i o n where no E 3 . F . i s i n duced a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e small meter. (Also note t h e brushes s h o r t c i r c u i t both segments; t h a t i s t h e n e u t r a l o r no voltage p o s i t l o n . )
TO LOOP

Figure 4A

Figure 4 B

Figure 4 C

Figure 4D

Figure 4E

N w by t u r n i n g t h e handle i n Figure 4 so t h e loop r e v o l v e s countero clockwise, or t o t h e l e f t , s i d e " A " of the loop begins t o cut t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e magnet under t h e "N" pole inducing a n E.M.F. which causes an induced c u r r e n t t o flow i n t h i s h a l f of the loop a s S ~ O T J ~ t h e arrow. by The commutstor segments which a r e secured t o t h e s h a f t have moved i n t o t h e o s i t i o n a s shown a t 4 A , and t h e induced and out b r u s h "F" through t h e meter c u r r e n t i s flowing t o segment 'An t o brush "Gn, i n t o segment "B", and t o the "B" s i d e of t h e loop.

~t t h e same time, "B" h a l f of t h e loop has moved upward, a s shown by t h e arrow, c u t t i n g t h e magnetic f i e l d of magnet " S n , inducing an E M F ... i n t h i s h a l f of t h e c o i l causing an induced c u r r e n t t o flow through "B" h a l f of t h e loop a s shown by t h e arrow, which i s opposite i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t of s i d e 'A".
The c o i l has now t a k e n t h e same p o s i t i o n a s shown i n Figure 5 by t h e arrows 2 and 6.

As the loop r o t a t e s it reaches t h e p o s i t i o n 3 and 7, Figure 5, with t h e commutator a s shown i n Figure 4B. P o s i t i o n 4 and 8, Figure 5, i s t h e . next p o s i t i o n of t h e loop w i t h the commutator i n p o s i t i o n Figure 4C.
A t p o s i t i o n 1 and 5, Figure 5, " A" s i d e of the l o o p i s a t p o s i t i o n 5, while "B" s i d e i s h o l d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t "A" formerly held a t t h e s t a r t , o r p o s i t i o n 1. The loop i s again i n the n e u t r a l plane, s t which p o i n t no E.M.F. i s induced i n t h e loop.
"A" s i d e of t h e loop and "A" segment of commutator could be considered p o s i t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t , and t h e "B" s i d e of t h e l o o p and "B" segment of t h e commutator negative. The commutator i s shown s h o r t c i r c u i t e d a t 4 D and i n t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e loop Is p a r a l l e l t o t h e magnetic f i e l d a t which time no c u r r e n t flows.

Lesson10

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6

become p o s i t i v e , while s i d e - nA n and segment "A" a r e negative, P i and t h e same cycle of e v e n t s t a k e place over and over a g a i n a s t continues t o r o t a t e .

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Thus, you can r e a d i l y s e e t h a t a t each h a l f r e v o l u t i o n the c u r r e n t changes d i r e c t i o n i n t h e loop a s it comes under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e d i f f e r e n t magnetic poles. The commutator, however, keeps t h e c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e e x t e r n a l , o r meter c i r c u i t , always i n t h e same d i r e c t -i o n , thus supplying d i r e c t current t o t h e external c i r c u i t . Thus, with only one c o i l on t h e armature and u s i n g a commutator t h e c u r r e n t would rise and f a l l b u t would not r e v e r s e i t s d i r e c t i o n . This c o n d i t i o n i s shown i n t h e curve Figure 6, and i s c a l l e d a p u l s a t i n g d i r e c t current. T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s not d e s i r a b l e , because i f a lamp i s connected i n t h e c i r c u i t i n s t e a d o f t h e meter t h e lamp would appeara
MALIMUM YOLTPlGL OF'V SIDE OF LOOP CUTTING MAGNETIC FIELD UNDEll MAGNET "N"---RISE hUOFALL O INDUCED EMF F l,n~A~SlO€ LOOP OF MAXIMUM YOLTI6€ OF'r SIDE Of LOOP CUTTING M YC GE I I FIELD UNDW MAGNET "N"
RISE ANDFbLL OF INOUCE EMF IH'8WDE DF LOOP

ZERO

ZERO LIN

LINE

Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 dim a t f i r s t t h e n b r i g h t a t t h e point of maximum voltage, t h e n grow dim a g a i n and a t each h a l f r e v o l u t i o n of t h e loop t h e lamp would go out. I n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t h i s undesirable f e a t u r e of a l t e r n a t e i n c r e a s e and s g r e a t number of loops a r e used w i t h a corredecrease of t h e E.M.F. spondingly g r e a t number of segments. With more loops r e v o l v i n g i n t h e magnetic f i e l d t h e p u l s a t i n g c u r r e n t becomes a s shown i n F i g u r e 7 , g i v i n g a g r e a t e r number of p u l s a t i o n s per second of time. The loops a r e so arranged t h a t each c o i l r e p l a c e s the preceding loop coming i n t o themagnetic f i e l d s o r a p i d l y t h a t t h e E.M.F. i s p r a c t i c a l l y One c o i l no sooner passes out of the maximum voltage p o i n t constant. t h a n another i s a r r i v i n g a t t h e same point. However, even w i t h a l a r g e number of armature c o i l s , and a correspondi n g l y l a r g e number of segments, t h e s e s l i g h t f l u c t u a t i o n s of t h e c u r r e n t w i l l s t i l l be present. Such f l u c t u a t i o n s of the c u r r e n t a r e known a s "commutation r i p p l e s " but a r e s o small i n value t h a t , a s f a r a s o r d i n a r y circumstances a r e concerned, t h e y are of no importance.

If we revolve t h e armature throu@;h t h e magnetic f i e l d and t h e armature c o i l s a r e s e l f supporting, t h e r e l u c t a n c e which t h e a i r gap between t h e p o l e s o f f e r s t o t h i s magnetic f i e l d w i l l m a t e r i a l l y reduce i t s strength. A l l amnature c o i l s a r e wound on a s o f t i r o n l a n i n a t e d armature core about which you have s t u d i e d under motors. T h i s i r o n core p r a c t i c a l l y f i 3 . 1 ~the space between themagnetic f i e l d poles, reducing t h e r e l u c t a n c e offered t o t h e magnetic f i e l d and, t h e r e f o r e , a g r e a t e r number of l i n e s of f o r c e may be c u t . The d i s t a n c e between t h e r e v o l v i n g armature core and t h e f i e l d magnet p i e c e s i s u s u a l l y 1/64 of a n inch.
Lesson 10

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sheet 7

FIELD POLES f i e l d magnets of motors and g e n e r a t o r s magnets. The core i n most c a m s i s e i t h e r s o f t s t e e l . I n some types of small motors a r e permanent magnets and t h e s e r e q u i r e no

are g e n e r a l l y l a r g e e l e c t r o c a s t i r o n , wrought i r o n o r t h e frame and pole pieces f i e l d winding.

I

In t h e l a r g e r types w d e a l w i t h t h e f i e l d magnets a r e electro- magnets e and a r e made up s e p a r a t e l y and b o l t e d t o t h e frame of t h e motor o r generator. The f i e l d pole i s machined c a r e f u l l y t o f i t c l o s e l y t o t h e frame, because a t i g h t j o i n t reduces magnetic leakage. The f i e l d p o l e , "A" i n Figure 8, i s s o f t i r o n c a s t i n t o shape, and t h e n machined a s shown. Holes a r e d r i l l e d f o r t h e holding b o l t s and p r o v i s i o n s made t o countersink t h e heads of t h e holding b o l t s i n t o t h e shoe of t h e pole piece.
MACHINED OFF ,'TO FIT FRAME BOLTS

......

,+IRON CORE

RING FOR LIFTING DYNbMO FRtME

,,FORMED COIL

COTTON TAPE

Figure 8 The form wound f i e l d c o i l s a r e next prepared a s shown i n B. I n s e r i e s wound motors t h e f i e l d c o i l s c o n s i s t of heavy i n s u l a t e d wire. A s each t u r n i s wound on t h e form, s h e l l a c i s applied. Upon completion of t h e winding a s shown a t "B", Figure 8, it i s wrapped w i t h c o t t o n t a p e s h e l l a c e d a g a i n and baked. The completed winding i s t h e n ready f o r t h e pole piece, which i s removed from t h e frame, and t h e f i e l d c o i l i s s l i p p e d over t h e pole piece f i t t i n g c l o s e up t o t h e shoe of t h e core, a s shown a t "c", Figure 8. The completed f i e l d c o i l i s t h e n placed i n s i d e t h e g e n e r a t o r frame, b o l t e d i n t o place and t h e t e r m i n a l of each c o i l connected a s shown a t "D", Figure 8. The p l a c i n g of t h e pole pieces a s t o p o l a r i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p a t h of t h e magnetic f i e l d through t h e frame, i s a l s o shown a t "Dn Figure 8. T h i s f i g u r e shows a f o u r pole generator. Bipolar (two pole g e n e r a t o r s ) a r e a l s o used.

,

The f i e l d c o i l s a r e connected i n d i f f e r e n t ways according t o t h e design of the machine. I n most commercial d i r e c t c u r r e n t g e n e r a t o r s t h e f i e l d s a r e s e l f e x c i t e d ; that i s , t h e y a r e energized from t h e c u r r e n t generated i n t h e armature. In a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t g e n e r a t o r s t h e f i e l d i s genera-

Lesson 10

- sheet 8

e x c i t e d s e p a r a t e l y by a small D.C. g e n e r a t o r connected d i r e c t l y t o t h e armature s h a f t of t h e a l t e r n a t o r , o r from t h e D.C. supply mains. The s o f t i r o n used i n t h e F i e l d magnet r e t a i n s a small amount of magnetism, c a l l e d r e s i d u a l magnetism, a f t e r t h e g e n e r a t o r i s shut dawn. O s t a r t i n g t h e g e n e r a t o r t h i s residual. f i e l d makes it p o s s i n b l e f o r t h e armature c o i l s , a s t h e y c u t t h i s weak f i e l d , t o generate an induced E.M.F. thereby s t a r t i n g an induced c u r r e n t , A s soon a s c u r r e n t begins t o flow i n t h e armature it s t r e n g t h e n s t h e f i e l d winding, g r a d u a l l y b u i l d i n g up t h e magnetic f i e l d s t r e n g t h u n t i l it becomes normal. There a r e times when t h i s r e s i d u a l magnetism f a i l s ; t h a t i s , t h e p o l e pieces l o s e t h e i r magnetism t o such an e x t e n t t h a t t h e E.M.F. w i l l not b u i l d up. I n t h i s case it i s necessary t o s e p a r a t e l y e x c i t e t h e f i e l d magnet winding by connecting s e v e r a l d r y c e l l s i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e f i e l d c o i l s t o produce a f i e l d s t r o n g enough f o r t h e armature t o develope an A s soon a s t h e E.M.F. s t a r t s t o b u i l d up t h e d r y c e l l s a r e d i s E.M.F.. connected and w i t h t h e f i e l d c i r c u i t r e s t o r e d , t h e machine w i l l operate normally. Let u s observe some of t h e ways t h e generator f i e l d c o i l s a r e connected with t h e armature, which d e s i g n a t e s t h e type of D.C. generator. To make t h i s a s easy a s p o s s i b l e we will use t h r e e drawings; a l l t h r e e s l i g h t l y
ARMATURE

Figure 9 A

Figure 9B

F i g w e 9C

d i f f e r e n t i n appearance b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c i r c u i t s a r e t h e same. Figures 9A, 9B, and 9C show t h e connections f o r a s e r i e s generator i n which t h e f i e l d c o i l s a r e connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e armature; a l l t h e c u r r e n t p a s s i n g through t h e armature windings must pass t h r o u T t h e f i e l d windings a s well. e Suppose f i r s t w l a y f o u r f i e l d magnets out i n a row a s shown i n Figure 9A. Connect them a l l i n s e r i e s and then connect number 1 t o t h e armature brush; t h e o t h e r f i e l d winding terminal, nunber 2, goes t o t h e load and meter. The o t h e r s i d e of t h e armature t e r m i n a l , nunber 3, goes t o t h e meter. T h i s i s a s e r i e s connection. Figure 9B i s a schematic drawing of C t h e same thing, while i n Figure 9 we have placed t h e c o i l s and armature i n a frame. By t r a c i n g t h e c i r c u i t 6 you w i l l find "A" and "B" t h e same. The shunt type of D.C. generator i s shown i n F i g u r e s 10A, 10B and 10C. ?Jotice that t h e f i e l d c o i l s a r e wound i n s e r i e s w i t h each o t h e r and connected a c r o s s , o r i n p a r a l l e l with, t h e armature c o i l s and NOT I N Lesson 10

- sheet 9

SERIES. The c o i l s a r e wound w i t h a l a r g e number of t u r n s of f i n e w i r e m y a small p o r t i o n of t h e armature c u r r e n t flows through t h e f i e l d . Figure 10A shows t h e f i e l d c o i l s i n a row. Figure 10B i s the schematic drawing, and i n F i g u r e 10C t h e f i e l d c o i l s a r e shown placed i n t h e genera t o r frame.

The compound wound g e n e r a t o r i s a combination of b o t h t h e s e r i e s and shunt generators, having b o t h a s e r i e s and shunt f i e l d . The charac,:;-SHUNT

FIELD

....

'.CONNECTIONS'

Figure 10C t e r i s t i c s of both t h e s e r i e s and shunt machines a r e t h u s combined i n one machine and much b e t t e r r e g u l a t i o n of t h e v o l t a g e i s secured under a l l conditions of varying loads. The s e r i e s winding i s connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e armature and t h e load a s shown i n F i g u r e s 1 1 A , 9 and C , while t h e shunt f i e l d i s connected i n p a r a l l e l o r i n shunt, w i t h t h e armature. The ac-Lion o f the windings i s a s follows: When a load i s thrown on

Figure 10A

/

-

Figure 10E

,

Figure l l C t h e generator the shunt f i e l d i s weakened and a t t h i s p o i n t t h e s e r i e s f i e l d h e l p s out by s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e shunt f i e l d t h e r e b y a u t o m a t i c a l l y maintaining a c o n s t a n t voltage under a varying load. The c u r r e n t i n t h e compound wound windings must flow through both t h e s e r i e s and shunt windings i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n i n order t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t f i e l d w i l l be strengthened. The electromotive f o r c e o r voltage generated depends upon t h e following f a c t o r s : 1st. The number of loops o r conductors on t h e armature revolving i n t h e magnetic f i e l d . Lesson 10- sheet 10

Figure 1LZ

Figure l l B

2nd.
3rd.

The s t r e n g t h of the magnetic f i e l d o r l i n e s of f o r c e , The r a t e a t which t h e armature c a r r y i ~ g h e loops or conductors t move through t h i s magnetic f i e l d .

It i s necessary, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s be given c a r e f u l cons i d e r a t i o n t o o b t a i n maximum voltage from a generator.

For a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e commutator r e f e r t o Figure 7 and the t e x t a s s o c i a t e d t h e r e w i t h on D,C. motors. Both t h e assembly and d i s c u s s i o n of t h e commutator i s presented. The brushes used i n n e a r l y a l l types of g e n e r a t o r s a r e made of carbon. The hardness and s o f t n e s s depends upon the copper segments of t h e c o m t n t o r . A s o f t copper segment r e q u i r e s a s o f t carbon brush while on hard copper a hard brush can be used. The degree of hardness of the copper i s not changed i n t e n t i o n a l l y ; t h i s v a r i a t i o n occurs d u r i n g manufacture and d i f f e r e n t grades of carbon brushes are made t o meet t h i s condition. The s i z e of t h e brushes p r i m a r i l y depends upon t h e amount of c u r r e n t If t h e c u r r e n t i s high being taken from t h e armature of t h e generator. i n value then brushes l a r g e enough t o e a s i l y p a s s such c u r r e n t must be used. Conversely, i f t h e c u r r e n t i s low i n value t h e n p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y smaller brushes a r e used. The device holding the b r u s h i n t h e proper p l a c e and b e a r i n g on t h e commutator i s c a l l e d t h e brush holder, a diagram and e x p l a n a t i o n of .. which i s shown i n Figure 9 i n t h e l e s s o n on D C motors.
T h i s brush holding device i s secured t o a b r u s h frame from which it i s i n s u l a t e d , f i t t e d w i t h a handle, and so arranged a s t o allow t h e brushes

t o be s h i f t e d around the? comnutator. This i s c a l l e d t h e rocker arm and allows t h e brushes t o be moved a t times i n order t o compensate f o r d i s t o r t i o n of t h e magnetic f i e l d * This i s explained under t h e subject of "armature r e a c t i o n " .
ARMATURE REACTION

Armature r e a c t i o n i s caused by t h e e f f e c t upon t h e main magnetic f i e l d s e t up by t h e f i e l d c o i l s by t h e magnetic f i e l d about t h e r a p i d l y r e volving i r o n armature and i t s c o i l s , and t h i s r e a c t i o n d i s t o r t s or draws t h e main magnetic f i e l d out of? i t s n a t u r a l p o s i t i o n . The n e u t r a l point i s thereby changed and t h e brushes must be s h i f t e d t o compensate f o r t h i s r e a c t i o n , T h i s change i n t h e s e t t i n g of t h e brushes i s shown i n Figure 13.

By r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c y c l e of e v e n t s i n t h e loop a s shown i n Figure 4 and t h e n e u t r a l p o i n t mentioned t h e r e , armature r e a c t i o n may be more r e a d i l y understood w i t h t h e following explanation. The n e u t r a l p o i n t o r plane, you remember, i s t h a t p o i n t where t h e armature loop o r c o i l moves p a r e l l e l w i t h t h e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e and i s t h e p o i n t of zero voltage o r where no i n d u c t i o n occurs. The c u r r e n t changes d i r e c t i o n i n t h e loop a t e i t h e r s i d e of z e r o p o s i t i o n . Armature r e a c t i o n changes t h i s n e u t r a l p o i n t , o r p o i n t of commutation, a s it i s most g e n e r a l l y t e m e d .

Suppose t h a t an armature revolves i n a magnetic f i e l d w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t open o r not connected t o t h e brushes on t h e commutator. The main f i e l d w i l l i n t h i s i n s t a n c e remain normal, t h a t i s , t h e l i n e s of f o r c e w i l l extend from N t o S, or from n o r t h t o south magnetic poles a s shown by t h e d o t t e d l i n e s i n Figure 12. When a load i s t h r o m on t h e generator t h e c i r c u i t through t h e armature c o i l i s closed and r e a c t i o n between t h e f i e l d proper and t h e f i e l d of the armature r e s u l t s . T h i s r e a c t i o n between t h e armature f i e l d and t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e pole pieces causes t h e normal n e u t r a l plane t o s h i f t , and i t i s r e a d i l y seen t h a t the c o i l s , which a r e passing the p o i n t where t h e n e u t r a l plane formerly e x i s t e d without any load on t h e armature, a r e not moving p a r a l l e l with t h e magnetic f i e l d but a r e c u t t i n g t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a t an angle; see Figure 13. Therefore t h e brushes must be moved t o t h a t new p o s i t i o n of t h e n e u t r a l point which r e s u l t s from such d i s t o r t i o n of the magnetic f i e l d , f o r a t t h i s new point the c o i l s on t h e armature w i l l be t r a v e l l i n g p a r a l l e l w i t h the d i s t o r t e d magnetic f i e l d . The proper ad-

I

NEUTRAL POINT WHERE CONDUCTOR K 15 PARALLEL w i r n FIELD

NEW POSITION OF BRUSHES DUE

N,ORMAL NEUIPAL POIHI ON NO LOAD
OLD OR NEUTRAL l8RUSH POSITION

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1

OLD BRUSH P O $ ~ T ~ O N /

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Figure 12 Figure 13 justment f o r t h e brushes i s a t t h e V p o i n t of commutation w. must be s h i f t e d on both g e n e r a t o r s and motors.
POSSIBLE TROUBLES

The brushes

Generators should be watched c a r e f u l l y t o c o r r e c t t r o u b l e s which may appear unimportant a t f i r s t but which may l a t e r become s e r i o u s . The most important p o s s i b l e t r o u b l e s follow: The bearings of a g e n e r a t o r and motor should be kept i n good condition; t h e o i l should not be allowed t o become gunmy. The o i l r i n g s should be watched a t a l l times t o see t h a t t h e y a r e c a r r y i n g o i l t o t h e s h a f t and bearing. Figure 14 i l l u s t r a t e s a bearing and o i l r i n g s . "A" i s t h e bearings with t h e o i l r i n g s i n t h e s l o t s f i t t e d l o o s e l y on t h e s h a f t . The d o t t e d lines show t h e s h a f t which c a r r i e s the r i n g s ; a s t h e s h a f t t u r n s i n t h e bearing t h e o i l r i n g s which r e s t on t h e revolving s h a f t a l s o t u r n , picking "Bn up o i l a s t h e y r o t a t e and t h u s s p l a s h i n g t h e o i l onto t h e s h a f t . shows t h e p i l l o w block, t h e lower h a l f containing t h e o i l w e l l ( t h e r i n g s a r e shown i n d o t t e d l i n e s ) t h e upper h a l f of which i s h e l d i n place by b o l t s and i s c a l l e d t h e "housing" which covers t h e bearing.

Lesson 10

-

sheet 12

The brushes m u s t be g i v e n s p e c i a l care. They should f i t i n t o the brush h o l d e r s i n such a manner a s t o prevent " c h a t t e r i n g " and s t i l l be f r e e t o move up and down. The s p r i n g holding t h e brushes i n c o n t a c t a g a i n s t t h e c o m u t a t o r should be examined and a d j u s t e d f o r proper t e n s i o n t o avoid s c o r i n g of t h e commut a t o r by t h e brush. Keep t h e brushes and b r u s h holder f r e e from d u s t and see t h a t t h e f a c e of t h e brush r e s t i n g on t h e commutator i s f i t t e d p r o p e r l y t o t h e commutator i n order t h a t t h e brush b e a r s evenly a t a l l p o i n t s a g a i n s t tahe segments. Should it become n e c e s s a r y t o r e f i t t h e b r u s h t o t h e c o n i u t a t o r do so as L i f t the b r u s h and p l a c e a p i e c e of double 0 ( 0 0 ) shown i n drawing 15. sand paper w i t h t h e smooth s i d e a g a i n s t t h e commutator. Allow t h e brush t o drop back a g a i n s t t h e rough o r sanded p a r t of t h e paper, then allow t h e sand paper t o follow t h e c u r v a t u r e o f t h e commutator and w i t h a back and f o r t h movement t h e sand paper w i l l cut away t h e carbon brush, i n s u r i n g a c l o s e f i t . The t e n s i o n of the s p r i n g w i l l keep t h e b r u s h a g a i n s t t h e This i s t h e only absand paper while you a r e moving it back and f o r t h . r a s i v e t h a t should be used f o r t h e purpose. DO NOT USE EMERY PAPER. The machine should be so l e f t t h a t i t cannot be a c c i d e n t l y s t a r t e d d u r i n g t h e

Figure 15 process of f i t t i n g t h e brushes. Keep a l l a b r a s i v e s e s p e c i a l l y t!lose of a m e t a l l i c n a t u r e , away from t h e commutator and b e a r i n g s ; emery paper w i l l cause s h o r t c f r c u i t s between t h e segments of t h e c o m u t a t o r and w i l l cut t h e b e a r i n g s i f allowed t o come I n contact w i t h them. Sparking a t t h e b r u s h e s can be caused by h i g h s p o t s on t h e c o m u t a t o r which should be remedied. Rough or p i t t e d commutators should be turned down on a l a t h e . Excessive loads a t times cannot be avoided, but a f t e r such i n s t a n c e s t h e brushes and c o m u t a t o r should be examined and cleaned and given a s good c a r e a s p o s s i b l e . The mica i n s u l a t i o n between t h e copper segments i s o f t e n h i g h e r t h a n t h e segments themselves; t h e mica If t h e brushes a r e out of t h e should t h e n be c u t down on a l a t h e . p o f n t o f comnutation, t h e y may be c o r r e c t l y adn e u t r a l plane, i.e., justed by s h i f t i n g t h e r o c k e r arm. I f a b r u s h becomes wedged i n i t s holder it should be removed and be given a thorough cleaning. A armature c o i l which i s p a r t i a l l y s h o r t c i r c u i t e d w i l l cause sparking; n t h i s must be l o c a t e d and r e p a i r e d .

Lesson 1 0

- sheet

13

The commutator may a t times become extremely hot due t o excessive c u r r e n t being drawn from t h e generator. There i s , i n t h i s case, only one remedy; reduce the load on t h e generator t o normal. The armature loops o r conductor terminals may become loose i n t h e segments; t h i s r a i s e s t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e contact and produces heat.
A t times m e t a l l i c p a r t i c l e s become lodged between t h e segments of

t h e commutator due t o gummy o i l which has been splashed t h e r e from t h e bearings. The p a r t i c l e s come under t h e brushes and being dep o s i t e d between the segments, t h e y cause sparking. The commutator and brushes should be cleaned, using c l e a n g a s o l i n e on t h e commutator and p o l i s h i n g w i t h a piece of heavy canvas.
A burned out o r s h o r t e d o r grounded armature c o i l w i l l cause sparking. T e s t s f o r l o c a t i n g such t r o u b l e w i l l be given you l a t e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t e s t s f o r l o c a t i n g s h o r t c i r c u i t s , grounds and broken connections.

1.

Is t h e r e any major clifference between an e l e c t r i c a l motor and an e l e c t r i c a l generator?
What i s t h e purpose of an e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t o r ? m a t grade of emery paper should be used t o c l e a n a commutator? What i s t h e purpose of f i e l d poles? What i s meant by t h e term " r e s i d u a l magnetism"? Draw a diagram of a shunt generator. (a) What a r e brushes used f o r ? ( b ) What c a r e should t h e y r e c e i v e ?

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7 .
8.

Are t h e b e a r i n g s of a generator considered important? Suppose t h e f i e l d poles l o s e t h e i r r e s i d u a l magnetism, how would you proceed t o overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n order t h a t the g e n e r a t o r might be used? What i s t h e purpose of c o l l e c t o r r i n g s ?

9,

10.

Lesson 10

- s h e e t 14

Technical Lesson 1%
A.C.

CURRENT

Generators may be c l s s s i f i e d a s follows; a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t g e n e r a t o r s and d i r e c t c u r r e n t generators. More s p e c i f i c a l l y A.C. generators a r e o f t e n c a l l e d " a l t e r n a t o r s " , and D.C. generators a r e c a l l e d e i t h e r " generators" o r "dynamos". The e l e c t r i c a l energy produced by a c o i l revolving f n a magnetic f i e l d i s p r i m a r i l y a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t , When i t i s d e s i r e d t o o b t a i n D.C. i n an e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t , i , e . , c u r r e n t which i s steady i n value and which moves continuously i n the same d i r e c t i o n , it becomes necessary t o equip t h e generator w i t h a commutator, The conunutntor, a s you know, allows t h e c u r r e n t t o Plow through t h e e x t e r n a l c f r c u i t i n one d i r e c t i o n only. I n r a d i o telegraphy and telephony i t i s o f t e n necessary t o u t i l i z e e a l t e r n a t i n g curllent t h e r e f o r e w do not equip t h e machine with a commutator but employ s l i p rings which permits t h e fnduced c u r r e n t t o flow from t h e c o i l s of the armature i n t o t h e e x t e r n a i c i r c u i t j u s t a s it i s generated, o r a s a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t , I n your l e s s o n on d i r e c t c u r r e n t generators you l e a r n e d t h a t t h e a r m t u r e , revolving i n a magnetic f i e l d , produced a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t s i n t h e c o i l s of t h e armature. When one s i d e oT t h e closed c o i l moved through the magnetic f l u x of t h e n o r t h pole t h e r e was induced i n it a n E.M.F. which caused c u r r e n t t o flow t h o u g h t h e armature c o i l i n one d i r e c t i o n . The o t h e r h a l f of t h e c o i l b e g i n s t o c u t t h e magnetic flux of t h e south pole of the magnet a t t h e same time which a l s o causes a current t o move i n t h i s h a l f of the c o i l f o r t h e same reason a s caumd c u r r e n t flow i n t h e f i r s t h a l f ,
If t h e terminals of t h i s revolving c o f l are connected t o a p a i r of b r a s s ~ i n g s ,or s l f p r i n g s , and a p a i r of brushes r e s t a g a i n s t and make c o n t a c t with t h e s e rings, ( t o which i s connected t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t ) , t h e V i n duced c u r r e n t can be made t o leollow t h e conducting wires forming t h e e x t e r n a l electrical c i r c u i t .

In order t o b e t t e r e x p l a i n t h e fundamental a c t i o n going on i n t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t g e n e r a t o r , o r a l t e r n a t o r , we w i l l consider a s i n g l e c o i l i n s t e a d of an armature containing mang c o i l s , and study each e f f e c t a s it t a k e s place during t h e r e v o l u t i o n of a closed c o i l , o r conductor, through t h e magnetic f i e l d or f l u x .
NOW F e f e r t o Figure Is t h e terminals, as s h

Bere w have arranged a s i n g l e armature coPl; e a r e aomected t o t h e s l i p r i n g s . The r i ~ s

Contents Copyrighted 1930

Printed in U.S.A.

themselves a r e held i n place by an i n s u l a t e d s h a f t . e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t a r e c l e a r l y shown and marked.

The brushes and

As the c o i l i s forced t o revolve i n the magnetic f i e l d t h e s l i p r i n g s must move w i t h t h e armature c o i l s , a l l being mounted on a common s h a f t . The brushes a r e s t a t i o n a r y and merely serve t o provide a s l i d i n g contact on t h e rings. Side "A" has induced i n it an electromotive force a s it c u t s through t h e magnetic f i e l d , causing t h e induced c u r r e n t t o flow i n a d e f i n i t e
EXTERNAL CIRCUIT

Figure 1 d i r e c t i o n a s shown by t h e arrow i f the c i r c u i t i s closed by c l o s i n g t h e switch "s". Likewise s i d e hB" a l s o has induced i n it an E.M.F. with c u r r e n t flowing a s shown by t h e arrow. Remember t h i s , - - any wire c u t t i n g a magnetic f i e l d w i l l have induced i n it an induced electromotive force and t h e current flow i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h i s induced E.M.F. but it w i l l not flow u n t i l t h e c o i l forms a closed loop. Since we know t h e p a r t s of t h i s simple a l t e r n a t o r w can go f u r t h e r and t r a c e the c u r r e n t e a s it a l t e r n a t e s o r r e v e r s e s i t s d i r e c t i o n through the c i r c u i t . Let us study Figure 2 where we have t h e same piece of apparatus a s shown i n Figure 1 but drawn i n a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n allowing us t o see t h e f u l l c i r c u l a r path of t h e loop o r armature c o i l through the mafnetic f i e l d . The s i d e of t h e c o i l marked AA", you w i l l n o t i c e , i s a t t h e t o p of t h e Figure 2 magnetic f l u x or f i e l d a t p o s i t i o n "EE" while t h e s i d e %Bn i s a t t h e bottom of t h e f i e l d , p o s i t i o n "FFn. t h a t while t h e loop The meter needle i s p o i n t i n g t o zero i n d i c a t i i s i n t h i s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e magnetic f e l & t h e r e i s no induced

?

Lesson 1 - sheet 2 1

E.M.F.

and consequently no induced current. w i l l flow because t h e s i d e s ~ of the loop w ~ and " "BB" a r e p a r a l l e l w i t h the l i n e s of f o r c e and a r e n o t c u t t i n g the f l u x .

Before w e consider t h e flow of c u r r e n t suppose we f i r s t cause t h e loop t o revolve t o show t h e p o s i t i o n s the s i d e "AA" w i l l assume during "AA" s i d e of t h e loop i s shown a t a complete r e v o l u t i o n of t h e c o i l . t h e p o s i t i o n "EE w . The loop begins t o revolve i n a counter clockwise d i r e c t i o n , shown by arrows, on i t s s h a f t "x" and immediately begins t o cut t h e l i n e s of f o r c e o r f l u x of t h e "S" pole of t h e magnet. When it a r r i v e s a t p o s i t i o n "DD n , t h e end of t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r r e v o l u t i o n , it w i l l b e c u t t i n g t h e maximum number of l i n e s of f o r c e leaving p o s i t i o n l l ~ i t n c u t s l e s s l i n e s of f o r c e u n t i l a t p o s i t i o n "FF', ~ t h e end of t h e second q u a r t e r of r e v o l u t i o n , it i s again p a r a l l e l w i t h the l i n e s of f o r c e , c u t t i n g no f l U X r Continuing i n t o the t h i r d q u a r t e r of r e v o l u t i o n it a g a i n c u t s t h e magnetic f l u x , upward t h i s time, g r a d u a l l y c u t t i n g t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a t a g r e a t e r angle each f r a c t i o n of upward movement u n t i l a t p o s i t i o n "CC", o r end of t h e t h i r d q u a r t e r of r e v o l u t i o n , it w i l l be c u t t i n g t h e g r e a t e s t number of l i n e s of f o r c e under t h e 'INn pole o r magnetic f i e l d of n o r t h p o l a r i t y , Leaving p o s i t i o n "CC", and continuing i n t o of r e v o l u t i o n , l e s s and l e s s l i n e s of f o r c e upon a r r i v i n g a t p o s i t i o n "EE", t h e end of l u t i o n , it i s a g a i n p a r a l l e l t o t h e magnetic a r e being cut. t h e f o u r t h and l a s t q u a r t e r a r e c u t per u n i t oftime and, t h e f o u r t h q u a r t e r of revof i e l d and no l i n e s of f o r c e

T h i s completes one r e v o l u t i o n of t h e c o i l through t h e magnetic f i e l d . The loop can be r o t a t e d another f u l l r e v o l u t i o n and t h e same cycle of events would be repeated over again.

On the second journey of t h e loop we a r e going t o s t u d y how t h e induced i s a f f e c t e d by t h e c u t t i n g of t h e l i n e s of force,- how it r i s e s t from zero s t r e n g t h t o maximum s t r e n g t h , and t h e n f a l l s a g ~ i n o zero value.
E.M.F.

O t h e second r e v o l u t i o n we w i l l concentrate upon s i d e "BB". The arman t u r e s t a r t s , "BB" moves upward i n t o t h e n o r t h magnetic f i e l d and, because of t h e c u t t i n g of t h e l i n e s of f o r c e , it has induced i n i t an e l e c t r o motive f o r c e , t h e s t r e n g t h depending upon t h e speed it moves and upon t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e magnetic f i e l d through which i t t r a v e l s .

The induced electromotive f o r c e w i l l cause c u r r e n t t o flow i n t h i s s i d e of t h e loop i n t h e d i r e c t i o n shown by t h e arrows, making brush "Bl" positive. The c u r r e n t i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h due t o t h e increased electromotive f o r c e inciuced by the g r e a t e r number of l i n e s of f o r c e cut Here t h e maxiper u n i t of time, u n t i l t h e c o i l reaches p o s i t i o n "CC" m m number of l i n e s of f o r c e a r e c u t and t h e maximum electromotive f o r c e i s induced. Therefore t h e maximum c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h p o s s i b l e i s obtained a t t h i s p o s i t i o n , assuming t h e f i e l d t o be uniform and t h e speed constant.

.

Lesson 1 1

- sheet

3

s i d e "BB" has moved t o p o s i t i o n "CC", s i d e "AA" has moved i n t o n p o s i t i o n "DD", A E.M.F. and c u r r e n t i s induced i n "AA" e x a c t l y a s i n side "BB" but opposite i n d i r e c t i o n , a s shown, making t h e brush " ~ 2 "negative. The r e s u l t i n g induced c u r r e n t has moved through the c i r c u i t causing t h e meter needle t o move t o t h e l e f t , p o i n t i n g t o maximum.
While

Side "BB" now moves out of t h e maximum f i e l d p o s i t i o n "CC", c u t t i n g l e s s l i n e s of f o r c e per u n i t of time a s it moves toward p o s i t i o n n ~ ~ ' l , t h e r e f o r e l e s s E.M.F. i s induced and consequently t h e induced c u r r e n t
1(lO POS1TlON"CC" OF
STAR1 OF INDUCED E.M.F. SIDE "Be" CORRESPONDING 10 POSITION "FF': MMIMUM INDUCED E.M.F. IN SIDE "BE" CORRESPONDING COIL UNDER P0LE"N"

POSITION OF SIDE"BB" OF-,' COIL BEFORE MOVING UPWARD INTO FIELD OF'N'MAGNET

'4AAS IT ENTERS
FIELD OF FOLE'N"

INCREASING IN SIDE;

INDUCED E.M.F. I N SlDE.AK DECREhSED 0 ZERO CDRRESPDN?lNG TO POSITION *EE

MAUMUM INDUCED E.M.F. IN SIDE "AA:----* AT POSI1ION"CC" UNOER POLE "N

9

Figure 3 decreases i n s t r e n g t h , u n t i l it reaches "EE" where no l i n e s of f o r c e ... drops t o zero a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e needle of t h e a r e cut and t h e E M F meter when i t r e t u r n s t o zero position. W may p l o t t h i s r i s e and f a l l of c u r r e n t t a k i n g place i n s i d e "BBn of e t h e c o i l a s i t passed under t h e n o r t h pole of t h e magnetic f i e l d , a s shown i n Figure 3, by a curved l i n e which moves upward from zero t o a maximum h e i g h t and t h a n a s @radually decreases again t o The p o s i t i o n of t h e loop now i n d i c ~ t e s s i d e "BB" a t p o s i t i o n "EE" and s i d e "AA" a t p o s i t i o n "FF". "BBw now moves downward, under the influence of t h e south magnetic f i e l d , and t h e c u r r e n t inducedflows through "BB" and t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t opposite t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of flow when "BBw mas under t h e north magnetic f i e l d . See Figure 4. The induced E.M.F. r i s e s from zero t o maximum an'd f a l l s a g a i n t o zero a s t h e c o i l was ole. and a s shorn bo moving under t h e %It t h e meter needle which has moved across-;he Figure 4 s c a l e , t h i s time t o t h e r i g h t , r e t u r n i n g t o zero when s i d e "BB" has reached p o s i t i o n "FFn; t h i s r e v e r s a l of c u r r e n t flow w i l l cause t h e needle t o move i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n . I n Figure 3 we have shown a s i n e curve which g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e continuously varying values of E.M.F. induced i n t h e conductor a s i t moves through t h e magnetic f i e l d .
1 Lesson 1

- sheet 4

VALUE OF

E.M.F.

The value of t h e induced E.M.F.

depends upon t h e following f a c t o r s :

1st.

2nd. 3rd.

The number of conductors revolving i n t h e f i e l d . The s t r e n g t h of t h e magnetic f i e l d , The r a t e a t which t h e s e l i n e s of f o r c e c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e magnstic f i e l d are cut.

I n our simple a l t e r n a t o r only one conductor was used and we assumed t h e f i e l d s t r e n g t h t o be constant.

W may now consider t h e r a t e a t which t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a r e c u t and e v a r i e s a s t h e armature c o i l comwhy the value of t h e induced B.M.F. p l e t e s a r e v o l u t i o n through t h e f i e l d . I n Figure 5 ,we have a diagram intended t o show how time, o r t h e r a t e of c u t t i n g t h e f i e l d , and t h e f i e l d s t r e n g t h , determines the value of It i s obvious, a f t e r studying Figure 5, t h a t a conductor t h e E.M.F. moving through t h e magnetic f i e l d , e i t h e r from " A " d i r e c t l y t o "Cql o r along t h e path " A", "B" s "c", w i l l c u t e x a c t l y t b same number of l i n e s of f o r c e , both having moved through t h e e n t i r e f i e l d , and both having cut every l i n e of f o r c e i n the f i e l d . The d i s t a n c e , however, from "A" t o "C" i s s h o r t e r by approximately two t h i r d s t h e d i s t a n c e t h a n along t h e p a t h A, B, C. Figure 5 Nor assume t h a t t h e conductor i s moving a t a speed r e q u i r i n g one second of time t o t r a v e l from "A" t o "C" thereby c u t t i r q through a l l t h e l i n e s of force w i t h a d e f i n i t e value of E.M.F. being induced. A t t h e sane speed i t now f o l l o w s t h e p a t h 4, B , C, and, t h i s path being f i f t y p e r c e n t longer than p a t h A, C, it r e q u i r e s 1 1/2 seconds of time t o complete t h e d i s t a n c e . A l l t h e l i n e s of f o r c e are cut but a t a slower r a t e , t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i n e s of f o r c e a r e cut i n one second i n t h i s p a t h t h a n t h e path " A ", "c", and l e s s induced E.M.F. w i l l be the r e s u l t . The r a t e a t which t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a r e c u t t h e n i n a given time i s a l s o going t o depend upon t h e angle a t which t h e conductor moves through t h e f i e l d . when t h e conductor moves from "A" t o "C" every l i n e of f o r c e i s cut a t r i g h t a n g l e s and, a t t h e given speed of one second the induced E.M.F. i s maximum.

,

N w revolve t h e conductor through path A, B, C ; it i s obvious t h a t a s o t h e conductor l e a v e s " A" i t i s moving n e a r l y p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e magnetic f i e l d . A s i t progresses towards "Bn i t s p a t h becomes more n e a r l y a t r i g h t angles t o t h e f i e l d and an i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r E.M.F. i s induced, u n t i l a t "B" t h e conductor i s moving d i r e c t l y a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e f i e l d and, a t t h i s p o i n t , t h e induced E.M.F. i s a t i t s h i g h e s t value.

Lesson 1 - sheet 5 1

O lenving "B" t h e conductor ceases t o out t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a t n r i g h t angles and, a s i t progresses from p o i n t "B" t o "C", i t c u t s t h e l i n e s of f o r c e l e s s and l e s s a t r i g h t a n g l e s , consequently t h e induced E.M.F. g r a d u a l l y decreases u n t i l a t "C" t h e conductor i s again p a r a l l e l t o t h e f i e l d and i n d u c t i o n c e a s e s , w i t h a consequent c e s s a t i o n of induced E.M.F. and c u r r e n t flow.
TIME RATE EXPRESSED I N DEGREES

The armature c o i l i s s o arranged on the armature core t k t i t must d e s c r i b e a complete c i r c l e i n t h e magnetic f i e l d . I n the a o n s t r u c t i o n of a s i n e curve i n d i c a t i n g a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t h i s i s expressed a s the time r a t e i n degrees. Sn any complete c i r c l e t h e r e a r e 360 degrees and, i f w wish t o show e t h e i n c r e a s e and decrease of induced E.M.F. i n an armature c o i l i n successive s t e p s , we may do so by d i v i d i n g t h e c i r c l e s o described by t h e armature c o i l through the magnetic f i e l d i n t o degrees of time. This w i l l be explained w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Figure 6. When t h e s i d e of t h e c o i l "BBw i s i n p o s i t i o n 1 Figure 6, i n t h e i s induced magnetic f i e l d , no f l u x i s being c u t , hence no E.M.F. A t t h i s p o i n t of t h e base l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g time r a t e i n the coil. i n degrees, we s t a r t our E.M.F. curve. The c o i l now moves from pos i t l o n 1 t o 2, or 45 degrees, and c u t s t h e f l w r and,the induced E.M.F., being of p o s i t i v e p o l a r i t y , i s p l o t t e d above t h e base l i n e .

ALTERNATION

Figure 6 N w draw a v e r t i c a l l i n e from t h e base l i n e u n t i l i t i n t e r s e c t s t h e o h o r i z o n t a l l i n e extending from p o s i t i o n 2 of c o i l "BB" t o t h e r i g h t and p a r a l l e l t o t h e base l i n e . The point of i n t e r s e c t i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e r i s e o r t h e induced E.M.F. of c o i l "BB" and by connecting t h i s point and "45 degrees" on the base l i n e we show g r a p h i c a l l y t h e r i s e i n the inchced E.M.F.

. The c o i l now reaches p o s i t i o n 3, or 90 degrees from p o s i t i o n 1 A v e r t i c a l l i n e i s e r e c t e d from 90 degrees on t h e base l i n e and t h e h o r i z o n t a l l i n e drawn from p o s i t i o n 3. From t h e p o i n t where t h e s e l i n e s i n t e r s e c t a n o t h e r l i n e i s drawn t o t h e 4 5 degree p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t i n g t h e amount of i n c r e a s e t h a t has t a k e n place.
Lesson 1 1

- sheet 6

AS

the c o i l p r o c ~ e d sw p l o t p o s i t i o n 4, o r 135 degrees, and from e y o u r study o f Figure 2 you know t h a t t h e induced E.M.F. i s now de-

.

c r e a s i n g . ',/hen p o s i t i o n 5 i s reached (180 d e g r e e s ) no E.M.F. has been induced i n the c o i l . T h i s completes t h e f i r s t a l t e r n a t i o n of Side "BBn now continues t o r o t a t e and, upon?,passing through p o i n t s 6 , 7 , 8 and back t o 1, ( t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t ) , i t completes one r e v o l u t i o n . During t h e l a s t h a l f o f - t h i s r e v o l u t i o n e x a c t l y t h e same inductive a c t f o n t a k e s place a s i n t h e f i r s t h a l f r e v o l u t i o n but with t h i s d i f f e r e n c e ; t h e c u r r e n t induced i n the s i d e "BB" now flows i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n , f o r t h e s i d e "BB" i s now under t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e south pole and not t h e n o r t h pole a s i n t h e f i r s t h a l f revolution. This r e v e r s a l of t h e c u r r e n t flow i s c l e a r l y shown i n FigUTe 6. A s a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e i n d u c t i v e a c t i o n i s t h e same and, t h e r e f o r e t h e procedure of p l o t t i n g t h e value of t h e induced c u r r e n t upon t h e curve i s t h e same a s f o r t h e f i r s t h a l f r e v o l u t i o n of t h i s o o i l . ALTERNATIONS, FREQUENCY AND CYCUS

The induced E.M.F. I n s i d e "BB" r i s e s from zero t o maximum value between 0 degrees and 90 degrees t h e n f a l l s i n value from 90 degrees u n t i l zero i s a g a i n reached a t 180 degrees; t h i s i s termed an a l t e r nation. From p o s i t i o n 5 t o p o s i t i o n 1 s i d e "AA" has induced i n it a n E.N.F. which changes i n value s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n s i d e "BBn.
his r i s e and f a l l i n t h e value of t h e induced E.M.F. t a k e s place I n every t w i c e during each complete r e v o l u t i o n of t h e armature c o i l . i . e , , one p o s i t i v e cycle, then, t h e r e a r e two a l t e r n a t i o n s of E.M.F., and one negative a l t e r n a t i o n . The frequency of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t g e n e r a t o r i s expressed i n c y c l e s per second.

* , When t h e c o i l ' s ~ ~ "BB", r o t a t e s 60 complete r e v o l u t i o n s p e r second 120 s e p a r a t e r e v e r s a l s of c u r r e n t per second a r e induced t h e r e i n and s i n c e one cycle c o n s i s t s of two a l t e r n a t i o n s , o r r e v e r s a l s , t h e FREQUENCY of the c u r r e n t i s s a i d t o be 60 c y c l e s per second.
T h i s i s only t r u e i n t h e case of our simple a l t e r n a t o r which employed two f i e l d poles. I n most conmercial a l t e r n a t o r s , however, you w i l l f i n d more t h a n two f i e l d poles and, a s the speed and t h e number of f i e l d poles determine t h e frequency, w a r e going t o g i v e you a simple e formula whereby you can e a s i l y d e t e r n i n e t h e frequency of any a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t generat o r ,

The frequency w i l l equal t h e number of poles i n t h e a l t e r n a t o r m u l t i p l i e d by t h e speed a t which t h e armature r e v o l v e s and divided by the a l t e r n a t i o n s per c y c l e -. which i s always two. W must not o v e r l ~ o k e t h e f a c t t h a t i f we wish t o know t h e frequency i n c y c l e s per second, t h e speed of t h e g e n e r a t o r must be given i n r e v o l u t i o n s per minute. I n working out t h i s formula f o r cycles e r second i t i s necessary, per t h e r e f o r e , t o change t h e speed of t h e genera o r o r e v o l u t i o n s second and t h i s i s e a s i l y done by simply d i v i d i n g t h e speed ( a s i n RPM ) by 60.

