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Explain the role of the following organs in the digestive system The mouth and salivary glands

There are three major pairs of salivary glands in the mouth. The largest pair of salivary glands, called the parotid glands, lies just behind the angle of the jaw, below and in front of the ears. Two smaller pairs, the sublingual glands and the submandibular glands, lie deep in the floor of the mouth. In addition to these major glands, many tiny salivary glands are distributed throughout the mouth. All of the glands produce saliva, which aids in breaking down food as part of the digestive process. orders/salivary_gland_disorders.html

The Oesophagus
The Oesophagus is about 25 cms long and allows the food you swallow to get to your stomach. When you swallow, the muscles along the length of the oesophagus tighten and relax in a wave downwards and the food is moved into the stomach. This all happens in a few seconds.

The Stomach
Location: Between a muscular tube called the oesophagus and the small intestine. Function: Storing food, breaking food down and mixing it with juices secreted by your stomach lining. Food Store: Your stomach is a short-term food-storage facility. This allows you

to consume a large meal quickly and then digest it over an extended period of time. When full, your stomach can hold around one litre of chewed up food. Swallowed food is propelled down your oesophagus into your stomach. Food is enclosed in your stomach by two circular muscles, known as sphincters.

The Pancreas
Location: Behind the stomach and level with the top of the small intestine. Function: Secreting digestive enzymes and hormones that control blood sugar levels. Digestion: When you eat, your pancreas releases digestive juices through a duct into your duodenum - the first part of your small intestine. This fluid is rich in enzymes that break down fats, proteins and carbohydrates. It also contains sodium bicarbonate which neutralises acid in your stomach.

The Liver
Location: Under your diaphragm, more to the right side of your body. Function: To get rid of toxins, to regulate your blood sugar levels and to produce bile. Largest internal organ: Your liver is your largest internal organ. A big blood vessel, called the portal vein, carries nutrient-rich blood from your small intestine directly to your liver.

The large Intestine

Location: Surrounding your small intestine. Function: To convert food waste products into faeces. Making faeces: Your large intestine is the final part of your digestive tract. Undigested food enters your large intestine from your small intestine. It then reabsorbs water that is used in digestion and eliminates undigested food and fibre. This causes food waste products to harden and form faeces, which are then excreted. shtml

The small Intestine

Location: Abdomen. Function: Chemical digestion of food and absorption of nutrients into your blood. Longest section of your digestive tract: Your small intestine is around five metres long, making it the longest section of your digestive tract. Although it is longer than your large intestine it has a smaller diameter. This is why it's called the small intestine. shtml

The Colon
The colon, or large intestine, is part of the digestive system, which is a series of organs from the mouth to the anus. When the shape of the colon or the way it connects to other organs is abnormal, digestive problems result. Some of these anatomic problems can occur during embryonic development of the fetus in the womb and are known as congenital abnormalities. Other problems develop with age.

The Bladder
Location: Behind your pelvic bone. Function: storing urine. Filling Up: Urine, made in your kidneys, is transported to your bladder via two narrow tubes known as ureters. As your bladder fills up with urine it stretches. An adult bladder can usually hold about a pint of fluid comfortably. It can hold more, but as it gets fuller it can be painful. When your bladder stretches beyond a certain point, nerves in the bladder wall send a message to your brain telling it that your bladder is getting full and needs to be emptied.

The Gaul bladder

Location: On the underside of your liver. Function: To store and concentrate bile produced in your liver. Storing and concentrating bile: Bile is a greenish-yellow, slightly acidic fluid that is made in your liver. You produce about one litre of it a day. Bile is stored in your gall bladder and once it gets there, it is concentrated by the removal of water.

Explain the role of the following food sources Food Source Carbohydrate s Role The basic role of carbohydrates in the human diet is to supply energy. Carbohydrates or calories alone cannot adequately supply our energy needs, for we must have our carbohydrates in combination Examples of Food type Biscuits Cakes Chocolate Jellies Bananas Beans Potatoes Nuts

with other needs, such as proteins, water, vitamins, minerals and fats etc.



Proteins are very important molecules in our cells. They are involved in virtually all cell functions. Each protein within the body has a specific role. Some proteins are involved in structural support, while others are involved in bodily movement, or in defence against germs.

Meat Butter Cream Cheese Eggs Lard Full fat milk Full fat yoghurt Cereals Beans Grains Nuts Legumes (peas, green beans)

Evaluate your own diet Carbohydrates40...%


Proteins20..% How healthy is your diet?

I eat a lot of fatty foods which isnt really healthy but I back it up a quite a few foods with proteins and carbohydrates in.

Does your sport demand any specific diet requirements, if so what physiological changes does this cause?