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1 Lesson 1

- sheet 7

Assme t h a t o u r simple two-pole a l t e r n a t o r of Figure 2 revolves a t the speed oP 3600 RPM, what w i l l be t h e frequency of the generated a l t e r n a t ing c u r r e n t ? N x S Write down yowr formula i n t h i s fashion; F = 7, frequency, where F N = number of p o l e s and S a t h e speed of the machine i n r e v o l u t i o n s per second*

=

If t h e speed of t h e a l t e r n a t o r i s 3600 RPM t h e n i t s speed i n r e y o l u t i o n s per second w i l l e q u a l 3600, o r 60 r e v o l u t i o n s per second.
==- ?Ti

2 x 60 Substitutin@;t h e s e iralues i n the formula w have F r ' e Z
Therefore, F (frequency] i s 60 c y c l e s per second.

-"

= -2- =

120

60r

The m a j o r i t y of commercial a l t e r n a t o r s have more than two poles and it i s j u s t a s e a s y t o f i n d t h e frequency o f a multi- pole machine a 3 it was t o f i n d t h e frequency of our simple two-pole a l t e r n a t o r . Simply s u b s t i t u t e t h e known number of poles f o r N and a l s o t h e o t h e r known values i n t h e formule and solve a s shown above.
PHASE

The phase of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t wave can be any point on t h a t wavec You learned i n p l o t t i n g the s i n e curve of Figure 6 t h a t degrees were used t o denote time a s r e g a r d s t h e values of t h e E.M.F. and c u r r e n t each a l t e r n a t i o n . Hence, t h e term "phase" a s they r i s e and f a l l d u r i n ~ may a l s o r e f e r t o time. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , phase may a l s o be s a i a t o be t h e time i n s t a n t when some maximum, zero, o r any intermediate value i s reached by the wave.

1
I

I

I n Figure 6 w used 45 degree i n t e r v a l s s o i n f u r t h e r d e s c r i b i n g phase e w w i l l a l s o use 45 degree i n t e r v a l s of time and i l l u s t r a t e i t i n Figure e 7 . The phase, "A" " A ' " , u n l e s s otherwise s p s c i f i e d i n such a curve, i s regarded a s a 360 degree phase; t h a t i s , the phase begins a t 0 degrees and e n d s a t 360 degrees.

WT ZERO
E.M.F.AN0 CURRENT MAXIMUM NEGhTlVE

An0

.. . .

';.--I

Figure 7

Figure 8

Any o t h e r point may c o n s t i t u t e t h e phase of t h e curve,.such a s "B" and "B'" which i s a 45 degree phase, "C" and " C ' " a 90 degree phase, "D" and "D 1 If a 135 degree phase, and so on.

Lesson 1 1

- sheet 8

PHASE RELATIONS, CURRENT AND VOLTAGE

The c u r r e n t of t h e a l t e r n a t o r a l t e r n a t e s a s w e l l a s t h e E.M.F. and w i l l have t h e same g e n e r a l form a s t o frequency etc., and both c u r r e n t and E.M.F. can b e p l o t t e d from t h e same base l i n e . The c i r c u i t through which the a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t flows w i l l have, however, an i n f l u e n c e on t h e c u r r e n t and w i l l e i t h e r cause t h e c u r r e n t t o l a g or l e a d the electromotive force. Capacity and inductance a r e t h e determining f a c t o r s i n r e g a r d s t o t h e l a g o r l e a d of t h e c u r r e n t . T h i s w i l l be taken up i n d e t a i l i n a l a t e r lesson. I n t h i s l e s s o n w w i l l show you t h r e e curves having d i f f e r e n t phases. e The f i r s t , shown i n Figure 8, i s one which would be obtained i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t where r e s i s t a n c e only i s p r e s e n t i n t h e circuit. Notice t h e E.M.F. and c u r r e n t curves. Both s t a r t t o r i s e a t t h e same i n s t a n t and continue t o r i s e and f a l l keeping i n s t e p with each other throughout t h e cycle. I n o t h e r words, t h e y a r e i n phase w i t h each o t h e r , This condition, a s s t a t e d , r e s u l t s only when pure dhnic r e s i s t a n c e i s p r e s e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t . Figure 9 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t on t h e c u r r e n t when pure inductance o n l y i s i n t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t , and i n t h i s ... by 90 case causes t h e c u r r e n t t o 3 behind t h e voltage o r E M F degrees. I n o t h e r words t h e r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t of inductance prevents t h e current from s t a r t i n g through the c i r c u i t u n t i l a f t e r t h e E N F ... has increased i n value corresponding t o 90 degrees. Figure 10 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e phase r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c u r r e n t and . . . when pure c a p a c i t y only i s present i n t h e c i r c u i t . I n t h i s the EMF i n s t a n c e t h e a c t i o n ' i s q u i t e the opposite of t h a t when t h e alternating c u r r e n t was flowing through pure inductance, i.e., t h e c u r r e n t now leads t h e voltage k y 90 degrees. These curves simply show g r a p h i c a l l y how, f i r s t , a c u r r e n t and E.M.F. which i s i n phase i s d e p i c t e d and, second, how t h e c u r r e n t i s out of phase with t h e E.M.F. by 90 degrees w i t h t h e c u r r e n t lagging the E.M.F. by 90 degrees. and, t h i r d , t h e c u r r e n t l e a d i n g t h e E.M.F. The reasons why t h i s phenomena i s apparent w i l l be taken up i n d e t a i l l e t e r on.

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EFFECTIVE CURRENT AND VOLTAGE
The ampere i s the u n i t of e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t flow and we t o l d you t h e t it was t h e r a t e of u n i t flow t h a t would pass through a r e s i s t a n c e of me ohm a t a pressure of one v o l t . More c o r r e c t l y it i s s t a t e d a s follows: "The ampere i s t h a t unvarying c u r r e n t which, when passed through a sol u t i o n of n i t r a t e of s i l v e r i n water, w i l l d e p o s i t s i l v e r a t the r a t e From t h i s standard method w may dee of 0.001118 grams per second." termine e x a c t l y t h e amperes flowing i n a D C .. circuit. N are, however, d e a l i n g w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t and you know a l t e r z m G e ing c u r r e n t v a r i e s , changing i t s value every i n s t a n t of t h e cycle
1 Lesson 1

r e v e r s i n g i t s d i r e c t i o n every 180 degrees, o r each a l t e r n a t i o n . T h i s standard of measurement cannot, t h e r e f o r e , be used i n determining t h e amperes i n an A.C. c i r c u i t , The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i o n would deposite a c e r t a i n amount of s i l v e r , t r u e enough, but t h e next a l t z r n a t i o n would be opposite in d i r e c t i o n t o t h e f i r s t and i t would t a k e away the s i l v e r j u s t deposited. For t h a t reason some other means of f i n d i n g the c u r r e n t i n amperes i n an A.C. c i r c u i t must be used. This may be determined by the heat produced. W know t h e e f f e c t of e heat i s e n t i r e l y independent of t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t producing it and a s a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t has no s p e c i a l u n i t of i t s own w w i l l e use the d i r e c t c u r r e n t ampere as a u n i t f o r comparison purposes.
With t h a t i n mind we can say t h a n a n a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i s equivalent

t o a d i r e c t c u r r e n t when i t produces the same average h e a t e f f e c t s , contingent upon e x a c t l y s i m i l a r conditions. This i s c a l l e d the

Figure 10 Figure 9 e f f e c t i v e value of a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t , measured i n amperes, and i s K F a l u e which i s measured by a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t measwing i n s t r u ments. Heat i s p r e s e n t i n a c u r r e n t c a r r y i n g wire r e g a r d l e s s of t h e amount of t h e c u r r e n t flowing. Heat i s produced even though you may not be able t o p h y s i c a l l y d e t e c t i t . It i s known t h a t the h e a t i n g e f f e c t of an unvarying c u r r e n t i n a c i r c u i t of f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e v a r i e s a s t h e c u r r e n t squared. For example, Figure 11, we have shown a ,-T-. c u r r e n t curve and h e a t curve; a t any i n s t a n t t h e heat e f f e c t i s equal t o t h e c u r r e n t squared. ,,, ,,; 41 I*.% y ~ ~ C~ Rr E ii. U V ,/;, ; i ' , , , , : : ;:\, .--n,c,cuaaENT Since the h e a t i n g e f f e c t s of an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t i s . e a u a l t o t h e c u r r e n t squared (Ir). then t o f i n d a t h e heat e f f e c t s of & curve, F i g w e 11, we must f i n d the square of each i n d i v i d u a l current value over t h e a l t e r n a t i o n . T h i s w do and then e extend d o t t e d l i n e s above t h e v e r t i c a l s proportion1 Figure 1 a l t o each squared c u r r e n t value. Connecting t h e e ends of t h e s e e x t e n s i o n s by a l i n e w have a second curve which i s t h e h e a t curve. It i s necessary now t o o b t a i n t h e average of t h e s e h e a t squares which i s done by d i v i d i n g the sum of t h e squares by 9, s i n c e we have 9 instantaneous values of c ~ r r e n t .
I

I

I\

-.

The square r o o t i s now found of t h i s average which g i v e s us t h e f i n a l r e s u l t , - t h e e f f e c t i v e c u r r e n t . It i s t h i s r e s u l t which i s read by a l l e l e c t r i c a l meters and i s t h e c u r r e n t u s e f u l i n c a l c u l a t i n g t h e power of t h e c i r c u i t .
It i s not l i k e l y you w i l l , i n your p r a c t i c a l work, have occasion t o do work of t h i s kind. It i s done here simply t o show you how i t i s

Lesson 1 1

- sheet 10

calculated because this forms the basis from which all alternating current and voltage values are found. The step by step solution follorm: Taking the values of instantaneous current values from the curve we write: 1st instant of value II n n 2d n 11 t1 11 3rd
1. 84 5 .O 1 7. 76

and squerine; the above current values we have:

The sum of these squares equals:

Dividing the sum of the squares by 9 to obtain the average of these squares:
9 )4 9 7 . 4 5'26 45 .

73
9

PPZ
'72

63

T
3
Lesson 11

- sheet

11

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E x t r a c t i n g t h e square r o o t o f t h e average squares:

71.47

--zm

49

which equals 71.417 t h e e f f e c t i v e current. The e f f e c t i v e voltage has t h e same r e l a t i o n t o t h e maximun voltage t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e c u r r e n t has to t h e maximum c u r r e n t and i s found i n t h e same manner, You w i l l note t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e c u r r e n t i s l e s s than t h e rnaximum current. I n dealing w i t h voltage the e f f e c t i v e voltage i s a l s o l e s s than t h e maximun v o l t a g e , because themaximum voltage reaches a higher p o t e n t i a l t h a n the e f f e c t i v e voltage. This accounts f o r the i n s u l a t i o n requirements of an A , C . c i r c u i t being higher than i n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t ,

The power of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t i s expressed i n w a t t s j u s t a s i n d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s and i s found by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e c u r r e n t by t h e voltage. Thus, W 6 I x E.
T h i s only holds good i n a c i r c u i t where r e s i s t a n c e o n l y i s p r e s e n t ; i n o t h e r words, t h e c u r r e n t must be i n phase, o r i n s t e p , with t h e voltage, a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 8. When the c u r r e n t l a g s o r l e a d s t h e E.M.F. due t o t h e presence i n t h e c i r c u i t of fnductanre o r capacity, o r both, a power f a c t o r i s used which i s t h e r a t i o of t h e t r u e w a t t s t o t h e apparent watts ( t h e w a t t s you would o b t a i n by multiplying the v o l t s by t h e amperes). I n o t h e r words it i s t h e r a t i o between t h e u s e f u l c u r r e n t and t o t a l c u r r e n t .

ATR OX ATR ' The formula f o r finding t h e POLWR F C O follows: P W R F C O
EXAMINATION

r

RESISTANCE

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LESSON 1 1

Is a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t necessary f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of a r a d i o transmitter? What are s l i p r i n g s and why a r e they used i n s t e a d of a commutator? Explain t h e fundamental a c t i o n of an A . C . generator. Upon what f a c t o r s does t h e value of E.M.F. of a g e n e r a t o r depend? (a) What i s an a l t e r n a t i o n ? ( b ) A cycle? o ( a ) What i s frequency? ( b ) Hw i s frequency determined? What i s the meaning of "Phase"? What i s meant by " e f f e c t i v e value" of A.C. c u r r e n t ? What i s meant by t h e term "power f a c t o r " ? What i s t h e r e l a t i o n of voltage and c u r r e n t when only a c t u a l (ohmic) r e s i s t a n c e i s p r e s e n t i n an A.C. c i r c u i t .

Lesson 1 1

- sheet 12

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Technical Lesson 12

newrlr
f;;7-me dyM A R C O N / /NSTIJUTE

INC.

s u n d e d . (909

THE: MOTOR-GENERATOR

The motor and the g e n e r a t o r which youhave j u s t s t u d i e d becomes a motorgenerator when coupled t o g e t h e r and mounted on a comon base. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e fundamental design of e i t h e r t h e motor or generator. The s h a f t of the motor i s mechanically coupled t o t h e a motor- generator generator shaft which makes the two machines o n e u n i t n s e t . T h i s combination i s e x t e n s i v e l y used i n r a d i o p r a c t i c e . O shipboard t h e c u m e l k i s D C . . and i n our r a d i o work It i s necessary t o have current of a n a l t e r n a t i n g n a t u r e a v a i l a b l e . Therefore w u s e a motor e which o p e r a t e s on d i r e c t c u r r e n t with t h e s h a f t of t h e motor d i r e c t l y connected t o t h e s h a f t of a n a l t e r n a t i n g current generator and both machines being mounted on a common i r o n base. Figure $ shows a modern motor generator s e t used f o r r a d i o operation. The motor i s a t the l e f t of t h e base and t h e g e n e r a t o r on the r i g h t . This method of coupling t h e two machines t o g e t h e r i s c l e a r l y shown, t o g e t h e r with the housing f o r t h e bearings used t o support t h e s h a f t s of t h e motor and generator. I n t h i s case t h e motor and g e n e r a t o r have independent bearings.

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I n some machines t h e coupling p l a t e used i s a s p e c i a l l y prepared d i s c of f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l which w i l l withstand t h e t w i s t i n g s t r a i n of t h e motor s h a f t t u r n i n g t h e generator armature. T h i s allows f o r small i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e alignment of lthe s h a f t s . Where a s o l i d mechanical connection i s made t h e t i g h t e n i n g of t h e b o l t s i n t h e coupling device might e a s i l y t h r o w t h e s h a f t out of alignment causing i t t o bind on one o r more of t h e bearings, I n Figure 2 i s ill u s t r a t e d t h e g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of t h e motorFigure 1 g e n e r a t o r , . a l l bearings and bearing housings being omitted f o r t h e sake of clearness. Let u s r u n over t h i s assembly and see what we have by comparing t h e numbers i n the l i s t given bel-ow, The switch c o n t r o l l i n g t h e d i r e c t c u r r e n t supply. The l e a d s connecting t h e main l i n e c u r r e n t supply w i t h t h e motor armature. 3. The d i r e c t c u r r e n t motoro 4. The armature of t h e motor. 5. The commutator of t h e motor. 6. The motor brushes. 7 . The motor s h a f t . 8. The l e a d s running from brushes supplying c u r r e n t t o t h e motor f i e l d windings. 9. The motor f i e l d c o i l s .

1 . 2 .

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Contents Copyrighted 1 9 3 0 Printed in U S A. ..

It now becomes necessary t o d i v i d e the motor- generator equipment i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e c l s s s e s according t o the windine employed i n t h e f i e l d Coils*
The f i r s t type, shown i n Figure 2, i s a shunt'wound n o t o r coupled d i r e c t l y t o t h e a l t e r n a t o r ; second, t h e same t y p e of motor coupled t o an A . C . g e n e r a t o r having a compound wound f i e l d and, t h i r d , t h e motor f i e l d winding i s of t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l compound wound type coupled t o a simple A.C. g e n e r a t o r . Let us c o n s i d e r t h e s e t h r e e d i v i s i o n s by studying t h e simple schematic drawings of F i g u r e s 3, 4 and 5, Before w go f u r t h e r , i f you have not a l r e a d y become f a m i l i a r with t h e e e l e c t r i c a l symbols, place t h e sheet bearing t h e s e symbols before you a s you study t h e drawings. Figure 3 i s t h e diagram of a simple shunt wound motor- generator s e t and has the same f i e l d and generator connections a s shown i n Figure 2. The p a r t s a r e a l l c l e a r l y labeled. The r e g u l e t i n g a c t i o n , or automatic c o n t r o l , due t o counter electromotive f o r c e , i s t h e same a s i n the shunt motor you studied. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s you w i l l n o t i c e two r e g u l a t i n g f i e l d c u r r e n t r h e o s t a t s one i n the motor 1 f i e l d c i r c u i t and one i n the generator f i e l d c i r c u i t , W nrf 1 exe p l a i n the o p e r ~ t i o nof these two r h e o s t a t s .

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A.C. GENERATOR

D.C. MOTOR

Figure 3 Bsginning f i r s t w i t h t h e motor f i e l d , i f w t u r n t h e r h e o s t a t t o the e l e f t a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e arrow and more r e s i s t a n c e i s added t o t h e f i e l d c i r c u i t t h i s w i l l reduce t h e c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e motor f i e l d windings and t h u s weaken t h e magnetic f i e l d allowing t h e motor t o speed It i s very evident t h a t UP 9 which a l s o i n c r e a s e s t h e generator speed. t h e frequency output of t h e generator w i l l b e increased because i t s f ~ e q u e n c yp a r t l y depends upon i t s speed. By r e v e r s i n g t h i s procedure, l.e., decreasing t h e motor f i e l d r e s i s t a n c e by t u r n i n g t h e r h e o s t a t arm t o the r i g h t , t h e opposite e f f e c t i s produced, t h a t of reducing t h e f~equency of t h e generator. N w go through t h e same procedure with t h e generator f i e l d r h e o s t a t ; o t u r n it t o t h e l e f t a s shown by the arrow thereby c u t t i n g i n more r e s i s t a n c e and, n a t u r a l l y , a decrease i n c u r r e n t i n t h e generator f i e l d results.

Lesson 12

- sheet

3

When r e s i s t a n c e i s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e f i e l d windings of a generator it weakens t h e magnetic f i e l d and this, i n t u r n , reduces t h e generator output voltage. By t u r n i n g t h e r h e o s t a t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of the arrow l e s s r e s i s t a n c e i s included i n t h e f i e l d c i r c u i t , consequently more c u r r e n t flows i n t o t h e f i e l d c o i l s and a g r e a t e r magnetic f i e l d r e s u l t s , g i v i n g t h e armature more l i n e s of f o r c e t o c u t , hence a g r e a t e r e l e c t r o notive f o r c e , o r voltage i s produced.

SHUNT WOUND D.C. MOTOR

A.C. COMPOUND WOUND GENERATOR

Figure 4 generator f i e l d winding and i n a motor f i e l d . Be s u r e t h a t you f u l l y comprehend t h e two a c t i o n s and do not confuse them. I n Figure 4 w have a shunt wound motor and compound wound generator; e t h e motor and g e n e r a t o r shunt f i e l d s have a d j u s t a b l e r h e o s t a t s connected i n t h e i r c i r c u i t s e n a b l i n g t h e speed of t h e motor t o be r e g u l a t e d and t h e voltage of t h e g e n e r a t o r t o be c o n t r o l l e d . When t h e d e s i r e d speed of the motor i s secured and t h e proper voltage output of t h e generator i s obtained, t h e s e r h e o s t a t s a r e l e f t i n t h a t p o s i t i o n . The shunt and s e r i e s f i e l d windings of t h e g e n e r a t o r a r e connected i n such manner t h a t t h e f i e l d of the s e r i e s winding and t h a t of the shunt

0. C. MOTOR

A.C. MOTOR

Figure 5 winding are i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n , i.e., of t h e same p o l a r i t y . The motor-generator i s s u b j e c t t o sudden loads when t h e t e l e g r a p h key i s closed and when t h i s happens t h e r e i s a tendency toward a decrease i n speed; a s t h i s t a k e s p l a c e t h e r e w i l l be a n i n c r e a s e of current flow through t h e s e r i e s windings, because t h e s e r i e s windings a r e i n s e r i e s

Lesson 1 2

- sheet 4

w i t h t h e armature of t h e motor, This increased c u r r e n t flow through t h e s e r i e s winding s t r e n g t h e n s t h e f i e l d of the g e n e r a t o r a t once and it tends t o r e s t o r e t h e voltage t o normal. Thus, i n t h i s type of motorgenerator t h e speed of t h e motor and v o l t a g e output of t h e generator i s constant under sudden v a r i a t i o n s of t h e loadss. maintained f ~ i r l y

Figure 6 N w l e t us look a t Figure 5. The motor i n t h i s case i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y o compound wound o r , i n o t h e r words, t h e shunt f i e l d i s wound i n one d i r e c t i o n while t h e s e r i e s f i e l d i s o p p o s i t e l y wound, and when c u r r e n t flows through t h e s e two windings t h e f i e l d of one w i l l oppose the f i e l d s e t up by the o t h e r . Suppose w analyze t h e e f f e c t of having the f i e l d e of t h e s e r i e s windings oppose t h e f i e l d of t h e shunt windings of t h i s motore From t h e work you have covered you learned t h a t when t h e f i e l d of a motor was weakened i t s speed increased, When a load i s thrown on t h e g e n e r a t o r i n Figure 5 t h e speed of the motor i s reduced thereby dec r e a s i n g the counter E,M.F. As t h e shunt f i e l d i s connected a c r o s s t h e l i n e it t e n d s t o remain normal 5x1 s t r e n g t h , and would tend t o f u r t h e r reduce t h e speed. However, a s t h e s e r i e s f i e l d i s connected i n s e r i e s with t h e armature i t t a k e s more c u r r e n t from t h e l i n e and i s thereby s t r e w t h e n e d and, being wound opposite t o t h e shunt winding, i t s f i e l d opposeg, o r tends t o n e u t r a l i z e , t h e f i e l d of the shunt winding, f u r t h e r weakening t h e mqtor f i e l d a s a whole. This weakened f i e l d allows t h e motor t o g a i n speed a t once, b u i l d i n g up t h e counter E.DA.Fb which a u t o n a t i c a l l g r e s t o r e s t h e motor t o i t s norm 1 speedc

Lesson 12

- sheet 5

Motor g e n e r a t o r s employed with r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r s a r e r a t e d i n O shipboard you w i l l f i n d 1/4 m , 1/2 KW, 1 KW and n i kilowatts. 2 KW machines f o r spark transmission. The frequency i n cycles of any A.C. generator can be found a s follows, using f o r example, t h e two kilowatt s e t of t h e Crocker Wheeler t y p e shown i n Figure 6. F i r s t we must know t h e number of p a i r s of poles and t h e speed of t h e armature i n r e v o l u t i o n s per second. This p a r t i c u l a r type of generator has 30 f i e l d poles and revolves s t 2000 r e v o l u t i o n s per minute. Let F = frequency. F number of p a i r s of poles. N t h e speed i n r e v o l u t i o n s p e r minute.

=

=

N 2000 R.P.M. Then "F" P x '60 or F -" 1 5 x ?seconds. F 2 1 5 x 33.3 ? I v/e would, t h e n , say t h a t the frequency i s 500 cycles.

=

=

499.5

The motor w i l l r e q u i r e about 29 anperes under a p r e s s u r e of 110 v o l t s armature which d e l i v e r s v o l t a g e s varying from t o drive the g e n e p ~ ~ t o r 120 t o 380 v o l t s and a c u r r e n t output of about 20.8 amperes. Worn t h e above w can a l s o determine t h e e l e c t r i c a l horse power g f t h e motor by e m u l t i p l y i ~ amperes times 110 v o l t s and d i v i d e t h i s by 746 watts, 29 or one e l e c t r i c a l horse power, E l e c t r i c a l H.P.e

+ 746 =
BRUSH OF ARM
MAKING CONTkCT

4.27 h o r s e power.

RESISTANCE WINDING

RREOSTPIT*"
CONTACTOR

'--HPINDLE

Figure 7
T I E FIELD RHEOSTAT

Figure 8

For c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f i e l d c u r r e n t of a motor o r g e n e r a t o r t h e r e s i s t a n c e wire must be a b l e t o continuously c a r r y t h e c u r r e n t supplying t h e f i e l d c o i l s . The r h e o s t a t f i e l d i s , consequently, d i f f e r e n t i n d e s i g n from t h e s t a r t i n g r e s i s t a n c e due t o t h e constant c u r r e n t flow through t h e f i e l d . The s t a r t i n g r e s i s t a n c e c a r r i e s t h e c u r r e n t o n l y during the

s h o r t time r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e motor t o normal speed. when the s t a r t i n g arm has been forced over t o the "OEI" p o s i t i o n the r e s i s t a n c e i s cut out and t h e c u r r e n t t h e n t r a v e l s d i r e c t l y through t h e s t a r t i n g arm, a s shown i n F i g u r e s 22 and 23 i n the l e s s o n on DC .. motors. The f i e l d r h e o s t a t , o r running r e s i s t a n c e a s it i s sometimes c a l l e d , i s s o designed t h a t any p a r t of t h e r e s i s t a n c e a a y be placed i n t h e c i r c u i t and l e f t t h e r e . A photograph of t h e C u t l e r Hammer type of f i e l d rheos t a t i s shown i n Figure ?', and a diagram w i t h explanatory n o t e s i s shown i n Figure 8. The r e s i s t a n c e wire used i s a n a l l o y of such metals a s it w t l l enhance I t s r e s i s t a n c e p r o p e r t i e s and w h i c h , a f t e r i t has been placed and connected t o the proper c o n t a c t s , i s covered w i t h a s p e c i a l l y prepared i n s u l a t i n g cement. The e n t i r e unit i s t h e n placed i n an oven and baked. The baked cement p r e s e n t s a hard g l a z e d s u r f a c e which p e r f e c t l y insul a t e s t h e r e s i s t a n c e windings and r e n d e r s them d u s t and moisture proof. T h i s type of g e n e r a t o r f i e l d c o n t r o l g i v e s t h e very c l o s e r e g u l a t i o n of magnetic f i e l d s t r e n g t h which i s necessary where t h e quenched s p a r k type of gap i s used i n r a d i o transmission. The motor- generator set r e q u i r e s t h e same c a r e and a t t e n t i o n a s the Independent mot o r and g e n e r a t or. T E ROTARY CONVERTER H Rotary c o n v e r t e r s have s e v e r a l u s e s c I n commercial p r a c t i c e t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y used t o convert a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i n t o d i r e c t c u r r e n t f o r use on t r a c t i o n l i n e s , i n t h e charging of s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s , and i n e l e c t r o - p l a t i n g plants. However, i n r a d i o when used on shipboard, the i n p u t i s d i r e c t c u r r e n t and t h e output i s a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . There a r e no new p r i n c i p l e s with which you a r e not f a m i l i a r i n t h e fundamentals of t h i s machine o t h e r t h a n i t s physical construction. Just remember when you t h i n k o r h e a r of a r o t a r y converter t h a t it i s simply two machines i n one. There i s one armature and on t h i s i s placed a simple winding which s e r v e s t o revolve t h e armature and from which generated c u r r e n t i s c o l l e c t e d . T h i s generated c u r r e n t i s t h e r e s u l t of w h a t was, i n t h e independent motor o r generator, t h e counter E.M.F. Furthermore, only one s e t of f i e l d windings i s used t o supply t h e magnetic f i e l d f o r both t h e motor and generator f u n c t i o n s of t h e machine. Remember t h a t by applying d i r e c t c u r r e n t t o t h e windings, a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t can b e obtained by t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of c o l l e c t o r r i n g s placed on t h e end of t h e s h a f t opposite t h e commutator end or, i f it i s f i t t e d w i t h a c o m u t a t o r f o r output c u r r e n t , then d i r e c t c u r r e n t can be taken from it. F u r t h e r , i f arrangements a r e made t o revolve t h e armature by mechanical means t h e n b o t h a l t e r n a t i n g and d i r e c t c u r r e n t w i l l be delivered. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s a r e a s j u s t s t a t e d ; t h e use of a s i n g l e armature f o r e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i n g o r d i r e c t c u r r e n t . There a r e only

Lesson 12

-

sheet 7

two b e a r i n g s needed, and it r e q u i r e s l e s s space f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of the machine a s a whole i s s i m p l i f i e d . There i s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e however of c o n t r o l of t h e v o l t a g e ; f u l l c o n t r o l i s n o t o b t a i n e d , and t h i s i s needed f o r e f f i c t e n t t r a n s n i s s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , it i s b e t t e r t o u s e t h e m o t o r - g e n e r a t o r t h a n t h e r o t a r y c o n v e r t e r f o r r a d i o t r a n s m i s s i o n , even t h o q h t h e c o s t of t h e m o t o r - g e n e r a t o r i s h i g h e r .
GENEUPISOR
WINDING-'-.-

SHUNT FIELD
18RUSH

cOLLE'-"
RlNi

2

,-COMMUTATOR

1

MOTOR

W I N DI N G

Figure 9 A f u n d a n e n t a l c i r c u i t o f t h e r o t a r y c o n v e r t e r a p p e a r s i n F i g u r e 9. The c u r r e n t f l o w s from t h e d i r e c t c u r r e n t g e n e r a t o r t h r o u g h t h e s e r i e s field winding i n t o t h e a r m a t u r e a t b r u s h 1, t h r o u g h t h e armature c o i l s The shunt f i e l d i s c o n n e c t e d a c r o s s t h e l i n e a s and out a t b r u s h 2. i n any compound wound machine. As t h e c u r r e n t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e armat u r e c o i l s r o t a t i o n r e s u l t s . The d o t t e d l i n e s which a r e shown c o n n e c t e d t o t h e c o l l e c t o r r i n g s a r e t a p s t a k e n from t h e a r m a t u r e windings a t t h e p o i n t shown. As t h e armature r e v o l v e s i n t h e f i e l d , c u r r e n t i s d e v e l o p e d and i s l e d t o t h e c o l l e c t o r r i n g s and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t a s a l t e r nating current. The v o l t a g e w i l l be maximum when t h e t a p s running t o t n e c o l l e c t o r r i n g s a r e c o n n e c t e d a t t h e b r u s h e s a s shown, and minimum when c o n n e c t e d t o t h e winding midway between t h e b r u s h e s . The a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t v a l u e d e l i v e r e d , which i s r e a l l y t h e c o u n t e r E.M.F. of t h e r e v o l v i n g a r m a t u r e , w i l l r e a c h a maximum of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 v o l t s when 1 1 0 v o l t s D C . . i s used a s t h e supply. ' h e n v a l u e s of h i g h e r v o l t a g e a r e d e s i r e d a s t e p up t r a n s f o r m e r must b e u s e d on t h e a l t e r n a t i n g current side. THE D N M T R Y A OO The c i r c u i t of the dynamotor i s shovin i n F i g u r e 10. The a r m a t u r e c a r r i e s two s e p a r a t e w i n d i n g s wound i n s e p a r a t e s l o t s on t h e c o r e , one t o r e v o l v e t h e a r m a t u r e a s a motor and t h e o t h e r f o r the prod u c t i o n of c u r r e n t . I n t h e f i g u r e shown the d i r e c t c u r r e n t u s e d t o d r i v e t h e a r m a t u r e i s (Commercial machines o b t a i n e d from a 30 v o l t s t o r a g e b a t t e r y o u t f i t .

Lesson 1 2

-

sheet 8

can be r u n on 110 v. D.C. and o t h e r v o l t a g e s . ) Voltages ranging from 350 t o 2000 v o l t s D.C. may be secured from the g e n e r a t o r end, depending upon the design and type of dynamotor. The f i e l d i s compound wound and i s used a s both t h e motor and generator f i e l d windings. The speed of t h i s type of machine i s 2000 R.P.M. and, t o reduce v i b r a t i o n , t h e e n t i r e 1 u n i t i s suspended i n a s p r i n g suspension saddle shown i n Figure 1 .
,GENERPITOR WINDING

DYNPIMOTDRS ARE STPNOAROIZEO FOR VOLTAGE OUTPUTS OF 350, 1000. AND 2 0 0 0 VOLTS

Figure 1 1 Figure 10 The motor- generator i s f a s t r c p l a c i w the r o t s r y converter and dynamotor f o r r a d i o tube work due t o t h e more e f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l r e a l i z e d i n both constant speed and constant output i n voltage values. The modern tube t r a n s m i t t e r c a l l s f o r a method t o supply b o t h low and h i g h voltages. The f i l a m e n t voltage r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g tube v a r i e s from 8 t o 16 v o l t s and may be e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i n g or d i r e c t c u r r e n t . The p l a t e v o l t a g e ranges from 350 t o 6000 v o l t s . EXAMIIiATION
1.

GENERhTOR END

- LESSON 12

What i s a motor- generator? What a r e t h e requirements of a motor- generator s e t ? Draw a diagram of a shunt wound motor generator. What a r e t h e t h r e e t y p e s of motor g e n e r a t o r s ? Draw a diagram of a compound wound g e n e r a t o r s e t . H w would you r e g u l a t e t h e speed of a shunt wound motor- generator? o Explain how t h e voltage output o f t h e g e n e r ~ t o r s c o n t r o l l e d i n i a motor- generator set. What i s a dynamotor?

2
3.

4.

5.

6.

7 .
8. 9,

Explain f u l l y .
Explain f u l l y e

What i s a r o t a r y converter?

1. 0

Inkat i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a " s t a r t i n g " and "running1' r e s i s t a n c e ?

Lesson 12

- sheet 9

sTlTUTE OF
FORMERLY MARCONI INSTITUTE FOUNDED 1909

Technical Lesson 13
POWER TRANSFORMERS

You became acquainted w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s underlying the a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t transformer i n your study of i n d u c t i o n and i t s d i f f e r e n t ch?.racteristics. Before studying transformers it w i l l be necessary f o r you t o r e c a l l t h a t which you lenrned i n your study of s e l f i n d u c t i o n , and i t i s suggested t h a t you again go over t h e l e s s o n d e a l i n g with t h a t p a r t of t h e work t o r e f r e s h your memory i n order t h a t t h e fundamental a c t i o n of t h e t r a n s f o r n e r may be thoroughly understood. The trnnsformer comes i n t o use when w e wish t o change a v o l t a g e of low value t o one of h i g h e r value o r t o change high v o l t a g e s t o voltages of lower values. These changes may be accomplished i n t h e c o i l s of t h e transformer a t h i g h e f f i c i e n c y and without t h e a i d of moving p a r t s . F i r s t l e t us consider t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a simple transformer core, t h e n t h e windings or c o i l s and f i n a l l y determine how i t works and t h e numerous uses w have f o r it i n r a d i o p r a c t i c e . e
THE SIMPLE TRANSFORMER

A simple transformer can be made a s follows: Upon a s o f t i r o n r i n g wind a few t u r n s of o r d i n a r y rubber covere9 wire. Opposite t o t h i s winding and on t h e same r i n g s wind a l a r g e number of t u r n s of insul a t e d f i n e wire a s shown i n Figure 1. The f i r s t windfng i s c a l l e d t h e primary winding and t h e second i s c a l l e d t h e secondary winding.

-

Figure 1 I n your work on electro- magnetic i n d u c t i o n you learned t h a t when c u r r e n t passes through a wire a magnetic f i e l d immediately expands about t h e wire, and t h a t when t h i s f i e l d c u t s another mire an E.M.F. i s a t once induced i n t h e second wire. I f t h e second wire forms a produces a c u r r e n t which flows closed c i r c u i t t h i s induced E.M.F. through t h e second closed wire. You a l s o l e a r n e d t h a t , i n order t o t h e s e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e , or t h e produce t h i s induced E.M.F. f i e l d , must be i n a s t a t e of c o n t i n u a l change.

Printed in U.S.A.

PRODUCTION O INDUCED E . .F. F M
by r e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e s 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D. I n Figure 2 t h e magnetic A l i n e s of f o r c e a r e constant. I n t h i s f i e l d i s a c l o s e d conductor represented by t h e small c i r c l e . When t h i s conductor i s moved through t h e f i e l d i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e , a s from "S" t o "F n, o r from "Fn t o "s", it w i l l be moving p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e l i n e s of force. A s a r e s u l t none

Let u s pause h e r e andreview t h e various ways t h i s can be accomplished

of t h e l i n e s of f o r c e have been c u t and, t h e r e f o r e , no induced E.M.F. t a k e s place i n t h e conductor.

Figure 2B Figure 2 A I n Figure 2B w have r e p r e s e n t e d t h e conductor a s moving through, o r e c u t t i n e , t h e l i n e s of f o r c e a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t angles. If w move "A" e through t h e f i e l d a t e v e r s o s l i g h t an angle the l i n e s of f o r c e w i l l be c u t and a n induced E.M.F. r e s u l t s . "B" w i l l c u t more l i n e s of f o r c e i n a given time t h a n "A" because it t r a v e l s through t h e f i e l d more n e a r l y a t r i g h t a n g l e s than does "A" and a g r e a t e r induced E.M.F. "c", l i k e w i s e , w i l l t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t s i n conductor "B" t h a n i n 'A". have induced i n i t a g r e a t e r E.M.F. due t o t h e i n c r e a s e d angle a t which it c u t s t h e l i n e s of f o r c e . When t h e conductor moves through a magnetic f i e l d a t r i g h t angles, a s shown a t "DH, the maximum number of l i n e s of force a r e c u t (providing a l l t h e wires a r e moved a t t h e same r a t e o r i n the same given t i n e ) , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e maximm incluced E.M.F. T h i s in-

I I -Figure 2C Figure 21) duced E.M.F. may be i n c r e a s e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e f i e l d s t r e n g t h or by i n c r e a s i n g t h e speed of t h e conductors, o r both.

J

Figure 2G r e p r e s e n t s a conductor "K" i n an electro-magnetic f i e l d . The conductor i s s t a t i o n a r y but t h e l i n e s of f o r c e of t h e f i e l d a r e made t o expand and c o n t r a c t ( r i s e and f a l l ) i n t h e space about t h e conductor by opening and c l o s i n g t h e switch which does not allow c u r r e n t t o flow continuously through t h e electro-magnets, thereby causirig t h e f i e l d t o varg i n s t r e n g t h . This w i l l produce an induced E.M.F. i n t h e conductor KT'. T h i s method will g i v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t but someone must open and c l o s e t h e switch c o n t i n u a l l y o r employ an automatic device such a s a v i b r a t o r t o do t h e same t h i n g , which involves moving mechanical p a r t s , and moving mechanical p a r t s a r e p r e f e r a b l y t o be avoided because t h e y a r e o f t e n a source of t r o u b l e .

Lesson 13

- sheet 2

E it i s a m a t t e r of causing t h e s e l i n e s of f o r c e t o vary, why n o t ? use a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t which i s c o n s t a n t l y varying i n s t r e n g t h from zero t o maximum and t h e n decreasing t o zero, only t o r e p e a t the same o p e r a t i o n over a g a i n a f r a c t i o n of a second l a t e r but i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n . T h i s i s n o t only p o s s i b l e , but can be and i s done a s shown i n Figure 2D. Here t h e conductor i s s t a t i o n a r y whereas t h e magnetic f i e l d i s c o n s t a n t l y changing about t h e conductor "M" due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g and decreasing n a t u r e of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t supplied t o t h e windings. An E.M.F. w i l l be induced i n wire "M" by t h e changi n g magnetic f i e l d although t h e wire does not move. The l a s t method, t h e n , i s t h e one we w i l l use i n t h e transformers we a r e t o employ i n our r a d i o c i r c u i t s .
Transformers a r e used in t h e commercial f i e l d to send e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t from one p a r t O f t h e country t o another over h i g h t e n s i o n l i n e s . T h i s energy can be s e n t many miles with small l o s s by employing step- up transformers and t h e n reduced t o any d e s i r e d voltage by a step-down transformer. I t s use, t h e r e f o r e , i s by no means confined t o radio. The underlying p r i n c i p l e s , however, regarding t h e a c t i o n of t h e comm e r c i a l transformer and t h e types used i n r a d i o p r a c t i c e a r e t h e same.
. I f an i n t e r r u p t e d Returning now t o t h e transformer shown i n Figure 1 d i r e c t c u r r e n t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e primary winding an E.M.F. w i l l be induced i n the secondary winding which w i l l be considerably higher i n voltage t h a n t h a t used t o energize t h e primary winding providing more t u r n s a r e wound on t h e secondary t h a n t h e primary.

The electromotive f o r c e induced i n t h e secondary winding depends upon t h e r a t i o of t h e t u r n s i n t h e two windings, primary "P" and secondary "S", a l s o on t h e r a t e t h i s f l u x o r f i e l d t w e a d i n g through and expanding about t h e secondary winding i s changed. Suppose t h e primary, "P" of a transformer i s wound with one hundred n t u r n s of number 1 4 o r 16 B & S G a g e i n s u l a t e d copper wire. O t h e secondary, "Sn many thousands of t u r n s of number 36 B & S i n s u l a t e d copper wire i s wound. Now,by applying a voltage, s a y of 100 v o l t s , t o t h e primary winding, a p o t e n t i a l of many thousand v o l t s w i l l be induced i n the secondary winding. By making improvements i n t h i s fundamental d e s i g n of t h e transformer, but u s i n g t h e same p r i n c i p l e s , w can c o n s t r u c t what i s known a s t h e e i n d u c t i o n c o i l , which was shown and explained i n your l e s s o n on e l e c t r o magnetic induction. The c u r r e n t i n t h e primary of t h e i n d u c t i o n c o i l can be i n t e r r u p t e d from t h i r t y t o one hundred t i n e s p e r second by proper adjustment of t h e v i b r a t o r arm "V" and t h e a d j u s t i n g screw "AS". The secondary of t h i s i n d u c t i o n c o i l i s comprised of many thousand of t u r n s of f i n e wire, whereas t h e primary i s of comparatively few t u r n s of coarse wire. Because of t h e high t u r n s r a t i o of these windings t h e voltage induced i n t h e secondary i s very high; s o high, i n f a c t , t h a t although the secondary t e r m i n a l s may he separated by a l a r g e a i r gap t h e voltage w i l l be g r e a t enough t o break down t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e intervening a i r and "jump" a c r o s s t h i s a i r gap i n t h e form of an e l e c t r i c spark. Lesson 13

- sheet 3

TYPES O POWER TRANSFORMERS F The symbol u s e d t o denote an i r o n core transformer i s shown i n Figure 3 and w i l l be used h e r e a f t e r whenever a transformer of t h i s type i s shown i n a c i r c u i t . Transformers may be c l a s s e d a s open core transformers and closed core transformers. The open core transformer i s so c a l l e d because t h e core does not prov,ide a continuous magnetic p a t h o r c i r c u i t , f o r t h e magnetic l i n e s of force,i.e., t h e magnetic c i r c u i t , as provided by t h e i r o n c o r e , i s open. A open c o r e transformer i s shown d i a g r a m a t i c a l l y i n Figure 4 n and a glance a t t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n w i l l show t h a t t h e magnetic l i n e s of force have a magnetic c i r c u i t only p a r t l y through i r o n , t h e remainder of t h e i r p a t h being, p e r f o r c e , through a i r .
lWN CORE

Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Compare t h i s c o n d i t i o n w i t h t h a t shownfn Figure 5 whereinis i l l u s t r a t e d It a t once becomes e v i d e n t t h a t , i n t h l s a closed core transformer. t y p e of core, t h e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e have a continuous, o r closed magnetic p a t h i n which t o e s t a b l i s h themselves and, t h e r e f o r e , a r e not forced t o t a k e a p a t h even p a r t l y i n a i r . Hence a closed core t r a n s former i s one i n which t h e i r o n core provides a continuous, o r closed, magnetic c i r c u i t f o r t h e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e . The method of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of energy i s i n d i c a t e d when t h e transformer i s classed a s a step- up transformer or a s a step-down transformer. Transformers a r e designed a s e i t h e r c o n s t a n t voltage o r constant c u r r e n t transformers. The i n d u c t i o n c o i l described i n the l e s s o n on electro- magnetic i n d u c t i o n i s a good example of t h e open core t r a n s former. This type of transformer i s s t i l l used f o r c e r t a i n purposes, but f o r r a d i o work it has been superseded by t h e closed core type. The open core step-up constant c u r r e n t transformer used i n r a d i o work i s shown i n Figure 4 and 9, and i t i s very s i m i l a r t o t h e " induction c o i l " type of transformer j u s t r e f e r r e d to. Tbe i r o n core i s b u i l t up of laminations i n t h e form of many small s o f t i r o n wires c u t t o l e n g t h and t i e d i n t o a t i g h t bundle. T h i s bundle of w i r e s i s t h e n cove,red w i t h i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l , such a s empire c l o t h , over which i s wound t h e primary winding. The primary u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s , of a c o m p ~ r a t i v e l y few t u r n s of heavy i n s u l a t e d wire.

Lesson 13

-

sheet 4

The terminals of t h e primary winding a r e brought out t o be connected l a t e r t o t h e supply source, such a s a 110 v o l t A . C . generator. Over t h e completed primary winding i s placed a tube which a c t s a s an insul a t o r s e a a r a t i n g t h e primary and secondary windings and capable of withstanding heat. On t h i s tube i s wound many thousand t u r n s of very f i n e i n s u l a t e d wire. This secondary i s g e n e r a l l y wound i n separate c o i l s and a s t h e y a r e s l i p p e d over t h e i n s u l a t i n g tubing t h e y a r e connected, one t o t h e o t h e r , s o t h a t a l l the c o i l s comprising the seconlary a r e i n s e r i e s . T h i s s i m p l i f i e s t h e r e p a i r i n g of the secondary, f o r should one c o i l burn out it can e a s i l y be r e p l a c e d without the expense and work of r e p l a c i n g t h e e n t i r e secondary winding. The terminals of t h e secondary winding a r e brought out and connected t o t h e spark gap a s shown. When the s w i t c h i n t h e primary c i r c u i t of Figure 4 i s closed t h e a l t e r n a t o r a t once impresses an a l t e r n a t i n g E.M.F. on t h e primary winding of t h e transformer. T h i s i n t u r n f o r c e s a n a l t e r n a t i n g current through t h e c o i l and t h e r e r e s u l t s an a l t e r n a t i n g magnetic f i e l d , OP f l u x . This f l u x a t once induces a counter electromotive f o r c e i n t h e primary windi n g which opposes t h a t E.M.F. being applied t o t h e c i r c u i t by t h e a l t e r n a t o r . The counter E.M.F. becomes so s t r o n g t h a t i t very n e a r l y succeeds i n stopping t h e p r e s s u r e being applied by t h e a l t e r n a t o r , r e s u l t i w i n but a small c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e primary. The f l u x caused by t h i s c u r r e n t h a s moved through t h e magnetic c i r c u i t provided by t h e i r o n core, out a t t h e ends, and has passed through t h e secondary winding inducing a n E.M.F. i n t h e secondary winding. In the secondary wincling a counter E.N.F. i s a l s o caused by t h e f l u x which opposes t h e f l u x of t h e primary. N w remember t h i s : - A s t h e f l u x of o t h e secondary has t o pass p a r t l y through a i r t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o the primary f l u x i s not g r e a t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e magnetic r e a c t i o n by the secondary upon the primary due t o t h e l a c k of a continuous p a t h of i r o n f o r t h e magnetic flux t o pass through. The s e l f - i n d u c t i o n of t h e primary, due t o t h i s break i n t h e magnetic p a t h , remains n e a r l y constant and, because of t h i s f a c t , t h e c u r r e n t i s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same a t a l l t i m e s , r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h e secondary i s closed o r open. This type of t r a n s f o r m e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s o f t e n termed a constant c u r r e n t transformer. I n designing an open core transformer where t h e e f f e c t of magnetic leakage i s used (magnetic leakage being t h e e f f e c t caused by t h e flwc passing through a c i r c u i t p a r t l y composed of i r o n and p a r t l y through a i r ) a s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e design i s made, i n t h a t more t u r n s a r e added i n t h e secondary c i r c u i t t h a n would be used i n t h e closed core type. The closed core t y p e i s shown i n Figure 5 and i s known a s a constant I t ' s a c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e open core voltage step- up transformer. transformer with t h e exception of t h e r e a c t i o n of t h e secondary on t h e primary due t o t h e i r o n core which both c o i l s embrace and which w i l l be Closing t h e switch impresses t h e v o l t a g e of t h e a l t e r n a t o r explained. upon t h e primary windings r e s u l t i n g I n c u r r e n t flow t h e r e i n with i t s attendant.magnetic f i e l d , or flux. Lesson 13

I

I I

i

- sheet 5

This f i e l d now produces two e f f e c t s simultaneously. Due t o s e l f i n d u c t i o n it begins t o e x e r t a back p r e s s u r e , o r counter E.M.F., in t h e primary windings, tending t o prevent any more c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e primary due t o t h e p r e s s u r e of the a l t e r n a t o r . It a l s o magnetizes t h e i r o n core on which t h e secondary i s wound; t h i s magnetic f l u x i n t h e core t h e n passes through t h e windings of t h e secondary thereby inducing an E.M.F. i n t h e secondary and t h e r e s u l t i n g induced c u r r e n t w i l l then flow i n t h e secondary, i f t h i s c i r c u i t i s closed. The induced c u r r e n t now produced i n t h e secondary i s i n a d i r e c t i o n opposite t o t h e c u r r e n t of the primary and it produces a magnetic f i e l d which opposes t h e f i e l d of the primary and thereby weakens i t . A s t h e c o r e i n t h i s type of transformer provides a complete magnetic c i r c u i t f o r t h e f i e l d of t h e secondary, it i s c l e a r t h a t t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e secondary w i l l r e a c t s t r o n g l y upon t h e f i e l d of t h e primary. The s t r e n g t h of t h i s secondary f i e l d w i l l determine t o what e x t e n t t h e primary f i e l d w i l l be weakened, and when weakened t h e s e l f - i n d u c t i o n of t h e primary i s reduced. When t h i s self- induced f i e l d of t h e primary i s weakened more c u r r e n t can flow i n t h e primary, t h e r e f o r e , each i n c r e a s e i n t h e secondary c u r r e n t causes an i n c r e a s e i n t h e primary c u r r e n t and t h e same c y c l e of e f f e c t s a s took place a t t h e s t a r t begins over again. With t h e s e e f f e c t s t a k i n g place over and over a g a i n t h e voltage of t h e transformer i s maintained f a i r l y constant throughout the period of use.
A transformer having both t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t and constant v o l t a g e transformer can be had i f w provide an a i r gap e which, while not a s l a r g e a s i n t h e open core transformer, w i l l provide an a i r space s u f f i c i e n t t o allow a c e r t a i n amount of magnetic leakage t o t a k e place. This can be done a s i s shown i n Figure 6 by providing t h e core of t h e transformer with a magnetic leakage gap which w i l l maintain t h e s e l f - i n d u c t i o n of t h e primary n e a r l y c o n s t a n t under varyi n g loads placed on t h e secondary.

The r a t i o of voltage i n t h e secondary t o t h a t of t h e primary w i l l be found t o be n e a r l y a d i r e c t r a t i o of the t u r n s employed on each winding. For example, suppose t h e primary of t h e transformer of Figure 6 i s conposed of 200 t u r n s of y i r e and t h e secondary has 2,000 t u r n s ; t h e voltage of the secondary w i l l be 2 0 0 0 1 200, o r t e n times g r e a t e r t h a n t h e voltage applied a t t h e primary t e r m i n a l s by t h e a l t e r n a t o r . This can be put i n equation form a s follows: E F of secondary M n f prjmary

-

t u r n s of secondary t u r n s of primary

The primary winding i n a step- up transformer r e c e i v e s t h e low voltage from t h e e x c i t i n g f o r c e , o r a l t e r n a t o r , - w h i l e t h e secondary winding d e l i v e r s t h e high voltage induced t h e r e i n by t h e a c t i o n of t h e magnetic f i e l d produced by t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e primary.

I n t h e step-down transformer t h e r e v e r s e c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s ; t h e high voltage i s applied t o t h e winding of t h e g r e a t e r number of t u r n s and
Lesson 13

- sheet 6

t h i s winding t h e r e b y becomes t h e primary, while t h e winding c o n s i s t i n g of t h e l e s s e r number of t u r n s becomes t h e secondary. It i s , t h e r e f o r e , good p r a c t i c e t o r e f e r t o t h e windings of any transformer as the low t e n s i o n ancl t h e h i g h t e n s i o n s i d e s .
THE AUTO-TIIAVSFOHMER

The auto- transformer i s shown i n Figure 7 and i s seen t o c o n s i s t of t h e usual i r o n core on which i s b u t one winding, t h i s winding serving a s both t h e primary and secondary of the device, The t r a n s f e r of energy fkom primary t o secondary i n t h e auto-t~ansforrner i s not wholly i n d u c t i v e as i n those types of transformers employing
M&GNETIC LEAKAGE GAP

Figure 8 Figure 7 s e p a r a t e primary and secondary windings. I n t h i s type of transformer t h e t r a n s f e r of energy from t h e primary c i r c u i t t o t h e secondary c i r c u i t i s p a r t l y conductive, a s t h e secondary i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e primar y winding, and p a r t l y inductive due t o t h e i n d u c t i v e e f f e c t of t h e c o i l ' s magnetic f i e l d upon t h a t p a r t of t h e winding which comprises t h e secondary. This t y p e of transformer i s n o t used where t h e voltage t r a n s forrxatlon i s l a r g e , i.e., where h i g h voltages a r e t o b e stepped down t o low voltages o r , conversely, where low voltages a r e t o be stepped up t o h i g h voltages. T h i s i s because of t h e l i a b i l i t y of t h e voltage of t h e high t e n s i o n s i d e being impressed upon t h e low t e n s i o n s i d e due t o t h e s i n g l e winding being common t o both t h e h i g h and low t e n s i o n c i r c u i t s . Where t h e voltaee transformation i s l a r g e those t y p e s of transformers and secondrry windings a r e used. Hence, when employing s e p a r a t e p r i m ~ r y t h e auto-transforner i s used, i t i s employed i n c i r c u i t s where t h e Voltages being handled a r e of comparatively low values. For example, when stepping down 110 v o l t s A.C. t o , perhaps, 30 v o l t s , o r stepping up v o l t ages from, say, 20 v o l t s t o 50 or 60 v o l t s . As i n those t y p e s of transformers employing separate primary and secondary wind-ings, t h e v o l t a g e developed i n t h e secondary of t h e auto- transformer, a s r e l a t e d t o t h e primary voltage, i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e r a t i o of primary t o secondary turns. Therefore, the equation given on page 6 f o r t h e open core and closed core transf'ormers can a l s o be a p p l i e d t o auto-transrormers For example, i n Figure 7 the auto-transf ormer i s shown a s having f i f t e e n t u r n s i n t h e primary, f i v e t u r n s i n t h e seconda r y ancl a primary voltage of 110 v o l t s . What w i l l b e t h e secondary voltage?

.

Lesson 13

- sheet 7

According t o t h e e q u a t i o n t h e equation becomes
550

35 3
Ep

=

.

Ts

S u b s t i t u t i n g our known values

E .

5 = n,transposing,

E,

=

5

x 110 o r

Es

equals

=

36.6.

The secondary voltage, t h e n i s 36.6 v o l t s .

s e c t i o n would become t h e secondary. The v o l t a g e developed i n the seconda r y can be found by t h e use of t h e same formula a s before;

I f t h e a l t e r n a t o r were connected t o t h e t e r m i n a l s S1, 52, the f i v e t u r n s e c t i o n of t h e winding would thereby become t h e primary and t h e 1 5 t u r n

E, Fp
E,

=

IS. S u b s t i t u t i n g , w have 7 3 3 e
1650

Tr

Es

15 = r,t r a n s p o s i n g ,

E,

15

5- x 110 o r

5

=

330.

The secondary voltage, then, i s 330 v o l t s .
SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMER

The s h e l l type transformer i s shown i n Figure 8. The c o i l s of t h e transformer are f i r s t wound on a s u i t a b l e form and then, a s Is t h e case w i t h a l l transformer windings, a r e thoroughly impregnated w i t h an i n s u l a t E compound. T h i s may be merely melted p a r a f f i n o r it may be a compound of p a r a f f i n , beeswax and r o s i n , The i r o n core i s now b u i l t around t h e windings. Laminated s e c t i o n s of i r o n a r e used and, a f t e r a s u f f i c i e n t amount of i r o n has been i n cluded, p r e s s u r e i s brought upon t h e laminated s e c t i o n s and r i v e t s o r b o l t s a r e t h e n employed t o hold them i n place. Building t h e i r o n comp l e t e l y around t h e transformer windings provides a v e r y complete c i r c u i t f o r t h e magnetic f i e l d . Transformers a r e a l s o employed i n c i r c u i t s wherein a r e llowing a l t e r nai;ing c u r r e n t s of very h i g h frequency, namely, r a d i o frequency. Thesa transformers, known a s radio- frequency t r a n s f o r m e r s , depend f o r t h e i r functioning upon t h e same b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s a s do power transformers b u t , due t o t h e v a r i o u s phenomena encountered a t r a d i o frequencies, t h e i r design and c o n s t r u c t i o n d i f f e r s g r e a t l y from t h a t of power transformers. Radio-frequency transformers p l a y an important p a r t i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s and t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be dfscussed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n a l a t e r lesson. The transformers j u s t described a r e power t r a n s f o r m e r s and a r e used i n c i r c u i t s where high power i s handled, y e t transformers u t i l i z i n g t h e same p r i n c i p l e s a r e employed i n r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r s and r e c e i v e r s where such high power i s n o t encountered.

Lesson 13

- sheet

8

T3ANSFORMER LOSSES

The l o s s e s i n a transformer a r e due t o the h e a t c r e a t e d by the c u r r e n t passing through t h e windings which i s g e n e r a l l y termed t h e "IaH l o s s " ( c u r r e n t squared times t h e r e s i s t a n c e l o s s ) . I n transformers handling high power t h i s h e a t i n g e f f e c t may r e a c h dangerous proportions, t h e r e f o r e various methods a r e employed t o prevent t h e h e a t from r i s i n g t o a point where t h e windings w i l l burn out. The i r o n l o s s e s include hyst e r e s i s and eddy c u r r e n t l o s s e s .
O i l , s r e a s e , water and a i r ape ax1 employed t o d i s s i p a t e t h e heat

developed i n t h e transformer.

When water i s employed a s a cooling

/

PRIMARY CORE

' SECONDARY
Figure 9

COILS

medium a cooling j a c k e t i s used i n which t h e water c i r c u l z t e s around t h e windings without coming i n a c t u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c o i l s ; t h e heat i s taken up by the water and c a r r i e d t o t h e o u t s i d e of' t h e transformer case where it i s r a d i a t e d i n t o the atmosphere. When o i l i s used t o d i s s i p a t e h e a t i t c i r c u l a t e s , by v i r t u e of thermal a g i t a t i o n , around t h e windings and i s kept from coming i n c o n t a c t with t h e c o i l s by t h e t a p e which covers the c o i l s . When a i r i s used, it i s f o r c e d t o c i r c u l a t e about t h e c o i l s by a fan, d i s s i p a t i n g t h e h e a t by keeping cool a i r c o n t i n u a l l y c i r c u l a t i n g through t h e windings of t h e transformer. Open core transformers of the type i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 9 a r e g e n e r a l l y designed f o r primary voltages

of 110 t o 500 v o l t s a t f r e q u e n c i e s from 60 t o 500 c y c l e s , and seconda r y voltages of 1 2 , w t o 15,000 v o l t s , approximately. Tne c o i l s a r e surrounded by t h e laminated core w i t h t h e t e r m i n a l s brought out t o a panel a s shown, The s a f e t y gap leads a r e a l s o brought out through i n s u l a t o r s on t h e same panel. The transformer i s enclosed i n a case which i s f i l l e d grease t o prevent moiature from e n t e r i n g t h e windings r a d i a t e the h e a t when t h e transformer i s i n use. The i n g t h e terminals of b o t h t h e primary, secondary, and provides a t o p which i s screwed t o t h e case.
w i t h a heavy
A type of closed core transformer i s shown i n Figure 10.

and a l s o t o panel contains a f e t y gap,

NO LOAD CURRENT
V&en a power transformer former i s c l o s e d through flowing through b o t h t h e t h e secondary t e r m i n a l s , circuit. i e i n a c t u a l use t h e secondary of t h e t r a n s t h e load c i r c u i t and a t t h i s time c u r r e n t i s primary and secondary windings, Disconnect however, and no c u r r e n t flows i n t h e e x t e r n a l

which i s b e i n g s u p p l i e d by t h e g e n e r a t o r i s s t i l l The a l t e r n a t i n g E.M.F. e x e r t i n g i t s e l f on t h e primary and, being a l t e r n a t i n g E.M.F., t h e magneti c f i e l d produced i s a l s o a l t e r n a t i n g and c o n t i n u a l l y changing. This causes a constant r e v e r s a l of t h e magnetic f l u x through t h e i r o n core, which i n t u r n t h r e a d s through t h e primary winding inducing an E.M.F.

This f i e l d o r f l u x i s a l s o whlch i s opposite t o t h e a p p l i e d E.M.F. c u t t i n g t h e secondary b u t a s t h e secondary c i r c u i t i s open t h i s back p r e s s u r e w i l l n e a r l y e q u a l t h e applied p r e s s u r e of t h e a l t e r n a t o r , t h e r e f o r e t h e primary c u r r e n t i s very small. This s m a l l c u r r e n t i n t h e primary i s c a l l e d t h e 'ho load current" and r e p r e s e n t s a very small Lesson 13

- s h e e t 10

percentage of t h e c u r r e n t which i s r e q u i r e d by t h e transformer when it i s on load. From t h i s it i s s e e n t h e counter E.M.F. produced by t h e primary windi n g and which n e a r l y e q u a l s t h e applied E.M.F. a c t s a s a p r o t e c t i v e device a g a i n s t t h e s h o r t c i r c u i t i n g of t h e primary winding. Were i t n o t f o r t h i s back E.M.F., o r s e l f - i n d u c t i o n , of t h e primary, t h e c o i l would be s h o r t c i r c u i t e d when on no load.

It i s w e l l t o keep i n mind t h e following f a c t s when considering t h e transformer. First.- The transformer i s p r i m a r i l y designed t o change t h e voltage from a higher t o a lower p r e s s u r e , and v i c e versa. Second.The frequency of t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t induced i n t h e secondary i s t h e same as t h a t flowing in t h e primary, Third.- I n r a d i o communication high p o t e n t i a l s a r e necessary and t h e transformer p e r f o r m t h e d u t y of very e f f i c i e n t l y changing low p o t e n t i a l s t o high without t h e use of moving p a r t s . Fourth.- It i s rugged i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and w i l l stand comparatively h a r d usage. Fifth.- It i s most e f f i c i e n t l y used on a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s . Sixth.- It does not convert a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t o d i r e c t c u r r e n t , ( a r o t a r y c o n v e ~ t e ri s necessary f o r t h i s work). Seventh.. Although t h e voltage i s increased i n a step-up t r a n s former t h e a c t u a l power output i s n o t increased, but i s decreased t o a s l i g h t extent. I n o t h e r words i n t h e transformation of one voltage a higher some power i s l o s t .
EXAhlINATION
O f what use i s a transformer?

-

LESSON 13

Describe a simple transformer.
( a ) When the i n p u t of a transformer i s 110 v o l t s and t h e output 20,000 v o l t s what name i s given t o t h e i n p u t winding? ( b ) What name, i n t h i s case, i s g i v e n t o t h e output winding?

? h a r e some t y p e s of power transformers immersed f n o i l ? Uy Are transformers employed i n e l e c t r i c a l work i n g e n e r a l , or f o r purposes o t h e r t h a n r a d i o ? If so, f o r what purposes?

D r a w a diagram of a n open core step-up transformer. operation.
Describe a closed c o r e transformer.

Explain i t s

H w i s t h e r a t i o of voltage transformation of transformeradetermined? o What i s an auto- transf ormer? What a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l l o s s e s i n a power transformer?

Lesson 13

-

sheet 1 1

I ,

INC.
/-,7me7-fg-

M A R C O N / /NSTITUTE

sunded./909

Technical Lesson 14
INDUCTANCE

W now come t o t h e s u b j e c t of INDUCTANCE. e It w i l l be of g r e a t advantage t o you t o study t h i s phase of the i n s t r u c t i o n thoroughly s t r i v i n g t o master t h e fundamentals of inductance and i t s e f f e c t i n alternating current circuits. Inductance plays a very important p a r t i n such c i r c u i t s and, a s t h e frequency of t h e c u r r e n t i n c r e a s e s , i t s e f f e c t thereupon becomes more and more pronounced u n t i l , i n c i r c u i t s handling c u r r e n t s of r a d i o frequency, i t becomes a f a c t o r of predominant importance.
INDUCTANCE i s b e s t defined a s t h a t p r o p e r t y of an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t which s t o r e s up energy i n t h e form of electro- magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e . I t s e f f e c t i s t o oppose any change of c u r r e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t and t h i s o p p o m t o a change i n c u r r e n t i s termed INDUCTIVE REACTANCE.

'

The p r o p e r t y of inductance simply denotes a p a r t i c u l a r arrangement of a conductor o r c i r c u i t , t h a t i s , t h e shape of the c i r c u i t , t h e m a t e r i a l s of which it i s formed, and t h e magnetic p e r m e a b i l i t y of t h e medium surrounding it.
A c i r c u i t may have v a r i o u s values of inductance, i n f a c t , a c i r c u i t may have a s many inductances a s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o change t h e shape o r form of t h e c i r c u i t .

The u n i t of inductance i s t h e Henry and a c i r c u i t i s s a i d t o have an inductance of one Henry when a c u r r e n t which i s changing a t the r a t e of one ampere per second inpuces an electromotive f o r c e of one v o l t i n the c i r c u i t . T h i s unit was named a f t e r a noted American s c i e n t i s t , Joseph Henry, who discovered many important electro-magnetlc f a c t s . The Henry i s t o o l a r g e a unit f w ~ h r a d i o f P e q ~ e n c gc i r c u i t s hence ~ ~ e t h e m i l l i h e n r y which i s one thousanth (1/1000) p a r t of a Henry, i s used and, w i t h t h e very high f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e microhenry, which i s one m i l l i o n t h p a r t of a Henry, i s f r e q u e n t l y employed. The Henry i s used a s a u n i t of inductance i n t h e lower frequency c i r c u i t s of r a d i o r e c e i v e r s and t r a n s m i t t e r s , such a s i n t h e r a d i o and power circuits

.

I n t h e s t u d y of inductance t h e terms magnetic flux, m a m e t i c f i e l d , and magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e w i l l f r e q u e n t l y appear. They a l l mean t e one and h
The magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e which surround a c u r r e n t c a r r y i n g conductor a r e i n v i s i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , non e x i s t i n g

l i n e s . The word l i n e s i s merely used a s a convenient way t o express o r represent the path and d i r e c t i o n of t h i s i n v i s i b l e magnetic force which surrounds a c u r r e n t carrying conductor. When any change i s made i n an e x i s t i n g c i r c u i t so thali an increase i n the number of magnetic f l u x l i n e s c u t t i n g the c i r c u i t i s produced per ampere of current, the inductance of the c i r c u i t w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d . A s t r a i g h t conductor w i l l possess r e l a t i v e l y small inductance and, i f t h e same copductor i s wound i n the shape of a h e l i x or c o i l t h e inductance w i l l be increased due t o the f a c t t h a t a g r e a t e r p a r t of the conductor, since it i s i n h e l i x form, w i l l be cut by a g r e a t e r proportion of a l l t h e f l u x developed. When i r o n i s used a s the core a s t i l l g r e a t e r concentration of magnetic f l u x takes place because the i r o n provides a b e t t e r magnetic p a t h f o r t h e f l u x than a i r alone. To determine the inductance of a c o i l used i n low frequency work and i n which no i r o n i s used, i.e., having an " a i r w core, the following formula may be applied: Assuming t h e c o i l of Figure 5 has 100 t u r n s , the average r a d i u s o f t h e c o i l i s 3 inches, and i t s length i s 9 inches, then

L

=

T'

x RS x .0000001

where

L

=

inductance number of turns r a d i u s of c o i l length of c o i l a constant

T
R

=
=
=
=

1

.0000001

L

=

1.0000001 x

TL x

R1

L L

=
=

10000 x

.0000001

- 0.001000

.001 Henry ( o r .l rnilli-Henry).

Now remember t h i s ; - t h e experiment and t h e working out of t h i s problen b s %Q do with a l t e r n a t i n g current c i r c u i t s of low frequency. The formul a , however, i s changed but s l i g h t l y with higher frequencies such a3
radio frequencies.

Lesson 14

- sheet 2

It i s necessary f o r you t o have knowledge of t h e foregoing s o t h a t you may have an i d e a of how inductance a c t s upon such c i r c u i t s t o b e t t e r enable you t o bring about a l i n e of reasoning which w i l l h e l p you when we a r r i v e a t t h e point where h i g h frequency i s used i n a r a d i o c i r c u i t . T h i s same b a s i c idea i s t o hold i n t h e explanation of c a p a c i t y i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c i r c u i t of h i g h frequency when we w i l l have progressed t o t h a t p a r t of t h e work.
SELF INDUCTANCE Self inductance i s t h e phenomenon af an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t which causes i t h e g e n e r a t i o n of a second electromotive f o r ~ e n t h e c i r c u i t whenever t h e c u r r e n t i s i n c r e a s i n g , decreasing, or varying i n i t s r a t e of flow. The applied electromotive f o r c e , which we w i l l c a l l t h e f i r s t E.M.F., i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e flow of c u r r e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t , but t h e c u r r e n t while it i s i n any way varying, e i t h e r i n c r e a s i n g o r decreasing, s t a r t ing, or stopping, i s causing a second electromotive f o r c e t o appear i n t h e same c i r c u i t , I f w have a long s t r a i g h t wire forming a c i r c u i t of 22 ohms r e s i s t a n c e e i n which 5 amperes a r e flowing, a t an electromotive f o r c e of 110 v o l t s , w w i l l fincl t h a t , upon c l o s i n g t h e c i r c u i t by means of a switch, t h e e ammeter w i l l almost immediately r e g i s t e r 5 amperes and, upon opening t h e switch, a small spark w i l l appear a t t h e s w i t c h points. Winding t h e same conductor about an i r o n core a s shown i n Figure 1 and a g a i n c l o s i n g t h e switch "s" t h e aruneter w i 3 3 again r e g i s t e r 5

:t/-lA
3 2
I
0

i r k
I
0

TIME

TIME

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

anperes a s t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e conductor has not been changed. It w i l l be noticed, however, i f it was p o s s i b l e t o observe t h e r i s e of t h e needle, t h a t i t r e q u i r e s a considerably longer time f o r the needle t o i n d i c a t e t h e f u l l value of 5 amperes i n t h e second c i r c u i t arrangement, than it d i d i n t h e f i r s t . Upon opening t h e s w i t c h "s" t h i s time a much l a r g e r spark w i l l be seen t o occur a t t h e switch c o n t a c t s , which f a c t i s evidence t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s t i l l t e n d s t o flow i n t h e c i r c u i t .

It should be noted t h a t t h i s spark i s l a r g e r t h a n t h a t produced when t h e c i r c u i t was i n t h e f i r s t arrangement of a s t r a i g h t conductor; t h i s i s evidence t h a t t h e c i r c u i t now has g r e a t e r inductance.
That which t a k e s place i s a s follows: When a c i r c u i t a s shown i n Figure 1 i s closed, c u r r e n t a t once s t a r t s t o flow through t h e c o i l and i n c r e a s e s i n value u n t i l the maximum c u r r e n t value i s reached. Lesson 14

- sheet 3

It does not r i s e t o i t s f u l l value i n s t a n t l y b u t does s o gradually, a s

s h o w by t h e s l o p i n g p a r t of t h e curve i n Figure 2. The reason f o r i t s gradual r i s e i n s t e a d of an instantaneous r i s e i s due t o t h e expandi n g magnetic f i e l d which always i s i n a s t a t e of change whenever t h e c u r r e n t v a r i e s . The i n s t a n t t h e c u r r e n t s t a r t s , t h i s magnetic f i e l d s p r i n g s i n t o being and expands, c u t t i n g t h e conductor and inducing i n t h i s same conductor a secondary electromotive f o r c e , c a l l e d t h e s e l f induced o r counter E.M.F., which t e n d s t o prevent t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e c u r r e n t producing it.

It i s t h i s self- induced E.M.F. which, b y i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o any change i n t h e flow of c u r r e n t , r e t a r d s t h e r i s e of c u r r e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t . The g r e a t e r the s e l f - i n d u c t a n c e of a c i r c u i t t h e more pronounced w i l l be t h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o any change whatsoever i n t h e c u r r e n t . In a c i r c u i t , such a s t h a t of Figure 1, i n which t h e c o i l s e t s up a s t r o n g magnetic f i e l d and hence has a h i g h value of self- inductance, whenever an attempt i s made t o q u i c k l y i n c r e a s e , reduce, o r s t o p t h e c u r r e n t flow, t h e r e s u l t i n g s e l f -induced E .M.F. e x e r t s a marked opposition t o such a change. It w i l l always oppose an i n c r e a s e i n c u r r e n t and, when t h e c u r r e n t i s decreased o r stopped, w i l l a l s o oppose such a decrease by attempting t o maintain t h e c u r r e n t a t i t s o r i g i n a l maximm value.

:v-/\
3

CURRENT

2
0

I

BLE THROW SWITCH

TIME

Figure 4 Figure 5 The applied electromotive f o r c e , which caused t h e c u r r e n t t o flow during t h e time t h e c u r r e n t was i n c r e a s i n g , was being opposed by t h e self- induced e l e c t r o m o t i v e f o r c e , and it i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two v o l t a g e s which determines t h e momentary c u r r e n t value. When t h e c u r r e n t i s i n c r e a s i n g a t i t s g r e a t e s t r a t e t h e s e l f induced voltage a t t a i n s i t s g r e a t e s t opposing f o r c e , b u t when t h e c u r r e n t reaches i t s maximum value and becomes s t e a d y i.e., having no v a r i a t i o n , t h i s s e l f induced E.M.F. t h e n disappears. Although t h e counter E.M.F. becomes n i l when t h e c u r r e n t has reached a maximum steady value, energy, however, i s s t i l l present i n the form of an electromagnetic f i e l d . If a c i r c u i t possesses a very low self- inductance, upon opening the switch "S", t h e c u r r e n t w i l l n o t drop i n s t a n t l y t o zero, a s shown by t h e abrupt c u t off l i n e A , i n Figure 2, but w i l l g r a d u a l l y decrease a s shown by t h e l i n e A ' , i n Figure 3. If, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e c i r c u i t possesses r e l a t i v e l y h i g h inductance then, upon opening t h e c i r c u i t and t h u s suddenly stopping t h e source of c u r r e n t , t h e r e w i l l

Lesson 14

-

sheet 4

be a momentary heavy surge of c u r r e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t a f t e r which t h e c u r r e n t d i e s out a s shown i n Figure 4.
It must be remembered t h a t , during t h e gradual r i s e of c u r r e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t , energy was a l s o being g r a d u a l l y s t o r e d up i n t h e medium surrounding t h e c o i l i n t h e form of an electromagnetic f i e l d . Since t h i s magnetic f i e l d i s dependent f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e upon a flow of c u r r e n t through t h e c o i l , the i n s t a n t t h e switch "s" i s opened, thus stopping t h e flow of current, t h e f i e l d immediately c o l l a p s e s upon t h e c o i l . This c o l l a p s e of t h e f i e l d upon t h e c o i l induces t h e r e i n a voltage and c u r r e n t which flows i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n a s t h e o r i g i nal, current. T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e decrease of c u r r e n t by tending t o maintain t h e c u r r e n t flow a t i t s o r i g i n a l maximum value. I n o t h e r words, t h e flow of c u r r e n t through t h e c o i l has r e s u l t e d i n some of t h e c u r r e n t being used t o c r e a t e an e l e c t r o magnetic f i e l d . When t h i s c u r r e n t ceases t h e f i e l d c o l l a p s e s and the energy s t o r e d i n this f i e l d i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e c i r c u i t i n t h e form of e l e c t r i c a l current. A s a l r e a d y explained, t h i s i n t e r - p l a y of f o r c e s i n t h e c i r c u i t i s such t h a t t h e self- induced voltage and c u r r e n t a l ways opposes any change. It i s t h e sudden f a l l i n g of t h i s magnetic f o r c e about the conductor which causes the momentary heavy surge a s . shown i n Figure 4 by t h e peak curve marked P

What have we discovered by t h e foregoing? and e f f e c t s we f i n d t h e following:
(1) When an E.M.F.

Summing up t h e s e causes

i s applied t o a c i r c u i t c u r r e n t s t a r t s t o flow and a magnetic f i e l d springs up.
( 2 ) A s the current i n c r e a s e s the f i e l d increases, cutting t h e conductor and thereby c r e a t i n g a counter E.M.F. which t e n d s t o prevent t h e c u r r e n t from f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e and which i s c a l l e d t h e SELF-INDUCTION of the c i r c u i t .
( 3 ) Self- induction i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e c o n s t i t u t e s an opposi n g f o r c e t o the o r i g i n a l crurrent.
( 4 ) Time i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e o r i g i n a l c u r r e n t t o overcome t h e opposit i o n o f f e r e d by t h e s e l f - i n d u c t i o n of t h e c i r c u i t .
( 5 ) When t h e c u r r e n t reaching i t s maximum value and remaining steady, t h e f i e l d ceases t o c u t t h e conductor and s e l f - i n d u c t i o n ceases.

n t h e o r i g i n a l current ( 6 ) O disconnecting t h e source of a p p l i e d E.M.F. ceases t o flow, t h u s allowing t h e magnetic f i e l d t o c o l l a p s e , which and c r e a t i n g a again c u t s t h e canductor thereby inducing a n E.M.F. c u r r e n t which flows i n such a d i r e c t i o n a s tends t o maintain t h e c u r r e n t flow i n t h e c i r c u i t .

( 7 ) The s e l f - i n d u c t i o n of an e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t always opposes any change of c u r r e n t t a k i n g place.
(8) I n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t t h e e f f e c t of s e l f - i n d u c t i o n i s apparent only f o r a moment while t h e c u r r e n t i s changing i n value, e i t h e r i n c r e a s i n g or decreasing, o r only a t t h e time t h e c i r c u i t i s opened and closed.

Lesson 14

-

sheet 5

Electromagnetic I n e r t i a i s a term sometimes used t o b e t t e r express self- inductance f o r it a c t s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e i n e r t i a which i s found i n t h e study of mechanics. For example, a f l y wheel tends t o remain a t r e s t and, when f o r c e i s applied i n a manner which w i l l cause t h e wheel t o revolve, it w i l l r e q u i r e time p l u s t h e f o r c e t o cause t h e wheel t o revolve a t a given speed. When it i s d e s i r e d t o s t o p the revolving wheel f o r c e i s again a p p l i e d and time i s r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e wheel t o a d e a d stop. The energy which i s s t o r e d i n t h e revolving mass must be absorbed a s i t i s gradually brought t o i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e of r e s t . I n e r t i a w i l l oppose any i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n t h e e x i s t i n g speed of a movlng mass, The same p r i n c i p l e i s involved i n t h e case of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t flowing through a c o i l where s e l f - i n d u c t i o n (electro- magnetic i n e r t i a ) opposes any i n c r e a s e o r decrease i n the flow of c u r r e n t . The c u r r e n t value i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing i n value, consequently t h e magnetic f i e l d i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing,- b u i l d i n g up one i n s t a n t and c o l l a p s i n g t h e next,opposing t h e r i s i n g c u r r e n t and tending t o maintain t h e flow o f , t h e decreasing c u r r e n t . An experiment which serves t o v i s i b l y i n d i c a t e t h e e f f e c t of t h e inductance of a c o i l both w i t h and without an i r o n core when, f i r s t , d i r e c t c u r r e n t i s flowing through t h e c o i l and, second, a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t , i s explained i n t h e following paragraphs. Employing one of t h e c o i l s we used i n our s t u d y of electyo-magnetism, w w i l l connect a lamp i n t h e c i r c u i t i n s t e a d of t h e meter and change e t h e source of supply by t h e use of a double-pole, double-throw switch, allowing us, by throwing t h e switch, t o send e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i n g o r d i r e c t current through t h e c o i l . I n Figure 5 t h e voltage of both sources i s 110 v o l t s . F i r s t throw t h e s w i t c h t o t h e l e f t , thus connecting t h e d i r e c t c u r r e n t with t h e c o i l . The lamp l i g h t s b r i l l i a n t l y a t once. With t h e lamp burning move t h e i r o n c o r e i n and out of t h e c e n t e r of t h e c o i l . It w i l l be noticed ' t h a t t h e r e i s no change whatever i n the b r i l l i a n c y of t h e lamp; it burns j u s t a s b r i g h t l y w i t h t h e i r o n core i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e c o i l a s i t does w i t h it o u t r N w withdraw the i r o n and throw t h e switch t o t h e right, thus connecto ing t h e c o i l t o t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t source. A t once t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e b r i l l i a n c y of t h e l i g h t of t h e lamp. It i s burning dimly. Thrust t h e i r o n core i n t h e c e n t e r sf t h e c o i l a s you d i d bef o r e and note t h a t t h e lamp becomes very d u l l . Removing t h e i r o n w i l l produce a change i n t h e b r i g h t n e s s of t h e lamp but, i n e i t h e r case, w i t h the i r o n i n o r out of t h e c o i l , it does not burn a s b r i l l i a n t l y a s i t d i d when connected t o t h e d i r e c t c u r r e n t source of supply. I n t h i s experiment t h e c i r c u i t has not been changed i n any r e s p e c t ; t h e a c t u a l (ohmic) r e s i s t a n c e has remained t h e same i n both cases, and t h e voltage maintained a t t h e same pressure.

Lesson 14

- sheet

6

When d i r e c t c u r r e n t was employed t h e lamp was n o t e f f e c t e d but burned with t h e same b r i l l i a n c y w i t h and without an i r o n core. On connecting t h e same p r e s s u r e of a l t e r n a t i n g E.M.F. t o the c i r c u i t t h e r e was a differ- i n t h e burning of t h e lamp, and s i n c e no change was made i n t h e ohmic r e s i s t a n c e of t h e c i r c u i t i t i s obvious t h a t t h e r e must be some o t h e r pronounced e f f e c t i n the c i r c u i t when A.C. i s employed and t h a t t h i s e f f e c t reduced the amount of c u r r e n t flovring i n t h e c i r c u i t a s evidenced by t h e dimming of t h e l i g h t . Since a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing i n value the f i e l d a l s o changes and tends t o keep up a c o n t i n u a l counter E.M.F. opposing any change i n the a p p l i e d c u r r e n t ; when t h e i r o n core was i n s e r t e d a g r e a t e r e f f e c t was n o t i c e d by a f u r t h e r dimming of t h e lamp due t o a g r e a t e r f i e l d concentration which was produced by t h e i r o n core because the core f u r n i s h e s a much b e t t e r magnetic p a t h f o r t h e magnetic f i e l d than a i r . It i s evident from t h i s experiment t h a t the counter E.M.F. of s e l f - i n d u c t i o n of the c o i l when a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i s used, tends t o reduce, o r oppose, t h e flow of t h e c u r r e n t producing i t . It i s a l s o evident t h a t t h e e f f e c t of inductance w i l l oppose t h e c u r r e n t t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n would be t h e case i f s t r a i g h t r e s i s t a n c e were employed,- independent, of course, upon t h e frequency of t h e c u r r e n t and t h e r e s p e c t i v e values of inductance and r e s i s t a n c e . From t h i s w may say;- "The electromotive f o r c e of s e l f - i n d u c t i o n e opposes a t a l l times any change i n the c u r r e n t producing it, and i t s value i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e r a t e a t which t h e producing current varies:' e For example, i f w cause t h e c u r r e n t t o a l t e r n a t e more r a p i d l y , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l b e t h i s opposing force. I n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t t h e opposition t o t h e flow of c u r r e n t i s caused by t h e ohmic r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e c i r c u i t and r e p r e s e n t s a l o s s of energy because t h e energy i s d i s s i pated a s h e a t , while i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t t h i s opposing or s e l f - i n d u c t i o n , which simply e f f e c t i s caused by t h e counter E.M.F., reduces t h e c u r r e n t and a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s a g r e a t e r a p p l i e d E.M.F. t o force t h e same e q u i v a l e n t c u r r e n t through t h e c i r c u i t . Therefore t h e l o s s e s are not a s g r e a t i n an A.C. c i r c u i t employing inductance a s i n a c i r c u i t using r e s i s t a n c e .
REACTANCE

W have seen how a conductor wound i n t h e shape of a c o i l or h e l i x w i l l , e when placed i n an A.C. c i r c u i t , l i m i t the c u r r e n t flowing through the c i r c u i t a s was proven i n t h e experiment w i t h t h e c i r c u i t of Figure 5. The counter E.M.F., o r self - induction, of t h e c o i l was t h e cause of t h i s r e t a r d i n g phenomena and i s c a l l e d t h e Reactance. When only in ductance i s involved t h i s opposition i s c a l l e d I n d u c t i v e Reactance and i s shown i n abbreviated form us X L ( r e a d a s X sub L ) , and i s exp r ~ s s e d s so many ohms r e a c t a n c e o a Reactance caused by t h e presence of c a p a c i t y (condenser) i n t h e c i r c u i t i s c a l l e d t h e Capacitive r e a c t a n c e Xa ( r e a d a s X sub C ) , afid which i s covered i n d e t a i l t n your next lesson. Lesson 14

- sheet

7

Inductance i n an A . C . c i r c u i t w i l l cause t h e c u r r e n t t o l a g behind t h e voltage. T h i s i s caused by the induced E.M.F. present whenever t h e r e i s a change i n t h e c u r r e n t f c i r c u i t ; t h e induced E.M.F. w i l l always oppose any current. I n any a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t the c u r r e n t i s alwa and, when inductance i s p r e s e n t i n t h i s c i r c u i t , t h e r e be an induced E.M.F. opposing t h e s e changes i n t h e c u r c u r r e n t i s r i s i n g i n value t h e induced E.M.F. opposes and t t h e momentary values of the induced E.M.F. Therefore, t h e i n c r e a s e of c u r r e n t takes place l a t e r t h a n of t h e applied E.M.F. and since t h i s i s t h e c a s e the c u r r e t h e r e f o r e s a i d t o l a g t h e voltage. When t h e applied E.M.F. i s decreasing and c u r r e n t i s decreasing t h e induced E.M.F. opposes t h e decrease o f the c u r r e n t and t t o keep t h e c u r r e n t a t a l a would occur from the decrea alone. This e f f e c t of t h e i Figure 6 t e n d s now t o uphold t h e c u r r e n t values, c t h e c u r r e n t t o again l a g t h e applied E.M.F. Thus c y c l e t h e c u r r e n t l a g s behind t h e applied voltage contains inductance only, and by t h a t i s meant ne c a p a c i t y , the c u r r e n t w i l l be reaching i t s maximum and minimum values 90 degrees behind t h e maximum and minimum values of t h e applied E.M.F. o r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c u r r e n t l a g s t h e voltage by 90 degrees. Figure 6 shows t h i s c o n d i t i o n i n curve form. The inductive reactance of any c i r c u i t i s e q u a l t o 6.28 times i t s inductance i n h e n r i e s , times t h e .OI H E NR IE S frequency of t h e c u r r e n t , and i s r e a l l y another or 60 CYCLE a d d i t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e added t o t h e c i r c u i t b e s i d e s t h a t of actual ohmic r e s i s t a n c e , and i t i s measured i n GENER~TOR ohms. Thus w speak of a c i r c u i t a s having s o many e ohms reactance b u t , a s we have a l r e a d y s t a t e d , r e Figure 7 actance does not always c o n s t i t u t e a l o s s i n t h e c i r c u i t a s r e s i s t a n c e does; i t merely c a l l s f o r a higher E.M.F. t o be a p p l i e d t o f o r c e a given c u r r e n t through t h e c i r c u i t t h a n i f r e s i s t a n c e only were p r e s e n t i n t h e c i r c u i t . I n d u c t i v e r e a c t a n c e i s determined by the following formula: Inductive r e a c t a n c e ( X L f L 6.28

+ y l

1

= =

r a

2 e f L, o r 6.28 x f x L frequency i n c y c l e s inductance i n h e n r i e s (2 x 3.1416) u s u a l l y w r i t t e n 2%.

SupposirIg t h e c o i l i n Figure 7 h a s , a n inductance of . O 1 h e n r i e s and t h e a t 60 cycles. What would be the reactance a l t e r n a t o r i s supplying E.M.F. i n ohms i n t h i s c i r c u i t ? From our fornula:

Lesson 14

- sheet 8

XL

=

6.28 x 60 x . O 1

=

3.7680 ohms reactance.

CHOKE CQILS

I n a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s inductance c o i l s having c e r t a i n v a l u e s may be used a s choke c o i l s t o l i m i t t h e c u r r e n t flow, t h e name "choke c o i l " being used because of t h e choking or r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t upon a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t by t h e self - inductance of t h e c o i l . T h i s p b i n c i p l e i s used t o r e g u l a t e t h e flow of c u r r e n t i n a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s because of t h e economy a t t a i n e d over t h e use of r e s i s t s n c e which absorbs t h e energy and g i v e s it off a s h e a t . ' F R S O INDUCTANCE OM F Inductance i n r a d i o t a k e s various forms. The antsnna i t s e l f constit u t e s a form of inductance, r e f e r r e d t o a s d i s t r i b u t e d inductance due t o t h e magnetic f i e l d which i s s e t up about t h e antenna wires. You a r e perhaps f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s form of inductance z s shown i n Figure 8.

Connected t o the antenna l e a d - i n i s another form of inductance c a l l e d lumped o r concentrated inductance which, i n t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g s e t , appears sometimes a s a h e l i x of heavy copper t u b i n g o r s o l i d wire. T h i s type of inductance i s shown i n Figure 9. Figures 1 0 and 1 show t y p e s of inductance c o i l s commonly used i n 1 receiving sets.

1 Figure 1 The next p a r t of our work, w i l l have t o do with capacity. Capacity and inductance t o g e t h e r i n an e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t produce i n t e r e s t i n g

Lesson 14

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9

r e s u l t s and a w e l l founded knowledge of b o t h i s needed t o enable you t o thoroughly understand r a d i o c i r c u i t s .

NOTE. The c o n s t a n t 6.28, used i n a formula i n t h i s lesson, i s found by multiplying 3.1416 by 2. Nany students become confused when t h e y The e x a c t mathematical r e l a t i o n t h i s holds t o see the symbol*. s u b j e c t s of e l e c t r i c i t y i s complicated and w i l l not be discussed h e r e , however, it might be w e l l t o o u t l i n e g e n e r a l l y i t s use t h u s i d i s p e l l i n g t h e doubt many s t u d e n t s have i n r e g a r d s t o it. 'r ( p i ) i s t h e s i x t e e n t h l e t t e r of t h e Greek alphabet and i s pronounced " pie"; it has been adopted by mathematicians t o show t h e r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between t h e diameter and circumference of a c i r c l e . Num e r i c a l l y it i s equal t o 3.1416 and it i s used t o denote t h a t t h e circumfeTence of a c i e c l e i s equal t o 3.1416 times i t s diameter.
E l e c t r i c a l engineers have adopted t h e s y m b o l k t o denote magnetic f o r c e and, o m i t t i n g t h e mathematics involved, we w i l l e x p l a i n it a s follows: A t a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from a c e r t a i n magnetic pole the magnetic f i e l d has a c e r t a i n s t r e n g t h , i t being considered t h a t t h e s e i s one l i n e of magnetic f o r c e f o r each square centimeter. A s t h i s magnetic f o r c e from a magnetic pole i s equal i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s from t h e pole and s i n c e t h e s u r f a c e ofasphere has a r a d i u s equal t o u n i t y , t h e magnetic 'lines of f o r c e from t h i s c e r t a i n magnetic pole w i l l be equal t o 4 xT)-. I n o t h e r words, the magnetic f o r c e r e s u l t i n g from a c u r r e n t flowing through a c o i l i s e q u a l t o 4 T + 10 x t h e product I x turns. of amperes x t h e t u r n s of wire i n t h e c o i l , or m.m.f.
EXAMINATION

-

LESSON 1 4

1.

Does s e l f - i n d u c t i o n e x i s t i n D i r e c t Current c i r c u i t s ? Does i n d u c t i o n t a k e place when t h e magnetic f i e l d i s steady? ( a ) H w would you d e s c r i b e t h e e f f e c t of inductance o Direct Current c i r c u i t ? ( b ) In an A.C. c i r c u i t ? Write b r i e f l y what yon know about i n d u c t i v e reactance.
V h t a r e choke c o i l s and why a r e they used?

2.
3.

in a

4.
5.
4

6.

What e f f e c t i s apparent when i r o n i s introduced a s t h e core of an inductance c o i l ?

7 What i s t h e u n i t of inductance? .
8. 9 .
10. Does an i n c r e a s e i n c u r r e n t i n a conductor i n c r e a s e t h e magnetic f o r c e about t h a t conductor? What i s t h e product of 2 *
?

Where i s t h e following formula employed: an example of i t s use.

XL

=

2 ffL1 v

Give

Lesson 14

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10

CAPACITY

What i s c a p a c i t y ? Under what o t h e r names does it appear and where and why i s it used? Capacity i s t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c e i v e , c o n t a i n and s t o r e up energy. For example, a tank has t h e a b i l i t y of s t o r i n g water, o i l and o t h e r forms of l i q u i d . A condenser, i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l sense, s t o r e s e l e c t r i c i t y . It i s used i n power l i n e t r a n s m i s s i o n a s w e l l a s i n r a d i o . Capacitance i s another word used t o d e s c r i b e c a p a c i t y and t h i s term i s used considerably when r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e e l e c t r o s t a t i c c a p a c i t y of a device. A s c a p a c i t y p l a y s a l a r g e p a r t i n many ways and i n v a r i o u s phases of t h e r a d i o i n d u s t r y i t may be well f o r you t o know how simple it i s t o construct a device possessing cap a c i t y o r capacitance. I f you s e c u r e a p i e c e of g l a s s and two s h e e t s
---',LASS
%

PLATE

T I N FOIL

---...
*-'

2;
'-TIN F O ~ L
TIN FOIL."

Figure 1

Figure 3

of t i n f o i l you have t h e elements of a very simple condenser. Figures 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e how t h i s condenser i s assembled, A l a r g e number of commercial condensers used w i t h spark c o i l s a r e u s u a l l y made of t i n f o i l and p a r a f f i n e d paper, t h e t i n f o i l being t h e conductors and t h e paper t h e i n s u l a t o r o r d i e l e c t r i c , a s it i s c a l l e d . A l t e r n a t e l a y e r s of t i n f o i l and paper make up t h e condenser. A p a r a f f i n e d paper condenser w i t h l e a d s i s shown i n Figure 3.
,PLATE TERMINALS.

-.DOUBLE POLE DOUBLE THROW SWITCH

110 VOLT LINE

1
DIRECT CURRENT

Ffgure 2

Figure 4

Suppose w conduct an experiment, t h e purpose of which w i l l a s s i s t e us t o v i s u a l i z e t h e e f f e c t t a k i n g place when a condenser i s placed i n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t and t h e n i n a c i r c u i t c a r r y i n g a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . W w i l l use a hook-up s i m i l a r t o t h e one used i n conducting e t h e experiment w i t h inductance b u t , i n place of t h e inductance, we Contents Copyrighted 1930 Printed in U.S . A .

w i l l i n s e r t a condenser a s shown i n Figure 4. Throw t h e double-pole double-throw switch down, t h u s connecting t h e c i r c u i t containing t h e condenser and lamp t o t h e source of d i r e c t c u r r e n t . It i s noticed t h a t t h e lamp does not l i g h t . I n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t t h e condenser a c t s a s an open c i r c u i t e x a c t l y a s though you had opened the c i r c u i t by c u t t i n g t h e wire with a p a i r of p l i e r s , snd t h i s experiment proves i t , f o r otherwise t h e lamp would have given o f f l i g h t . In t r a c i n g t h e c i r c u i t , beginning a t "L", you w i l l f i n d a connecting path f o r c u r r e n t a s f a r a s , and including, t h e p l a t e s but t h e i n t e r vening d i e l e c t r i c , which i s an i n s u l e t o r , prevents c u r r e n t from flowing t o "Ll". An electromotive f o r c e does e x i s t , however, end i s a v a i l a b l e over t h e p l a t e s connected t o "L1' s i d e of t h e l i n e but steady c u r r e n t w i l l not flow t o the p l a t e s of t h e condenser connected t o "Ll" s i d e of t h e l i n e due t o t h e i n t e r v e n i n g d i e l e c t r i c a s was ... i s r i s i n g t o a maximum s t r e n g t h , it s t a t e d above. IThile t h e E M F i s changing i n value and, during t h i s time, a p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s b u i l t up on t h e opposite p l a t e s of the condenser. The lamp, if t h e c a p a c i t y of t h e condenser and r e s i s t a n c e of t h e lamp i s c o r r e c t , w i l l become incandescent f o r a f r a c t i o n of a second g i v i n g a f l a s h of l i g h t but w i l l n o t remain illuminated. If t h i s occured i t would i n d i c a t e t h e t t h e r e was a momentary c u r r e n t flow a f t e r which t h e lamp ceased t o glow. Let us apply an a l t e r n a t i n g E.M.F. t o the same c i r c u i t by throwing the switch up. The lamp a t once burns a t incandescence and remains i n t h i s s t a t e g i v i n g off l i g h t u n t i l t h e c i r c u i t i s opened. While was w could o b t a i n a s i n g l e f l a s h of t h e lamp when a d i r e c t E.M.F. e applied, we f i n d t h a t by applying a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t a continuous i l l w n l n a t i o n r e s u l t s , proving. without q u e s t i o n t h a t a condenser, when of the c o r r e c t c a p a c i t y i n a n A.G. c i r c u i t does n o t produce t h e e f f e c t of a n open c i r c u i t a s it d i d i n t h e d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t . There i s an e l e c t r i c a l phenomenon t a k i n g place i n t h e space between the p l a t e s of the condenser. T h i s space together w i t h t h e condenser p l a t e s c o n s t i t u t e s capacity. This space has t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c e i v e and hold an e l e c t r i c a l charge and i s c a l l e d t h e D i e l e c t r i c . The p l a t e s of t h e condenser serve o n l y t h e purpose of d i s t r i ~ u t l n gt h e electromotive f o r c e over the d i e l e c t r i c . The most common form of d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l i s found i n t h e shape of i n s u l s t o r s . A i r a s a d i e l e c t r i c i s f r e q u e n t l y used, anq it i s from a i r t h a t w base our standard f o r t h e " S p e c i f i c Tnductive Capacity n e of t h e d i e l e c t r i c . A i r , mica, g l a s s , rubber, paper and o i l a l l may be u t i l i z e d t o form a d i e l e c t r i c f o r t h e condenser. A s a i r i s t a k e n . a s a standard i t i s given t h e value of u n i t y , o r 1 To e x p l a i n t h i s value of S p e c i f i c I n d u c t i v e Capacity, suppose we determine by measurement t h e amount of charge a condenser using a i r a s t h e d i e l e c t r i c w i l l accumulate w i t h a d e f i n i t e E.M.F. Then under t h e same conditions we w i l l measure t h e amount of charge i n t h e same condenser using g l a s s It w i l l b e found t h a t when g l a s s i s t h e d i e l e c t r i c as the dielectric. medium t h e condenser w i l l t a k e a charge from 4.5 t o 1 0 times a s g r e a t a s t h e condenser having a i r a s t h e d i e l e c t r i c , t h i s s p e c i f i c inductive c a p a c i t y depending upon t h e grade of g l a s s used.

Lesson 15

- sheet

2

SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITY

Tne following t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the S p e c i f i c Inductive Capacity of some of the most commonly used d i e l e c t r i c s . Castoroil Hard rubber Glass Mica Paper
Air

has a d i e l e c t r i c constant of

"
"
I1

"
11 I1 I1

It 11

"

II

n
It

11 11 11 11 il

" "

1.00

4.67
2.5

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I'

It I1

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5.4 4.0 1.5

t o 3.50 " 10.00 I' 8.00 " 3.00

W f i n d t h a t when d i f f e r e n t i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l s a r e placed between e t h e p l a t e s of a condenser the c a p a c i t y of t h e condenser w i l l be changed. To explain t h e charging a c t i o n of the condenser i t w i l l be w e l l f o r us t o review b r i e f l y t h e subject of conductance, i n s u l a t i o n , and a phase of the e l e c t r o n t h e o r y dealing w i t h the atomic s t r u c t u r e , The condenser c i r c u i t i s composed of t h e conductor p l a t e s which a r e u s u a l l y aluminum, t i n f o i l or copper. The m a t e r i a l s e l e c t e d a s a conductor must have a low r e s i s t a n c e , - i n o t h e r words i t should o f f e r v e r y l i t t l e opposition t o t h e movement of e l e c t r o n s which, a s you know, produces what i s termed an e l e c t r i c current. I n s u l a t i o n i s so named because of t h e opposition which it o f f e r s t o t h e e l e c t r o n i c movement and r e s u l t i n g e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t . I n s u l a t i o n i n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t produces t h e e f f e c t of an open c i r c u i t , but when t h e same i n s u l a t i o n i s used a s a d i e l e c t r i c of a condenser and placed i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t it may have t h e e f f e c t of being a conductor, a s you learned by t h e lamp and condenser exgeriment. The condenser does not permit an a c t u a l passage of current,it has t h e e f f e c t of p e r m i t t i n g a flow of current;. T h i s statement may, a t f i r s t appear c o n t r a d i c t o r y and somewhat confusing, but t h e e f f e c t of t h e conduction of a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t through a condenser can be r e a d i l y e explained and made c l e a r f f w w i l l but consider t h e nature of e l e c t r i c current flow a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e e l e c t r o n theory. According t o the e l e c t r o n t h e o r y a l l bodies a r e considered t o be made up of i n f i n i t e s i m a l l y small p a r t i c l e s of matter c a l l e d Atoms and, r e volving about the atom, much a s t h e e a r t h and o t h e r p l a ~ r e v o l v e about the sun, a r e much smaller p a r t i c l e s c a l l e d Electrons. The atom i s considered t o be made up of a charge of p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y and t h e e l e c t r o n s of charges of negative e l e c t r i c i t y . A l l bodies a r e made up of atoms and, s i n c e the atom i s considered t o c o n s t i t u t e a p o s i t i v e charge of e l e c t r i c i t y and t h e e l e c t r o n negative e l e c t r i c i t y , a l l substances possess l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of e l e c t r i c i t y . W found i n e previous lessons t h a t l i k e charges r e p e l and unlike charges a t t r a c t . In n e a r l y a l l cases, however, t h e p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c a l charge equals t h e negative e l e c t r i c a l charge thereby n e u t r a l i z i n g e a c h other and from a l l outward appearances no e l e c t r i c a l charges a r e evident. T h i s

Lesson 15

- sheet

3

complete balance of p o s i t i v e and negative e l e c t r i c i t y may be upset and w then observe e l e c t r i c a l e f f e c t s . e The atom, being a f o r c e of p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y , a t t r a c t s t o i t and ut holds a number of e l e c t r o n s - o f negative e l e c t r i c i t y i n j s the proper number t o e u a l t h e o s i t f v e f o r c e . There the e l e c t z n s r e m n z , r e vo v ng aroun m e w o n s about S a t u r n i n r e g u l a r o r b i t s --IT-+ t h e a o and, with t h e s e two charges equal, t h e atom i s s a i d t o be uncharged.

k

Negative e l e c t r i c i t y , o r t h e e l e c t r o n , i s considered t o be t h e only form of motional e l e c t r i c i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i f w can succeed i n f o r c i n g e an e l e c t r o n t o l e a v e t h e atom t h e r e w i l l be l e s s negative charge t h a n p o s i t i v e , t h e system becomes unbalanced, and the atom predominates i n p o s i t i v e charge. By r e t u r n i n g t h e negative e l e c t r o n t o t h e atom we again produce a balance and t h e atom i s a g a i n n e u t r a l or uncharged. N w f o r c e a n e l e c t r o n t o the balanced atom; the atom now w i l l have o an excess of negative charge t h u s making i t negative. I n a substance which i s a good conductor of e l e c t r i c i t y , such a s copper and some of t h e o t h e r metals, t h e e l e c t r o n can be moved e a s i l y from atom t o atom and t h i s i s what t a k e s pla.ce when an e l e c t r o n o t i v e f o r c e i s produced by e i t h e r mechanical or chemical means. A s a11 e l e c t r o n s a r e negative charges of e l e c t r i c i t y each e l e c t r o n caused t o move from one atom t o the next w i l l cause an e l e c t r o n adjacent t o it t o be r e p e l l e d w i t h g r e a t f o r c e , snd a s long a s t h e e l e c t r o motive f o r c e i s a p p l i e d t h i s r e p e l l i n g of e l e c t r o n s continues. It i s t h i s movement of e l e c t r o n s which r e s u l t s i n what i s c a l l e d c u r r e n t flow. I n i n s u l a t o r s , such a s we employ a s d i e l e c t r i c mediums of a condenser, t h e atom has a f a r g r e a t e r a t t r a o t i v e f o r c e f o r t h e e l e c t r o n and g r e a t e r electromotive f o r c e its r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e a n e l e c t r o n from t h e atom. N w suppose we have a condenser and a source of E.M.F., o t h e l i m i t of' which i s not g r e a t enough t o completely dislodge o r d r i v e t h e e l e c t r o n s from the atom, but s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t enough a t i t s highest point t o s t r a i n t h e e l e c t r o n from i t s normal p o s i t i o n b u t not completely d i s lodging it from t h e atom, t h a t i s , t o a p o s i t i o n j u s t s h o r t of t h e compl&e breaking away point. As t h e E.M.F. f o r c e s t h e e l e c t r o n s from t h e c i r c u i t i n t o t h e d i e l e c t r i c , p i l i n g them i n by t h e m i l l i o n s , t h e e l e c t r o n s about t h e atoms of t h e d i e l e c t r i c a r e d i s p l a c e d from t h e i r normal p o s i t i o n g i v i n g away t o t h e incoming e l e c t r o n s . It i s t h i s moving away of t h e e l e c t r o n s from t h e i r normal p o s i t i o n about the atom t h a t i s c a l l e d t h e displacement c u r r e n t , and the condenser i s s a i d t o be charging, t h a t i s , charging i n t h e sense t h a t e l e c t r o n s continue, a s a r e s u l t of t h e E.M.F., t o p i l e up i n t h e d i e l e c t r i c . The p o s i t i o n of t h e e l e c t r o n s t h a t have been r e p e l l e d has produced a s t r a i n on t h e whole s t r u c t u r e of t h e atoms. T h i s continues u n t i l a charge i s s t o r e d up i n t h e d i e l e c t r i c of t h e condenser. As t h e e l e c t r o n s move i n t o t h e opd i e l e c t r i c from t h e c i r c u i t t h e y begin t o c r e a t e a counter E.M.F. a posing the a p p l i e d E.M.F. and, when it e q u a l s t h e a p p l i e d E.M.F., f u r t h e r movement of e l e c t r o n s toward the d i e l e c t r i c cannot take place. The condenser i s t h e n s a i d t o be f u l l y charged, Lesson 1 5

- sheet

4

This a c t i o n , so f a r , can be i l l u s t r a t e d by imagining a tank of proper design used t o s t o r e a i r . Let an a i r pump r e p r e s e n t a n e l e c t r i c genera t o r and t h e p a r t i c l e s of a i r t h e e l e c t r o n s . O s t a r t i n g t h e pump a i r n a t once i s s e t i n motion and i s forced i n t o t h e t a n k ; t h e tank i s under pressure and becomes s t r a i n e d . This s t r a i n caused by t h e p i l i n g up of a i r p a r t i c l e s begins t o e x e r t a back p r e s s u r e on t h e a i r being foRced i n t o t h e tank r ~ h i c hcontinues t o i n c r e a s e w i t h e v e r y s t r o k e of t h e punp u n t i l t h e s t o r e d up a i r reaches a pressure e q u a l t o t h a t which t h e pump i s capable of producing, a t which p o i n t no more a i r w i l l be forced i n t o t h e tank. Nw reduce t h e p r e s s u r e of the sir pump and t h e o p r e s s u r e which has been stored up i n t h e t a n k w i l l begin t o discharge back i n t o t h e pipe l i n e .
A s the app l i e d E M .F. decreases i n t h e a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t the s t r a i n e d . d i e l e c t r i c i s r e l i e v e d , allowing t h e e l e c t r o n s t o again assume t h e i r normal p o s i t i o n s about t h e atoms. T h i s r e v e r s e movement of the e l e c t r o n s produces a displacement c u r r e n t i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n and As t h e a p p l i e d E.M.F. r e v e r s e s i t d i s t h e condenser i s discharging. t r i b u t e s i t s e l f over t h e opposite p l a t e of t h e condenser thus charging and s t r a i n i n g t h e d i e l e c t r i c , t h i s time opposite t o t h e f i r s t charge and, a s t h e a l t e r n a t i n g E.M.F. i s c o n s t a n t l y varying i n s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of f'low, e l e c t r o n s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y moving i n and out of t h e
~

A s i m i l i a r a c t i o n t a k e s place i n t h e e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t .

--

SKIN THE TIPS OF P1 PIECE OF

rONDENSER

Figure 5 Figure 6 dielectric: tending t o keep t h e condenser p l a t e s a t t h e r i g h t p o t e n t i a l difference

.

It i s t h i s movement of t h e e l e c t r o n s i n and out of t h e d i e l e c t r i c which r e s u l t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t causing t h e lamp t o glow i n t h e experiment of Figure 3. It i s t h e r e f o r e c l e a r t h a t t h e e l e c t r o n s do not a c t u a l l y p a s s through t h e d i e l e c t r i c from one p l a t e t o the o t h e r but simply move i n and out of t h e d i e l e c t r i c , swinging through t h e c i r c u i t from one p l a t e through t h e g e n e r a t o r t o t h e opposite p l a t e . With t h i s knowledge of t h e behavior of t h e conrienser we a r e enabled t o make an e f f i c i e n t t e s t a s t o t h e worthiness of a condenser by using d i r e c t c u r r e n t f o r t h e t e s t .
From a source of d i r e c t E.M.F., such a s a 45 v o l t "B" b a t t e r y , b r i n g out two leads a s suggested i n Figure 5. Touch t h e t e r m i n a l s of t h e condenser and, a t t h e same time, observe t h e voltmeter. The needle

Remove t h e t e s t t i p s and a t once b r i n g them i n contact with t h e condenser a second time,on t h e second c o n t a c t t h e r e w i l l . b e no d e f l e c t i o n of t h e voltmeter needle. This proves, f i r s t , t h a t t h e condenser i s chargehand, second, t h a t i t w i l l not accept a f u r t h e r charge with t h e E.M.F. of 45 v o l t s . T h i r d , t h e c u r r e n t w i l l not flow e n t i r e l y through t h e d i e l e c t r i c . Take a piece of i n s u l a t e d wire, s k i n t h e ends and s h o r t c i r c u i t t h e condenser a s shown i n Figure 6. When t e s t i n g c e r t a i n condensers i n t h i s manner a b r i g h t spark w i l l r e s u l t , proving that t h e d i e l e c t r i c h e l d t h e charge u n t i l a p a t h was o f f e r e d t o t h e charge t o flow o u t , which it immediately d i d , i t s course being out of t h e d i e l e c t r i c i n t o t h e p l a t e which charged i t , around t h e wire forming the c i r c u i t t o t h e opposite p l a t e , t h u s e q u a l i z i n g t h e charge u n t i l t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e of p o t e n t i a l between t h e condenser p l a t e s . N w secure a punctured condenser and follow t h e same procedure a$ o before. The i n d i c a t i n g needle of t h e meter w i l l be d e f l e c t e d a t every contact of t h e t e s t t i p s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e d i e l e c t r i c i s broken down allowing c u r r e n t t o flow d i r e c t l y through from one p l a t e of t h e condenser t o t h e o t h e r . A broken down condenser w i l l not hold a charge.
A water analogy of t h e a c t i o n of a condenser f o l l o w s t o i l l u s t r a t e displacement c u r r e n t . Refer t o Figure 7. Here i s a system of p i p e s "En and "C", a t a n k d i v i d e d i n t o two d i v i s i o n s , "A" and "B", by a rubber p a r t i t i o n "R". A r e s e r v o i r i s shown a t "D" ( t h e use of which w i l l be explained l a t e r ) . O f i l l i n g t h i s system w i t h water it i s n c l e a r l y seen t h a t t h e water w i l l be divided and prevented from moving There w i l l be t h e same p r e s s u r e i n t h e by t h e rubber p a r t i t i o n "R" h a l f of t h e system B-C-D a s i n t h e h a l f A-E-D, t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no d i s t o r t i o n of t h e rubber p a r t i t i o n "R" and no movement of the water through t h e system. The c o n f l i c t i n g arrangement of t h e arrows i s intended t o p i c t u r e t h e water a s i d l e , t h a t i s , no p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n of motion being evident.

nil1 be d e f l e c t e d once and then r e t u r n t o zero.

.

Figure 8 i s t h e same arrangement b u t , i n t h e r e s e r v o i r 'IDn we have i n s t a l l e d a c e n t r i f u g a l pump so designed t h a t a continuous pressure i s exerted on t h e water f o r c i n g it c o n t i n u a l l y i n one d i r e c t i o n a s long a s t h e pump revolves. Revolving t h e pump i n a clockwise d i r e c t i o n t h e water w i l l be forced i n t o motion and w i l l flow, a s shown i n Figure 8, from t h e r e s e r v o i r "D" through pipe "Et'and i n t o "A" h a l f of t h e tank, N w what happens? The water cannot move beyond t h e o rubber p a r t i t i o n b u t , due t o t h e nature of t h e r u b b e r , it w i l l s t r e t c h and become d i s t o r t e d by t h e p r e s s u r e of t h e water a s shown and a d i s placement of water t a k e s place. W w i l l assume t h a t t h e pump has s u f f i c i e n t f o r c e e t i t i o n t o i t s l i m i t but not enough t o r u p t u r e it. h a l f of t h e tank w i l l be d i s p l a c e d i n t h e Balf of by t h e forced d i s t o r t i o n of t h e rubber p a r t i t i o n , wards r e s e r v o i r "D". N w r e t a i n t h i s : There has o t o extend t h e parThe water i n "B" t h e system B, C , D , and w i l l move tobeen a displacement

,

of water out of "B" through "c" t o "D". D n o t f o r g e t t h e word o displacement because you w i l l have t o a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h e l e c t r o n i c movement lafer. Remember a l s o t h a t a s t r e s s has been placed a g a i n s t it t h e rubber p a r t i t i o n and, under t h i s m, has been s t r a i n e d and, because of t h i s s t r a i n , movement r e s u l t s i n t h e rubber causing a displacement of t h e water i n "B" h a l f of t h e tank. A s the pump continues t o revolve continuously i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n i t maintains a s t r e s s upon t h e rubber p a r t i t i o n and t h e rubber remains i n a f i x e d s t r a i n e d p o s i t i o n . As it cannot be s t r a i n e d f u r t h e r t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r displacement of the water i n "B" h a l f of t h e tank when t h e p a r t i t i o n has reached i t s l i m i t of s t r a i n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , only one surge of water t a k e s place i n t h e B, C , D h a l f of t h e system a s long a s the water i s f o r c e d t o move i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e a c t i o n of a condenser i n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t . There i s a c t u a l l y one surge of displacement c u r r e n t through a condenser i n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t j u s t a s t h e r e was one surge of displaced water i n Figure 8, but t h a t completes it because t h e condenser d i e l e c t r i c i s s t r a i n e d by t h e voltage d i s p l a c i n g e l e c t r o n s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o cause one surge of c u r r e n t .

Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Explaining t h e water analogy f o r a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t w w i l l use Figure e 9 which i s t h e same type of arrangement a s shown i n Figures 7 and 8 b u t , i n s t e a d of the c e n t r i f u g a l pump, we have a p i s t o n "P" which f i t s c l o s e l y t o t h e w a l l s of t h e reservoir. Water fWs t h e system as it d i d i n Figure 7. It i s c l e a r l y seen t h a t i f the p i s t o n "P"is moved t o t h e l e f t , Figure 9, it w i l l e x e r t a p r e s s u r e on t h e water i n t h e "EA" h a l f of t h e system thus p l a c h g a s t r e s s on t h e rubber p a r t i t i o n "R", causing it t o s t r e t c h and a displacement of t h e water i n "B" follows, which moves a l l t h e water i n B, C, D. The e l a s t i c rubber p a r t i t i o n i s e x e r t i n g a back p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t t h e water f o r c e d a g a i n s t it by t h e p i s t o n and w i l l , when t h e p i s t o n i s moved t o t h e r i g h t , @ve back t o t h e A, F, D p a r t of t h e system t h i s s t o r e d up energy. Now move t h e p i s t o n t o t h e r i g h t . A t once t h e s t r a i n on t h e rubber i s r e l i e v e d and a i d s t h e p i s t o n i n i t s movement by t h e f a c t of i t s tendency t o s t r a i g h t e n , t h u s f o r c i n g t h e water through A, E, D s i d e of t h e system a s shown i n Figure 10. A t t h e same time the p i s t o n has f o r c e d t h e water up through t h e pipe "C" i n t o "B" h a l f of the tank s t r a i n i n g t h e p a r t i t i o n t h i s time t o t h e l e f t . The water i n "A" h a l f of t h e tank i s d i s p l a c e d and movement t a k e s p l a c e a s shown by t h e arrows. W i t h t h i s arrangement and by a r a p i d back and forward movement of t h e p i s t o n water w i l l move f i r s t i n one d i r e c t i o n t h e n i n the o t h e r , t h u s maintaining a flow of water which a l t e r n a t e s i n d i r e c t i o n through t h e system.

i
i

CAPACITY

; I
!

!

The c a p a c i t y of a condenser i s measured i n terms of t h e f a r a d and i s a 'measure used t o determine the r e l a t i o n between t h e amount of. charge a condenser w i l l hold and t h e E M F . . . s t r e n g t h t o produce t k e chrlrge. A condenser having a c a p a c i t y of one f a r a d i s much t o o l a r g e f o r p r a c t i c a l use, hence smaller condensers which are but f r a c t i o n a l p a r t s of a f a r a d a r e used. I n e n g i n e o r i x p r a c t i c e , decimal p a r t s are expressed a s microfarads and micro- microfarads. Micro means "one m i l l i o n t h of" and micro-micro means "one m i l l i o n t h - m i l l i o n t h of". Yence,a condenser of one microfarad has a c a p a c i t y of one m i l l i o n t h of a f a r a d and a condenser of one micro-microfarad has a c a p a c i t y of one m i l l i o n t h of a micro-farad. The capacity o f a condenser i s sometimes expressed i n centimeters, one centimeter of c a p a c i t y being equal t o 1.1224 micro- microfarads. This u n i t , however, i s not s o f r e q u e n t l y used a s t h e one explained i n t h e foregoing paragraph.
GEXERAL TYPES O CONDENSERS F

Condensers may be divided i n t o f o u r o r f i v e g e n e r a l types according t o t h e d i e l e c t r i c used i n t h e i r construction. The "Leyden j a r " type was, a t one time, a very common form of condenser used i n t r a n s m i t t i n g equipment. It c o n s i s t s of a g l a s s j a r with w a l l s about 1/8" t h i c k coated i n s i d e and out t o within two inches of t h e top with a t i n f o i l , koooc ~ ~ E Q - ; co?per or s i l v e r coating, This type i 3 shown i n Figure 11. The "Leyden j a r " was one of the BINDING P O S T ..IEPIDING TO --' ,NS~DECOPTING f i r s t type8 of e l e c t r o - s t a t i c condensers de"J:,DL ;-, veloped and, although it i s q u i t e e f f i c i e n t i t has been rendered almost o b s o l e t e by more modern condensers i n c o r p o r a t i n g higher e f %%A7lN& f i c i e n c y and g r e a t e r capacity i n u n i t s of CHAIN smaller p h y s i c a l dimensions. M~KIILIBG CONTACT WlTH INSIDE --.COPPER ConTlNG

COPPED CO&lING

The Compressed sir condenser i s a type t h a t Figure 1 1 wSll be found i n use i n very few r a d i o i n s t a l l a t i o n s because exgense I n c o n s t r u c t i o n and upkeep does not warrent i t s general use. B r i e f l y , t h e compressed a i r type i s constructed a s follows: A metal tank contains s t e e l p l a t e s i n which h a l f of t h e p l a t e s a r e i n s u l a t e d from t h e tank and t h e o t h e r h a l f connected t o t h e tank. The tanlr i s pumped t o a pressure of 250 pounds providing a d i e l e c t r i c capable of withstanding a p o t e n t i a l of 25,000 Volts. Should a break-down p o t e n t i a l be applied t o ' t h i s type 6f condenser no dannge is' done because t h e a i r simply f i l l s i n a g a i n making t h e d i e l e c t r i c p e r f e c t . T h i s type of condenser i s heavy, hard t o handle and, i n n e a r l y a l l cases, t r o u b l e i s experienced i n maintaining t h e tank a i r t i g h t .

The Glass P l a t e Condenser f o r use w i t h h i g h p o t e n t i a l s i s constructed a s follows: P l a t e g l a s s i s used a s t h e d i e l e c t r i c t o which i s glued t i n f o i l p l a t e s and, a f t e r being thoroughly d r i e d , t h e y a r e coated with s h e l l a c or h o t p a r a f f i n e . A s i n g l e p l a t e i s shown i n Figure 2. Lesson 1 5

- sheet

8

of assembly and t h e time and work r e q u i r e d i n r e p l a c i n g broken p l a t e s
i n case of break down.

The foregoing. t y p e s of condensers have been rendered obsolete, a s l a r a s modern r a d i o p r a c t i c e i s concerned, by the mica condenser. They have been mentioned because, a t t h e p e r i o d of t h e i r development, t h e y represented t h e b e s t p r a c t i c e i n r a d i o condenser construction. The mica condenser u s e s s h e e t mica a s t h e d i e l e c t r i c and t h e p l a t e s a r e made of t i n f o i l , o r copper f o i l . Properly designed and constructed,
lrERMlNAlS

1
d
1.
c,

CONDENSER

PLhlES

i

Figure 12 Figure 13 t h i s condenser w i l l withstand the. high p o t e n t i a l s encountered i n r a d i o t r a n s m i t t e r s , - i t s e l e c t r i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i s very good and l a r g e capacit i e s may be secured w i t h i n comparatively small p h y s i c a l dimensions. Furthermore, it i s very s t u r d y a s compared t o t h e f r a g i l i t y of condensers e q l o y i n g g l a s s a s t h e d i e l e c t r i c , - such a s t h e Leyden j a r and t h e ghass p l a t e condensers.
A modern mica t r a n s m i t t i n g condenser i s shown i n Figure 13. The condenser i s enclosed i n a n aluminum case, t h e space between t h e condenser and case being f i l l e d w i t h an i n s u l a t i n g compound t o render t h e condenser moisture proof and t o reduce b r u s h discharges. The metal case i s used a s one t e r m i n a l of t h e condenser while t h e o t h e r t e r m i n a l i s brought out t o the binding post on t h e b a k e l i t e cover of t h e case.

CONDENSER GROUPING

Condensers a r e grouped t o o b t a i n various c a p a c i t i e s and t o perform c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s . C e r t a i n c i r c u i t s may c a l l f o r condensers i n s e r i e s and o t h e m i n p a r a l l e l , Vdhen condensers a r e connected i n p a r a l l e l , a s shown i n Figure 14, t h e t o t a l c a p a c i t y r e s u l t i n g from such a connection i s t h e sum of t h e i n d l v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the d i f f e r e n t condensers i n t b e group a r e shown a s having c a p a c i t y of .005 m f , .0005 ntf, ,001 mf and .0035 mf. The t o t a l c a p a c i t y of such a p a r a l l e l arrangement i s , a s s t a t e d , the sum of t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s , o r .01 mf.

Lesson 15 - , s h e e t 9

nected I n s e r i e s a s shown i n Figure 15? To o b t a i n t h e t o t a l capacity of a n m b c r of condensers of equal value connected i n s e r i e s simply d i v i d e t h e c a p a c i t y of one of t h e condensers by t h e t o t a l numbel* of condensers i n t h e c i r c u i t . Applyi% t h i s r u l e t o Figure 15 w o b t a i n e p t h e answer, .000625 mfd., t h e t o t a l c a- a o i t y of t h e s e f o u r confiensers when connected i n s e r i e s ; It becomes necessary under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , t o employ condensers of d i f f e r e n t values i n s e r i e s . When t h i s i s t h e case t h e formula of r e c i p r o c a l s i s r e q u i r e d t o solve f o r t o t a l c a p a c i t y . I n Figure 16 we have four condensers C 1 , C2, C3, C4 connected i n s e r i e s . What i s t h e t o t a l capacity? The formula f o r condensers connected i n s e r i e s i s a s follows

S u b s t i t u t i n g our known values a s s t a t e d i n Figure 16, t h e formula becomes

c

= .0000746

mfd.

(microfarads), or C

74.6 mmfd.

(micro- microfarads).

Capacity always c o n s i s t s of two o r more opposing s u r f a c e s between which e x i s t s an i n s u l a t i n g medium, ( d i e l e c t r i c ) . This medium may be a i r , c a s t o r o i l , hard rubber, g l a s s , mica, paper or any i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l The capacity of a condenser i s always found t o vary depending upon the following f a c t s . Lesson 1 5

- s h e e t 10

( 1 s t ) D i r e c t l y a s t h e a r e a of t h e opposing s u r f a c e s (which i n t h i s l e s s o n would be t h e p l a t e s of t h e condenser).

(2nd) The a b i l i t y of t h e d i e l e c t r i c t o absorb a charge, I&., t h e s p e c i f i c i n d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of t h e d i e l e c t r i c .
(3rd) I n v e r s e l y a s t h e s e p a r a t i o n of the opposing s u r f a c e s ( p l a t e s ) *
T h i s means t h a t t h e a r e a of the p l a t e s must be first c a l c u l a t e d i n

square inches. The number of p l a t e s comprising the condenser must be known and t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e p l a t e s , i e , t h e thickness of t h e d i e l e c t r i c .
C
: :

Let us w r i t e t h e ,above as a formula:

A x K x 2248 D x 10"

Capacity of t h e condenser i n microfarads. T o t a l a r e a of t h e p l a t e s i n square inches. Constant of s p e c i f i c inductive capacity. The t h i o k n e s s of t h e & i e l e c t r i c , when s o l i d d i e l e c t r i c is used, such a s g l a s s , etc., and t h e d i s t a n a e between t h e p l a t e s when a i r i s used a s a d i e l e c t r i c .

= K = D =

C A

=

A value found by experiments t o be t h e c o r r e c t number t o u s e 10, t o m u l t i p l y by "D" t o g i v e t h e r e s u l t . (10" = 10,000,000,000.)

=

2248 i s a l s o a constant found by experiment.

-L
Figure 14

TOTAL C A k I T Y c: Cl+Cl+C,+C,

J

FHHHI
C, .oOz5
C1.0025

C3 a025

C4.0015

loTAL CAPACITy

C

: ,000625

MFO

Figure 15

HI
015

C-BW~

TOTLL CAPIICIlY

T

C r .0000746+ NFD.

Figure 16 Lesson 1 5

- s h e e t 11

The a r e a of t h e p l a t e s , t h e number of p l a t e s and d i s t a n c e between t h e p l a t e s can e a s i l y b e found. The s p e c i f i c i n d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , o r "K" I however, must be determined b y a c t u a l t e s t andmeasurement when absolute accuracy i s d e s i r e d . When an approximation i s d e s i r e d a value of "Kn may be used a s given i n s p e c i f i c inductive c a p a c i t y t a b l e s . For example, suppose a condenser has a t o t a l p l a t e a r e a of 800 square inches. The d i e l e c t s i o i s mica, one one-hundredth (1/100) of a n i n c h i n thickness W now have a l l t h e necessary d a t a from which t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c a p a c i t y e of t h e condenser except t h e s p e c i f i c inductive c a p a c i t y ( d i e l e c t r i c constant "KW)*. This can be obtained from t a b l e s g i v i n g t h e d i e l e c t r i c constant of d i f f e r e n t materials. Referring t o t h e t a b l e given on s h e e t 3 m f i n d t h e d i e l e c t r i c constant f o r mica v a r i e s from 4.0 t o 8.0, dee pending upon t h e grade of mica. Let us assume t h a t t h e mica being used i n t h i s condenser has a d i e l e c t r i c constant of 5. S u b s t i t u t i n g these known values i n t h e formula f o r capacit y . t h e formula becomes

C A P A C I T Y REACTANCY

The e f f e c t o f c a p a c i t y i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t , termed c a p a c i t y reactance, w i l l now be considered. You w i l l renember t h a t , when inductance was introduced i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t , t h e e f f e c t produced mas t o r e t a r d or cause t h e c u r r e n t t o l e g t h e e l e c t r o motive f o r c e . Capacity produces e x a c t l y t h e opposite e f f e c t , t h a t i s , t h e c u r r e n t l e a d s t h e e l e c t r o n o t i v e force. Capacity r e a c t a n c e i s expressed i n ohms, a s was i n d u c t i v e r e a c t a n c e , and i s w r i t t e n Xc ( X sub c ) while inductive r e a c t a n c e i s expressed X (X sub L) ,

.

Capacity e f f e c t s e x i s t between any two conductors when t h e e l e c t r o motive f o r c e i n , o n e i s a d i f f e r e n t p o t e n t i a l t h a n t h e o t h e r , w i t h a d i e l e c t r i c between them. A s you learned, a i r o r any i n s u l s t i n g substance i s a d i e l e c t r i c , and t h e r e i s always a p o s s i b l e c a p a c i t y e f f e c t between two e l e c t r i c a l conductors. If t h e y a r e b a r e wires, a i r i s t h e d i e l e c t r i c ; i f covered w i t h i n s u l a t i o n t h e i n s u l a t i o n ects as a dielectric.
#

(Note; s p e c i f i c i n d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y ( R ) i s more o f t e n termed t h e " d i e l e c t r l c constant" . )

In bare w i r e s running from pole t o pole o r , on a s h i p , from mast t o mast, t h e a i r between t h e wires a c t s a s a d i e l e c t r i c , t h e ground a c t i n g a s one s i d e , o r p l a t e , of a condenser while t h e wire I s t h e o t h e r p l a t e , and c a p a c i t y e x i s t s t h e r e e x a c t l y a s between two conductors running c l o s e t o each o t h e r , o r a s i n a condenser. Figure 17 g i v e s an idea of c a p a c i t y i n c i r c u i t s f a m i l i a r t o you.
I n determining c a p a c i t y i t i s seen t h a t formulae f o r a l l c o n d i t i o n s under which c a p a c i t y e x i s t s would be r a t h e r a complicated work.

The c a p a c i t y reactance i n any c i r c u i t changeswith a change i n frequency and t h e r e a t e r t h e frequency t h e l e s s e f f e c t w i l l Oapacity reactance have on b c u i t . An i n c r e a s e m r e p e n c y , when inductance i s being considered, produced a g r e a t e r i n d u c t i v e e f f e c t , t h e r e f o r e cap a c i t y a c t s t o produce one e f f e c t , - t h a t of opposing t h e EKF ... when charging and, i n a pure c a p a c i t y c i r c u i t , the c u r r e n t i s out of phase, l e a d i n g t h e E.M.F. by 90 degrees, while inductance was out of phase by 90 degrees. W worked out a problem e o p p o s i t e l y , lagging t h e E.M.F. in i n d u c t i v e r e a c t a n c e from a fundamental formula and we w i l l now cone l d e r t h e f o n r m l a f o r c a p a c i t i v e reactance. The f o r n u l a Is a s follows;-

Xc X ,
6.28
f
C

= z7mT

=
=

c a p a c i t y reactance.

2% o r 2 x 3.14.
frequency.

=

= capacity I n farads.

,

I n a 110 v., A.C. 60 cycle c i r c u i t , we have a .0025 f a r a d condenser connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e l i n e , What Is t h e c a p a c i t y reactance?
By formula given: Substituting,

X ,

=

6.28 x f x C

X ,

-

1 6.28 x 60 x

.Lesson 15

-

sheet 13

-

Nult i p l y i n g t h e denominat or

6.28
60

then

&

=

1

Dividing

W f i n d thiit the c a p a c i t i v e r e a c t a n c e i n t h e c i r c u i t a s given above e amounts t o 1.0615 ohms. N w l e t us i n c r e a s e t h e frequency t o 500,000 c y c l e s using the same o condenser of .0025 f a r a d s . This w i l l show us t h a t , w i t h an i n c r e a s e of frequency, t h e r e a c t a n c e i s lowered. Again by f0rr;luls Substitute

X ,

=

62.8
1

1

X ,

-

6.28 x 500,000 x .OW25

Multiplying t h e denominator
6.28

or X ,

--

.00012738 ohms.

The purpose i r working out t h i s problem has been t o show how according t o t h e formula, c a p a c i t i v e r e a c t a n c e d e c r e a s e s w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n frequency. You found t h a t , w i t h a frequency of 60 cycles, a c a p a c i t i v e When t h e reactance of a l i t t l e over one ohm r e a c t a n c e was present. frequency was i n c r e a s e d t o 500,000 c y c l e s , however, t h e reactance was reduced t o a f r a c t i o n a l p a r t of an ohm. Lesson 15

- s h e e t 14

4

Impedance, expressed i n ohms i s t h e combined o p p o s i t i o n i n an A.C. c i r c u i t . of t h e a s t u a l (ohmicj r e s i s t a n c e ancl t h e ,apparent r e s i s t a n c e , o r opposition, due t o the counter E.M.F. of s e l f - i n d u c t i o n andcapacity. The flow of a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i s u s u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by c o i l s of h i g h s e l f - i n d u c t i o n , known a s r e a c t a n c e c o i l s , or choking c o i l s , which causes a reactive pressure i n the circuit. This r e a c t i v e p r e s s u r e i s termed i n d u c t i v e r e a c t a n c e and i s expressed by formula a s

When a condenser i s connected i n s e r i e s i n an A.C. c i r c u i t it a c t s a s an e f f e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e and e x e r t s a back p r e s s u r e on the charging E.M.F. T h i s back p r e s s u r e a l s o opposesthe r e a c t i v e p r e s s u r e s e t up by t h e choke c o i l s . It i s termed C a p a c i t i v e r e a c t a n c e and i s expressed by formula a s

The i n d u c t i v e r e a c t a n c e i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e p o s i t i v e r e a c t a n c e , ancl t h e c a p a c i t i v e r e a c t a n c e a s t h e n e g a t i v e r e a c t a n c e . :\%en computing t h e t o t a l impedance of a c i r c u i t i n which r e s i s t a n c e , inductance and c a p a c i t y i s connected i n s e r i e s , t h e following formula i s used.

z

=JRz+

fi6.28 x i x L )

-

(6.28 x

1

r xc

( Z i s t h e symbol f o r impedance)

'If w l e t X, r e p r e s e n t t h a t p a r t of t h e above formula w r i t t e n e 6.28 x f x L, and X , t h a t p a r t which w r i t t e n

we can t h e n s i m p l i f y t h e formula and e x p r e s s i t a s follovis.

Let u s assume t h a t we have a c 4 r c u i t c o n t a i n i n g an inductance c o i l hnving a r e a c t a n c e of 1 0 ohms, a r e s i s t a n c e ( a c t u a l ) of 1 6 ohms, and a condenser having a r e a c t a n c e o f 4 ohms. Then by formula

where

= = XL =
Z R

Xc =

Impedance Resistance ( a c t u a l ) InC?uctive r e a c t a n c e i n ohms. C a p a c i t i v e r e a c t a n c e i n ohms.

Lesson 1 5

- sheet 15

S u b s t i t u t i n g t h e known values o f 1 0 ohm, 16ohms and 4 ohm r e s p e c t i v e l y , w write: e

z

:d16*+

(10

-

41%

17.08 i s the t o t a l impedan5e i n ohms of a c i r c u i t which conteins 10 ohns inductive reactance.16 ohms a c t u a l (ohmic) r e s i s t a n c e , and 4 ohms capacitive reactance in' series.

1. 2.
3.

What i s a d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l ? Fxpl~in what happens when a condenser i s placed i n an A.C. 1)escribe a simple condenser. What i s c a p a c i t i v e r e a c t a n c e ? ( a ) Show by diagram how you would connect t h r e e condensers i n (b) In parallel. series. What i s your understanding of t h e term " capacity" ? When t h r e e condensers, each having a c a p a c i t y of .001 microfarads c a p a c i t y , a r e connected i n s e r i e s what i s t h e t o t a l capacity? Describe t h r e e t y p e s of condknsers. What i s t h e a c t i o n of a condenser when p l a c e d i n D.C. circuit? circuit?

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

9 ,
10.

';/hen f o u r condensers, each having a c a p a c i t y of .002 micl'ofarads capacity, a r e connected i n p a r a l l e l what i s t h e t o t a l c a p a c i t y ?

Lesson 1 5

-

sheet 16
/

INC.
firmedu
MARCON/ /NST/TOTE

.

s u n d e d ./909

Technical Lesson 16
T E STORAGIC OR SECOHDARY BATTERY H The term " storage b a t t e r y " has become, s i n c e t h e r i s e i n p o x u l a r i t y of r a d i o broadcast r e c e i v e r s , almost a s common a s t h e word Radio n . To t h e average broadcast l i s t e n e r t h e storage b a t t e r y i s simply a heavy, box- like a f f a i r t h a t l i g h t s the tubes i n his r a d i o set. For t h e student of radio, however, t h e storage c e l l must mean more t h a n that and i t s construction, a c t i o n ahd maintenance should be understood. There a r e two predominating types of storage c e l l s i n u s e today. They a r e t h e l e a d p l a t e , s u l p h u r i c acid c e l l , manufactured by t h e E l e c t r i c Storage B a t t e r y Company and t h e Edison nickel- iron a l k a l i c e l l , made by t h e Edison Storage B a t t e r y Company. EODR DIFFERENCE BETKEEN PRIMaRY ARD S C N A Y CELLS There i s a marked d i f f e r e n c e between the primary c e l l , which has been previously discussed and t h e secondary cel1,which i s t h e object of t h i s lesson. The primary c e l l , when exhausted, can only be recharged by r e p l a c i n g t t h e zinc element. If w e could send a c u r r e n t t h ~ o u g h h e primary c e l l opposite t o t h a t of t h e discharging c u r r e n t of t h e c e l l , which would r e s t o r e t h e elements, we would have a storage c e l l , but since t h i s i s n o t possible t h e elements must be replaced. The secondary c e l l allows a r e v e r s e c u r r e n t , c a l l e d t h e charging c u r r e n t , t o be sent through it whieh r e s t o r e s t h e c e l l t o use a g a i n without having t o replace any of the elements. The primary c e l l i s u s e l e s s when d i s charged, and i s thrown away, while the secondary c e l l may be used over and over a g a i n simply by passing an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t through t h e c e l l i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n of discharge. The storage b a t t e r y i s made up of two or more c e l l s and each c e l l cons i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of one p o s i t i v e and one negative p l a t e immersed i n an a c i d solution. CONSTRUCTION O THE LEAD A C I D CELL F The Exide type of p l a t e i s made of an a l l o y of s o f t l e a d and antimony. T h i s i s made i n t o a g r i d o r frame, a s shown i n Figure 1, of v e r t i c a l r i b s joined t o g e t h e r by s h o r t h o r i z o n t a l bars. The b a r s a r e f l u s h with t h e surface of t h e p l a t e on one s i d e and extend only h a l f way through t h e p l a t e ; t h e opposite s i d e i s q u i t e the same but t h e openings a r e staggered a s shown i n Figure 2. This c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e p l a t e makes a strong r i g i d frame t o hold t h e a c t i v e material. Contents Copyrighted 1930 Printed in U.S.A.

THE ACTIVE h?ATERIAL

The a c t i v e m a t e r i a l i s a p a s t e of l i t h a r g e , o r o x i d e of l e a d , mixed w i t h d i l u t e s u l p h u r i c a c i d . This paste i s forced i n t o t h e opening of t h e p l a t e s under g r e a t pressure; the pressure t o g e t h e r with t h e adhesive p r o p e r t i e s of t h e m a t e r i a l combine t o hold the p a s t e i n p l a c e . When t h e p l a t e s have been completed, i . e , the openings f i l l e d with paste, t h e y a r e t h e n placed i n a s o l u t i o n o f s u l p h u r i c a c i d and water, c a l l e d t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , and g i v e n t h e forming charge. This forming charge c o n s i s t s of passing a c u r r e n t of e l e c t r i c i t y through t h e p l a t e s and e l e c t r o l y t e which changes one p l a t e t o l e a d peroxide and t h e other t o sponge l e a d ,

.

Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4

After t h e forming charge t h e p l a t e s a r e then t a k e n out of t h e forming tank. Figure 3 s h o w t h e negatiire p l a t e a f t e r t h i s chargc. It has been chemically changed t o sponge l e a d and i s g m y i n color. Figure 4 shows t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e which has been changed t o l e a d peroxiile and which i s brown i n color. T E AMPERE HOUR RATING OF T E STORAGE BATTERY H H The c a p a c i t y of a s t o r a g e c e l l i s r a t e d i n ampere hours. The ampere hour i s t h e unit employed t o express t h e equivalent q u a n t i t y of c u r r e n t r e p r e s e n t e d by c u r r e n t of one ampere flovring through a g i v e n c i r c u i t f o r an hour of time. The normal discharge r a t e f o r most b a t t e r i e s i s genera l l y based on t h e &hour r a t e of discharge. For example, suppose you have a b a t t e r y which i s r a t e d a s having a c a p a c i t y of 110 ampere-hours, t h e norlilal r a t e of discharge i s found by d i v i d i x 110 by 8, o r 13.75, which means t h a t t h i r t e e n and t h r e e - q u a r t e r s amperes can be drawn from t h e b a t t e r y f o r a p e r i o d of 8 hours. From a t h e o r e t i c a l standpoint it would seem t h a t t h e above b a t t e r y would d e l i v e r 110 amperes f o r a p e r i o d of one hour. This, however, from p r a c t i c a l experience, h a s proven t o be untrue. As t h e r a t e of discharge i s increased t h e ampere-hour c a p a c i t y w i l l decrease because of t h e i n a b i l i t y of t h e a c i d t o p r o p e r l y and quickl y combine w i t h ~ t h ea c t i v e m a t e r i a l of t h e p l a t e s a t t h e more r a p i d r a t e of discharge. Lesson 16

- sheet 2

TFiE CHEMICAL ACTION OF A LEAD STORAGE BATTERY

When a l e a d a t o r a g e c e l l i s put on discharge t h e c u r r e n t i s produced by the a c i d of t h e s o l u t i o n going i n t o and combining w i t h the porous 'part of t h e p l a t e c a l l e d t h e " active material'. I n t h e positive p l a t e t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l f s l e a d peroxide and i n t h e negative p l a t e it i s m e t a l l i c lead i n a spongy form. When t h e s u l p h a r i c acid, % S04, I n t h e e l e c t r o l y t e combines w i t h t h e l e a d Pb, i n t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l of both p l a t e s , a compound " lead sulphate 8 P b SQp i s formed.

,

,

amount of acid t h a t i s used i n t h e p l a t e s , and the formation of more water due t o t h e chemical combination of t h e hydrogen, 8, and oxygen, 0, producing t h e e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t and i n c i d e n t a l l y producing t h e compound of a c i d and lead c a l l e d "lead sulphate". T h i s sulphate continues t o i n c r e a s e i n q u a n t i t y and bulk, thereby f i l l i n g the pores of t h e plates. A s t h e pores of t h e p l a t e s become thus f i l l e d w i t h t h e sulphate, the f r e e c i r c u l a t i o n of a c i d i n t o t h e p l a t e s i s r e t a r d e d and, s i n c e t h e a c i d cannot t h e n g e t i n t o t h e p l a t e s f a s t enough t o maintain the normal a c t i o n , t h e b a t t e r y becomes l e s s a c t i v e a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e r a p i d drop i n voltage. W i n g t h e charging period d i r e c t c u r r e n t rausc pass through the c e l l s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n opposite t,o t h a t of discharge. This current w i l l reverse t h e a c t i o n which took place i n t h e c e l l s during discharge. It w i l l be remembered t h a t , during discharge, t h e a c i d of t h e s o l u t i o n went i n and combined w i t h t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l , f i l l i n g t h e pores w i t h sulphate and causing t h e s o l u t i o n t o become weaker; reversing t h e c u r r e n t r e s t o r e s t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l t o i t s o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n and r e t u r n s t h e a c i d t o t h e s o l u t i o n . Thus, during charge, t h e s o l u t i o n g r a d u a l l y becomes s t r o n g e r a s t h e sulphate i n t h e p l a t e decreases, until no more sulphate remains and a l l t h e a c i d has been returned t o t h e s o l u t i o n , when i t w i l l be of t h e same s t r e n g t h a s before t h e discharge and the same a c i d w i l l b e ready t o be used over again during t h e next discharge. Since t h e r e i s no l o s s of a c i d by t h i s process, none should ever be added t o fhe s o l u t i o n exce* t o replace t h a t which may be s p i l l e d out. The whole o b j e c t of charging, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o d r i v e from t h e p l a t e s t h e acid which has been absorbed by them during discharge. The chemical a c t i o n which occurs i n a l e a d c e l l during charge and d i s charge can be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e following expression which a p p l i e s t o both p l a t e s :

A s t h e discharge progresses t h e e l e c t r o l y t e becomes weaker by the

From l e f t t o r i g h t , t h i s expression r e p r e s e n t s the chemical r e a c t i o n s during discharge and, from r i g h t t o l e f t , t h e chemical r e a c t i o n s during charge.

Lesson 16

- sheet 3

T E NUMBER O PLATES I N POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE G O P H F R US When the b a t t e r y i s discharging t h e chemical a c t i o n taking place i s g r e a t e s t on t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e . There i s , a s a r e s u l t of t h i s g r e a t e r cheuiical a c t i o n , more heat produced i n t h e p l a t e s of t h e p o s i t i v e group. This h e a t must,be equalized, t h a t i s , evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on both s i d e s of t h e p l a t e s t o prevent what i s termed "buckling". Buckling i s analogous t o t h e warping of a board t o which h e a t has been applied n a t u r a l l y o r i n t e n t i o n a l l y a t a g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y on one s i d e t h a n the other. iVlIeh a lead - acid - cell p l a t e buckles i t has a tendency t o loosen t h e a c t i v e material. This of course decreases the e f f i c i e n c y of t h e b a t t e r y because, without t h i s a c t i v e m a t e r i a l , t h e b a t t e r y w i l l not function. To accomplish t h e even d i s t r i b u t i o n of heat a r i s i n g i n t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e s , t h e negative group always c o n s i s t s of one more p l a t e than t h e p o s i t i v e group and when the groups are assembled t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e s a r e surrounded by t h e negative p l a t e s t h u s a s s u r i n g a more even temperature on both s i d e s of t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e s . The negative group i s shown i n Figure 5 and t h e p o s i t i v e i n Figure 6. Figure 7 shows how t h e two groups a r e i n t e r l e a v e d s o t h a t t h e negative groups surround t h e p o s i t i v e .

Figure 5 SEPARATORS

Figure 6

When t h e p o s i t i v e and negatfve groups a r e i n t e r l e a v e d , s p e c i a l l y prepared wooden and rubber s e p a r a t o r s a r e placed between the p l a t e s t o prevent t h e p l a t e s of t h e negative group from coming i n contact w i t h t h e p o s i t i v e group. The p e r f o r a t e d rubber s e p a r a t o r , a s shown i n Figure 8 , i s p l a c e d on each s i d e of each p o s i t i v e p l a t e , and a grooved wooden s e p a r a t o r , shown i n Figure 9, i s placed between each rubber s e p a r a t o r and t h e a d j a c e n t negative p l a t e i n such a way t h a t the f l a t s i d e of t h e wooden s e p a r a t o r i s against t h e negative. The a c t i v e mat e r i a l t h a t i s worked loose by t h e chemical a c t i o n drops down t o t h e bottom of t h e j a r through t h e grooves of t h e wooden separator.

P

Lesson 16

- aeet

4

with the p l a t e s i n t e r l e a v e d and t h e s e p a r a t o r s i n p l a c e t h e two comp l e t l y assembled groups a r e now c a l l e d t h e "elements n . They a r e placed

i n a rubber j a r w h i c h h a s a rubber c e l l cover t i g h t l y sealed by means of a s p e c i a l s e a l i n g compound. The cover i s shown i n Figure 10 w i t h t h e f i l l i n g and s e a l i n g plug f i t t e d i n place.

Figure 7

Figure 8
THE COMPLETED CELL

Figure 9

Figure 1 i s a cutaway view showing t h e completed c e l l . Notice t h e 1 r i b s a t t h e bottom of t h e j a r on which t h e p l a t e s r e s t ; t h i s provides space f o r t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l , which works from t h e p l a t e s t o drop, t h u s preventing s h o r t c i r c u i t i n g of t h e p l a t e s . The channel running around t h e edge of t h e t o p cover i s f o r t h e s e a l i n g compound which i s poured i n u n t i l it i s f l u s h w i t h t h e t o p of t h e j a r and cover. These c e l l s a r e now ready t o be placed i n t h e b a t t e r y box which f s of wood o r composition s t r u c t u r e , depending upon t h e s e r v i c e i n which the b a t t e r y i s t o be employed.

Figure 10

Figure 12 Lesson 16

- sheet 5

The c e l l s are a r r a n g e d a s shown i n Figure 12. I n t h e b a t t e r y box t h e r e has been placed t h r e e c e l l s C 1 , C2 and C3. The connector l i n k s a r e placed on t h e t e r m i n a l s of t h e c e l l s a f t e r t h e rubber cover has been sealed i n place, and connect the negative terminal of one c e l l t o t h e p o s i t i v e terminal of t h e next c e l l and so on. A l l c e l l s must be connected i n s e r i e s and, when completed, t h e b a t t e r y has two terminal posts,- one negative and one p o s i t i v e . T E ELECTROLYTE USED I N T E BATTERY, SPECIFIC GRAVITY H H The completed b a t t e r y shown i n Figure 1 2 i s now ready f o r t h e e l e c t r o l y t e . This i s t h e chemical s o l u t i o n which a c t s on t h e p l a t e s . Sulphuric acid i s t h e base of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e and i s mixed with pure distilled water, t h a t is, water which containes no f o r e i g n substance. The percentage of a c i d v a r i e s from 22 t o 37 percent by volume, depending upon t h e t m e of c e l l . When a s o l u t i o n having a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of U O O i s required, and 1 p a r t of a c i d t o 4.3 p a r t s of d i s t i l l e d water. For a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of L275, add 1 p a r t of a c i d t o 2.8 p a r t s of water and, when a s o l u t i o n having a s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f 1 3 0 0 i s d e s i r e d , add 1 p a r t of a c i d t o 2.5 p a r t s of water.
T h i s s o l u t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y placed i n t h e b a t t e r y by t h e manufacturer and i t i s not probable t h a t t h e consumer w i l l have this d u t y t o perform. Yet should t h e buyer have t h i s t o do t h e e l e c t r o l y t e w i l l come mixed and

p l a c i n g it i n t h e b a t t e r y i s simply a matter of removing t h e s e a l i n g and vent plug from t h e t o p of each c e l l and c a r e f u l l y pouring t h e s o l u t i o n i n t h e c e l l . The e l e c t r o l y t e should cover t h e p l a t e s three- quarters of an inch, D not use a metal f u n n e l or allow t h e acid t o come i n contact o w i t h P metal container. A g l a s s o r earthenware c o n t a i n e r only should be employed f o r t h i s purpose. T E H DO EE H Y R MTR
A s explained, t h e e l e c t p o l y t e has weight, and t o measure t h i s weight

an instrument known a s t h e "hydrometer" i s employed. I n t h e process of charging and discharging the b a t t e r y t h e acid, during discharge, combines with t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l of t h e p l a t e s and when being charged t h e a c i d i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e e l e c t r o l y t e . A s t h e p l a t e s absorb t h e a c i d during discharge t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e s o l u t i o n becomes l i g h t e r and it w i l l n o t , t h e r e f o r e , support t h e weight of t h e hvdrometer a s it w i l l when t h e a c i d i s oombined w i t h t h e water. The hydrometer i s constructed on p r i n c i p l e s which a r e based on t h e d e n s i t y of t h e f l u i d it i s t o measure. T h i s instrument, used t o show t h e s t a t e of charge of t h e s t o r a g e b a t t e r y , i s constructed as follows: The hydrometer i s a long hollow g l a s s tube, t h e g e n e r a l appearance of which i s shown i n Figure 13. A t t h e lower and l a r g e p a r t of t h e tube l e a d shot i s placed and sealed i n with wax. A t t h e upper end of t h e g l a s s tube t h e numbers Ll.00, L150, 1200, 1250, 1300 appear, This g l a s s tube i s placed i n a l a r g e r g l a s s container, t h e t o p of which i s f i t t e d with a rubber bulb f o r drawing t h e e l e c t r o l y t e i n t o t h e c o n t a i n e r and i n which t h e hydrometer f l o a t s . See Figure 14. When t h e hydrometer f l o a t s , t h e point on t h e s c a l e a t which it remains Lesson 16

- sheet

6

i. I
I

s t a t i o n a r y i n d i c a t e s t h e weight of t h e l i q u i d . I n a s o l u t i o n having a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of a c i d t h e hydrometer w i l l not s i n k a s deeply a s i n t h e l i q u i d devoid of acid,or mostly water. Figure 15 shows a b a t t e r y , t h e e l e c t r o l y t e af which i s mostly water, giving a hydrometer reading of 1.100. Figure 16 shows a s o l u t i o n heavy w i t h a c i d reading 1.300. I n t h e f i r s t t h e hydrometer s i n k s deep i n t o t h e s o l u t i o n while i n t h e l a t t e r it does not s i n k t o t h e same depth i n d i c a t i n g i n t h e f i r s t instance a discharged b a t t e r y and, i n t h e l a t t e r , a charged b a t t e r y .
PREPARING TKE ELFCTROLXTE

The very f i r s t t h i n g t h a t you must know under t h i s heading i s t h e care t o be exercised i n preparing e l e c t r o l y t e f o r lead- acid c e l l s . You understand t h a t t h i s e l e c t r o l y t e i s a comb i n a t i o n of d i s t i l l e d water and sulphuric acid. The water i s harmless but t h i s cannot be *aid about t h e acid. Sulphuric a c i d i n i t s e l f i s a very d e s t r u c t i v e agent both t o your c l o t h e s and p a r t s of yoW body w i t h which it may come i n If you s p i l l a c i d on your hands or contact. c l o t h e s it can be n e u t r a l i z e d by quickly applying a s o l u t i o n of baking soda and water, or household ammonia. There i s another danger i n handling water and s u l p h u r i c acid, however, t h a t i s not s o e a s i l y taken c a r e of and I s caused by improperly combining t h e two. Remember t h i s , - NEVER ADD Figure 13 WATER TO STRONG SULPHURIC A C I D - ? o r t h e reason That water and SUlphWic a c i d , when combined, produce t e r r i f i c h e a t and when water i s added t o t h e a c i d i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s steam i s immediately generated which w i l l blow t h e s o l u t i o n i n t o your face and over your body r e s u l t i n g i n severe a c i d burns and perhaps blindness.

Figure 14

ALWAYS ADD A C I D S O L TO TRE WATER. Follow t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s when L WY mixing t h e a c i d e l e c t r o l y t e and you may proceed w i t h assured success. The water used should be d i s t i l l e d but i f pure water i s not e a s i l y obtained c l e a n r a i n water which has not r u n through metal g u t t e r s and lead down pipes may be used. Clean snow melted i n an e a r t h e n o r g l a s s r e c e p t a c l e w i l l be s a t i s f a c t o r y .

I n mixing, add small q u a n t i t i e s of acid t o t h e water w i t h t h e hydromet e r , s t i r r i n g c a r e f u l l y with a c l e a n wooclen s t i c k u n t i l t h e proper s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y i s obtained. The s o l u t i o n must be allowed t o cool before it i s placed i n t h e b a t t e r y .

Lesson 16

- sheet

7

The manufacturers always specify i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s accompanying the b a t t e r y t h e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e t o be used w i t h t h a t p a r t i c u l a r b a t t e r y , and t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s should be c a r e f u l l y followed.
THE CHARGING O BATTERIES F

The charging of a l l storage b a t t e r i e s must be done w i t h d i r e c t c u r r e n t . If d i r e c t current i s not a v a i l a b l e altermating c u r r e n t must be changed . . by the use of a r e c t i f i e r . There a r e s e v e r a l good types of t o DC r e c t i f i e r s on t h e market known c h i e f l y a s e l e c t r o l y t i c and vacuum tube types. Thus w f i n d when a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t i s used f o r charging purposes it e must f i r s t be r e c t i f i e d i n t o a d i r e c t c u r r e n t by means of a r e c t i f i e r . O the o t h e r hand when d i r e c t current i s used it i s a comparatively n easy matter t o charge storage b a t t e r i e s . The following explanations and diagrams may be used t o accomplish t h e charging of b a t t e r i e s from a d i r e c t current source.
SHOWlNG CELL DISCHARGE0 S P E C I F I C GPYITY 1100

TY

f i n d out how t o determine t h e apparatus t o be employed; t h i s means t h a t a e must r e c a l l some of t h e formulae w learned e i n e a r l i e r lessons. The d i r e c t c u r r e n t l i g h t i n g mains i n most homes have an E.M.F. of 110 v o l t s and i n our computations w w i l l use e t h a t value. I f , upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e l i n e voltage i s found t o be higher, a l l t h a t P s necessary i s t o s u b s t i t u t e t h e higher voltage i n t h e formulae which w i l l be given.

A bank of lamps or a r e s i s t a n c e u n i t may be employed. F i r s t , however, w w i l l e

Figure 15

Figure 16

If w connect 110 v o l t s d i r e c t l y a c r o s s a storage b a t t e r y a very e high c u r r e n t would flovf through t h e b a t t e r y due t o i t s low i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e . This i s undesirable because a c u r r e n t t o o high i n value w i l l elamage the p l a t e s by over- heating and buckling, t h e r e f o r e w e must i n s e r t some s o r t of c u r r e n t l i m i t i n g device i n t h e c i r c u i t t o prevent more t h a n t h e required current t o flow through the c e l l s .
"Rn which i s placed i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e l i n e and storage b a t t e r y , "B n . Suppose we w i s h t o charge t h e b a t t e r y a t t h e r a t e of 2 amperes; with

I n our f i r s t problem w w i l l study Figure 17 and use a r e s i s t a n c e u n i t e

t h e voltage of 110 v o l t s known w can determine t h e watts d i s s i p a t i o n e necessary by t h e following formula:

W = I x E, s u b s t i t u t i n g t h e known values w have, W = 2 x 110, where e I = 2 and E = 110, t h e r e f o r e W = 110 x 2 = 220 watts.

From t h i s we f i n d t h a t with a r e s i s t a n c e u n i t r a t e d a t 220 watts connected i n s e r i e s w i t h one s i d e of the D.C. l i n e and t h e b a t t e r y , t h e c u r r e n t e n t e r i n g the b a t t e r y w i l l be 2 amperes, t h e r a t e a t which we wish t o charge. I n most cases w l i k e t o know t h e value of t h e c u r r e n t l i m i t i n g dee vice i n terms of r e s i s t a n c e so, by employing O h m f s Law, we s u b s t i t u t e E/I, where E = 110 and ow. known values i n t h e following formula, R I = 2 a s before. Therefore R = 110 f 2 o r 55 ohms. From t h i s w f i n d t h e r e q u i r e d r e s i s t a n c e t o be 55 ohms and t h e ammeter, e ''A", when connected i n t h e charging c i r c u i t a s shown i n Figure 17, w i l l read 2 amperes. Suppose w go a s t e p f u r t h e r and check our computation t o make sure t h a t e we a r e correct before a c t u a l l y connecting up t h e c i r c u i t . To do t h i s we 'In, we know, equals 2 amperes, and w i l l use the formula, W = IYx R.

Figure 17
I

Figure 18

"R1' w found t o be 55 ohms. From our formula, however, "Inmust be e e squared, t h n t i s , m u l t i p l i e d by i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e by s u b s t i t u t i n g w have :

W =
W W

= =

I'XR

2 & x 55 4 x 55

=

220 watts.

Any r a t e of charge mag be determined by chana;in@;t h e r e s i s t a n c e value of "Rn t o meet t h e conditions required. I n Figure 18 i s a c i r c u i t s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n Figure 17. Here w employ e r e g u l a r e l e c t r i c lamps, a s found i n any home, a s c u r r e n t l i m i t i n g or r e s i s t a n c e d e v i ~ e s . T h i s i s c a l l e d t h e lamp bank method of chargin@: any by using t h i s method various charging r a t e s may be obtained simply by changing lamps of e i t h e r a higher o r lower watt r a t i n g . I n Figure 18 place t h r e e lamps i n tlze lamp r e c e p t a c l e s a t "L", each e lamp r a t e d a t 2 5 watts. 3 lamps Umes 2 5 w a t t s equals 75 watts. W knaw the voltage i s 110 v o l t s a n d h a v i n g found t h e w a t t s t o be 75, t h e next s t e p i s t o determine, w i t h t h e s e values, t h e charging r a t e . To do t h i s w 8 must take our f i r s t formula which was w r i t t e n i n terms of watts and from t h a t d e r i v e a formula t o meet t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case.

If W I x E t h e n E i s equal t o W/I and I i s equal t o W/E. The formul a e , therefor*, derived from W I x E is E W/I and I W/E.

=

=

=

=

Lesson 1 6

- sheet 9

Referring t o the f i r s t p a r t of our problem w know t h a t E = 110 and e W 75. By i n s p e c t i o n , then, we f i n d t h e formula I = w/E w i l l solve our problem i n terms of amperes, and by s u b s t i t u t i n g w have I equals e 75/110 o r 0.68 ampere.

=

+

0.68-t ampere i s a very slow r a t e of charge, so l e t us replace t h e t h r e e 25 watt lamps w i t h t h r e e o t h e r s ; one having a r a t i n g of 400 w a t t s , one of 25 w a t t s , and t h e t h i r d 75 watts. 400 w a t t s plus 25 w a t t s plus 75 w a t t s i s a t o t a l of 500 watts. By formula I = W/E and s u b s t i t u t i n g our known values I = 500/110 o r I = 4.54.
COMPUTING CHARGING RATES F O F R LIGHTING PLANTS R M AM

Farm l i g h t i n g e l e c t r i c p l a n t s , i n some i n s t a n c e s , have a maxvoltage of 32 v o l t s . The rmles already given apply here a s well a s i n c i r c u i t s of 110 v o l t s . Care must be taken, however, t o s u b s t i t u t e 32 f o r "En i n s t e a d of 110. For example, suppose you have a 6-volt storage b a t t e r y and you w i s h t o charge i t a t a r a t e of 4 amperes from a 3 2 v o l t f a r = l i g h t i n g p l a n t . R = E/I and s u b s t i t u t i n g R = 32/4 or 8 ohms. Eight ohms t h e n i s t h e required r e s i s t a n c e . RM PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED I N CHARGING F O DIRECT CURRENT P o l a r i t y must be c o r r e c t . The o s i t i v e of t h e charging source must be c o n n e c w t o t h e p o s i t i v e term na of t h e b a t t e r y . If no voltmeter i s a v a i l a b l e t o determine t h e p o l a r i t y employ t h e water o r potato t e s t . Do not allow t h e l e a d s t o t h e b a t t e r y t o come i n contact w i t h grounded water o r gas pipes o r o t h e r metal o b j e c t s which may be grounded. Do not charge a t an excessive r a t e . I n t h e next l e s s o n on skorage b a t t e r i e s f u r t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s source of E.M.F. w i l l be t a k e n up t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e care and maintenance necessary t o o b t a i n h i g h e s t e f f i c i e n c y and l i f e from t h e storage battery.
EXAMINATION

err

- LESSON 16

9. What c u r r e n t would be obtained f o r charging R b a t t e r y i f a r e s i s t a n c e of 55 ohms were uaed on a 110 v o l t charging l i n e ? 10. O f what use i s a hydrometer?

p1(ri) t h e chemical a c t i o n taking place Bxplaln ( b ) On discharge.

1 Name the a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s used i n t h e s t o r a g e b a t t e r y p l a t e s . . 2. What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a primary and secondary c e l l 3 3. O what i s t h e e l e c t r o l y t e of t h e Exide c e l l composed? f 4. What i s mean5 by t h e ampere-hour c a p a c i t y of a s t o r a g e c e l l ? 5. Draw a diagram of a simple charging c i r c u i t . 6. What i s +,he s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e of a f u l l y charged Exide b a t t e r y ? V . H w would you mix a c l d w i t h water when preparing t h e e l e c t r o l y t e ? o -

i n a c e l l on charge.

Lesson 16

-

sheet 1 0

.

INC. firmed9
s u n d e d /909

M A R C O N / /NST/JUTE

Technical Lesson 1 7
T E USE OF STORAGE BATTERIES ON'SBIPBOARD H The purpose of t h e s t o r a g e b a t t e r y a t s e a i s t o provide a source of emergency power t h a t may be used i n place of t h e r e g u l a r power equipment of the s h i p t o o p e r a t e t h e r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g apparatus. There a r e two laws covering t h i s emergency power supply, one an i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and t h e o t h e r a domestic law. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Radio Telegraphic r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e an a u x i l i a r y source of power f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e motor-generator of t h e r e g u l a r r a d i o equipment, o r t o o p e r a t e a low-powered t r a n s m i t t e r independently of t h e s h i p f s g e n e r a t o r , which i s capable of functioning f o r a t l e a s t 6 hours. The United S t a t e s Radio Act of August 13, 1912, s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a l l v e s s e l s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y r a d i o equipment s h a l l have an emergency t r a n s m i t t i n g equipment t h a t can be operated e n t i r e l y independent of t h e c u r r e n t supply of the s h i p ' s g e n e r a t o r . The emergency equipment must have a t r a n s m i t t i n g range of a t l e a s t 100 miles during d a y l i g h t hours and be a b l e t o f u n c t i o n continuously f o r a period of f o u r hours. The a u x i l i a r y source of supply may be a small 4C o r DC generator operated by . a g a s o l i n e o r o i l engine. I n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l cases, however, t h e operator w i l l f i n d a b a t t e r y of s t o r a g e c e l l s a s t h e a u x i l i a r y supply and f o r t h a t reason he should be f a m i l i a r with t h e o p e r a t i o n and c a r e necessary t o maint a i n t h e b a t t e r y a t i t s h i g h e s t e f f i c i e n c y . I t must be remembered t h a t t h e s t o r a g e b a t t e r y may be t h e only source of power a v a i l a b l e t o operate t h e Radio t r a n s m i t t e r if t h e r e g u l a r power equipment should become i n o p e r a t i v e . The main emergency b a t t e r y g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s of s i x t y c e l l s having a c a p a c i t y s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o properly o p e r a t e t h e r a d i o t r a n s m i t t i n g apparatus i n a manner t o s a t i s f y t h e laws governing such emergency apparatus. Two general types of storage c e l l s a r e used i n connection with emergency t r a n s m i t t e r s ; namely, t h e l e a d p l a t e , s u l p h u r i c a c i d c e l l , such a s t h e "Chloride w and "Exiden types manufactured by t h e E l e c t r i c Storage B a t t e r y Company, and the Edison, n i c k e l i r o n a l k a l i c e l l . TYPES OF PLATES:- The p l a t e s most commonly used i n t h e lead- acid storage c e l l a r e the pasted, o r Faurg p l a t e s , and t h e p l a n t & , or formed p l a t e s . The p l a n t 6 type of p l a t e i s made by taking pure l e a d , immersing i t i n an e l e c t r o l y t e and passing an e l e c t r d c c u r r e n t through t h e e l e c t r o l y t e and lead. T h i s process, c a l l e d forming, produces a coating of brown lead peroxide on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e l e a d . I t i s t h i s coating t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s type of c e l l . Due t o t h e i r excessive weight and l a r g e s i z e , and t h e time r e q u i r e d t o form t h i s type of p l a t e , i t i s no longer used i n t h e o r i g i n a l form t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . P r i n t e d i n U.S.A. Contents copyrighted 1930.

I n 1881 ~ a u r e o r i g i n a t e d a method of making up t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l and past' ing i t on the lead p l a t e s . This was a g r e a t time saver, doing away with t h e tedious forming process of t h e raw l e a d p l a t e s . This method, however, had i t s disadvantages because t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l thus pasted on t h e f l a t s u r f a c e s of t h e l e a d p l a t e s had t h e d i s t i n c t disadvantage of buckling and f a l l i n g o f f a s i t was n o t an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e p l a t e . I t was t h e s k e l e t o n framework or g r i d described i n Lesson 16 t h a t made t h e s t o r a g e c e l l a commercial success. The modern s t o r a g e c e l l u s e s a modification of one o r both of these methods which w i l l now be described.
THE POSITIVE PLATE O THE EXIDE CHLORIDE TYPE PLATE:- Since t h e P l a n t 4 F method i s used i n making up t h i s p l a t e t h e openings and a c t i v e m a t e r i a l d i f f e r from t h e pasted type. The openings of t h i s p l a t e , which hold t h e a c t i v e mate- ial, a r e n o t r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape but c o n s i s t of 3/4 i n c h h o l e s .

Figure 1 Pure s o f t l e a d which has f i r s t been c u t from t h i n l e a d ribbon, and r o l l e d i n t o a s p i r a l button, i s f o r c e d by h y d r a u l i c p r e s s u r e i n t o t h e s e openings. T h i s p l a t e i s shown i n Figure 1. The p r e s s u r e used i n f o r c i n g i n t h e s e huttons s e c u r e l y l o c k s them i n t h e openings and, a s they h e a t by t h e charging o r discharging of t h e c e l l , a f u r t h e r t i g h t e n i n g r e s u l t s which has t h e twof o l d purpose of b e t t e r locking them i n place and of making good e l e c t r i c a l c o n t a c t with t h e g r i d .
THE NEGATIVE PLATE OF THE CHLORIDE TYPE:- The negative p l a t e i s made up by method (pasted p l a t e ) ; t h a t i s , t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l i s made i n t o a the ~ a u r 6 p a s t e of f i n e l y divided porous l e a d and forced i n t o square openings. This m a t e r i a l , s i n c e i t i s n o t self- supporting, r e q u i r e s a f i n e l y p e r f o r a t e d rubber s h i e l d which allows t h e ' a c i d t o reach t h e p l a t e but prevents t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l from f a l l i n g away from t h e g r i d .

THE ELECTROLYTE:- The e l e c t r o l y t e of t h e Chloride c e l l i s a 20% s o l u t i o n of s u l p h u r i c a c i d and does n o t employ c h l o r i d e s , a s t h e name might imply. The name "Chloride" i s merely a t r a d e name and d e s i g n a t e s t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r type of b a t t e r y i s one using a combination of t h e P l a n t 6 and FaurQ types of p l a t e s , t h e p o s i t i v e being a formed type and t h e n e g a t i v e a pasted type.

Lesson 1 7

-

sheet 2

THE IRONCLAD EXIDE CELL

The W d e type just and i s an struction

wIroncladn c e l l embodies the same fundamental p r i n c i p l e s a s t h e discussed. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s c e l l i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t improvement over t h e o t h e r types, i n s o f a r a s t h e p l a t e coni s concerned.

Figure 3 Figure 2 The negative p l a t e of t h e I r o n c l a d c e l l i s very s l n i l a r t o t h e p l a t e shown i n Figure 3 of t h e previous l e s s o n , with t h e exception of t h e t o p and bottom edges of t h e p l a t e . A rubber casing i s f i t t e d t o t h e top and bottom edges of t h e p l a t e and vulcanized i n t o place, t h e purpose being t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s h o r t c i r c u i t s occurring from any m a t e r i a l t h a t might p o s s i b l y bridge a c r o s s from t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e . The p o s i t i v e p l a t e of t h e I r o n c l a d c e l l i s t h e improved f e a t u r e of t h i s c e l l . The g r i d of t h e p l a t e i s composed of a number of v e r t i c a l lead a l l o y metal r o d s which a r e secured t o t h e t o p and bottom of t h e g r i d . Around each metal rod i s placed peroxide of l e a d i n c y l i n d r i c a l form, t h i s i n t u r n i s completely surrounded by a hard rubber casing which has a g r e a t number of small openings o r slits, a s shown i n Figure 2, t o allow t h e e l e c t r o l y t e t o come i n c o n t a c t Whila t h e s e s l i t s allow a w i t h t h e peroxide of l e a d , t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l . f r e e c i r c u l a t i o n of a c i d t o t h e l e a d peroxide they a r e f i n e enough t o prev e n t t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l from washing out. I n Figure 3 i s shown a cutaway s e c t i o n of a tube of t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e with t h e metal rod, t h e peroxide of l e a d and t h e rubber casing c l e a r l y marked. Figure 4 shows t h e f i n i s h e d p o s i t i v e p l a t e of t h e I r o n c l a d s t o r a g e c e l l . Lesson 17

- sheet 3

ES AND RATINGS OF THE EXIDE CELL USED I N VdBRGENCY EQUIPMENT following t a b l e t h e smaller s i z e s of c e l l s a r e used i n connection ransrnitting s e t s r a t e d a t 1/2 KW, t h e l a r g e r c e l l s being employed where emergency l i g h t s aboerd s h i p a r e t o be supplied a s well a s t h e r a d i o a p p a r a t u s . I n most i n s t a l l a t i o n s where a 2 KW t r a n s m i t t e r i s used ,the 6 0 - c e l l M V A - 1 1 type Exide i s em~loyed. Capacity i n Ampere-Hours Number of C e l l s
60 c e l l
n n
II

Type

A t the

D -J -

I
A t the 10-Hour Rate 11

&HOW

Rate

n

MVA-9 1 1 13

"

147% 177

118

Ampere-Hours
II

n

n

137 171 205

Ampere-Hours
11 11 II

n

@

I

When severe conditions a r e t o be imposed on t h e emergency s t o r a g e b a t t e r y equipment, such a s excessive v i b r a t i o n , the Exide I r o n c l a d b a t t e r y i s employed, assuring longer l i f e under such conditions. The r a t i n g s of s e v e r a l s i z e s of t h i s type of b a t t e r y a r e given i n t h e following t a b l e . Capacity i n Ampere-Hours Rate
11

Number of C e l l s 60 c e l l
n
n

Type
MVA-9 n 1 1

A t the

d- our
11

1 I
A t t h e 1 0 - ~ 6 u rRate
n n
11

n n

n
n n

n

13 15 17

122 153 184 214 245

Ampere-Hours
n
II

n

146 Ampere-Hours 183 II n 220 n n 256 n n 293 n 11

On s h i p s which a r e operated mostly i n t r o p i c a l waters, or on any s h i p when t h e b a t t e r y has t o be s o l o c a t e d t h a t i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y s u b j e c t t o extremely high temperatures, t h e Exide 60- cell type n%VALn b a t t e r y i s recommended. The same p r i n c i p l e s a r e embodied i n t h i s c e l l a s i n t h e 1 1 M V A n type. The det a i l of assembly, with but one exception, i s t h e same and t h e same p l a t e s a r e used. The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n of t h e p l a t e s which a r e more widely spaced, allowing t h i c k e r s e p a r a t o r s t o be used, and an e l e c t r o l y t e having a lower o r weaker s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y . Both of t h e s e changes a r e d e s i r a b l e e s p e c i a l l y under high temperature o p e r a t i n g conditions. This b a t t e r y w i l l g i v e longer l i f e than t h e standard marine r a d i o b a t t e r y type nMVA," t h e disadvantage being t h a t , f o r t h e same c a p a c i t y , i t r e q u i r e s more space and weighs more.

I

Lesson 17

-

sheet 4

Figure 4
A s t o r a g e b a t t e r y i s a l s o employed t o h e a t t h e f i l a m e n t s of t h e tubes i n t h e r e c e i v i n g s e t . This s t o r a g e b a t t e r y i s the p o r t a b l e type comprised of t h r e e c e l l s giving a t o t a l of 6 v o l t s . It i s r a t e d a t 100 ampere-hours a t t h e 10-hour r a t e .

C e r t a i n fundamental f a c t s concerning t h e charge and discharge of s t o r a g e c e l l s and the c i r c u i t s f o r t h e i r use w i l l now be considered, followed by a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e charging panel used i n marine r a d i o i n s t a l l a t i o n . CHARGINGSTORAGE BATTERIES In t h i s l e s s o n more d e t a i l i s given, e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e charging methods aboard ship. The charge i s accomplished by connecting t h e p o s i t i v e terminal of t h e b a t t e r y t o the p o s i t i v e t e r m i n a l of a source of d i r e c t c u r r e n t and-the nertative terminal t o t h e negative s i d e of the charging source. This i s t r u e because t h e chemical a c t i o n must be reversed when t h e b a t t e r y i s t o be charged, t h e r e f o r e t h e charging c u r r e n t must flow through t h e b a t t e r y oppos i t e i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t of discharge. The v o l t a g e of t h e charging source
T h i s phase of t h e study was p a r t i a l l y taken up i n t h e previous lesson.

Lesson 17

-

sheet 5

must exceed the voltage of t h e b a t t e r y , t h a t i s , t h e t o t a l voltage of a l l t h e c e l l s of which t h e b a t t e r y i s composed must be l e s s than t h e voltage a v a i l a b l e f o r charging purposes. '6 The p o l a r i t y of t h e charging mains may be determined by one o r a l l of t h e following methods:
1. 2. 3.
By t h e use of a d i r e c t c u r r e n t voltmeter. By chemical means. By immersing t h e t e r m i n a l s of t h e charging source i n a s o l u t i o n of s a l t water..

The terminals of t h e voltmeter a r e g e n e r a l l y marked w i t h p o l a r i t y signs, + ( p o s i t i v e ) and ( n e g a t i v e ) . If t h e meter i s c o r r e c t l y connected a c r o s s t h e l i n e a d e f l e c t i o n of the n e e d l e enables t h e o p e r a t o r t o read t h e E.M.F. i n v o l t s . If connected improperly no reading can be taken.

-

When two o r more b a t t e r i e s a r e t o be charged they a r e g e n e r a l l y connected i n s e r i e s and, a s t h e charging i s u s u a l l y from a 110- volt c i r c u i t , t h e t o t a l v o l t a g e of t h e b a t t e r y when charged must not exceed 110 v o l t s . The l i m i t i n g r e s i s t a n c e used t o determine t h e charging r a t e may be e i t h e r a f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e , an a d j u s t a b l e r h e o s t a t , a lamp-bank, o r a water r h e o s t a t . I l l u s t r a t i o n s of simple charging c i r c u i t s employing t h e s e methods w i l l be shopm. Figure 5 shows t h e method of charging by lamp-bank from a 110- volt source. Five 110- volt 16 candle-power carbon lamps a r e used a s the means of cont r o l l i n g t h i s charging c u r r e n t . Since one 110- volt 16-CP carbon lamp a l l o w s 1/2 ampere t o pass, f i v e lamps connected a s shown i n t h e f i g u r e w i l l charge t h e b a t t e r i e s a t 2 1/2 amperes. The group of lamps and t h e c e l l s a r e connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e charging l i n e , and t h e c u r r e n t flowing through the c e l l s w i l l be determined by t h e number of lamps used. The charging c u r r e n t flows from t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e of t h e l i n e through t h e posit i v e s i d e of t h e switch, through t h e f u s e , through t h e lamps, then through t h e c e l l s and r e t u r n s t o t h e negative s i d e of t h e l i n e passing through the ammeter which measures t h e c u r r e n t passing through t h e c e l l s . The lamp-bank may be connected i n e i t h e r t h e p o s i t i v e o r negative s i d e of t h e l i n e but i t must be always connected i n s e r i e s with the b a t t e r y . The u o s i t i v e s i d e of u l i n e must always be connected t o the p o s i t i v e t e r m i n a l of t h e b a t t e r y . e I n w i n g lamps a s t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n a charging c i r c u i t i t i s recommended t h a t t h e carbon f i l a m e n t lamp be used as t h i s type h a s a g r e a t e r c u r r s n t consumption f o r a c e r t a i n amount of l i g h t than t h e t u n g s t e n filament type, and fewer lamps a r e requrred t o o b t a i n t h e necessary charging c u r r e n t . I t i s always advisable t o have an ammeter connected i n t h e c i r c u i t t o measure a t a l l times t h e charging c u r r e n t . If an ammeter i s n o t a v a i l a b l e t h e following r u l e , when employing e i t h e r carbon o r tungsten filament lamps, may be applied t o o b t a i n t h e approximate number of lamps t o u s e when t h e l i n e voltage, t h e charging r a t e i n amperes, and t h e w a t t consumption of t h e lamps, a r e known. For example, suppose you have 60 watt lamps, t h e charging r a t e i s t o be 6 amperes and t h e v o l t a g e i s 110 v o l t s . Multiply t h e charging r a t e times

Lesson 17

-

sheet 6

the voltage and d i v i d e by the watt consumption per lamp. a s follows:

T h i s i s expressed

o r eleven 60 watt lamps w i l l be required.
4-

-

+
I40 VOLTS DIRECT CURRENT

-(
BATTERIES-

I
FUSES

((0VOLTS DIRECT CURRENT

9

RHEOSTAT

Figure 5

Figure 6

A charging c i r c u i t employing a r h e o s t a t i s shown i n Figure 6. This c i r c u i t may be employed where t h e voltage of t h e charging source i s g r e a t e r than t h e voltage required f o r t h e number of c e l l s connected i n s e r i e s , and i t may be adjusted t o give any r e s i s t a n c e within i t s range. When a r e s i s t o r of t h i s type i s used t h e charging source must be s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h e v o l t a g e of a l l t h e c e l l s a t t h e completion of t h e charge.

The voltage of the charging source M S ALWAYS EXCEED t h e MAXIMUM v o l t a g e of UT t h e s t o r a g e b a t t e r y because t h e b a t t e r y e x e r t s a back p r e s s u r e o r counter electromotive f o r c e on t h e charging source and i f t h e voltage of t h e charging source i s LESS than t h a t of t h e b a t t e r y t h e l a t t e r w i l l n o t be charged. When charging a number of c e l l s i n s e r i e s t h e charging r e s i s t a n c e f o r a given b a t t e r y may be determined by Ohm's Law. Example: Assume t h a t a given b a t t e r y , when f u l l charged, h a s a v o l t a g e of 30 v o l t s , t h e normal charging r a t e a s s p e c i f i e d by t h e manufacturer i s 6 amperes and t h e v o l t a g e of t h e charging source i s 110 v o l t s . The b a t t e r y e x e r t s a counter electromotive f o r c e of 30 v o l t s on t h e charging source; 30=80 volts. t h e e f f e c t i v e o r n e t voltage, then, i s 110

-

But i n our For ordinary d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s by O h m ' s Law; R - E / I . example, however, t h e value of t h e charging r e s i s t a n c e i s determined by; R=E- e I Where E = t h e voltage of the charging source e = t h e f u l l y charged voltage of t h e b a t t e r y I = t h e normal charging c u r r e n t a s s p e c i f i e d by t h e manufacturer. Lesson 17

-

sheet 7

S u b s t i t u t i n g the known values i n t h e formul
R =

110

6

-

30

-

13.3 ohms.

Figure 7 i l l u s t r a t e s a water r h e o s t a t , a form of r e s i s t a n c e which may be used i n an emergency when t h e r e g u l a r means of r e s i s t a n c e i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . The c u r r e n t flows from t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e of t h e l i n e through t h e r i g h t hand s i d e of t h e switch t o the bottom metal p l a t e , which may be any piece of metal e a s i l y obtained, through t h e s a l t water t o t h e upper metal p l a t e t o t h e c e l l s , and thus r e t u r n s t o t h e negative s i d e of t h e l i n e . Some means of a d j u s t i n g t h e d i s t a n c e between the two metal p l a t e s i s provided which w i l l determine t h e c u r r e n t flow t o t h e c e l l s .

+

I

110 VOLTS DIRECT CURRENT ROVE TO LOWER hND RAISE METAL PLhlE

WATER RHEOSTAT

'- METAL PLATES

BATTER&

Figure 7
THE PANEL CHARGER

O shipboard t h e 6 0 - c e l l emergency r a d i o b a t t e r y h a s a combined voltage too n high t o be charged from t h e s h i p ' s 110- volt l i n e and because of t h i s t h e b a t t e r y i s divided i n t o two equal banks of 30 c e l l s each f o r charging.
A switchboard panel e s p e c i a l l y designed f o r s h i p use and which i s equipped with a l l t h e necessary a p p a r a t u s f o r performing t h e v a r i o u s switching opera t i o n s and f o r p r o t e c t i n g t h e c i r c u i t s i s shown i n Figure 8. The diagram showing t h e wiring back of t h i s panel i s shown i n Figure 9 while Figure 10 i s a diagram of t h e charging c i r c u i t connections and t h e meter c i r c u i t .

I n s t r u c t i o n s concerning t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h i s panel a r e explained i n t h e following. The r e v e r s i n g switch i s closed i n t h e proper d i r e c t i o n t o g i v e c o r r e c t p o l a r i t y . T h i s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by t h e needle of the voltmeter which i f t h e p o l a r i t y i s c o r r e c t , w i l l g i v e a reading. If t h e needle does not swing over t h e s c a l e but t e n d s t o move t o t h e l e f t where no reading can be observed, i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e p o l a r i t y i s reversed; t h e r e f o r e t h e reversing switch must be thrown i n t h e r e v e r s e p o s i t i o n . Lesson 1 7

- sheet 8

The v c l t i g e cf t h e b a t t e r y i s obtained b uLper 5r.d 1,v:er r i g k t i!;r.d recektacles c A s t h e voltmeter circuit i s normally open a push b u t t o n switch on t h e switchboard f o r c l o s i n g t h e c i r c u i t when it i s d e s i r e d t o take meter readings. The reason f o r t h i s c i r c u i t being open i s t o prevent s t r a y h i g h frequency c u r r e n t s from flowing through t h e meter windings when t h e t r a n s m i t t e r i s i n o p e r a t i o n . The connections of t h i s meter c i r c u i t a r e shown i n Figure 10.

Figure 8 The next s t e p i s t o open t h e &pole double-throw switch and c l o s e t h e c i r c u i t breaker, a t t h e same time holding up t h e plunger of t h e low v o l t a g e r e l e a s e c o i l ; now throw t h e 6-pole double-throw switch t o t h e l e f t , t h u s connecting t h e two b a t t e r y banks t o t h e charging source through t h e charging r e s i s t o r s . These r e s i s t a n c e u n i t s a r e p l a i n l y niarked and shown i n both F i g u r e s 9 and 10. The ampere-hour meter i s our next consideration. Over t h e f a c e of t h i s instrument w i l l be seen two i n d i c a t i n g hands, one black and t h e o t h e r r e d i n color. The r e d hand should now be. moved u n t i l i t p o i n t s t o the number corresponding t o t h e ampere-hours as s p e c i f i e d by t h e manufacturer f o r t h e s i z e of t h e b a t t e r y t o be charged. The black hand i n d i c a t e s t h e s t a t e of discharge of t h e b a t t e r i e s a t a l l times. With t h e 6-pole double-throw switch t o t h e l e f t t h e b a t t e r i e s a r e on charge, and t h e amount of charge Lesson 17

- sheet

9

w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by t h e b l a c k hand which w i l l move toward z e r o and, when i t reaches z e r o , t h e b a t t e r y i s charged. The black hand, on reaching t h e z e r o p o s i t i o n , makes an e l e c t r i c a l c o n t a c t which s h o r t c i r c u i t s t h e holdingmagnet windings of t h e c i r c u i t breaker through a small r e s i s t a n c e and t h e c i r c u i t breaker opens, t h u s a u t o m a t i c a l l y opening t h e charging c i r c u i t .
A t s t a t e d p e r i s d s , g e n e r a l l y about once each month, i t i s b e s t t o g i v e t h e To do t h i s t h e cover of t h e ampere-hour meter i s b a t t e r i e s an over-charge. removed and t h e black hand moved back half-way t o t h e red hand; t h e cover i s A t t h e completion of the t h e n r e p l a c e d and t h e b a t t e r y placed on charge. over- charge t h e charging c u r r e n t i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y c u t o f f by t h e black hand making c o n t a c t a t t h e z e r o p o s i t i o n and thereby opening t h e c i r c u i t breaker. I t is- important t h a t t h e ampere-hour meter be g i v e n t h e proper a t t e n t i o n which w i l l i n s u r e i t being maintained i n good o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n . When p o s s i b l e t h e meter should be overhauled and r e c a l i b r a t e d once every twelve o r e i g h t e e n months.
CHhRGING RLSISIkUCES

-.-

CHARGING RESISTkNCES

TO WIRELESS

+

J

Figure 9 Lesson 1 7

-

THE C I R C U I T BREAKER

The c i r c u i t breaker i s equipped with a low-voltage r e l e a s e device which f u n c t i o n s when t h e v o l t a g e from t h e ship's g e n e r a t o r drops below t h e proper p o t e n t i a l . If f o r any reason v o l t a g e from t h e shipqs mains drops below t h e voltage of t h e b a t t e r i e s t h e no-load o r low v o l t a g e r e l e a s e w i l l o p e r a t e by opening t h e c i r c u i t , thereby preventing t h e b a t t e r y from discharging back i n t o t h e s h i p f s mains. A s long a s t h e v o l t a g e of t h e s h i p f s generator i s high enough t o f o r c e s u f f i c i e n t c u r r e n t through t h e magnet; which holds t h e
I 1 0 VOLT Bus-::,

f +

D.P.D.T.

LAMP FOR FLOATING CHARGE

..--.

AlIr'lRE HOUR

DOUBLE POLE DOUBLE THROW 3 0 AMPS ,,'SWITCH.

VOLTMETER CONNECTIONS POINT # I BATTERY P O I N T # 2 BUS POINT*^ BATTERY -PI" POINT#^ BATTERY '"8"

(DISCHPRGO
'

PUSH

8UTT0N
MUL~IPLIER

-0

2

.+

-*

2

.+

V O L T M E T E R PLUG

Figure 10 Lesson 17

-

low-voltage plunger U i n p l a c e t h e c i r c u i t w i l l remain closed. When t h e p v o l t a g e drops o r f a i l s t h e magnetic f i e l d developed i n t h e magnet holding t h e plunger ceases and t h e plunger, which i s metal, drops and t r i p s a lock which holds t h e c i r c u i t breaker i n place. If t h e s h i p ' s g e n e r a t o r f a i l s t h e b a t t e r i e s may be used t o supply t h e current f o r the ship's lights. THE F L OAT I NG OR TRICKLE CHARGE When t h e 6- pole double-throw switch (abbreviated 6-PDT) i s closed t o t h e l e f t , with t h e c i r c u i t breaker open, t h e r e g u l a r charging r e s i s t o r c i r c u i t w i l l be open. The b a t t e r y w i l l , however, r e c e i v e a t r i c k l e charge through t h e two lamps which a r e shown mounted a t t h e upper l e f t and r i g h t hand corn e r s of t h e charging panel, Figure 8. This i s t h e normal p o s i t i o n of t h e switches on the panel when t h e b a t t e r y i s f u l l y charged and t h e s h i p ' s power i s being used t o supply power f o r t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . I n t h i s way t h e b a t t e r y i s always maintained a t f u l l charge ready t o be used i n c a s e of an emergency. When t h e b a t t e r y i s on t r i c k l e o r f l o a t i n g charge t h e l i g h t s cannot be operated from i t . I t t h e r e f o r e becomes necessary t o c l o s e t h e lower DPDT switch t o t h e l e f t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n switches f o r t h e l i g h t s , shown on t h e extreme lower p a r t of t h e panel, may be operated a s d e s i r e d . When t h e c i r c u i t breaker i s open and t h e &PDT s w i t c h ~ c l o s e dt o t h e r i g h t , which i s t h e discharging p o s i t i o n , t h e l i g h t s may be operated from e i t h e r PT t h e s h i p ' s l i n e o r from t h e b a t t e r y by c l o s i n g t h e lower D D switch, marked nLights," t o $he r i g h t o r l e f t , depending upon t h e source of power t o be drawn from. When t h e s h i p ' s g e n e r a t o r p l a n t i s f o r any r e a s o n n o t opera.ting, t h e r a d i o s w i t c h on t h e s h i p ' s switchboard and a l l t h e switches on t h e b a t t e r y panel switchboard must be opened. Under such c o n d i t i o n s never use t h e b a t t e r y f o r supplying t h e l i g h t c i r c u i t s except i n c a s e of emergency. EFFICIENCY OF BATTERIES W might assume t h a t by sending a predetermined m o u n t of c u r r e n t i n t o a e b a t t e r y t h e same amount can be taken from i t . This, however, i s n o t p r a c t i c a l which you may prove by t h e following formula: The watt hours o u t p u t E f f i c i e n c y = The watt hours i n p u t t o recharge For t h i s reason t h e b a t t e r y i s given an over-charge p e r i o d i c a l l y .

BATTERY CLEANLINESS:- Dampness and accumulation of d i r t about t h e t o p s of t h e b a t t e r y w i l l lower i t s e f f i c i e n c y because they permit t h e accumulated charge t o slowly l e a k away and produce c o r r o s i o n about t h e b a t t e r y t e r m i n a l s by holding small q u a n t i t i e s of t h e b a t t e r y s o l u t i o n c a r r i e d o u t of t h e v e r l t i l a t i n g h o l e s by t h e g a s . The t e r m i n a l s should be scraped c l e a n and thoroughly greased with c l e a n white v a s e l i n e t o p r e v e n t c o r r o s i o n .
ELECTROLYTE:- The e l e c t r o l y t e should always be k e p t one-half i n c h above the tops of t h e p l a t e s . When evaporation h a s reduced t h e s o l u t i o n add d i s t i l l e d

w a t e r o n l y b e f o r e c h a r g i n g . A s t h e a c i d d o e s n o t e v a p o r a t e new a c i d s h o u l d n e v e r be added u n l e s s t h e b a t t e r y s o l u t i o n h a s been s p i l l e d o u t . The b a t t e r y should be k e p t i n a s t a t e o f f u l l c h a r g e a t a l l t i m e s and t h e t r i c k l e o r f l o a t i n g c h a r g e should b e i n o p e r a t i o n a t a l l t i m e s e x c e p t when t h e b a t t e r y i s being charged o r d i s c h a r g e d . The t r i c k l e c h a r g e lamps w i l l b u r n a d u l l r e d when t h e t r i c k l e c h a r g e i s o p e c a t i n g . Should e i t h e r o f t h e s e lamps b u r n o u t r e p l a c e immediately w i t h a n o t h e r o f t h e seme r a t i n g . The g a s a r i s i n g from t h e b a t t e r y i s e x p l o s i v e ana a l l open f l a m e s must be k e p t away from t h e b a t t e r y a t a l l t i m e s .

STATE OF CHARGE:-

The p o l a r i t y of t h e g e n e r a t o r should be checked o f t e n t o guard a g a i n s t t h e b a t t e r y being a c c i d e n t a l l y d i s c l i a r g e d through t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h e g e n e r a t o r . T h i s may be accomplished by t a k i n g v o l t m e t e r r e a d i n g s f r e q u e n t l y by means of t h e v o l t m e t e r p l u g s on t h e s w i t c h b o a r d . The b a t t e r y should be f r e q u e n t l y i n s p e c t e d f o r l e a k y j a r s and i f a l e a k y jar i s found i t must be immediately r e p l a c e d and t h e o l d one r e p a i r e d o r d i s c a r d e d e n t i r e l y . C a r e f u l l y watch t h e t e r m i n a l s ; s e e t h a t a l l c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e t e r m i n a l s a r e c l e a n and t i g h t t h u s a s s u r i n g good e l e c t r i c a l c o n t a c t . P r e v e n t i m p u r i t i e s from e n t e r i n g t h e c e l l a s t h i s may c a u s e l o c a l a c t j o n and, i n time, r u i n t h e p l a t e s of t h e c e l l . TESTING F R C O N D I T I O N O CHARGE:- The hydrometer i s t h e o n l y means by which O F t h e s t a t e o f c h a r g e s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d as t h i s g i v e s t h e measure o f t h e amount of a c i d which h a s gone t o form s u l p h a t e on t h e p l a t e s . The v o l t m e t e r t e l l s l i t t l e o r b a t t e r y when measured on open a s c e r t a i n t h e s t a t e of charge i n t h e p r o c e s s of c h b r g i n g o r n o t h i n g a s t o t h e s t a t e o f c h a r g e of t h e circuit. When t h e v o l t m e t e r i s employed t o i t must be done when t h e b a t t e r y i s e i t h e r d i s c h a r g i n g a t t h e normal r a t e .

The f u l l y charged s t o r a g e c e l l should r e a d from 2.5 t o 2.6 v o l t s when on c h a r g e and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.1 v o l t s when on d i s c h a r g e . The v o l t a g e should n e v e r be allowed t o d r o p below 1 . 8 v o l t s . The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f t h e f u l l y charged b a t t e r y s h o u l l measure from 1.280 t o 1.300 and, when f u l l y d i s c h a r g e d , 1.150. The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e e l e c t r o l y t e should n o t be h i g h e r t h a n 105 d e g r e e s (F) when t h e b a t t e r y i s on c h a r g e . C O W O N TROUBLES The s t o r a g e b a t t e r y may become i n a c t i v e from one o f two c a u s e s , - e i t h e r due t,o a l a c k o f c h a r g e o r t r o u b l e i n t e r n a l l y . If i t i s l a c k of c h a r g e a hyd r o m e t e r r e a d i n g t a k e n o f a l l t h e c e l l s s h o u l d show a low, b u t uniform, s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y measurement f o r each c e l l , - t h e remedy t h e n i s t o p l a c e on c h a r g e . If one o r two c e l l s show a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y r e a d i n g , t h e c a u s e i s p r o b a b l y i n t e r n a l t r o u b l e and t h e b a t t e r y should be overhauled.

Lesson 1 7

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s h e e t 13

BUCKLING O PLATES:- When a s t o r a g e b a t t e r y i s s u b j e c t t o long excessive F charging or d i s c h a r g i n g t h e elements h e a t beyond t h e s a f e l i m i t and, i f t h i s p r a c t i c e i s c o n t i n u a l l y r e p e a t e d , t h e p l i t e s buckle causing t h e a c t i v e m a t e r i a l t o drop o u t of t h e g r i d s , thus r u i n i n g t h e c e l l .
The cause of t h e e x c e s s i v e charge may be due t o f a u l t y charging apparatus o r i t may be c a r e l e s s n e s s on t h e p a r t of t h e person who h a s charge of t h e b a t t e r y ; i n e i t h e r c a s e t h e remedy i s obvious. SULPHATI0N:- S u l p h a t i o n , a s explained, forms on t h e p l a t e s on discharge and accumulates r a p i d l y u n l e s s t h e b a t t e r y i s k e p t i n a w e l l charged s t a t e . When t h e p l a t e s become exposed t o t h e a i r s u l p h a t i o n r a p i d l y s e t s i n formi n g a hard c r y s t a l i z e d c o a t i n g over t h e p l a t e s . T h i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s t h e i n t e r n a l r e s i s t a n c e of t h e c e l l and r e q u i r e s a long over- charge a t a low r a t e t o break up t h i s c o n d i t i o n . Regular charging and n a i n t a i n i n g a proper h e i g h t of e l e c t r o l y t e w i l l , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , p r e v e n t s u l p h a t i o n . PLACING BATTERIES OUT O SERVICE:- Should i t become necessary t o p l a c e t h e F b a t t e r i e s out of commission f o r s e v e r a l months t h e y should be given a comp l e t e i n s p e c t i o n , t h e t e r m i n a l s thoroughly cleaned, e l e c t r o l y t e properly covering the p l e t e s , and then f u l l y charged. Before p l a c i n g them a g a i n i n a c t i v e s e r v i c e a thorough charge should be a p p l i e d u n t i l t h e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y and v o l t a g e remain c o n s t a n t f o r a period of f i v e hours.

DRY STORAGE:- The same i n s t r u c t i o n s apply t o t h i s procedure a s above with t h e e x c e l ~ t i o nt h a t t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , a f t e r t h e c e l l s have been f u l l y charged, i s removed. The p l z t e s a r e washed with clean c o l d water and t h e b a t t e r y t h e n s t o r e d i n a dry cool p l a c e . Care should be taken t o s e e t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e and negative groups do not come i n c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r while t h i s i s being done. The s e p a r a t o r s a r e removed and thrown away and new ones used when t h e b a t t e r y i s a g a i n p u t i n commission.
THE EDISON S O A E BATTERY T R G

j

The Edison s t o r a g e b a t t e r y employs a p r i n c i p l e which d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from t h a t of a l l o t h e r s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s . I t i s t h e only s t o r a g e b a t t e r y having i r o n o r s t e e l i n i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n ; no l e a d whatever being employed. The g r i d s and t h e j a r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d of s t e e l . The e l e c t r o l y t e of t h e Edison c e l l i s an a l k a l i n e s o l u t i o n and it has none of t h e disadvantages of t h e a c i d s o l u t i o n ; i t does n o t g i v e o f f noxious fumes during t h e charging process and, i f a c c i c l e n t a l l y s p i l l e d , w i l l n o t i n j u r e metal f a s t e n i n g s of t h e h u l l i f i t r u n s i n t o t h e b i l g e . The s o l u t i o n i s , . i n f a c t , a p r e s e r v e r of s t e e l and n i c k e l and t h e r e f o r e prevents many of t h e troubles arising i n storage battery practice.

I

1
j

i

1

I

1!

The chemical composition of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e i s a 21% s o l u t i o n of c a u s t i c potash t o which i s added a small amount of l i t h i u m h y d r a t e . The d e n s i t y o r s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of t h i s s o l u t i o n , which does n o t change, i s from 1.200 t o 1.230. During charge t h e water of t h e s o l u t i o n i s d r i v e n o f f a s gas a s i n t h e l e a d a c i d c e l l and i t i s necessary t o add d i s t i l l e d water when t h e e l e c t r o l y t e drops below t h e l e v e l of t h e t o p of t h e p l a t e s . When t h e Edison c e l l i s f i r s t charged, o r when t h e b a t t e r y i s given a long over- charge, c o n s i d e r a b l e water evaporates. Lesson 1 7

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s h e e t 14

The a c t i v e m a t e r i a l o f t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e i s n i c k e l h y d r a t e and p u r e n i c k e l flake, the l a t t e r t o increase conductivity. The n e g a t i v e p l a t e employs i r o n o x i d e t o which i s added a s m a l l q u a n t i t y of mercury o x i d e t o i n c r e a s e t h e conductivity. The p o s i t i v e p l a t e i s made up o f a n m b e r of p e r f o r a t e d , s p i r a l l y wound, s t e e l t u b e s i n t o which a r e packed, under heavy p r e s s u r e , a l t e r n a t e l a y e r s o f n i c k e l h y d r a t e and p u r e n i c k e l f l a k e . The f l a k e n i c k e l , vvhich i s p l a c e d between e a c h l a y e r of n i c k e l h y d r a t e , i s a b o u t t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t i s s u e p a p e r and a b o u t 1/16 i n c h s q u a r e . F i g u r e 1 shows a m a g n i f i e d s e c t i o n o f a p o s i 1 t i v e t u b e i n which t h e n i c k e l h y d r a t e a p p e a r s a s t h e l i g h t l a y e r s and the p u r e n i c k e l f l a k e a s d a r k h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s . When t h e t u b e h a s been c o t t p l e t e l y l o a d e d i t i s s t r e n g t h e n e d m e c h a n i c a l l y by e n c i r c l i n g i t w i t h s e a m l e s s s t e e l rings as shown i n F i g u r e 12.

......

rA,,-

Figure 12

Figure 1 1

F i g u r e 13

The g r i d i s made o f s t e e l i n t o which t h e t u b e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d a r e f o r c e d , g i v i n g a m e c h a n i c a l l y s t r o n g p l a t e which i s c a p a b l e o f w i t h s t a n d i n g cont i n u a l s h o c k s and v i b r a t i o n . The g r i d i s shown i n F i g u r e 13 and t h e completed p o s i t i v e p l a t e a t A, F i g u r e 14. The n e g a t i v e p l a t e i s made up o f a number of f l a t p e r f o r a t e d s t e e l c o n t a i n e r s o r p o c k e t s i n t o which i s packed i r o n o x i d e w i t h a small amount of mercury o x i d e . A f t e r t h e s e p o c k e t s , shown i n F i g u r e 15, a r e packed and c l o s e d t h e y a r e p l a c e d i n t h e o p e n i n g s o f t h e n e g a t i v e g r i d , shown i n F i g u r e 1 6 , and f o r c e d i n t o permanent p l a c e and c o n t a c t by h y d r a u l i c p r e s s u r e . The completed n e g a t i v e p l a t e i s shown a t B, F i g u r e 1 4 . The p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e p l a t e s a r e now mounted on s t e e l r o d s which a r e i n t e g r a l w i t h t h e t a p e r e d s t e e l p o l e s p r o j e c t i n g t h r o u g h t h e t o p of t h e c e l l f o r e x t e r n a l c o n n e c t i o n . A f t e r t h e p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e g r o u p s have been formed t h e y a r e i n t e r l e a v e d a s shown i n F i g u r e 17. The p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e g r o u p s a r e i n s u l a t e d from e a c h o t h e r by a s u i t a b l e r u b b e r i n s u l a t i o n which k r e v e n t s them from making e l e c t r i c a l c o n t a c t . F i g u r e 18 shows t h e two g r o u p s assembled and r e a d y t o be p l a c e d i n t h e s t e e l container. The c o n t a i n e r i s made o f a h i g h g r a d e s h e e t s t e e l h e a v i l y n i c k e l p l a t e d , a s a r e a l l o t h e r p a r t s of t h e c e l l . A l l seams and j o i n t s n e c e s s a r y i n i t s

Lesson 1 7

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s h e e t 15

Figure 14

Lesson 17

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sheet 16

c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e s e a l e d by means of welding. The c o n t a i n e r i s t i g h t l y s e a l e d except f o r t h e opening i n t h e top which i s provided f o r t h e escape of gases t h a t a r e given o f f during t h e process of charge, and f o r t h e add i t i o n of water and e l e c t r o l y t e . The opening provided with a s p r i n g f i l l e r cap which contains a g a s valve, while t h e openings through which t h e tapered t e r m i n a l s pass a r e s e a l e d with s o f t rubber g a s k e t s . Figure 19 shows t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e t o p of t h e c o n t a i n e r .
A cutaway view of t h e completed Edison case i s shown i n Figure 20 i n which

each p a r t i s p l a i n l y marked.

Figure 15 Figure 1 6

THE CHEMICAL ACTION O THE EDISON CELL:F i n t h e Edison c e l l i s a s follows:

The chemical process taking p l a c e

The f i r s t charging of t h e Edison c e l l reduces the i r o n oxide t o a m e t a l l i c i r o n , w h i l e converting t h e n i c k e l hydrate t o a. very h i g h oxide,black In c o l o r . O discharge, t h e m e t a l l i c i r o n goes back t o i r o n oxide and t h e high n i c k e l n n oxide goes t o a lower oxide, but not t o i t s o r i g i n a l form. O every c y c l e t h e r e a f t e r t h e n e g a t i v e charges t o m e t a l l i c i r o n and d i s c h a r g e s t o i r o n oxide while t h e p o s i t i v e p l a t e charges t o a h i g h n i c k e l oxide.

Figure 1 7 Lesson 17

- s h e e t 17

Current passing i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of charge o r d i s c h a r g e decomposes t h e potassium hydrate of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e , and t h e o x i d a t i o n and reduction of the e l e c t r o d e a r e brought about by the a c t i o n of i t s elements. A amount of potassium h y d r a t e equal t o t h a t decomposed i s always reformed n a t one of t h e e l e c t r o d e s by a secondary chemical r e a c t i o n , i n consequence t h e r e i s none of i t l o s t and i t s d e n s i t y remains constant.

Figure 18

F i g u r e 19

The f i n a l r e s u l t of charging i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e of oxygen from the Iron t o t h e n i c k e l e l e c t r o d e s and t h a t of discharging i s t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e back again.
A hydrometer reading of t h i s c e l l i s not r e q u i r e d a s t h e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of

t h e e l e c t r o l y t e does n o t change with t h e s t a t e of charge o r discharge and consequently the only d i r e c t method of making a measurement of t h e s t a t e of charge i s with an ampere-hour meter o r by t h e c o r r e c t use of a voltmeter. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EDISON CELL:- The v o l t a g e of t h e Edison c e l l i s only 1.2 v o l t s on normal discharge. The disadvantage of t h i s low voltage i s o f f s e t by the ease w i t h which t h e b a t t e r y i s cared f o r . I t may be l e f t standing f o r long periods without i n j u r y providing t h e e l e c t r o l y t e i s a t t h e proper l e v e l above t h e p l a t e s . I t w i l l s u f f e r no damage by being subjected t o extreme cold. I t may be charged o r discharged a t r a p i d r a t e s roviding Its t h e temperature of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e does n o t exceed 115 degrees ( F maintenance c o s t i s low and i t s g r e a t s t r e n g t h enables i t t o be subjected t o rough treatment without i n j u r y .

f.

The charging voltage of t h i s c e l l i s from 1.5 v o l t s t o 1.8 v o l t s per c e l l depending upon t h e type. F u l l i n s t r u c t i o n concerning t h e charging r a t e accompanies each c e l l . The c e l l should be charged when t h e voltage has f a l l e n t o 0.9 v o l t s . I f t h e b a t t e r y i s a c c i d e n t a l l y given a charge i n t h e wrong d i r e c t i o n no permanent i n j u r y w i l l r e s u l t , however, t h e b a t t e r y should a t once be given a long charge i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n t o r e s t o r e the c e l l s t o proper condition. m e n on charge a f r e e g a s s i n g of the c e l l s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of a healthy condition. Frothing, however, i s a s u r e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t something i s wrong; f o r e i g n substances have g o t t e n i n t o t h e c e l l , o r t h e e l e c t r o l y t e Lesson 17

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s h e e t 18

i s too high and, i f t h i s condition continues f o r any l e n g t h of time, t h e e l e c t r o l y t e should be emgtied out and a new s o l u t i o n added. The d i f f e r e n t types of Edison b a t t e r i e s a r e designated by l e t t e r s and numerals. C e l l s bearing the same l e t t e r , a s A-4 and 8-12, o r G-6 and G-9, a r e composed of t h e same kind of p l a t e s and differ o n l y in t h e number of p l a t e s . The numeral i n d i c a t e s t h e number of POSITIVE p l a t e s . For example, t h e c e l l designated a s A-4 has four p o s i t i v e p l a t e s , and A-12 has twelve p o s i t i v e p l a t e s . I n a l l types of Edison c e l l s t h e number of negative p l a t e s exceeds the p o s i t i v e by one.

VALVE

F'>LER CAP

P O S I T I V E POLE

NEGATIVE POLE HARD RUBBER G L A N D CAP PER WIRESWEDGED C E L L COVER WELDED T O CONTAINER C E L L COVER S T U F F I N G BOX W E L D T O COVER GLAND R l N G CONNECTING ROD P O S I T I V E GRID

NEGATIVE GRID

NEGATIVE POCKET
[IRON

OXIDEI

-

G R I D SEPARATOR SEAMLESS S T E E L RINGS

P l N INSULATOR POSlTlVE TUBE
NICKEL M I D R A T E 6ND NECKEL IN L A Y E R S

SIDE INSULATOR

CORRUGATION6

SIDE ROD INSULATOR

SUSPENSION BOSS SOLID STEEL CONTAINER

CEL' B O T T O M
[ W E LL 1 0 TO 5 1 ~ ~ 5 1

Figure 20

Lesson 17

- sheet 19

EXAMINATION
1.

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LESSON 1 7

H w does t h e I r o n c l a d Exide c e l l d i f f e r from t h e MVA type described o i n t h e previous l e s s o n ? H w does t h e Edison c e l l d i f f e r Prom t h e Exide? o What type of l e a d a c i d c e l l i s b e s t adapted f o r use when subjected t o r a d i c a l c l i m a t i c changes? Explain f u l l y how you would determine t h e p o l a r i t y of t h e charging source. H w i s t h e s t a t e of charge of t h e Edison c e l l determined? o W y a r e s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s used on shipboard? h What a r e some of t h e advantages of t h e Edison c e l l ?

2.

3.
4.

5.
6.
7,

[ti
9. 10,

What i s t h e maximum v o l t a g e of t h e Exide s t o r a g e c e l l ? The Edison?

What e l e c t r o l y t e i s used i n t h e Edison c e l l ? What i s t h e maximum allowable temperature of t h e e l e c t r o l y t e of a l e a d a c i d c e l l when on charge?

Lesson 17
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s h e e t 20

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INC.
M A R C O N / /NST/)TU7Z

Technical Lesson 1 8

If you were a steam engineer you would not t h i n k of working near b o i l e r s which had n o t been equipped w i t h steam gauges t o i n d i c a t e t h e amount of s t e m p r e s s u r e . A instrument t o show t h e p r e s s u r e of t h e steam i s n q u i t e necessary. N e i t h e r should you undertake e l e c t r i c a l work of any importance without i n d i c a t i n g instruments ( m e t e r s ) designed t o measure e l e c t r i c i t y i n t h e c i r c u i t s which you may work w i t h .

c a l l e d meters, t h e f i r s t one t o be considered i n t h i s l e s s o n i s one which may be employed t o d e t e c t minute e l e c t r i c a l f o r c e s . T h i s i s t h e o r d i n a r y magnetized needle and i s one of t h e s i m p l e s t forms of c u r r e n t det e c t i n g instruments.
O f t h e d i f f e r e n t e l e c t r i c a l i n d i c a t i n g instruments,

The magnetized needle, whenbrought near a c u r r e n t c a r r y i n g conductor, w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e presence of c u r r e n t i n t h a t conductor by being def l e c t e d . ,The needle w i l l , i f allowed t o come t o r e s t , t a k e up & d e f i n i t e p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of current p a s s i n g through t h e conductor.

Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 The followin@;a r e experiments you may t r y w i t h an o r d i n a r y magnetic compass, a l e n g t h of wire, and d r y c e l l s . The compass i s contained i n a small metal case and covered w i t h g l a s s t o p r o t e c t the needle. Only t h e needle and support i s shown i n t h e f i g u r e . I n Figure 1 place a compass under a l e n g t h of wire allowing t h e needle t o come t o r e s t , p o i n t i n g t o t h e North. Adjust t h e wire so t h e t it i s d i r e c t l y above and p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e compass needle. You w i l l n o t i c e t h a t t h e needle remains a t r e s t , but when t h e s w i t c h "s* i s closed t h e needle i s d e f l e c t e d a t once and w i l l assume t h e p o s i t i o n a s shown i n Figure 2. Change t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e wire by p l a c i n g it underneath t h e needle and t h e n e e d l e w i l l p o i n t i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n and t h e def l e c t i o n of t h e needle w i l l t h e n be as shown i n Figure 3.
Contents Copyrighted 1930 Printed in U.S.A.

Next form a c l o s e d loop of t h e wire a s shown i n Figure 4 and place t h e needle i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e loop midway between t h e t o p and bottom wires. I n t h i s p o s i t i o n t h e needle w i l l not show any d e f l e c t i o n when t h e switch i s closed, providing the c u r r e n t s t r e n g t h is e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n b o t h s i d e s of t h e conductor forming t h e closed loop. When t h e compass i s placed c l o s e r t o one o r t h e o t h e r of t h e two cond u c t o r s , one above and t h e o t h e r below t h e compass, t h e needle w i l l be influenced by t h e conductor n e a r e s t t o it. O r i f t h e wires a r e of une q u a l r e s i s t a n c e and more c u r r e n t flows i n one t h a n t h e o t h e r t h e needle m i l l be influenced by t h e wire c a r r y i n g t h e g r e a t e s t current. Capry out f u r t h e r experiments w i t h c i r c u i t s as shown i n F i g u r e s 5 and 6 and make notes a s t o t h e r e s u l t i n g d e f l e c t i o n of t h e compass needle. You may o r l g i n a t e any experiment you d e s i r e , watching c a r e f u l l y t h e p o l a r i t y , but keep t h e s w i t c h c l o s e d only momentarily If a s h o r t wire i s used. I n c r e a s e and decrease t h e c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e conductor and c a r e f u l l y watch the movement of t h e compass needle when h e l d a t various d i s t a n c e s from the conductor.

Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 4 The value of t h e compass a s a n e l e c t r i c a l i n d i c a t i n g instnument l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t t h e presence of c u r r e n t and, by t h e d e f l e c t i o n of t h e needle, p o l a r i t y may be determined.

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The galvanometer i s designed t o d e t e c t s m a l l c u r r e n t s of e l e c t r i c i t y and t o measure t h e i r r e l a t i v e strength. Two ty-pes used i n r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s a r e t h e Thompson A s t a t i c , and Dtkrsonval galvanometers. These instruments o p e r a t e under d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p l e s and have t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r values f o r c e r t a i n k i n d s of work. The Thompson A s t a t i c galvanometer d e r i v e s i t s name from t h e p o s i t i o n of two s e t s of permanent magnets which a r e secured t o mica d i s c s and joined t o g e t h e r by a s t i f f wire s o t h a t t h e i r p o l e s a r e r e v e r s e d , t h u s n e u t r a l i z i n g t h e magnetic i n f l u e n c e of each o t h e r , i n o t h e r words, they a r e i n a s t a t i c r e l a t i o n t o each other. About e a c h s e t of magnets i s a c o i l of wire wound i n a d i r e c t i o n which, when c u r r e n t i s passed through

Lesson 18

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2

t h e c o i l s , t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e r e s u l t i n g f i e l d w i l l t e n d t o t u r n t h e magnets i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . The a s t a t i c p o s i t i o n of t h e magnets i n n e u t r a l i z i n g e a c h o t h e r e l i m i n a t e s t h e e f f e c t which t h e E a r t h ' s magnetic f i e l d would otherwise e x e r t upon t h e system. A l i g h t m i r r o r i s secured t o t h e wire j o i n i n g t h e two s e t s of magnets on which abeam W i t h t h i s d e l i c a t e system very minute c u r r e n t s of l i g h t i s d i r e c t e d . can be d e t e c t e d by t h e movement of a m i r r o r which i s d e f l e c t e d a s c u r r e n t passes through t h e c o i l s . Figure 7 i l l u s t r a t e s a fundamental A s the revolving element of t h i s meter i s p l a n of t h i s instrument. suspended by a cocoon ' f i b r e it t u r n s very e a s i l y and w i l l swing back and f o r t h f o r some time a f t e r being s e t i n motion. The mica d i s c s , however, tend t o s t o p t h i s swinging movement t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t h u s (Deadbeat meaningto s t o p swinging when tending t o make it dead b e a t . c u r r e n t through t h e c o i l s becomes constant.)

MICh DISC,------.. SUPPORTING MIRROR

---..

-CACOON FIBRE

AN0 REFLECTOR

Figure 7
THE D 1 ARSONVAL G L A O E E AV N MTR

Figure 7 A

In t h e type of i n d i c a t i n g instrument j u s t d i s c u s s e d we have concerned o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e t y p e of galvanometer i n which t h e magnet formed t h e moving elements. W now f i n d i n t h e DlArsonval galvanometer a type i n e which the magnets a r e s t a t i o n a r y and a c o i l of w i r e forms t h e moving 8 element. Figure 7 .
The wire forming t h e armature i s wound on a r e c t a n g u l a r frame i n t h e c e n t e r of which i s placed a s o f t i r o n core. T h i s core s e r v e s t o concentrate t h e powerful f i e l d of t h e permanent magnets i n which it i s suspended. Both t h e wire frame and core a r e supported by a f i n e phosphor bronze wire a t t o p and bottom through which t h e c u r r e n t p a s s e s i n reaching and l e a v i n g t h e winding of t h e c o i l . When c u r r e n t i s passed through t h e instrument i t s e t s up a f i e l d about t h e co 1 producing a North and South pole and, s i n c e it i s suspended i n t e powerful magnetic f i e l d o f t h e magnets, t h e North pole of t h e armature c o i l t e n d s t o t u r n toward the South pole of t h e magnet and t h e South pole toward t h e North p o l e of t h e magnet.

2

Lesson 18

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I n t h e l a b o r a t o r y t y p e a m i r r o r i s moved when c u r r e n t passes through t h e c o i l and, -ifa l i g h t beam i s d i r e c t e d on t h e m i r r o r , t h i s beam w i l l b e r e f l e c t e d along a scale. By winding t h e c o i l on a non-magnetic core t h e instrument becomes p r a c t i c a l l y dead b e a t , f o r a s soon a s t h e c o i l moves i n t h e f i e l d of t h e permanent magnets induced c u r r e n t s a r e s e t up i n t h i s non-magnetic frame which a r e i n such a d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e y tend t o s t o p t h e motion producing them ( L e n z f s Law). An instrument of t h i s kind, w i t h proper design, may b e equipped t t h a p o i n t e r and used commercially. For example, the Westinghouse P X 2 type galvanometer, shown i n Figure 8, has an extremely s e n s i t i v e DlArsonval movement, the c o i l being supported by f i n e p i v o t b e a r i n g a c c u r a t e l y f i t t e d i n sapphires which make it s u i t a b l e f o r p r e c i s i o n measurements and l a b o r a t o r y work. T h i s instrument may be used i n r a d i o c i r c u i t s , f o r example, t o measure B power u n i t voltages when t h e potentiometer method, a s shown diagrammatically i n F i g u r e 9, i s used. T h i s meter can then be used t o o b t a i n c o r r e c t readings of B v o l t s g e s with a n vl ordinary low r e s i s t a n c e voltmeter. The readings t h u s obtained v il be t r u e voltages because t h i s method does n o t i n c r e a s e t h e load which would cause a corresponding voltage drop on t h e B b a t t e r y power u n i t , a s i n t h e ordinary voltmeter t e s t .

Figure 9 The galvanometer i s v e r y u s e f u l and has many a p p l i c a t i o n s but from t h e very n a t u r e of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of such instruments it i s obvious t h a t a c u r r e n t of any considerable magnitude could n o t be passed d i r e c t l y through t h e windings because of t h e i r low r e s i s t a n c e . There i s , however, a method we can i n c o r p o r a t e which permits us t o connect a d e l i c a t e galvanometer i n c i r c u i t s c a r r y i n g hundreds of amperes and t h a t i s by connecting i n t h e meter c i r c u i t a s p e c i a l r e s i s t a n c e a l l o y , c a l l e d a shunt.

Figure 8

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THE SHUNT
For many y e a r s it was necessary, when s t a t i n g t h e r e s i s t a n c e of a m e t a l l i c substance, t o q u a l i f y t h e statement by adding t h a t t h e r e s i s t a n c e would be a c e r t a i n value a t a c e r t a i n temperature, t h a t i s , a s t h e temperature of a metal i n c r e a s e s s o does i t s r e s i s t a n c e . T h i s p e c u l i a r i t y was more pronounced i n some metals t h a n i n other8 and when r e s i s t a n c e was used i t s temperature had t o be f i r s t determined before a p o s i t i v e statement could be made r e l a t i v e t o i t s t r u e resistance. Lesson 18

- sheet 4

D r . ' ~ e s t o nof t h e Weston E l e c t r i c a l Instrument Company, a f t e r many yenrs of r e s e a r c h , succeeded i n producing a m e t a l l i c a l l o y t h e r e s i s t r n c e of which a c t u a l l y decreased a s i t s t e m p e r a t u r e increased. T h i s was e x a c t l y what was r e q u i r e d i n t h e manufacture of shunts used w i t h measuring instruments and i t insured g r e a t accuracy i n t h e readi n g of e l e c t r i c a l meters.
If an m e t e r i s placed d i r e c t l y i n t h e l i n e a s shown a t A, Figure 10, t h e only p a t h f o r t h e c u r r e n t i s d i r e c t l y through t h e instrument. Suppose t h e instrurxent was designed f o r a c u r r e n t of 1 ampere and t h e l i n e was c a r r y i n g 50 amperes,- t h e meter c e r t a i n l y would be destroyed. To understand t h e p r i n c i p l e of t h e shunt r e f e r t o B, Figure 10. The r e s i s t o r "R", which has been added, i s a d j u s t e d u n t i l i t i s t h e same a s the r e s i s t a n c e of t h e meter windings and, when the c u r r e n t i s thrown on, h a l f t h e c u r r e n t w i l l p a s s through t h e meter d i r e c t and h a l f through t h e r e s i s t o r o r shunt and, t o o b t a i n t h e c o r r e c t r e a d i n g i n amperes, we m u l t i p l y t h e r e a d i n g of t h e instrument by 2. If now we Figure 10, two add another shunt of t h e same r e s i s t a n c e a s i n "C" t h i r d s of t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t w i l l pass through t h e shunt and one t h i r d t h r o q h t h e meter. T h i s r a t i o may be c a r r i e d on i n d e f i n i t e l y , and by employing t h e proper shunt value of r e s i s t a n c e , a v e r y d e l i c a t e and low r e s i s t a n c e meter may be used t o measure v e r y h i g h c u r r e n t values. When we consider t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e shunt r e q u i r e d i t i s not necessary t o have a number o i i n d i v i d u a l s h u n t s because t h e y c a n a l l be made i n t o one p i e c e of r e s i s t a n c e a l l o y .

,

Figure 10
i ;

Figure 1 1

form of commercial shunt; i s shown a t D, Figure 10. The a l l o y s t r i p s a r e soldered i n t o lugs and spaced for v e n t i l a t i o n . The measuring instrument i s then.connected t o t h e lugs.
THE AlJIIilETER

Since, by t h e f o r e g o i r q method, t h e c u r r e n t flowing i n t h e c o i l s of e t h e galvanometer can be divided and proportioned w c a n now u t i l i z e t h e gslvanometer i n d i f f e r e n t ways f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes. When a shunt i s p l a c e d a c r o s s t h e t e r m i n a l s of a galvanometer we t h e n have an a m e t e r . The ammeter i s c a l i b r a t e d so t h a t t h e n e e d l e , i n moving

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over the s c a l e , r e a d s d i r e c t l y i n amperes. These instruments a r e i n f a c t merely p o r t a b l e t y p e s of DlArsonval galvanometers. Up t o a c e r t a i n c u r r e n t value, (approximately 30 amperes) t h e shunt i s placed i n s i d e the case containing t h e working p a r t of t h e ammeter and i s g e n e r a l l y i n the form of h i g h r e s i s t a n c e wire. When l e r g e r c u r r e n t s a r e t o be handled t h e shunt t a k e s the form as shown i n Figure 1 0 D and i s connected t o the t e r m i n a l s of t h e ammeter, but o u t s i d e of t h e case of t h e i n s t r u ment marked G . a r e binding p o s t s by which t h e instrument may be connected t o t h e source of c u r r e n t and a c r o s s which i s connected t h e shunt. The w i r e s BB, conn e c t t o t h e s p r i n g s S ~ S a a n dc a r r y the c u r r e n t t o and away from t h e armat u r e . The armature i s r e c t a n g u l a r i n shape and wound on a non-magnetic metal frame. Between t h e North and South p o l e s of t h e permanent horse shoe magnet i s a s o f t i r o n c y l i n d e r core which i s s t a t i o n a r y and placed t h e r e t o improve t h e magnetic q i r c u i t of t h e magnet t h u s producing a more uniform f i e l d i n which t h e c o i l moves. The c o i l swings between t h i s s o f t i r o n core and t h e permanent magnet pole p i e c e s when c u r r e n t i s flowing. A s c u r r e n t i s passed through t h e armature winding t h e l i n e s of f o r c e between t h e normal f i e l d from N t o S of t h e h o r s e show magnet a r e lengthened out and, i n t r y i n g t o s h o r t e n themselves, t h e y a c t u a l l y t w i s t or t u r n t h e c o i l . When t h e t e n s i o n of t h e s p r i n g s , S I and SO., i s equal t o t h e p u l l of t h e magnetic f i e l d t h e p o i n t e r , which I s a t t a c h e d t o t h e armature c o i l frame, comes t o r e s t and t h e reading of t h e i n s t r m e n t nay be taken from t h e s c a l e over which t h e p o i n t e r swings. The wire used i n t h e armature i s very f i n e and i s designed t o c a r r y only a small f r a c t i o n of t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t fl,owing, t h e r e f o r e , t o make t h e instrument capable of measuring l a r g e c u r r e n t values t h e shunt must be placed a c r o s s t h e armature c o i l .
USE O THE AMMETER F
A fundamental drawing of t h e Weston ammeter appears i n Figure 1 . 1

AA

Ammeters a r e found i n a l l phases of e l e c t r i c a l work and a r e designed t o measure minute c u r r e n t s of a few thousandths of an ampere a s w e l l a s c u r r e n t s of thousands of amperes. I n r a d i o work t h e m e t e r i s used t o measure t h e c u r r e n t i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of t h e c i r c u i t such as f o r determining t h e c u r r e n t i n t h e filament and p l a t e c i r c u i t s . w e n used i n t h e p l a t e c i r c u i t t h e y i n d i c a t e t h e c u r r e n t i n milll-amperes and a r e t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d milliammeters. ( m i l l i meaning a thousandth part. ) The ammeter must always be connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e l i n e hence, when connecting an ammeter i n a c i r c u i t , it i s necessary t o open one s i d e of t h e l i n e and connect the ammeter i n such a manner t h a t t h e c u r r e n t flows through it. Care must be e x e r c i s e d i n making c e r t a i n t h a t the instrument w i l l have a range s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t enough t o c a r r y t h e c u r r e n t flowing.

Lesson 18

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Figure 1 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e connections f o r measuring t h e B b a t t e r y c u r r e n t u s i n g a d i r e c t c u r r e n t m i l l i m e t e r . The c u r r e n t of t h e f i l a m e n t c i r c u i t s , (" A " b a t t e r y c u r r e n t ) , may be measured by follovri n g t h e diagram shown i n Figure 13. The student must thoroughly understand t h a t t h e ammeter must always . be connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e C ~ F C U ~ ~FEVER CONNECT AN AMMETER
ACROSS THE LINE.

Figure 12

Figure 13

THE: VOLTMETER
Any galvanometer i n which a h i g h r e s i s t a n c e c o i l i s p a r t of t h e movable armature c o i l c i r c u i t may be employed t o measure t h e voltage o f a n e l e c t r i c a l circuit.
A voltmeter i s simply a galvanometer i n which a c o i l of h i g h r e s i s t a n c e has been connected i n s e r i e s with t h e moving c o i l , o r included i n s e r i e s with the circuit.

Figure 1 4 shows a p l a n diagram of a t y p i c a l Weston d i r e c t c u r r e n t movable c o i l voltmeter which c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of a l i g h t r e c t a n g u l a r c o i l of copper wire u s u a l l y wound upon an aluminum frame, pivoted i n jeweled bearings, and mounted t o r o t a t e i n an annul a r space between t h e s o f t i r o n c o r e and t h e s p e c i a l l y formed pole p i e c e s of a permanent magnet. A l i g h t tubular p o i n t e r i s r i g i d l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e c o i l and moves over a c a l i brated scale. The c u r r e n t i s l e a d i n t o and from t h e c o i l by means of two s p i r a l s p r i n g s , which serve ~ T U PPE R S P R IN G O TO L O W ER SPRING-/ a l s o t o c o n t r o l i t s movements. T h i s movement i s due t o t h e dynamic a c t i o n between Figure 1 4 the c o i l and t h e t h e c u r r e n t flowing t h r o ~ h magnetic f i e l d of t h e permanent magnet. The becomes s t a t i o n a r y and t h e c o i l a t t a i n s a p o s i t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m when t h e o p p o s i ~ o r c e s f of t h e s p r i n g s e q u a l t h e f o r c e caused by t h e r o t a r y tendency of t h e c o i l . Since t h e magnetic f i e l d i s uniform and t h e t o r s i o n of t h e springs proportional t o t h e deflection, the s c a l e divisions are

Lesson 18-. s h e e t 7

p r a c t i c a l l - y uniform. The higher t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e windings t h e more s e n s i t i v e t h e instrument because of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c u r r e n t flovr i n a h i g h r e s i s t a n c e i s v e r y small and does n o t appreciably a f f e c t t h e voltage t o be measured. Voltmeters must be p l a c e d a c r o s s t h e l i n e a s shown i n Figure 15. Here we i l l u s t r a t e t h e method of measuring t h e voltage a p p l i e d t o t h e f i l a ment of a vacuum tube.

The meters thus f a r discussed have been t h e magnetic type which a r e employed i n d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s . Thege types of meters w i l l not f u n c t i o n when connected t o an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t because of t h e f a c t t h a t one a l t e r n a t i o n would tend t o move t h e c a i l i n one d i r e c t i o n and t h e following a l t e r n a t i o n would tend t o move it i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n . These a l t e r n a t i o n s occur s o r a p i d l y t h a t t h e moving element, in t e n d i n g t o obey one impulse, i s almost immediately caused t o move i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n by t h e succeeding impulse w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e i n d i c a t i n g needls remains p r a c t i c a l l y stationary.

THE T O P O A .C H MS N

.

METER

The Thompson i n c l i n e d c o i l meter, manufactured by t h e General Z l e c t r f c Company was developed t o measure a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . The working p a r t s of t h e instrument a r e shovm i n Figure 16. The i n c l i n e d c o i l C , through which the c u r r e n t p a s s e s , i s shorm i n c r o s s s e c t i o n . It i s mounted w i t h i t s axis inclined t o horizontal. I n t h e c e n t e r of t h i s c o i l i s placed a v e r t i c a l s h a f t mounted i n jewel bearings and c o n t r o l l e d by a f i n e f l a t A t t h e c e n t e r of t h i s s h a f t a vane of s o f t i r o n i s h a i r s p r i n g "s" o b l i q u e l y mounted.

.

When no c u r r e n t i s p a s s i n g through t h e c o i l "C" t h e p o i n t e r r e s t s a t t h e zero p o s i t i o n , h e l d t h e r e by t h e s p r i n g "s", and t h e i r o n vane l i e s n e a r l y a c r o s s t h e a x i s of? t h e coil. When c u r r e n t i s passed through t h e c o i l t h e i r o n t e n d s t o t u r n i n such a p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e l i n e s of f o r c e passing through it w i l l be p a r a l l e l t o t h e l i n e s of f o r c e i n t h e s c o i l . The p o i n t e r which i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e t o p of t h e v e r t i c ~ l h a f t then swings over the graduated s c a l e from whi ch t h e reading i s obtained. Lesson 18

- sheet 8

t u r e c o i l of t h e s e instruments i s wound w i t h a few t u r n s of e when t h e instrument i s t o be used a s an m e t e r and, when a s a voltmeter, a l a r g e number of turns of f i n e wire a r e on t h e c o i l . and. connected i n s e r i e s w i t h t h i s c o i l . i s a n a c c u r a t e l y a d j u s t e d h i g h r e s i s t a n c e c o i l . The moving armature, which l i e s i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e c o i l , c o n s i s t s of a small p i e c e of s o f t i r o n , s e m i - c i r c u l s r i n shape, secured t o a v e r t i c a l s h a f t which i s pivoted a t

Figure 17 b o t h ends and a c c u r a t e l y f i t t e d i n j e w e l b e a r i n g s . A p o i n t e r of t r u s s c o n s t r u c t i o n and very l i g h t i n weight i s secured t o t h e upper end of t h e s h a f t . A s m a l l vane i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e p o i n t e r which moves i n a small a i r compartment. T h i s vane, a s it moves i n t h e c l o s e d a i r compartment, provides t h e damping r e q u i r e d t o prevent t h e p o i n t e r from o s c i l l a t i n g , thus making t h e instrument "dead b e a t n . To a c c u r a t e l y balance t h e p o i n t e r i n t h e b e a r i n g s t h e non- indicating end of t h e p o i n t e r which c r o s s e s t h e s h a f t , i s threaded and provided with a

'- FIXED IRON

E

F

~iiure 17 small weight which may b e r u n forward o r backward u n t i l a balance i s obtained. S i t u a t e d c l o s e t o t h i s movable i r o n s l e e v e i s secured a f i x e d piece of curved i r o n , t r i a n g u l a r i n shape, w i t h t h e small end of t h e t r i a n g l e rounded o f f . This p i e c e of i r o n i s s e c u r e l y held i n place,

Lesson 18

-

sheet 9

up which magnetizes t h e f i x e d t r i a n g u l a r piece of i r o n and t h e curved movable i r o n elements due t o induction. A s b o t h t h e f i x e d i r o n and t h e i r o n of t h e movable element a r e w i t h i n t h e f i e l d c o i l t h e i r adjacent ends w i l l develope l i k e p o l a r i t i e s and, s i n c e t h e y a r e a l i k e a s t o a o l e r i t y , r e p u l s i o n t a k e s place between them. The only motion p o s s i b i e , d u e - t o t h e r e p e l l i n g a c t i o n betweep t h e two p i e c e s of i r o n , i s t h e movable element which t e n d s t o mme away from t h e l i k e pole of t h e f i x e d i r o n sleeve. The p o i n t e r t h e r e f o r e , swings over t h e s c a l e a s it i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e movable element.

a passed through t h e f i x e d c o i l a magnetic f i e l d i s s e t

and h a s no p h y s i c a l connection t o t h e armature c i r c u i t .

The motion of t h e p o i n t e r i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e s p i ~ a s p r i n g a t t h e l t o p of t h e s h a f t , which opposes i t s motion, and when c u r r e n t ceases t o p a s s i n t h e c o i l t h e p o i n t e r r e t u r n s t o z e r o p o s i t i o n . The p o i n t e r swings over t h e s c a l e and comes t o r e s t at once due t o t h e damping vane a t t a c h e d t o t h e p o i n t e r and which moves i n t h e closed a i r compartment. 7 The p l a n of t h e A.C. meter i s shown i n Figure 1 . " A " i s an i n s u l a t e d c o i l of wire is t h e c e n t e r of which i s suspended two p i e c e s of s o f t i r o n . When no c u r r e n t i s flowing through t h e c o i l t h e i r o n s t r i p s w i l l remain a s shown. When, however, a b a t t e r y i s connected so t h a t d i r e c t c u r r e n t flows through t h e t u r n s of t h e c o i l i n such a d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e i r o n s t r i p s a r e magnetized and develope N p o l e s a t t h e i r upper e ends and S p o l e s a t t h e i r lower ends, w have two magnets having l i k e p o l e s and, s i n c e l i k e p o l e s r e p e l 1 each other, t h e two i r o n s t r i p s w i l l be f o r c e d a p a r t as shown a t B. If t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e c u r r e n t flowing through the c o i l i s r e v e r s e d b y r e v e r s i n g the connections t o t h e b a t t e r y t h e i r o n s t r i p s a r e a g a i n magnetized but t h i s time develope S poles a t t h e i r upper ends and N p o l e s a t t h e i r lower ends. If some means can be provided whereby t h e c u r r e n t passing through t h e c o i l can b e r a p i d l y reversed t h e s e two i r o n s t r i p s w i l l c o n t i n u a l l y develope p o l a r i t i e s which w i l l t e n d t o produce a c o n t i n u a l o p p o s i t i o n between t h e m t h u s keeping them c o n s t a n t l y a p a r t a s long a s c u r r e n t i s flowing. T h i s i s done when t h e c o i l i s connected i n an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t . Suppose we go a s t e p f u r t h e r and f a s t e n one of t h e s e i r o n s t r i p s t o t h e s i d e of t h e c o i l i n a manner t h a t w i l l prevent it from moving and then suspend t h e remaining i r o n s t r i p a s shown a t D. By applying a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t o t h e c o i l a t D t h e suspended s t r i p w i l l be f o r c e d away from the f i x e d piece of i r o n a s shown a t E. One more s t e p ; - t h i s time we w i l l secure a f i x e d i r o n p l a t e a s shown a t F and suspend t h e o t h e r p l a t e by a s e t of b e a r i n g s which w i l l comp e l t h e suspended s t r i p t o move only by r o t a t i o n . Now, by applying a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t t o t h e arrangement a t F, t h e suspended p l a t e w i l l be f o r c e d away a s before and, a s i t moves, i t ; w i l l d e s c r i b e an a r c . To t h i s movable p l a t e we have secured a l i g h t p o i n t e r which moves over a graduated s c a l e and i n d i c a t e s t h e c u r r e n t p a s s i n g through the coii.

I

Lesson 18

- sheet

10

Figure 18 i s a cutaway photograph showing the f i x e d and movable i r o n s l e e v e s o r p l a t e s i n p l a c e i n s i d e the windings of an A.C. voltmeter and an A.C. a m e t e r , and a view of t h e damping compartment from which t h e cover has been removed.

THE WATTMETER
The power i n w a t t s i n a d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t i s equal t o t h e v o l t s m u l t i p l i e d by the amperes. By connecting an ammeter and voltmeter i n a DC . . c i r c u i t , as shown i n Figure 19, t h e value of c u r r e n t and voltage may be read. The ammeter r e a d s 3 amperes and t h e voltmeter 2 v o l t s ; by multiplying t h e s e two values w can f i n d t h e power i n w a t t s , thus e 2 x 3 = 6 watts. The wattmeter, which i s r e a l l y two instruments i n one, a voltmeter and an ammeter, performs t h i s computation f o r us a u t o m a t i c a l l y giving a

Figure 18 r e a d i n g d i r e c t l y i n watts. Two c o i l s a r e used i n t h i s instrument, one i s c a l l e d t h e voltage c o i l and t h e other t h e c u r r e n t c o i l . The c u r r e n t c o i l i s f i x e d and i s connected i n s e r i e s w i t h one s i d e of the l i n e j u s t a s you would connect an m e t e r . The voltage c o i l i s t h e movable e l e ment and i s connected a c r o s s t h e c i r c u i t j u s t a s you would connect a voltmeter.
A fundamental diagram of 2 wattmeter appears i n Figure 20. The c o i l s CC a r e wound w i t h heavy wire which w i l l p e r n i t t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t t o

flow through them rvithowt becoming e x c e s s i v e l y heated. The ends of t h e s e c o i l s a r e brought out t o two heavy binding p o s t s shown i n t h e diagram a s BB. The movable c o i l D i s the v o l t a g e c o i l and i s connected across t h e l i n e through t h e high r e s i s t a n c e c o i l R and small binding p o s t s a t E. The winfiing on t h e c o i l D c o n s i s t s of a few t u r n s

Lesson 18

- s h e e t 11

of f i n e i n s u l a t e d wire, tlie e n t i r e c o i l being plzced on a l i g h t v e r t i c a l s h a f t which i s mounted i n jewel bearings. Near t h e t o p of t h e s h a f t i s secured t h e p o i n t e r P and balanced c r o s s X; each end of t h e c r o s s X i s threaded and f i t t e d 7 7 4 t h small balancing nuts. The non- indicating end of t h e p o i n t e r i s threaded and f i t t e d w i t h a balancing nut or weight i n t h e same way. ImDIedihtely b l o w t h e c r o s s i s secured t h e c o n t r o l l i n g s p r i n g s Y which forms t h e terminals t o t h e voltage c o i l . The magnetic f o r c e a c t i n g on t h e movable c o i l D depends upon t h e c u r r e n t flow i n each c o i l . I n the voltage c o i l the c u r r e n t w i l l v a r y a s t h e p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between i t s t e r m i n a l s vary, and t h e c u r r e n t through t h e c o i l s CC w i l l vary d i r e c t l y a s t h e c u r r e n t v a r i e s i n the c i r c u i t t o which i t i s connected. The f o r c e s of t h e two c o i l s s e t t h e movable c o i l i n motion and, a s it t u r n s a g a i n s t t h e t o r s i o n of t h e s p r i n g s , t h e p o i n t e r P swings over t h e s c a l e S which i s graduated i n watts. T h i s instrument may b e used on e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i n g or d i r e c t c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s . Care, however, clust be taken t o see t h a t t h e instrument i s n o t connected i n a c i r c u i t c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t value above i t s r a t i n g .

Figure 19

1

LINE

Figure 20
WATT HOUR METW

U

Figure 21

The power i n w a t t s of a c i r c u i t i s t h e product of t h e v o l t s times . . c i r c u i t t h e r e i s no "power f a c t o r " whereas, t h e amperes. I n a D C i n A.C. c i r c u i t s , the n power f a c t o r " must be considered. I n a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t c i r c u i t s power i s equal t o t h e v o l t a g e times t h e c u r r e n t , times t h e cosine of t h e angle of l a g o r lead. T h i s formula f o r power i s expressed, P = I x E x Cos 6.
In t h e watt hour meter t h e power f a c t o r i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y taken care of i n t h e c a l i b r a t i o n of t h e instrument and t h e watt hours a r e read d i r e c t l y from a s e t of d i a l s .

Lesson 18

- sheet 12

I t ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e s i g n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e wattmeter j u s t des c r i b e d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e moving element. T h i s element i s a small motor which r e v o l v e s between t h e two l a r g e f i e l d o r c u r r e n t c o i l s CC. The s h a f t supporting t h e armature of the motor i s mounted i n Jewel bearings. I n s t e a d of a p o i n t e r a t t h e t o p of the s h a f t a s e t of g e a r t e e t h i s arranged which t u r n s a s h a f t D, mechanically and a u t o m a t i c a l l y counting t h e t o t a l number of k i l o w a t t s of energy consumed per hour. Since t h i s meter r e c o r d s the t o t a l m b e r of k i l o w a t t hours it i s c a l l e d an i n t e r g r a t i n g watt hour meter. The magnetic f o r c e $ of t h e c o i l s M and CC causes t h e armature c o i l BB t o revolve and t h e r a t e of r o t a t i o n w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s e two magnetic e f f e c t s .

A simple diagram of t h e Thompson Wattmeter i s shown i n Figure 21.

The l i g h t aluminum d i s c E which i s a t t a c h e d t o the lower end of t h e amnature s h a f t r e v o l v e s w i t h t h e s h a f t and p a s s e s between two s t r o n g permanent horse shoe magnets SS. A s t h i s d i s c t u r n s , e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t s (eddy c u r r e n t s ) a r e set up i n it by t h e magnetic f i e l d of t h e magnets, and t h e s e c u r r e n t s when s e t up produce a r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t which t e n d s t o prevent t h e motion producing them. T h i s d i s c then, i s i n e f f e c t , a brake which p r e v e n t s t h e armature c o i l from running away. It a l s o s t o p s t h e armature a s soon a s c u r r e n t f l o w i s discontinned.

.

>

Figure 22A t h e jeweled coil F is high reor direct

Figure 22 To compensate f o r t h e small amount of f r i c t i o n p r e s e n t a t b e a r i n g s JJ, and commutator X, a small compensating f i e l d connected i n t h e shunt c i r c u i t of t h e armature, a s i s t h e s i s t a n c e R. T h i s m e t e r nay be used on e i t h e r a l t e r n a t i n g current circuits.
THE SANGAMO D.C.
WATTMETER

The sangamo watt hour meter h a s a copper d i s c as i t s armature i n s t e a d of t h e c o i l of wire and commutator. The copper d i s c i s i n c l o s e d i n a mercury chamber i n which i t revolves, t h e mercury forming p a r t of t h e c i r c u i t . T h i s d e s i g n p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e s commutator f r i c t i o n a s t h e d i s c f l o a t s i n t h e mercury. The sangamo meter, which i s a mercury motor, c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y of t h e copper d i s c which f l o a t s i n t h e mercury and which l a y s i n t h e f i e l d of a n electromagnet. Leads a r e provided t o d i r e c t the c u r r e n t t o and from the mercury a t d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposite points, Lesson 18

- sheet 13

The r e l a t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s a r e shown i n Figure 22. The c u r r e n t of e l e c t r i c i t y c a r r i e d by t h e c i r c u i t i n which energy i s t o be measured e n t e r s at contact b a r C 1 , p a s s e s through the comparatively h i g h r e s i s t a n c e mercury H, t o the edge of t h e copper d i s c D, c r o s s e s t h e d i s c t o t h e I, mercury H . and out a t c o n t a c t bar C 2 .
A magnetic f i e l d which c u t s t h e copper d i s c and which consequently produces r o t a t i o n when c u r r e n t passes through the d i s c i s obtained from t h e electro- magnet M 2 which i s energized by t h e windings shown connected across t h e l i n e . k s o f t s t e e l p l a t e i s placed above t h e mercury chamber shown i n t h e diagram a s M 1 ; t h i s a c t s a s a r e t u r n f o r t h e magnetic l i n e s of f o r c e from the electromagnet M2.

According t o t h e laws of electromagnetic induction, i f a current carrying conductor c u t s a magnetic f i e l d a t r i g h t angles, a f o r c e i s e x e r t e d upon the conductor tending t o push it a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o b o t h t h e c m n t and t h e f l u x , hence t h e d i s c revolves a t a uniform r a t e . The r e l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n of t h e magnetic f l u x and t h e c u r r e n t of e l e c t r i c i t y a s w e l l a s t h e r e s u l t i n g motion i s shown i n Figure 22A. Since t h e d i s c D i s f r e e t o move and i s c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t , t h e d i r e c t i o n of which i s a t r i g h t angles t o t h e f i x e d magnetic f i e l d produced by t h e magnets exp l a i n e d i n Figure 22, t h e d i s c D i s pushed by t h i s magnetic f o r c e and moves from i t s i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . This allows c u r r e n t t o e n t e r t h e d i s c a t a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t on t h e edge of t h e d i s c D and it i s a g a i n pushed out of t h e f i e l d .

* N i l SPLASH SHELL

MOLDED INSULATION

ROTATING D I B G E U B M E W E
IN MEROYR"

MERCYRYTYBE

OWE* BEIIIIXO

wsrw

Figure 23 Lessan 18

Figure 23A

- sheet 14
-

-

W i t h a c o n s t a n t change i n t h e p o i n t a t which c u r r e n t e n t e r s and leaves

t h e d i s c r o t a t i o n r e s u l t s , w h i c h continues a s long a s c u r r e n t flows i n the circuit. Figure 23 shows a c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h i s instrument which t h e student should study. Figure 23A i s a view of t h e w a t t meter showing damping d i s c and damping magnets i n place.
SANGAMO AMPERE HOUR M T R EE

T h i s meter i s t h e type used on board s h i p i n a u x i l i a r y b a t t e r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s . It not only i n d i c a t e s t h e s t a t e of charge of t h e b a t t e r y b u t a l s o a u t o m a t i c a l l y t e r m i n a t e s the charge when t h e b a t t e r y i s f u l l y charged. T h i s meter, known a s t h e N type, employs two permanent magnets which f u r n i s h the d r i v i n g f l u x , damping, and r e t a r d i n g f o r c e . The shape and s i z e of t h e magnets a r e such a s t o allow a very h i g h s t a t e of magnetization.

By design, t h e poles of t h e s t e e l p l a t e and electromagnet a r e c l o s e t o g e t h e r , being l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y above and below t h e d i s c , which

Figure 24

Figure 25

produces very dense and powerful f i e l d s a c r o s s t h e d i s c , The armature chamber, a round f l a t box o f moulded i n s u l a t i o n , shown i n Figure 24, c o n t a i n s t h e copper d i s c . The fundamental o p e r a t i n g t h e o r y i s t h e same i n t h i s t y p e a s i n t h e w a t t hour meter p r e v i o u s l y described. The moving element of t h e meter i s shown i n Figure 25. It comprises a s o l i d copper d i s c and a hardened s h a f t s e c u r e l y f i x e d i n t h e main hub. The upper end of t h e s h a f t c a r r i e s t h e worm and t h e highly polished p i v o t . Over the worm i s f i t t e d t h e counter weight which r e g u l a t e s t h e f l o t a t i o n of t h e moving system s o t h a t t h e upward pressure of t h e p i v o t a g a i n s t t h e jewel b e a r i n g i s about one t e n t h of an ounce.

Lesson 18

- sheet 15

Storage b a t t e r i e s do not give a s much energy a s i s put i n t o them. A meter designed f o r u s e with storage b a t t e r i e s must, t h e r e f o r e , autom a t i c a l l y provide f o r t h e r e q u i r e d excess of charge or discharge. This compensating arrangement should be a d j u s t a b l e over a considerable range since it i s a m a t t e r of common knowledge t h a t b a t t e r i e s of d i f f e r e n t types, a s well a s b a t t e r i e s of t h e same type but i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of s e r v i c e , r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s i n order t o give the amount of overcharge b e s t s u i t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r conditions.

Figure 26 The sangamo meter i s provided w i t h a v a r i a b l e r e s i s t o r element, Figure 26, which c o n s i s t s o f a small a u x i l i a r y mercury chanber which i s located i n - t h e leakage f i e l d s of t h e permanent magnets and equipped w i t h a pivoted copper vane. This mercury chamber i s connected i n s e r i e s with t h e armature c i r c u i t so t h a t t h e pivoted copper vane tends t o r o t a t e according t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of c u r r e n t through t h e meter, o p e r a t i n g on t h e same p r i n c i p l e a s t h e main disc. The movement of the r e s i s t o r i s l i m i t e d t o an angle of 45 degrees or l e s s by a p i n i n s e r t e d i n t h e ends of an e c c e n t r i c screw.

O discharge the vane t a k e s a p o s i t i o n over a copper contact d i r e c t l y n
connected t o t h e armature chamber thus providing a low r e s i s t a n c e p a t h t o t h e main armature c i r c u i t and causing t h e meter t o r o t a t e a t normal n speed. O charge t h e vane swings away from t h i s c o n t a c t p o i n t thereby introducing r e s i s t a n c e i n t h e main armature c i r c u i t because t h e c u r r e n t t o the armature chamber must now pass through mercury a s w e l l a s copper. I n t h i s p o s i t i o n more of t h e c u r r e n t i s n a t u r a l l y shunted away from t h e armature c i r c u i t and t h e meter runs slower. The amount of swing of t h e vane away from t h e discharge p o s i t i o n i s r k g u l a t e d by means of an ext e r n a l p o i n t e r , Figure 27, which moves over an a c c u r a t e l y c a l i b r a t e d s c a l e , t h u s allowing t h e meter t o be s e t f o r any overcharge from 0 t o 40 percent. The r e s i s t o r i s constructed s o t h a t it c a r r i e s t h e e n t i r e armature c u r r e n t t h e r e b y being very s e n s i t i v e and p o s i t i v e i n action. Figure 28 shows t h e type N ampere hour b a t t e r y meter with r e s i s t o r i n place. Figure 28A shows t h e permanent magnets and armature box. A c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e N type meter i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 29.

Lesson 18

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sheet 16

PERMANENT MAGNET-..

Figure 28A

Figure 28

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17

U 3 I O FREQUGWCY METERS

ammteP l s be used t o measure c u r r e n t i n both A & . and ay and it m y a l s o be employed t o measure c u r r e n t s a t r a d i o fiaxbmental c i r c u i t of t h i s meter i s shown i n Figure 30. A s t e e l p l a t e P i s made t o p u l l a g a i n s t t h e w i r e GD by t h e s p r i n g S1. One end of t h e wire CD i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e p l a t e P a t A, passed around t h e p u l l y K, and i s again a t t a c h e d t o P a t R, where it i s i n s u l a t e d . The p u l l y K c a r r i e s t h e a r m S w i t h two prongs between which i s s t r e t c h e d a s i l k X carries the t h r e a d T wound about t h e s h a f t X. p o i n t e r P1 which moves over t h e s c a l e . The c u r r e n t t o be measured e n t e r s t h e w i r e a t p o i n t A and leaves a t t h e p u l l y K. A s t h e c u r r e n t f l o w s t h e temperature , of t h e wire C i s r a i s e d , causing it t o expand but, owing t o t h e t e n s i o n of S1, t h e s l a c k i s taken up a t the s i d e and e q u i l i b r i u m can be r e s t o r e d only Figure 30 when t h e p u l l y K r o t a t e s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o e q u a l i z e t h e p u l l on t h e spring. \The r o t a t i o n of K c a r r i e s S w i t h i t , and S, i n moving, causes t h e s i l k f f b e r t o r o t a t e t h e s h a f t which c a r r i e s t h e i n d i c a t i n g needle P1.
When l a r g e values of c u r r e n t a r e t o be measured a shunt must be ~ r o v i d e dt o sub-divide t h e c u r r e n t flow. An inductive shunt cannot be used a s t h e impedance would vary with each change i n frequency, hence h o t w--. . 7 r e meters a r e c o n s t r u c t e d a f t e r t h e d e s i g n shown . . i n Figure 31 where s e v e r a l r e s i s t a n c e w i r e s a r e s t r e t c h e d i n p a r a l l e l between t h e l a r g e copper b l o c k s B and B'. The wire AB i s a t t a c h e d t o the wire CD t o which a s i l k f i b e r t h r e a d i s a t t a c h e d a t p o i n t K and t h e n wound about t h e s h a f t M i n such a d i r e c t i o n t h a t Figure 31 i t w i l l work a g a i n s t t h e s p r i n g S which normally would cause t h e p o i n t e r t o move t o t h e f u l l s c a l e p o s i t i o n . However, by means of t h e t h r e a d , i t i s held i n t h e z e r o p o s i t i o n . When c u r r e n t i s floviing through CD it expands, r e l e a s i n g t h e p u l l of t h e t h r e a d and allowing t h e ~ o i n t e rt o move a c r o s s the s c a l e , according t o t h e expansion t h e wire and t e n s i o n of t h e spring,
EXAXINATION

- LESSON 18

Where i s a shunt used t o advantage w i t h meters? What i n s t r m e n t i s used t o measure r a d i o frequency c u r r e n t ? where would you employ a n ampere-hour meter? ( a ) What i s a voltmeter? ( b ) Show how i t i s connected i n a c i r c u i t . Show how an ammeter i s connected i n a c i r c u i t . What i s a galvanometer? I s t h e r e any type of meter which may b e used t o measure both D.C. and
A.C.?

For what purpose i s the wattmeter employed? I s mercury a conductor of e l e c t r i c i t y ? Show a simple e l e c t r i c c i r c u i t w i t h a n ammeter and a voltmeter properly connected i n t h a t c i r c u i t . Lesson 18 - sheet 18

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f i r m e rCyM A R CON/ INSTITUTE

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Technical Lesson 19
GRAPHS The graph, more commonly known a s a "curve", i s a simple and convenient way of showing t h e r e l a t i o n between any two q u a n t i t i e s o r value s The curve diagram i s employed f o r purposes o t h e r t h a n Radio. It may be used t o show t h e d i s t a n c e one walks during a given time, o r i t may be employed t o show conditions of business over a period of time Y The curve i s r e a l l y a p o i n t p i c t u r e because it r e p r e s e n t s t o u s , by a number of p o i n t s connected by a l i n e , c e r t a i n q u a n t i t i e s , values or conditions a t a glance. The graph o r curve diagram i s g e n e r a l l y drawn on a s h e e t of paper c a l l e d graph- paper, r u l e d off i n t o squares by h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l l i n e s a s shown i n Figure 1 The foundation of a l l . graphs i s p i c t u r e d i n Figure 2.

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W w i l l draw two l i n e s a s shown i n Figure 2,e t h e f i r s t X I O X and t h e second Y'OY. These l l n e s s e p a r a t e a plane i n t o f o u r p a r t s , and t h e s e f o u r p a r t s a r e c a l l e d quadrants and Y' numbered quidrant 1, 2, 3 and 4 . The c e n t e r marked 0 ( z e r o ) i s considered t o be t h e zero F'igure I. value of any q u a n t i t y . When it i s d e s i r e d t o show decreases i n a value t h e y a r e shown e i t h e r below t h e l i n e X f O X , o r t o t h e l e f t of t h e l i n e Y'OY. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3 where decreasing values a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e negative s i g n (-) while i n c r e a s i n g values a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e p o s i t i v e s i g n (4-1. The h o r i z o n t a l l i n e X I O X i s c a l l e d the "X" a x i s , o r a b s c i s s a e , and t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e Y'OY i s c a l l e d t h e "Y" a x i s , o r o r d i n a t e .
9'
SECOND QUADRANT FIRST QUADRANT SECOND OUADRANT

Y1

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FIRST QUADRANT

FIRST QUADRANT OUADRANT

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THIRD QUADRANT

FOURTH QUADRANT

THIRD FOURTH QUADRANT - +-----+ QUADRANT

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FOURTH

Figure 2 Contents Copyrighted 1 9 3 0 Printed i n U.S.A.

Figure 3

Figure 4

Bhen p o s i t i v e values only a r e t o be shown t h e f i r s t quadrant i s used. H w t h i s operates i s shown i n Figure 4. S t a r t i n g a t zero make an X o movement which, w w i l l say, c a r r i e s you t o p o i n t B. A t t h i s point e e r e c t a perpendicular t o the l i n e OX, a l s o c a l l e d t h e a b s c i s s a e , t o an i n d e f i n i t e length, Begin again a t zero and make a "Y9"movement Draw a l i n e a t perpendicular along t h e o r d i n a t e O Y V o p o i n t "D". t o l i n e OY', o r t h e o r d i n a t e , t o an i n d e f i n i t e l e n g t h a l s o , A t t h e

TIME IN MINUTES ABSCISSFa

Y' Figure 5 i n t e r s e c t i o n s of t h e s e l f n e s , o r a t point C, place a dot. This i s c a l l e d p l o t t i n g t h e p o i n t , Both movements shown have been i n c r e a s i n g , o r p o s i t i v e , movements and when p o s f t i v e values only a r e involved t h e f i r s t quadrant i s used,

Supposeoyou walk from a given point f o r 8 minutes a t t h e r a t e of 50 f e e t per m h u t e what d i s t a n c e would you have covered i n t h e 8 minutes? A t t h e same r a t e what d i s t a n c e would you cover i n 4 I! minutes? The / : answer t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s can be shown by graph Figure 5. F i r s t l a y o f f t h e a b s c i s s a e , allowing 1/4 inch t o r e p r e s e n t one minute, then l a y off t h e o r d i n a t e s , allowing 1/4 i n c h t o r e p r e s e n t 50 f e e t . Nw i f t h e r a t e you t r a v e l f s 50 f e e t a minute look a l o n g t h e a b s c i s s a e o u n t i l you f i n d one minute. Move up the v e r t i c a l l i n e u n t i l you meet t h e

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I I

Lesson 1 9

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h o r i z o n t a l which i s axawn opposite ille numeral 50 and, where t h i s v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l l i n e i n t e r s e c t s , place a d o t , D t h e sane o f o r each n i n u t e of t r a v e l , - t h i s i s c a l l e d , " p l o t t i n g t h e point " . P e n beginning a t z e r o ( 0 ) draw a l i n e through t h e p o i n t s j u s t l o c a t e d , This l i n e W i l l show t h a t you have walked i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e and covered a d i s t a n c e of 400 f e e t i n 8 minutes, To f i n d t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l e d i n 4 l / 2 minutes look along t h e 9 a b s c i s s a e u n t i l you f i n d number 4 , o r f o u r minutes. ~,,,, Half way between 4 and 5 w i l l be 4 1/2 minutes. 7000 Trect a v e r t i c a l l i n e shown by t h e d o t t e d l i n e un,ooo ti1 i t i n t e r s e c t s l i n e OA. From t h i s point draw a 5000 l i n e p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e a b s c i s s a e u n t i l it meets t h e 4000 o r d i n a t e O . Where t h i s l i n e meets t h e o r d i n a t e Y 3000 w i l l show t h e d i s t a n c e walked i n 4 1/2 minutes, Notice t h a t t h i s l i n e passes midway between 220 and NOO 230 f e e t , which i s 225 f e e t , 225 f e e t i s t h e to00 d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e l i n 4 l / 2 mlnutes.
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MAR I\PR MPI JUNE JULY IIUG

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suppose you were a merchant and you wished t o p l o t Pipre 6 f l u c t u a t i o n of your s a l e s over a period of 9 nonthu, The f i r s t t h i n g t o do i s t o r u l e off a piece beginning w i t h January. of paper h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y and, a t t h e bottom of each v e r t i c a l l i n e , w r i t e t h e name of t h e months and, a t t h e l e f t of each h o r i z o n t a l I f you p r e f e r you may l e t l i n e , a s s i g n a number r e p r e s e n t i n g d o l l a r s . t h e h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s r e p r e s e n t months and t h e v e r t i c a l l t n e s d o l l a r s . I n e Figure 6 w have drawn it up according t o t h e f i r s t method,

If, i n January you d i d a $4000 business place a d o t opposite $4000 and on t h e January o r d i n a t e . February you d i d a $5000 b u s i n e s s , so on t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e , OP o r d i n a t e r e p r e s e n t i n g February, you place another dot, and so on f o r each month. N w by c o n n e c t i w t h e s e o d o t s w i t h a l i n e you have a curve i n d i c a t i n g t h e t r e n d of business over a p e r i o d of months. You observe t h a t your business i n c r e a s e d durine; January, February and March and between March and April i t decreased t o $3000, and continued t o decrease u n t i l June, where i t remained t h e same f o r one month. In August i t began t o i n c r e a s e and i n Septenber i t in creased over August,
The owner of a r e c e i v i n g s e t can p l o t a curve which w i l l a s s i s t him i n l o c a t i n g s t a t i o r l s xhen the wave l e n g t h i s knowna Rule off a sheet of paper as shown i n Figure 7. Along the a b s c i s s a e allow each square t o r e p r e s e n t f i v e d i v i s i o n s on t h e d i a l of t h e r e ceiver. Alex t h e o r d i n a t e mark t h e wave lengths. I n s t a r t i n g t h e curve p l o t a few p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s t a t i o n s which you r e c e i v e e a s i l y and t h e wave l e n g t h s of which you know. You should a t l e a s t p l o t t h r e e or f o u r , f o r example, WEAF, WOR, WJZ, LrIPAP, which s t a t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d f a i r l y i n t h e center of

Lesson 1 9

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t h e broadcast wave l e n g t h band. When you have completed t h i s draw a l i n e through the p o i n t e r j u s t located. When such a curve i s c a r e f u l l y drawn it i s u s e f u l i n l o c a t i n g o t h e r s t a t i o n s of unknown wave length. By c a r e f u l study of Figure 7 you should be a b l e t o p l o t a curve of your own r e c e i v e r . It may be necessary, however, i n t h e case of a t h r e e d i a l r e c e i v e r t o make t h r e e s e p a r a t e curves.
THE: SINE CURVE

The v a r i a t i o n s i n any 0 S c i l l a t 0 r y motion o r value may be shown by t h e use of t h e s i n e burve r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t i s t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e value of an a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t o r t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e speed of a swinging pendulum.
A s i n e curve may be c o n s t r u c t e d a s follows: Let t h e p o i n t A, Figure 8, move a t a uniform r a t e of speed around a c i r c u l a r p a t h i n ~e d i r e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d by t h e arrow. The angle 6 w i l l uniformly i n c r e a s e from 0 ( z e r o ) t o 180 degrees and t h e n from 180 degrees t o 360 degrees. The l e n g t h of t h e p e r p e n d i c u l a r , or l i n e AB, which i s dropped from p o i n t A U the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s of t h e c i r c l e , i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e angle o $ because t h e s i n e 6 i s equal t o t h e q u o t i e n t of AB divided by t h e hypotenuse OA, which i n t h i s case i s t h e r a d i u s of t h e c i r c l e and does not change i n value but remains constant throuahout t h e r e v o l u t i o n , 9' 0 Y

180'

210'

ABSCISSA

Figure 8

Figure 9

It w i l l be seen t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e l i n e AB v a r i e s from 0 ( z e r o ) t o t h e maximum length, and it i s e q u a l t o OA a t 90 degrees a s A revolves. A s A continues t o r e v o l v e t h e l i n e AB g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s e s i n l e n g t h n u n t i l , a t 180 degrees, it i s a g a i n ( 0 ) z e r o 1-ength. O l e a v i n g 180 degrees it a g a i n i n c r e a s e s i n l e n g t h u n t i l 290 degrees i s reached, when i t i s maximum, and t h e n i t decreases i n l e n g t h t o 0 ( z e r o ) when reaching zero degrees.
I n order t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e varyine; l e n g t h s of AB above and below the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s of t h e c i r c l e t h e values of AB above t h e horiz o n t a l a x i s a r e c a l l e d p o s i t i v e (+) values and below t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s negative (-) values. During t h e r e v o l t u i o n of p o i n t A it w i l l be noted t h a t t h e l i n e AB does n o t vary i n l e n g t h a t a uniform r a t e even though I t s l e n g t h v a r i e s r a p i d l y a t f i r s t , t h e n more and t h e speed i s uniform. more slowly and, when n e a r i n g 90 degrees i t s l e n g t h remains n e a r l y constant. Upon p a s s i n g 90 degrees t h e l e n g t h of l i n e AB decreases, Lesson 1 9

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4

slowly a t f i r s t u n t i l , ne-1-ing 180 degsees, i t d e c r e a s e s very r a p i d l y u n t i l i t s l e n g t h i s 0 ( z e r o ) . *To p l o t a curve r e p r e s e n t i n g the l e n g t h of t h e l i n e AB, a s i t v a r i e s with t h e r e v o l v i n g p o i n t A , we r u l e off a s h e e t of paper somewhat a s shown i n Figure 9, p l o t t i n g the values of i t s varying l e n g t h along t h e o r d i n a t e , o r v e r t i c a l Y a x i s , and t h e time a l o w t h e h o r i z o n t a l o r X a x l s . Since the l e n g t h of t h e l i n e AB i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s i n e of t h e angle $, the v e r t i c a l o r Y a x i s may be used t o r e p r e s e n t t h e s i n e of t h e angle $, and t h e changes i n angle $, being p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d t o move A from one p o i n t t o another a s it revolves, t h e d i s t a n c e s along t h e h o r i z o n t a l axis may a l s o r e p r e s e n t t h e v a l u e s of t h e angle $. I n p l o t t i n g t h e varying l e n g t h of l i n e AB through 360 degrees the curve shown i n t h e f i g u r e i s t h e r e s u l t .

Figure 10
THJI LOGARITHMIC CURVE

The l o g a r i t h m i c curve i s one which may have no d e f i n i t e minimum point i n a curve showing t h e d e c r e a s e of a value or q u a n t i t y and no d e f i n i t e maximum p o i n t when showing an i n c r e a s e i n a value o r q u a n t i t y . The l o g a r i t h m i c curve may t h e r e f o r e be used t o show t h e r a t e of i n c r e a s e o r decrease of a v a l u e o r q u a n t i t y . When you t a k e up t h e study of t r a n s m i t t e r s you w i l l l e a r n of damped e l e c t r i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s which decrease i n value r e l a t i v e t o amplitude according t o a l o g a r i t h m i c law and from which a logarthmic curve may be taken, e To enable us t o d e s c r i b e a logarthmic curve w w i l l u s e t h e same analogy employed t o e x p l a i n t h e logarithmic decrement of e l e c t r i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s which a r e c r e a t e d i n an antenna o r o t h e r c i r c u i t by means of condenser discharges. A weight suspended by a f i n e t h r e a d , when a t If you draw r e s t , w i l l assume t h e p o s i t i o n AC a s shown i n F i g u r e 10. t h e weight a s i d e from i t s v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n AC t o any o t h e r p o s i t i o n , f o r example p o s i t i o n AB, and t h e n r e l e a s e t h e weight i t w i l l descend from B toward C, i n t h e a r c of a c i r c l e , The momemtum it has acquired

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w i l l cause it t o p a s s p o i n t C , r i s i n g a g a i n s t g r a v i t y , and it w i l l r i s e n e a r l y t o p o i n t D which i s i n t h e same h o r i z o n t a l l i n e a s B. It then r e v e r s e s t h e motion and, on passing C , w i l l r i s e t o a point s h o r t of B, f o r example E, and a g a i n r e v e r s i n g t h e motion it w i l l swing back t o p o i n t F. Thus t h e weight w i l l swing backward and forward on b o t h s i d e s of l i n 3 AC u n t i l it i s brought t o r e s t by t h e r e s i s t a n c e of t h e a i r and t h e f r i c t i o n a t p o i n t A @
The swing of t h e weight from B t o D or from D t o B i s c a l l e d one oscillation. The a r c , measured i n degrees, from C t o D , i s c a l l e d the am l i t u d e of If we observe t h e l e n g t h o r amplitude o+cessive the oscillation. swings of t h e weight we would o b t a i n a group of decaying o s c i l l a t i o n s , t h e amplitude of each successive o s c i l l a t i o n bearing a d e f i n i t e r a t i o t o one another. The r a t e a t which t h e s e o s c i l l a t i o n s d i e out depends upon t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d t o t h e weight. T h i s r e s i s t a n c e i s c a l l e d t h e Damping Factor.
If w a t t a c h a p i e c e of cardboard t o t h e s t r i n g , t h e o s c i l . l a t i o n s of e t h e weight would come t o a s t o p i n a much s h o r t e r p e r i o d and t h e y would be c a l l e d damped o s c i l l a t i o n s .

I f we draw a continuous l i n e which i s tangent t o and connects t h e maximum point of each o s c i l l a t i o n a s we have done i n F i g u r e 10 we w i l l have c o n s t r u c t e d a I n t h i s case t h e curve i s showing a d e c r e a s i n g used however t o show t h e i n c r e a s e i n a value o r q u a n t i t y a s well.

What i s meant by "X" a x i s ? What i s meant by "Yw a x i s ? What i s t h e " abscissae " ? What i s t h e " ordinate " ? If a movement i s caused along t h e "X" a x i s i s it a p o s i t i v e or a negative movement? I s t h e movement t o t h e l e f t of t h e "Y" a x i s p o s i t i v e o r negative? What i s meant by t h e term, " p l o t t i n g t h e point " ? Of what use i s a curve diagram? If a movement along t h e "x" a x i s i s t a k e n in t h e n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n and t h e n a movement i n t h e negative d i r e c t i o n i s t a k e n along t h e "Y" a x i s , which quadrant w i l l t h i s t a k e t h e movement i n t o ? What does a s i n e curve show?

Lesson 19

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sheet 6

INC.

.

Technical Lesson 20
SOUND

Not many s t u d e n t s r e a l i z e t h e importance of sound i n connection w i t h t h e study of r a d i o . Sound v i b r a t i o n s or waves mark t h e beginning of t h e r a d i o bpoadcast program. Sound i s employed t o a c t u a t e t h e microphone i n a way t h a t c o n t r o l s the form of t h e electro- magnetic wave which i s d e t e c t e d by t h e r a d i o r e c e i v e r . The r e c e i v e r , i n t u r n , r e converts the electro- magnetic waves i n t o sound waves. W may r i g h t l y e sound waves play an important p a r t i n r a d i o programs say, then, t h a t a t t h e s t u d i o and a t t h e r e c e i v i n g end. Since t h e sound waves c o n t r o l l i n g t h e broadcast t r a n s m i t t e r moulds t h e c u r r e n t s e n t t o t h e antenna i n t o a form which, upon being passed through t h e r e c e i v e r , i s converted again t o sound waves which a r e e x a c t l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e occuring e a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r , it i s important t h a t w study t h i s s u b j e c t of sound f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t i t g i v e s u s a very concrete i d e a 5 4 k j c e r t a i n p a r t s of the t r a n s m i t t e r and r e c e i v e r function.

The word sound i s a most comprehensive word,- i t a p p l i e s t o anyt h i n g t h a t i s audible. Because sound i s going t o be employed t o vcry e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t it should be c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d t h a t 'I8$ we should know j u s t how sound i s capable of accomplishing such a r e s u l t . Sound may be t r a n s m i t t e d through l i q u i d s , gases, and I most of t h e s o l i d s . ~ l t h o u g h e r t a i n s o m a s c a r r i e d through c t h e a i r may be i n a u d i b l e t o t h e e a r , t h e same sounds may be d i s t i n c t l y heard through a s o l i d or through a l i q u i d . The speed Figure 1 of sound through a i r i s about 1100 f e e t p e r second and through a a s o l i d , such a s s t e e l , about 1 5 times a s f a s t a s through a i r and, through water, n e a r l y f i v e times a s f a s t a s through gas. Sound i s proAuced because t h e molecules of t h e sounding body or medium have been caused by some means t o o s c i l l a t e o r v i b r a t e .
111 ,I, It' (11 11' 141 I' 111 (11 11,

1
111 $1

5':

.

The tuning f o r k is t h e most common method employed t o show a body i n a s t a t e of vibration or o s c i l . l a t i o n , and how sound i s produced by a v i b r a t i n g body.
A very simple experiment producing b o t h v i b r a t i o n and sound may be performed by s t r e t c h i n g a rubber band and plucking it a s shown i n Figure 1 . Upon s t r i k i n g a tuning f o r k simil.ar r e s u l t s a r e obtained a s shown i n Figure 2.

Figure 2

Both t h e rubber band and t h e ends of t h e t u n i n g f o r k can be seen i n motion and t h e sound produced by t h i s v i b r a t i n g motion can be d i s t i n c t l y heard. I f any v i b r a t i n g body w i l l cause t h e sense of hearing t o be Contents Copyrighted 1 9 3 0 i'r 1nt ed i U S. A. n .

excited, denoting sound, t h e vibratory motion must be transmitted by some m a t e r i a l medium, such a s air, s o l i d s , or l i q u i d s . Sound waves w i l l not t r a v e l through a vacuum which proves t h a t one of t h e t h r e e mediums mentioned i s necessary i n order t h a t sound may be sent from one point t o another. Furthermore, t h e transmission of sound waves from a v i b r a t i n g body may be transmitted through any substance e l a s t i c i n nature. When sound waves s t r i k e substances such a s f e l t , heavy c u r t a i n s and d r a p e r i e s , t h e v i b r a t i o n s are damped, or deadened; they tend t o prevent t h e transmission of sounflc To understand how sound i s transmitted w must b r i e f l y study motion e because of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e v i b r a t i n g body s e t s t h e a i r i n motion

Figure 3 Figure 4 which takes on a d e f i n i t e form. A l l bodies are composed of minute p a r t i c l e s , and each p a r t i c l e of t h e v i b r a t i n g body, when s e t i n motion, moves i n a forward and backward motion along a definilte path. When each p a r t i c l e r e t u r n s t o t h e same condition a t r e g u l a r r e c u r r i n g i n t e r v a l s , t h e motion i s c a l l e d periodic, However, f f i n addition, the p a r t i c l e i s being c o n t i n u a l l y reversed i n d i r e c t i o n such as i n t h e case of a swinging pendulum t h e motion i s t h e n c l a s s i f i e d a s being vibratory. I n the study of sound t h e v i b r a t i o n s of e l a s t i c bodies have t o be cons i d e r e d and t h e s e a r e i n d e n t i f i e d a s e i t h e r t r a n s v e r s e or l o n g i t u d i n a l vibrations. A v i b r a t i o n of t r a n s v e r s e nature may be described a s vib r a t i o n s which i n s c r i b e a path perpendicular t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e body producing them. For example, i f a h a t p i n i s stuck i n t o a bloc^ of wood, t h e head drawn down and released, it w i l l v i b r a t e f o r a short period of time and t h e p a t h of t h e v i b r a t i o n s w i l l be a s shown by t h e dotted l i n e s i n Figure 3. Such v i b r a t i o n s a r e c a l l e d transverse vib r a t i o n s and can be both heard and seen. Longitudinal v i b r a t i o n s a r e shown i n Figure 4 by t h e use of a c o i l s p r i n g and weight. If p o s i t i o n s A , B and P a r e l o c a t e d o n t h e spring, and the weight i s pulled down and released, t h e weight and t h e p a r t i c l e s of the s p r i n g w i l l s e t up v i b r a t i o n s which a r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e l e n g t h of t h e spring. The p a r t i c u l a r t u r n of mire i n t h e c o i l a t P w i l l v i b r a t e between t e p o s i t i o n s , A and B, equidistantfk.om P, hence h such v i b r a t i o n s a r e c a l l e d longitudinal.

Lesson 2 0

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sheet 2

s i n g l e v i b r a t i o n i n sound i s u s u a l l y considered t o be t h e motion of t h e p a r t i c l e from one extreme p o s i t i o n i n one d i r e c t i o n , such a s A , i n Figure 4 , and a r e t u r n of t h e p a r t i c l e t o t h e extreme p o s i t i o n B i n t h e r e v e r s e d i r e c t i o n and t h e n back t o A . The t i n e t h a t t h e p a r t i c l e r e q u i r e s t o v i b r a t e from A t o B and back t o A, t h a t i s , making one complete v i b r a t i o n , i s termed t h e period of v i b r a t i o n . Further t h e d i s t a n c e from P t o A o r from P t o m a l l e d t h e antplitude of t h e v i b r a t i o n , and the number of complete v i b r a t i o n s t a k i n g place i n one second i s c a l l e d t h e frequency of the v i b r a t i o n s .
A

When the s u r f a c e of a body of water i s s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n a s by throwi m a stone into a pond, t h e stone upon s t r i k i n g the water s e t s t h e water p a r t i c l e s a t t h a t p o i n t i n t o v i b r a t i o n and adjacent water p a r t i c l e s
A

A

ONE W A V E LENGTH

Figure 5 Figure 6 One p a r t i c l e a f t e r t h e other t a k e s quickly assume a s i m i l a r motion. up t h e v i b r a t i o n but a t a s h o r t i n t e r v a l of t i n e a f t e r t h e p r e c e e d i x one. Considering t h e s u r f a c e of water t o be a row of adjoining p a r t i c l e s the e n t i r e row w i l l be s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n . A t any i n s t a n t , t h e p a r t i c l e s a r e a l l i n d i f f e r e n t phases of v i b r a t i o n hence t h e r e s u l t of t h e s e r i e s of p a r t i c l e s , when i n d i f f e r e n t phases of v i b r a t i o n , i s t o produce a wave or waves which, l i k e a l l v i b r a t i o n s , may be t r a n s v e r s e or l o n g i t u r n .

A t r a n s v e r s e wave form can b e shown ~ y u s i n g a rope, a s shown i n Figure 5. By g i v i n g t h e rope a quick up motion, from A t o B, and be seen then down t o C , p a r t i c l e s of t h e rope between D and D - i l l t o be I n every phase of v i b r a t i o n . A t p o i n t D t h e v i b r a t i o n i s s t a r t ing. A t E t h e v i b r a t i o n i s one q u a r t e r completed, a t F one h a l f , a t The G t h r e e q u a r t e r s , and a t Dl one v i b r a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y completed. wave thus caused has l e n g t h and Is measured from D t o Dl and i s c a l l e d one wave length.
The b e l l i n Figure 6 i s s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n when t h e c l a p p e r s t r i k e s any p o r t i o n of t h e b e l l . A s t h e b e l l v i b r a t e s t h e a i r near t h e s u r f a c e of t h e b e l l i s suddenly f o r c e d oUtward,compressing it. This compressed l a y e r of a i r a t once e x e r t s a p r e s s u r e on t h e p a r t i c l e s of a i r next t o i t , s e t t i n g them i n motion. T h i s p u l e e ' o r wave continues onward f o r a considerable d i s t a n c e . The a i r p a r t i c l e s causing i t , however, t r a v e l

Lesson 20

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sheet 3

but a very s h o r t d i s t a n c e , - Only f a r enough t o s e t t h e adjacent l a y e r of particles i n motion. The outward v i b r a t i o n of t h e b e l l , which has caused t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e and compressionofthe a i r p e r t i c l e s , now swings back, causing a p a r t i a l vacuum. The a i r p a r t i c l e s next t o the b e l l surface now r u s h i n t o f i l l t h i s p a r t i a l vacuum which causes a s i m i l a r movement t o t a k e place along the compressed p o r t i o n s of t h e wave and t h e a i r p a r t i c l e s surge backward i n an e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e themselves t o a s t a t e of r e s t . It w i l l be seen t h e r e f o r e , t h a t on t h e outward movement of t h e v i b r a t i o n t h e a i r i s compressed and t h e c o n d i t i o n due t o the r e t u r n i n g v i b r a t o r y movement causes what i s known a s a r a r e f i e d s t a t e t o e x i s t among t h e a i r p a r t i c l e s . When t h e s e sound waves s t r i k e t h e organs of hearing i t produces t h e s e n s a t i o n of sound.
(1) The v e l o c i t y of a wave i s e q u a l t o t h e wave l e n g t h times t h e

frequency, (2) or the wave l e n g t h i s equal t o the v e l o c i t y d i v i d e d by the frequency

(3) o r frequency i s e q u a l t o t h e v e l o c i t y divided by t h e wave length

Where (Lambda) 7\
V

and

F

= =
=

wave l e n g t h of sound waves v e l o c i t y 3f sound waves frequency of sound v i b r a t i o n s

Then w may w r i t e e a c h of t h e above expressions a s follows; giving t h e e b~sic formula f o r v e l o c i t y f i r s t :

~ l t h o u g h h e above formula i s w r i t t e n here t o i l l u s t r a t e sound waves, it t w i l l be shown l a t e r t h a t t h e same formula i s a l s o used f o r determining t h e wave l e n g t h of r a d i o waves. NOISE When a c r a s h occurs, such a s a head-on c o l l i s i o n between two t r u c k s , sound i s produced. This sound i s c l a s s i f i e d a s n o i s e because t h e c r a s h creates a n o n - p e r i o a i c v i b r a t i o n , or wave motion. Such sounds a r e g e n e r a l l y unpleasant t o t h e e a r and some non- periodic v i b r a t i o n s may become even p a i n f u l t o t h e sense of hearing. MUSICAL SOUNDS Music i s t h e r e s u l t of a r a p i d s e r i e s of p e r i o d i c v i b r a t i o n s and, when such sounds occur or a r e p r o d u c e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , they a r e pleasing t o the e a r and have a soothing e f f e c t . The i n t e n s i t y of a sound w i l l depend upon t h e energy of t h e v i b r a t i n g a i r p a r t i c l e s producing t h e sound wave which s t r i k e s the ear.

Lesson 2 0

- sheet 4

Some i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f y the loudness of a sound d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n o t h e r s ; t h i s may b e caused by a varying d i s t a n c e o r p o s i t i o n between t h e source of t h e sound and the r e c i p i e n t , or i t may be due t o a d i f f e r ence i n the h e a r i n g power of one e a r over another. Sound from any sounding body may be i n t e n s i f i e d , or, made louder by b r i n g i n g near t o i t another body, t h e n a t u r e of which w i l l allow i t t o v i b r a t e a t t h e same period of t h e sound v i b r a t i o n .

THE PITCH O F A TONE
The p i t c h of a tone r e f e r s t o t h e highness o r lowness of t h e tone. P i t c h depends uponthe v i b r a t i n g frequency and t h e g r e a t e r t h e number of v i b r a t i o n s per second t h e higher w i l l be t h e p i t c h of t h e tone and, a s t h e v i b r a t i o n s decrease per second and become slower, the p i t c h of the tone w i l l be lower. A piccolo produces a high pitched o r high frequency tone, while t h e base horn produces a low p i t c h e d or low frequency tone.
HARMONICS
1/11

$ 1 ;\',\ 11;; \;\\
,'Ill
) $ / (

;;I;

;I $$I I

111,

,,11 1\11 ,,I\ 1 ( \ 1 1111

\\I; $1) \OI

I;!,
I,'!

\!',I

Figure 7 ing a s i n g l e musical somd. When a s e r i e s of simple tones a r e combinad, i n which t h e v i b r a t i n g f r e q u e n c i e s of each simple tone are represented by whole numbers, t h e n t h e combined tone i s s a i d t o be made up of a harmonic s e r i e s of tonee, When tones a r e i n harmony t h e i r r e l a t i v e frequencies of v i b r a t i o n may be expressed by whole numbers. I n t h e s t u d y of musical sounds t h e r a t i o of t h e frequencies of two simple tones i s known a s t h e i n t e r v a l between them and t h e octave i s t h e most important i n t e r v a l between two simple tones i n which me of t h e t o n e s has twice a s many v i b r a t i o n s per second a s the o t h e r . When a s e r i e s of n o t e s a r e s t r u c k on t h e piano, each one h i g h e r than t h e l a s t by one octave, w h e a r a s e r i e s e of tones which v i b r a t e i n harmony,
If a s t r e t c n e d piano s t r i n g i s s t r u c k a t i t s c e n t e r point it w i l l v i b r a t e as a whole j u s t a s t h e rubber band d i d when you

A simple tone r e s u l t s when a d e f i n i t e p i t c h i s involved produc-

Figure 8

s t r e t c h e d and plucked it a t i t s middle point. A s t r i n g s e t i n t o vibration i n t h i s f a s h i o n shows a f o r m o f h a l f wave, and the tone heard Erom such a string, i n v i b r a t i o n a s a whole, w i l l be what i s c a l l e d i t s primary o r fundamental v i b r a t i o n . or See Figure 7 - . frequency tone.

-

I f you now place your f i n g e r on t h e c e n t e r of t h e s t r i n g and t h e n s t r i k e each h a l f t h e y w i l l be seen t o v i b r a t e a s shown i n Figure 8, and t h e y w i l l maintain t h i s form of v i b r a t i o n when t h e f i n g e r i s released. The . tone heard w i l l be an octave higher t h a n when v i b r a t i n g a s i n Figure 7 When a tone one octave h i g h e r i s produced by t h e string v i b r a t i n g a t twice the fundamental frequency, it i s s a i d t o be v i b r a t i n g a t i t s second harmonic. If it v i b r a t e s t h r e e times f a s t e r t h a n t h e fundamental, it Ps c a l l e d the t h i r d harmonic, e t c .

Lesson 20

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sheet 5

harmonic i s a m u l t i p l e or another frequency, W can, t h e r e f o r e e produce multiples of a fundamental which a r e second, t h i r d , f o m t h and f i f t h harmonics, and s o on ,upward,
A

You w i l l study about harmonics i n connection w i t h electro- magnetic waves when t h e s u b j e c t of t r a n s m i t t e r s f s t a k e n up, They a r e ealcul a t e d t h e same a s harmonics of sound waves. I n music they a r e des i r a b l e while i n r a d i o t h e y a r s not always d e s i r a b l e and, when not required, s t e p s a r e t a k e n t o suppress them.
BEAT NOTES

When two t u ~ ? i n g o r k s a r e s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n , t h e f i r s t v i b r a t i n g a t a f frequency o f , say 200 v i b r a t i o n s per second, and t h e second v i b r a t i n g a t 201 v i b r a t i o n s p e r second, they w i l l s i b r a t e t o g e t h e r o r be i n phase once every second and opposite i n phase each h a l f second l a t e r . The v i b r a t i o n s from such a combination w i l l produce what i s c a l l e d a b e a t note once each second, The beat note i s recognized by the tone being strengthened when t h e v i b r a t i o n s of each f o r k a r e i n unison &, dying away a s the v i b r a t i o n s come out of unison or phase, then becoming s t r o n g e r and stronger u n t i l t h e v i b r a t i o n s a r e a g a i n working t o g e t h e r when a f u l l tone i s again heard, With t h e tuning f o r k s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h i s s t r o n g tone or beat note would be heard every second. Suppose t h e f i r s t fork i s v i b r a t i n g a t 200 s i b r a t f o n ~ e r second an& t h e second a t 202 p v i b r a t i o n s per second* The b e a t note would t h e n be heard twice every secondda T h i s p r i n c i p l e of b e a t s i s employed i n r a d i o r e c e i v i n g and i s explained i n a l a t e r l e s s o n on super-heterodyne r e c e i v e r s . Let us see now how t h e sound waves we have been d i s c u s s i n g a r e able t o c o n t r o l e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t s , The, o r d i n a r y telephone you use i n your home c l o s e l y resembles a r a d i o telephone t r a n s m i t t e r , or microphone, W w i l l study t h i s ordinary telephone so t h a t we may know how t h e e c o n t r o l of e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i s aeconplishedr The telephone t r a n s m i t t e r , o r microphone, i s a device i n which souna c o n t r o l s t h e c u r r e n t . The r e c e i v e r converts t h i s cusrenf: flow back t o sound. The e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of such a device a r e the 'transmitter, a conducting l i n e over which the c u r r e n t i s @;u%ded,and a r e c e i v e r . The t r a n s m i t t e r , Figure 9, c o n s i s t s of a mouth p i e c e A, a t h i n mica diaphrnm D, and a n i n s u l a t e d piece of carbon E, i n t h e form of a d i s c which i s connected t o t h e button B e "' shows the P i n e carbon F granules l o o s e l y packed between E and G, G beirig a second I n s u l a t e d carbon d i s c which, by means of a wise connection, makes c o n t a c t with t h e base of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r R, The r e c e i v e r , Figure 10, c o n s i s t s of a permanent magnet I, c o i l s J and J, and K, t h e diaphram of t h e r e c e i v e r c

Lesson 20

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sheet 6

A steady c u r r e n t i s applied t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and follows t h e p a t h Prom b a t t e r y , "Bat", t o H of the t r a n s m i t t e r and t o t h e carbon d i s c G, through the loosel;g Packed carbon granules F, t o carbon d i s c E, thence through t h e primary winding of an induction c o i l L, r e t u r n i n g t o t h e batterye

From y o w study of t h e induction c o i l you learned t h a t when cur'rent of a constant value flows i n the primary winding, no current w i l l be induced i n the secondary winding, t h e r e f o r e , w i t h a constant c u r r e n t flowing through t h e granules of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r no c u r r e n t w i l l flow through the r e c e i v e r magnets, Row allow sound waves t o be d i r e c t e d i n t o t h e mouth piece of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r and the pressure or condens a t i o n of t h e sound wave produced by v i b r a t i o n causes the mica d i s c D t o increase t h e pressure on t h e carbon granules, packing them c l o s e r together, and when t h u s compressed they have t h e p e c u l i a r pm~opertyof and w i t h l i t t l e permitting an e l e c t r i c current t o flow q u i t e ~ e a d i l g r e s i s t a n c e , But when lyilag l o o s e l y against each o t h e r they interpose a very considerable r e s i s t a n c e t o the flew of cument through them thus reducing t h e amount of current which passes. This increased pressure on the diaphsam then allows a g r e a t e r c u r r e n t t o flow through winding of t h e induction c o i l "Z"e t h e granules and through the p r i ~ a r y Because more c u r r e n t i s admitted t o the p r r l a r y winding of the induction c o i l , the f i e l d w i l l become stronger thus inducing a current i n &he secondary winding.

Figure 10 Figure 9 A r a r e f a c t i o n of t h e sound now takes place which allows t h e diaphram D t o f a l l back thereby reducing the pressure on t h e carbon g r m u l e s , and this decrease i n pressure again& the granules allows them t o again assume a loosely packed s t a t e , thereby decreasing t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e c u r r e n t passing through them and a l s o tthough t h e primary winding of t h e induction coil. T h i s r e s u l t s i n another change i n t h e value of t h e induced current i n t h e secondary, These v a r i a t f m s i n t h e current s t r e n g t h w i l l cause corresponding changes i n t h e number of l i n e s of fofce passing through the secondary of t h e induction c o i l %" The induced a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t s s e t up w i l l vary i n s t r e n g t h a s well a s i n t h e i r period of v i b r a t i o n , which v a r i e s with t h e v i b r a t i o n s of t h e sound wave impinged on the diaphran These varying a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t s produce changes i n t h e magnetic I The f i e l d of t h e r e c e i v e r magnet . o consequent changes i n f i e l d s t r e n g t h of the r e c e i v e r magnet causes the r e c e i v e r d i s c "K" t o be a l t e r n a t e l y a t t r a c t e d and r e p e l l e d , Attracted and r e p e l l e d i n t h i s

Lesson 20

- sheet
-

7

f a s h i o n , t h e d i s c K reproduces t h e o r i g i n a l v i b r a t i o n s of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r diaphram and t h e r e f o r e reproduces t h e sounds s i m i l a r t o t h e sounds d i r e c t e d toward t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . Thus it i s seen how sound waves a r e employed t o vary a n e l e c t r i c current and, t h e n by use of t h e r e c e i v e r , reconverted back t o sound waves. The t r a n s m i t t e r i s , i n f a c t , a s o r t of valve, much l i k e t h e valve on a steam l i n e , capable of opening up t o permit a f u l l flow of c u r r e n t eithex- g r a d u a l l y or suddenly snd reducing t h e c u r r e n t through or ~ l o s f n g it. The t r a n s m i t t e r will operate on very f e e b l e sound v i b r a t i o n s and, of c o w s e , t h e cusrent changes a r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s e v i b r a t ions, The form of sound r e c e i v e r most g e n e r a l l y used f o r r a d i o r e c e p t i o n r c o n s i s t s of two ~ e p a m t e e c e i v e r s mounted on a head band which allows them t o f i t comfortably t o t h e e a r s . The loud speaker i s a sound producing device used in r a d i o with a horn o r o t h e r r a d 2 a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s o proportioned and designed t h a t a loud sound i s produced which can be e a s i l y heard a t some d i s t a n t point from t h e r e c e i v e r . The r e c e i v e r of Ffgure 10 remains s i l e n t so long a s a steady c u r r e n t i s passing ",hrough the magnets

EXAMINATION
31,

- LESSON 20

ThPough what mediums may sound be t r a n s m i t t e d ? Explain how sound t r a v e l s , H w does sound vary t h e c u r r e n t i n a telephone c i r c u i t ? o

2,
3.

4 @ Is sound a f a c t o r t o be considered i n r a d i o ?

5,

Explain how a b e a ~ o t e i s produced, n Tihat formula i s lased f o r determining t h e wave l e n g t h of a sound wave? What i s t h e meaning of t h e word, '?Amplitudet'? What i s meant by the 'second harmonic"?

6,
'7.

8.
9,

What i s t h e meaning of t h e word, " f r e q u e n ~ y " ?

IQ, Does, sound t r a v e l f s s t e r through a i r t h a n through s t e e l ?

Lesson 20

- sheet 8

6.
M A R C O N / INS J/TUTE

Technical Lesson 21
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Electromagnetic waves c o n s t i t u t e a form of energy i n t h e t r a n s mission of Radio and, i n a way, possess some of t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found i n t h e transmission of r a d i a n t h e a t , sound and l i g h t waves. For e x m p l e , when a v i o l i n i s bowed t h e s t r i n g s a r e s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n c r e a t i n g sound waves, The flame of a candle s e t s up v i b r a t i o n s c r e a t i n g waves which, on passing t h e eye, produce t h e s e n s a t i o n of l i g h t . I n Radio transmission a d i s t u r b a n c e i s created a t t h e source which moves away through space i n t h e form of electrornagnetlc waves. Whereever wave motion i s c r e a t e d i t always r e p r e s e n t s a form of energy which i s t r a n s m i t t e d through a medium having t h e a b i l i t y t o conduct the p a r t i c u l a r wave i n q u e s t i o n e
kUELENGTH

Sound waves a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by a condensation and r a r e f a c t i o n of a* p a r t i e l e a ,

WkeneveP wave motion i s p r e s e n t it i s always caused by a v i b r a t i o n of some form a t i t s source, T o prodme a r a d i o wave, then we must s e t up e l e c t r i c a l vi,bratiorts a t t&e t r a n s ~-L?"ZH~ m i t t i n g souree, kx+. ':z.,:s- ~ / .-- \<- - ---. , r ~ . , . & + . . S ~W R V E S ~ 1kE4 R From the s t u d y of sound you remember w found e t h a t a sound wave was c r e a t e d by v i b r a t i o n s Figure 1 and t h a t t h i s wave ha6 frequency, velocity, and l e n g t h (wave l e n g t h ) , The electromagnetic wave a l s o has these sane p r o p e r t i e s and they a r e a l l d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o one another. The frequency i s expressed, you will r e c a l l , i n c y c l e s , When the f.requencr$ of e l e c t r i c a l c w r e n t reaches L O c y c l e s , 2 . t may be t h e n O0 c a l l e d on@k i l o c y c l e , ( k i l o meaning one thousand), In r a d i o t r a n s mission the frequency i s spoken of i n terms of k i l o c y c l e s because of t h e extremely h i g h .fsequeneies employed POP broadcasting work, ranging from 550,QQC t o 1,500,000 c y c l e s per second. Since 1000 cycles e q u a l one k i l o c y c l e we can use t h e more convenient Germ t o work with, Far example, dlvfcling 55b,000 c y c l e s by 1000 w i l l g i v e us $50 k i l o c y c l e s and i n t h e same manner 1,500,000 c y c l e s w i l l be equal t o 1500 k i l o c y c l e s , The frequency of' t h e broadcast range v a r i e s from 550 K.C, ( k i l o c y c l e s ) t o 1500 K.C, ( k f l o c y c l e s ) ,
A s explained i n t h e previous l e s s o n a wave has two motions which a r e

opposite,- one t h e c r e s t , and t h e o t h e r the trough, Wave l e n g t h i s determined by measuring from a point on one wave t o a s i m i l a r point

Printed i n U.S.A.

trough.

on the next wave a s , f o r example, from c r e s t t o c r e s t o r trough t o T h i s i s g r a p h i c a l l y shown i n Figure 1 .

The v e l o c i t y of sound waves i s about 1,100 f e e t per second. E l e c t r o magnetic, or r a d i o waves, however, t r a v e l a t t h e t e r r i f i c speed of n e a r l y 300,000,000 meters per second (one meter i s e q u a l t o 39.37 inches, o r 3,280 f e e t ) which i s approximately 186,300 miles per second. The r e l a t i o n between t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s i s d e f i n i t e and, considering t h e v e l o c i t y a d e f i n i t e value, t h e frequency and wave l e n g t h can be varied. This brings us a g a i n t o t h e b a s i c f o r m l a g i v e n i n t h e study of sound. V e l o c i t y i s e q u a l t o t h e frequenoy times t h e wave l e n g t h , V = f x 3 , Frequency equals v e l o c i t y divided by t h e wave length, F V +A. The wave l e n g t h i s e q u a l t o t h e v e l o c i t y divjtded by the frequency,7\= VI-F. 7 (lambda) i s t h e symbol f o r wave l e m t h . \

=

When the wave r i s e s and f a l l s a g r e a t many times p e r second it i s s a i d t o have h i g h frequency, t h a t i s , when t h e frequency i s h i g h t h e wave l e n g t h i s short. Let us use our formula t o prove t h i s , choosing an a r b i t r a r y frequency a s , f o r example, 600,000 c y c l e s and, w i t h a vel o c i t y of 300,000,000 meters,

O rv

7\=
=

500 meters c y c l e s per second,

Suppose our frequency i s i n c r e a s e d t o 7,500,000 then

v P

N w decrease t h e frequency t o 20,000 c y c l e s per second, o

or,

\=

15,000 meters. Lesson 2 1

-

sheet 2

n u s i t 1 s seen t h a t , a s the frequency i s increased, t h e wave l e n g t h becones s h n r t e r and when decreased t h e wave l e n g t h becomes longer, a s s h o r n by the diagram Figure 2. The r e l a t i o n e x i s t i n g between frequency, v e l o c i t y , and wave l e n g t h i s always t h e same, as,shown by t h e foregoing f ornulae. Fiadio waves a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s continuous and damped. A continuous wave, a b b r i v i a t e d (CW), i s one whose o s c i l l a t i o n s producing the wave w i l l b e of constant amplitude, providing t h e e l e c t r i c a l energy producing t h e wave i s k e p t a t a constant value, Damped waves a r e those s e t up by energy which i s supplied by t h e transmi1:ter a t i n t e r v a l s ; such waves g r a d u a l l y d i e out according t o a l o g a r i t h m i t i c law which w i l l be considered l a t e r under t r a n s m i t t e r s .

If you s e t a v i o l i n string i n t o v i b r a t i o n by one s h o r t quickly executed s t r o k e of t h e bow t h e v i b r a t i o n s w i l l produce a sound wave, the form of

HIGH FREQUENCY

LOW FREOUENCY

DAMPED

WLIVE

CONTINUOUS WAVE

Figwe 2 Figure 3 which w i l l be damped, t h a t i s , t h e v i b r a t i o n of t h e s t r i n g w i l l be of maximum amplitude a t f i r s t and t h e r e s u l t i n g wave motion w i l l produce a loud sound which w i l l g r a d u a l l y d i e away. A damped wave form i s shown i n Figure 3. I f t h e v i o l i n s t r i n g could be bowed uniformly and i n a manner t h a t would keep t h e s t r i n g v i b r a t i n g contlnuously a t a constant amplitude t h e r e s u l t i n g wave would be continuous t h u s producing a steady sound, Such a continuous wave form i s a l s o shown i n Figure 3 and r e p r e s e n t s a graphic p i c t u r e of t h e continuous r a d i o wave. Undamped ( c o n t i n u o u s ) o s c i l l a t i o n s of v e r y high frequency must be employed i n broadcast transmission. The frequency of t h i s c u r r e n t i s t o o h i g h t o be a u d i b l e * The wave produced by such r a p i d e l e c t r i c a l v i b r a t i o n s s e r v e s no purpose i n t h i s form, f i r s t , because t h e diaphram of t h e telephone r e c e i v e r o r loudspeaker could not follow such -a r a p i d r e v e r s a l of c u r r e n t and, second, even i f t h e telephone diaphrarn could follow such r a p i d v i b r a t i o n s t h e e a r would not respond t o t h e v i b r a t i o n s produced, It w i l l be remembered from the l e s s o n on sound t h a t t h e wire telephone t r a n s m i t t e r i s employed t o modula.te, t h a t i s , change t h e c u r r e n t flowing through t h e t r a n s m i t t e r , This was accomplished by t h e sound waves causing t h e diaphram of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r t o v i b r a t e a t t h e frequency of these sound waves, t h u s eompe;Lling t h e carbon g r a n u l e s t o vary t h e i r pressure. This change i n t h e i r p r e s s u r e v a r i e s t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e causing t h e c u r r e n t t o v a r y i n accordance with the v i b r a t i o n s of t h e diaphram.

Lesson 2 1

- sheet

3

In E a d i c tele3hony t h e high frequency and i n a u d i b l e e l e c t r i c a l o s c i l l a t i o n s a r e modulated by the use of a telephone t r a n s m i t t e r ( t h e ~ i c r o p h o n e )which g i v e s t h e n t h e same wave form as t h a t of tlie sound wave comiw from speech o r music. The i n a u d i b l e , high f r e q u e n c y o s c i l l a t i n g c u r r e n t , c a l l e d t h e c a r r i e r c u r r e n t , cannot be h e a r d i n t h e r e c e i v e r , b u t t h e changes i n t h i s c u r r e n t produced by the a c t i o n of t h e modulator (when c o r r e c t adjustments a r e maint a i n e d i n t h e modulator c i r c u i t ) w i l l follow t h e wave forms of sounds produced b e f o r e t h e microphone, and t h e s e a r e heard i n t h e receiver.
Figure 4, c o n s i s t i n g of an antenna, an inductance "L" f o r tuning t h e antenna, the h i g h frequency a l t e r n a t o r , and a microphone, shows a very simple means f o r i l l u s t r a t i n g the g e n e r a t i o n and modulation of undamped continuous h i g h frequency o s c i l l a t i o n s . When no sound waves s t r i k e t h e microphone r a p i d h i g h frequency c u r r e n t s a s shorn i n Figure 5 a r e continuously and unifomnly supplied t o t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g antenna. Sound waves, impinging upon t h e diaphram of t h e microphone, w i l l by inward and outward displacements of t h e diaphram vary t h e r e s i s t a n c e

' -I _

-

MICROPHONE

i

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 4 of the carbon granules through which t h e h i g h frequency current i s passing. By v i r t u e of t h i s varying r e s i s t t m c e t h e a n t e m a c u r r e n t w i l l a l s o be v a r i e d r e s u l t i n g In a change i n amplitude of t h e antenna current. These changes w i l l produce a wave having t h e same form a s t h e sound waves being produced before t h e microphone. Figure 6 shov~s a modulated c a r r l e r wave. When t h e s e electromagnetic waves pass a r e c e i v i n g antenna t h e y w i l l produce t h e r e i n a f e e b l e e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t which, when conducted t o a r e c e i v e r by a proper arrangement of conductors, w i l l be amplified, detected and again amplified, and $hen passed through a telephone r e c e i v e r which r e c o n v e r t s t h e c u r r e n t t o sound waves* Further w o r k m t r a n s m i t t e r problems m i l l be takenup i n l a t e r lessons. With t h e preceeding i n t r o d u c t i o n r e w i l l begin our work with t h e r a d i o receiver. Before going on, however, l e t us sum up t h e work we have . covered by r e f e r r i n g t o Figure 7
A s u i t a b l e apparatus f o r producing undamped continuous high frequency c u m e n t s shown a t B i s necessary. This c u r r e n t i s passed through t h e modulabing apparatus a t C . The t r a n s m i t t i n g antenna i s shown a t G.

Lesson 2 1

- sheet 4

;%ler.~o sound v i b r a t i o n s are impinged upon the microphone t h e high f r e q s e n c j currznt o s c i l l a t e s continuously and uniformly i n the antenna as sr.oi,n a t D. . h e n sound waves, caused by speechor music, a r e produced a t t h e microphone they c r e a t e audible e l e c t r i c a l f r e q u e n c i e s whlch superimpose t h e speech and music v i b r a t i o n s on t h e h i g h frequency, or . c a r r i e r wave D I n combining t h e voice and music waves w i t h the c a r r i e r wave a t t h e modulator system t h e h i g h frequency c a r r i e r wave i s changed i n form, and the contour of a l i n e drawn through t h e 'cops of the wave w i l l be seen t o correspond e x a c t l y t o t h e speech and music sound waves a t t h e microphone, shown a t F. The powerful c a r r i e r wave i s , i n t h i s form, p r o j e c t e d fromthe t r a n s m i t t i n g antennaG, ~ n dr a v e l s away through t space i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , Passfng through space t h e c a r r i e r , i n e l e c t r o magnetic form, i s pfckedi up by a r e c e i v i n g antenna H and s t i l l maintains t h e same frequency and shape as it had on l e a v i n g t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g antenna but i n g r e a t l y a t t e n u a t e d form, t h a t i s , g r e a t l y reduced i n strea s shown a t I. By means of a lead- in wlre from t h e antenna the e l e c t r o -

SOUND

LOUD

magnetic wave i s guided t o t h a t p a r t of the r e c e i v e r c a l l e d t h e t u n e r o r s e l e c t o r , 3 , which i s c o n t r o l l e d manually by t h e operator, and which f u n c t i o n s i n such a manner as t o permit t h e s e l e c t i o n of one p a r t i c u l a r frequency and t h e e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r s , This i s c a l l e d "tuning" and, i n tuning, t h e operator i s enabled Lo s e l e c t t h e s t a t i o n he d e s i r e s , Vdhen t h e s e l e c t o r of t h e r e c e i v e r has been b e d t o the proper frequency t h e modulated c a r r i e r I i s passed through a r a d i o Prequency amplifier which g r e a t l y a m p l l r i e s , t h a t is, magnifies t h e f e e b l e r e c e i v e d c u r r e n t t o a s t r e n g t h which w i l l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y o p e r a t e t h e d e t e c t o r L B The d e t e c t o r L-transforms o r r e c t i f i e s t h e high frequency i n a u d i b l e c a r r l e r c u r r e n t and allows t h e a u d i b l e component, ( t h i s audible component being

by the shape of the aave, as i n Figure 6 , which corresponds e x a c t l y t o t h e shape o f the c a r r i e r produced a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r ) , t o pess as shown a t M . This transformed c u r r e n t M i s now amplified, e s shown a t 0 , t o t h e s t r e n g t h s u i t a b l e t o opesate a loud speaker. The r e c e i v s r convorts the electromagnetic waves back t o sound waves, reproducing t h e sound produced a t t h e microphone of t h e broadcasting station,

I

The explanation of t h e apparatus necessary f o r transforming t h e electromagnetic waves i n t o sound waves w i l l now be g i v e n under r e c e i v i n g apparatus,
RECEIVING APPARATUS

Regardless of t h e type of t h e r a d i o r e c e i v e r employed it must c o n s i s t of t h e following p a r t s , The antenna system, tuner, d e t e c t o r , and t e l e phone headset or loud speaker*

The antenna systeln 59 n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e r c e p t t h e t r a n s m i t t e d e l e c t r o magnetic waves- 1% may be a s i n g l e wire s t r u n g between two p o l e s , between t h e s i d e of a b u i l d i n g and pole, o r it may be l o c a t e d i n s i d e the house, a s * f o r example, i n t h e a t t i c o r around t h e mouldings of t h e room, Another form of antenna i s t h e loop antenna which i s use6 i n l o c a t i o n s where o t h e r forms of antennae a r e Xmpractfcsble, o r with a r e c e i v i n g s e t p r i m a r i l g d e s i g n e d t o operate w i t h t h i s type of antenna. The a&e-ma, a l s o 0 ~ l l C d h e , a e r % a l , i s a system of conductors designed t n f o r r a d f a t f n g o r absorbfng eleotromagnetite waves. A antenna designed f o r r a d i a t i n g electromagnetic waves i s employed a t t h e t r a n s m f t t f n g s t a t i o n , The a n t e m e d e a m e d f o r absopbing electromagnetic waves i s employed a t t h e r e c e i v e r , TbePe a r e s e v e r a l forms of keceiving antennae found i n g e n e r a l u s e s They a r e t h e s o c a l l e d E and T type, t h e I n s i d e type, and t h e loop antenna, I n g e n e r a l only a s i n g l e wire antenna i s used f o r broadc a ~ r e c e p t i o n e It i s more e f f i c i e n t than a n e l a b o r a t e system t comprising s e v e r a l wires, The L type antenna c o n s i s t s of a h o r i z o n t a l wir*e laavins a v e r t e c a l l e a d - i n which i s attached t o t h e s h o r i z o n t a l p a r t of t h e antenna n e a r e s t t h e ~ e c e i v i n g e t . T h i s form of antenna i s e a s i l y i n s t a l l e d whereever t h e wire can be run from one b u i l 4 i n g t n another, a s from t h e house t o t h e garage. The T form of antenna c o n s i s t s of a h o r i z o n t a l wire l i k e t h e E type, but i n s t e a d of t h e lead- in being t a k e n from t h e end, it i s connected t o t h e c e n t e r of t h e h o r i z o n t a l wire. This form i s g e n e r a l l y employed when t h e lead- in can be dropped c l i r e o t l y t o t h e receiver* The L and T antennae a r e outdoor types and they a r e u s u a l l y t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y e They should range i n l e n g t h from 65 t o 150 f e e t , and be e l e v a t e d a t l e a s t 30 f e e t from t h e ground. No. 1 4 seven s t r a n d copper. wPre, or

Lesson 2 1

-

sheet 6

serves a s a p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e corrosive e f f e c t s of t h e smoke and fumes. s i n g l e wipe antenna two s t r a i n i n s u l a t o r s a r e placed a t e a c h end of the antenna wire and serve t o i n s u l a t e me antenna from t h e supp o r t s t o which it i s f a s t e n e d * The i n s u l a t o r i s necessary t o prevent leakage of t h e e l e c t r o m a g m t i c energy whioh has been "picked up" by t h e antenna. I n s u l a t o r s f o r t M s purpose a r e made cf substances which a r e non-oonducdors of e l e c t r i c i t y . Pgrex g l a s s , glazed porcelain, and s p e c i a l impregnated comproeitions are used a s i n s u l a t o r s s
~1,'Jithh e t

when t h e antenna i s t o be pun along t h e a i d e of a b u i l d i n g "stand of%'' insuPators should be used t o hold t h e lead- in a t l e a s t 4 o r 5 inches away from t h e s i d e of buildings
*hMTENNA l USULPrPO?

ANTENNA POLES-

4 CONDUCTOR X 1 COPPER --OR *I7 STEEL CLAD OR

PROTECTIVE GROUNDING

Figure 8 A p o r c e l a f n tube i n s u l a t o r 1 s employed f o r l e a d i n g t h e wire i n t o the building, The tube w f l l vary Psom 8 t o PB inches i n l e n g t h , depending upon t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e walX, The window s t r i p l e a d - i n i s used where it f s u n d e s i r a b l e Lo d r i l l an opening i n t h e w a l l of a b u i l d i n g f o r t h e p o r c e l a i n tube t y p e of leadin i n s u l a t o r ,
A l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r of a type approved by t W F i r e Underwriters B a necessary t o complete t h e antenna i n s t a l l a t i o n .

Figure 8 i s a dfagram showing the i n s t a l l a t f o n of a n L t3pe s i n g l e wire antenna. Whenever possPblo p l a n t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n s o that t h e

Lesson 2 l

- sheet 7

allowed between t h e h o r i z o n t a l wire and the r o o f ,

h o r i z o n t ~ lp e r t o f the antenna will be from 65 t o 100 or 150 f e e t i n :e,u;th. A l e a s t 30 f e e t should separate the h o r i z o n t a l p a r t o f the t entemia and g r o u n d . Should it be necessary t o i n s t a l l t h e antenna on the t o p of a buildi-ng, a clearance of twelve t o f i f t e e n f e e t i s

Fi,we 8 shows t h e l e a d - i n soldered t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l p a r t of t h e antenna. If p o s s i b l e r u n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p a r t from t h e f a r i n s u l a t o r through t h e i n s u l a t o r a t t h e r e c e i v e r end, through t h e stand off insul a t o r s t o the l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r , using a continuous l e n g t h of wire a s shown i n Figure 9, thereby avoiding soldered j o i n t s . Fro113t h e antenna s i d e o f t h e l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r t h e lead- in i s continued through t h e p o r c e l a i n tubes When t h e p o r c e l a i n t u b e lead- in i n s u l a t o r i s used a hole i s bored in t h e window c a s i n g a t an angle a s shown I n F i g w e 8, There a r e various kinds of lead- in devices,- some a r e f l a t copper ribbon covered w i t h an i n s u l a t i n g f a b r i c , e a l l e d window s t r i p s . Such a device i s l a i d over the wirldorr s i l l and t h e mindow closed t i g h t l y on i t . Other methods may b e used, a s , f o r example, using a board about two inches i n width and the l e n g t h of the window, i n s e r t i n g the p o r c e l a f n i n s u l a t o r through t h e board and t h e n c l o s i n g t h e window on it a s shown
,INSULATORS -..--ANTENNR CONTINUES UNBROI<EN TO SET

4

4

-ANTENNk CONTINUING TO SET

Figure 9

- eonno

FITTED.) -UNDER WINDOW SILL

..
= -

Figure 10 i n Figure 10. his p a r t of t h e i ns t a l l a t i o n w i l l have t o be noverne d by the wishes of the-owner of t h e house. The l e a d - i n i s then-connected t o t h e binding p o s t of t h e r e c e i v e r marked A , o r antenna. From t h e binding post on t h e r e c e i v e r masked G, or ground, a wire i s connected d i r e c t t o t h e grounds T h i s should be Noe 14 B & S w a g e rubber covered i n s u l a t e d wires A s m a l l e r wire mag b e used from r e c e i v e r t o ground provided a No. 14 wire i s connected from l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r t o ground, TIiE LIGHTNING AWRESTm The l i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r i s a device employed i n t h e antenna i n s t a l l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t t h e r e c e i v i n g B e t from heavy e l e c t r i c a l charges absorbed by t h e antenna* An antenne does not a t t r a c t l i g h t n i n g t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n e l e c t r i c l i g h t and telephone l f n e s . It should be understood that, i f l i g h t n i n g di-ctly s t r i k e s an antenna, e l e c t r i c ' l i g h t , or telephone wire, no a r r e s t e r w i l l o f f e r a b s o l u t e protection. When an atmospheric storm i s i n progress, however, t h e r e i s always a e l e c t r i c a l charge accumulating on t h e antenna. It i s t h i s charge which, Lesson 2 1

-

sheet 8

on becoring s u f , P i c i e n t l y strong, is earpieE hamilessly t o ground by t5e a r r e s t e r m5 the p r o t e c t i v e groundconductor. These undesirab l e charzes 6 0 not pass t h r o u g h t h e various p a r t s of t h e receiver. ~ l antenna systems should be equiped with some form of approved l liz:^,tnirg arrester.
The l i g n t n i n s a r r e s t e r c o n s i s t s of two e l e c t r o d e s s e c u r e l y supported and separated from each o t h e r by a n a i r gap, a s shown i n Figure lla The s p a c i r g of t h i s a i r gap i s such t h a t excessive charges accumulating on the antenna w i l l jump t h e gap and pass d i r e c t l y t o ground, t h u s p r e v e n t l r q a heavy charge from passing through t h e r e c e i v i n g p a r t s .
BAKELITE. RUBBER

OR WOOD)

hU0ITIONb.L SWITCH I N I\NTENMk L E W

Figure 3 . 1
BOX TYPE LOOP
SPlRkL TYPE LOOP

Figure 12

The indoor antenna should be i n s u l a t e d wire u n l e s s t h e supports on which t h e wire f s r u n a r e , in themselves, i n s u l a t o x " ~ , The same r u l e s and precautions should be e x e r c i s e d i n indoor I n s t a l l a t i o n s a s i n outdoor,- t h e more c a r e f u l t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n t h e b e t t e r t h e r e s u l t s obt ainedo
A s i n g l e s t r a i g h t wire may be i n s t a l l e d i n a long a t t i e Pn the same general manner a s the outdoor a e r i a l * Some b u i l d i n g s a r e small, howe v e r , and it may be necessary t o loop t h e wire back anB f o ~ t h on p o r c e l a i n c l e a t s o r k n o b i n s u l a t o r % I n some o a s e s t h e wire i s supported along t h e t o p of t h e p i c t u m moulding about t h e roome The wire i n t h f s case should be i n s u l a t e d , but c l e a t s a r e unnecessar$.

Any of t h e s e a s strong an installed i n may be q u i t e

indoor antenna w i l l f u n c t i o n but t h e y w i l l not d e l i v e r impulse t o t h e r e c e i v e r a s t h e outdoor type and, when s t e e l frame bufldings, t h e d e c r e a s e i n s i g n a l s t r e n g t h marked,

Lesson 21

- sheet 9

LOP A
Under c e r t a i n conditions t h e c o i l , or loop, antenna w i l l give very goo(? r e s u l t s . The l o o p antenna c o n s i s t s of a number o f t u r n s o f wire wound on a wc,oden frame varying i n s i z e from t e n inches t o f i v e f e e t square. Some loops a r e oblone; i n shape. Figure 1 2 shows t w o forms of loops r The loop, because of P t s s i z e , cannot be used f o r d i s t a n t r e c e p t i o n u n l e s s s u i t a b l e apparatus i s used t o g r e a t l y amplify t h e minute energy absorbed by t h e loop, (The "super-heterodyne" r e c e i v e r operates most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h a loop a e r i a l . ) There a r e s e v e r a l good f e a t u r e s i n using t h e loop antenna when t h e proper a m p l i f i c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , F i r s t , it i s d i r e c t i o n a l , t h a t is, when t h e loop i s turned so t h a t one edge i s p o i n t i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n s i g n a l s from t h a t s t a t i o n w i l l b e absorbed by t h e loop a t maximum i n t e n s i t y ; and, when t u r n i n g it away from this p o s i t i o n t h e s i g n a l s become w e a k e ~ i t i s a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g s t a t i o n , no s i g n a l w i l l be received. When t h e loop i s pointed toward any p a r t i c u l a r s t a t i o n it t e n d s t o exclude s t a t i o n s t h a t may be l o c a t e d on e i t h e r s i d e , w i t h t h e exception of nearby powerful t r a n s m i t t e r s e while t h e energy r e c e i v e d by a loop antenna i s q u i t e small t h e amount r e c e i v e d can u s u a l l y be amplified t o s u f f f c i e n t i n t e n s i t y t o give loud and c l e a r s i g n a l s ,
UrnERGROUND ANTENNAE

Electromagnetic waves p e n e t r a t e t h e s u r f a c e of t h e e a r t h t o a short depth w i t h f a i r s i g n a l s t r e n g t h , This i s taken advantage of i n t h e underground antenna system due t o t h e b e t t e r s i g n a l t o s t a t i c r a t i o ; it i s more s e l e c t i v e t h a n t h e overhead form and i t s d i r e c t i o n a l e f f e c t i s very pronounced,

This type of antenna should be made o f No. 14 hard drawn copper wire a t l e a s t YE3 f e e t i n l e n g t h and i n s u l a t e d by a q u a r t e r i n c h thickness

of good rubber i n s u l a t l o n o It should be buried t o a depth of from 8 inches t o two f e e t , p r e f e r a b l y i n moist ground*

The s i g n a l s t r e n g t h r e c e i v e d by t h e underground a e r i a l i s very small and s u i t a b l e a m ~ l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y operate a l o u d i speaker.
CONNECTING TEE LOOP

When t h e loop antenna i s employed t h e ends of t h e loop a r e connected t o t h e antenna and ground binding p o s t s o f t h e s e t r e s p e c t i v e l y i f the t u n e r has a c o i l and condenser i n s e r i e s * When t h e t u n e r c o n s i s t s of a c o i l only, t h e n a condneser must be connected i n s e r i e s w i t h one s i d e of t h e loop and t h e ground connection of t h e s e t , in some s e t s t h e loop i s used i n p l a c e of t h e tuning c o i l and when t h i s is done a condenser must be placed a c r o s s t h e loop termina l s t o tune t h e loop. Loop connections a r e shown i n Figure

MULTIPLE WIRE APPTENNAE D i f f i c u l t y i s experlcnced, a t times, i n running a s f n g l e s t r a i g h t wire f o r t h e antenna due t o laclr of space, In t h a t c a s e the ixuitlple wire antenna may be r e s o r t e d t o , Figure 14 shows two forms,- n tvro wire T, antenna and a t h r e e wire T type antenna. The p a r ~ a i i e lh o r i z o n t a l wires should be spaced. a t l e a s t 2 f e e t . The s i g n a l s t r e n g t h wfth t h e two wire form w f l l be s l i g b k i g increased a s coiripnrec: w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h received by t h e Single wire, and. t h e s i g n e l s t r e n g t h o f the t h r e e wire form w i l l be about one and a h a l f tinies as g r e n t a s the s i n g l e wlree

FZgure 13 The wires i n a mulGfple antenna skoufd be e x a c t l y t h e same l e n g t h and show.ld be s e p a m t e d by wood spreaders, Each wlre can b e ~ u a thraugh a h o l e bored i n t h e spreader, t a k i n g a twrn or two and then brouglik oat end tw.i.sted back on t h e h o r i z o n t a l s e c t i o n of t h e a n t e m a , " o r they may be secured wi.th i n s u l a t o r s a s shows* i n t h e tiwee wire fomi, I n s u l a t o r s should always be placed b e t w e e n t h supports and the antenna propeF i n a i l t y p e s of antennae t o prevent el.ectro-magnetic leakage,
THE COUNTERPOISE

The counterpoise i s a system of wires erected. underneath. t h e antenna, It nay be placed a few f e e t above t h e grouxid, from two t o 10 f e e t , and t~ should f o l l o ~ h e design, a s t o l e n g t h and shape, of t h e hor*fzontal p a r t of the antenna. It Ps s t i l l b e t t e r , however, t o have it cover a g r e a t e r space t h a n t h a t covered by t h e antenna proper, I f t h e antenna i s e r e c t e d on t h e t o p of a building t h e counterpoise may be l o c a t e d i n t h e a t t i c uncier t h e antenna, or i n t h e c e l l a r , p ~ o viding t h e r o o f i s not a metal one, otherwise it i s b e t t e r t o p l a c e i t d i r e c t l y under t h e antenna above t h e r o o f . The counterpoise, when

Lesson 2 1

- skeet 11

employed, t a k e s t h e place of t h e ground, and i n l o c a t i o n s where t h e e a r t h i s very d r y i t w i l l g i v e b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n t h e ground. The same r u l e s i n installation apply a s those followed i n e r r e c t i n g an antenna.
RIGF1T AND WRONG ROOF INSTALLATIONS

The two i l l u s t r a t i o n s In Figure 1 5 show t h e c o r r e c t and i n c o r r e c t methods of e r e c t 5 c g supports f o r antennae on r o o f tops,

Figure 15

FIRE UBDERWRITERS REGULATIONS
General The requirements of t h i s a r t i c l e s h a l l n o t apply t o equipment on shipboard, but s h a l l be deemedtobe a d d i t i o n a l t o , o r amend those prescribed i n a r t i c l e s 1 t o 19, i n c l u s i v e , of t h i s cocle*
P

Transformers, v o l t a g e reducers, keys and o t h e r devices employed s h a l l be of types e x p r e s s l y approved f o r r a d i o o p e r a t i o n o For -Receivi
e

a, Antenna and counterpoise outside b u i l d i n g s s h a l l be kept well away from a l l e l e c t r i c l i g h t o r power wires of any c l r c u i t of more t h a n 600 v o l t s , and from railway, t r o l l e y o r f e e d e r wires, s o a s t o avoid t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t a c t between t h e antenna or counterpoise and such w i r e s under a c c i e e n t a l conditions.

Lesson 21

-

sheet 1 2
. ..

.. .

.

Antenna and counterpoise, where placed i n proximity t o e l e c t r l c l i g h t o r power w i r e s of l e s s t h a n 600 Volts, o r s l g n a l wires, s h a l l be constructed and i n s t a l l e d i n a s t r o n g and durable manner* and s h a l l be so l o c a t e d and providedwith s u i t a b l e clearance a s t o prevent a c c i d e n t a l contact w i t h such w i r e s by s a g g i r i o r swinging*
be

c. S p l i c e s and j o i n t s i n tfie antenna span s h a l l be soldered unless made w Z t h approved s p l f @ing devices, The preceding paragraphs, a, b, and c, s h a l l not apply t o l i g h t antenna, kfue t h e devfces used and power c i r c u i t s used as ~ e c e i v f h g t o connect t h e l i g h t and powep wires t o r a d i o r e c e i v i n g s e t s s h a l l be of approved type,
d,

Leadsin conductors 8 91 be of copper, approved oopper-clad s t e e l o r o t h e r metal which w i 1 4 not; corrode excessively, end i n no case s h a l l they be smaller "can no, 14, except t h a t bronze o r copper-clad s t e e l nok l e s s than No, 15' may be used.
e.
f, Lead-Pn; conductors o n t h e outside o f b u i l d i n g s s h a l l n o t come n e a r e r t h a n 4 inches t o e l e c t r f c l i g h t and power wires u n l e s s separated t h e r e from by a continuous and f i r m l y fixed. non-conductor which ~93.1malntain permanent s e p a r a t i o n , The non-conductor s h a l l be fin a d d i t i o n %o any i n s u l a t i n g covering on t h e wire,

g , Each lead- in conductor s h a l l e n t e r t h e b u i l d i n g through a noncombustible, non-absorpt i v e i n s u l a t i n g bushtng s l a n t i n g upward toward t h e i n s i d e o r by means of an approved device designed t o gi.ve equivalenk

,

protection,

A, nach lead-iaz eonductor s h a l l be provided w i t h an approved. p r o t e e t l v e device ( I i g h t n i a g arrester) which w P l P op3rate a t e voltage c.f 500 v o l t s o r l e s s , properzijr c o r m e c t o d end. located e i t h e r insio'e t h e b u l l d i n g a t some p o h t between t h e entrance and. t h e s e t whieh 1s convenient t o a ground, or outside t h e b u i l d i n g a s near a s p r a c t i c a b l e t o t h e point c9" entrance, The p r o t e c t o r s h a l l not be placed i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y of e a s i l y i g n f t a b i e st&?.€', or where exposed t o inflammabls gases o r d u s t or f l y i r g s of combustible m a t e r i a l s ,

E m i f an antenna grounc1ing switch i s employed, it s h a l l , i n 1 . t ~ closed p o s i t i o n , form a shunt ako& t h e p r o t e c t i v e device* Such a switch s h a l l pot be used a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e p r o t e c t i v e devlcee
It i s recoxmended t h a t t h e antenna grounding switch be employed, and t h a t i n a d d i t i o n a switch r a t e d a t not l e s s t h a n 30 amperes, 250 v o l t s , be l o c a t e d between t h e l e a d - i n eonductor and the r e c e i v e r s e t ,
j . I f f u s e s a r e used, they s h a l l not be placed i n t h e c i r o u f t from t h e antenna through t h e p r o t e c t i v e device t o ground.

Lesson 21

- s h e e t 13

k . The p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor may be bare and s h a l l be of copper, bronze o r approved copper-clad s t e e l . The p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor s h a l l not be smaller nor have l e s s conductance per u n i t of length, than t h e lead- in conductor and i n no case s h a l l be smaller than No. 14 if copper, nor smaller t h a n No. 17 i f of bronze or copperc l a d s t e e l . The p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor s h a l l be r u n i n a s s t r a i g h t a l i n e a s p o s s i b l e from t h e p r o t e c t i v e device t o a good permanent ground. Preference s h a l l be given t o water piping. Other permissible grounds a r e grounded s t e e l frames of b u i l d i n g s or o t h e r grounded metal work i n t h e building, and a r t i f i c i a l grounds such a s d r i v e n pipes, rods, p l a t e s , cones, e t c . Gas p i p i n g s h a l l not be use& f o r the ground.

L . The p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor s h a l l be guarded where exposed t o mechanical i n j u r y , An approved ground clamp s h a l l be used where t h e p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor i s connected t o pipes o r piping.
The p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor may be r u n e i t h e ~ n s i d e o r i outside t h e building. The p r o t e c t i v e grounding conductor and ground, i n s t a l l e d a s p r e s c r i b e d i n th preceding paragraphs K and L, may be used a s the operating ground,
It i s recommended t h a t i n t h i s case t h e operating grounding conductor be connected t o the t e r m i n a l of the p r o t e c t i v e device.

m,

I f d e s i r e d , a s e p a r a t e operating grounding connection and ground may be used, t h i s o p e r a t i n g grounding conductor being e i t h e r bare o r provided with an i n s u l a t e d covering o

n e Wires i n s i d e b u i l d i n g s s h a l l be s e c u r e l y f a s t e n e d i n a worlananlike manner and s h a l l not cone n e a r e r than 2 inches t o any e l e c t r i c l i g h t o r power wire not i n conduit u n l e s s separated therefrom by some continuous ana f i ~ m l y i x e d non-conductor, such a s p o r c e l a i n tubes or f approved f l e x i b l e tubing, making a permanent s e p a r a t i o n . This nonconductor s h a l l be i n a d d i t i o n t o any r e g u l a r i n s u l a t i n g covering on t h e wire*
os Storage b a t t e r y l e a d s s h a l l c o n s i s t of conductoFs having approved rubber insulation. The c i r c u i t s &om s t o r a g e b a t t e r i e s s h a l l b e p r o p e r l y p r o t e c t e d by f u s e s o r c i r c u i t breakers r a t e d a t nor more t h a n 15 amperes and l o c a t e d p e r f e r a b l y a t o r near t h e b a t t e r y *

a. Antenna and counteppoise outside b u i l d i n g s shall. be kept well away from a l l e l e c t r i c l i g h t or power wires of any c i r c u i t of more t h a n 600 v o l t s , and from railway, t r o l l e y , o r f e e d e r wires, so a s t o avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y of contact between the antenna o r counterpoise and such wires under a c c i d e n t a l conditions. Lesson 21

- sheet 14

b, Antenna and counterpoise, where placed i n proximity t o e l e c t r i c l i g h t or power w i r e s of l e s s t h a n 600 v o l t s , or s i g n a l wires, s h a l l be constructed and i n s t a l l e d i n a s t r u n g and durable manner, and a s h a l l be so l o c a t e d and provided with s u i t a b l e c l e a r a n c e s as f prevent a c c i d e n t a l contact w i t h such wires by sagging or swinging. c. S p l i c e s and j o i n t s i n t h e antenna and counterpoise span s h a l l be soldered unless made with approved splicing devices. d , Lead-in conductors s h a l l be of copper, bronze, approved copperc l a d s t e e l or other metal which w i l l not corrode exce'ssively and i n no case s h a l l be s m a l l e r t h a n No. 14. e , Antenna and counterpoise eonductors a