THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

DOUGLAS McGREGOR'S X AND Y THEORY

Theory X
('authoritarian management' style)

The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. . Therefore. most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives.

.The average person prefers to be directed. and wants security above all else. to avoid responsibility. is relatively unambitious.

Theory Y ('participative management' style) .

Effort in work is as natural as work and play. . People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives. without external control or the threat of punishment.

. distributed in the population.The capacity to use a high degree of imagination. ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely. not narrowly.

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ABRAHAM MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS .

. starting with the first.Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn. which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.

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FREDERICK HERZBERG'S THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION .

They create positive and a longer lasting effect on employee’s performance.Motivating Factors It act as forces of job satisfaction. Adequate provision of such factors called are 'Satisfiers'. .

. Achievement 2. Recognition for Accomplishment 3. Creative and Challenging Work.Motivating Factors are :1. Opportunity for Growth and Development 5. Increased Responsibility 4.

Hygiene or Maintenance Factors:1. Supervision 3. Salary 4. Interpersonal Relations 5. Company Policy 2. Working Conditions .

. they are also called dissatisfiers.People feels dissatisfied when those factors were not satisfactory.

JOHN STACEY ADAMS' EQUITY THEORY .

perceptions of inequitable treatment will lead to demotivation. By the same token. .The Adams' Equity Theory claims that employees will be motivated if they believe they are fairly treated in the workplace.

An employee’s motivation is affected by whether the employee believes that their employment benefits/rewards are at least equal to the amount of the effort that they put into their work. .

.Input ( work efforts )Examples:1. An employee’s work duties. 2. 5. The work commitment demonstrated by the employee. An employee’s work responsibilities. 4. The number of hours worked by the employee. An employee’s loyalty. 3.

Pension 6. Work promotions 5. Recognition of the employee’s contribution 4.Output ( work rewards )Examples:1. Annual leave . Bonus 3. Salary 2.

.Adam’s stated that if an employee believes that their work outputs are not equal or greater than their inputs then the employee will become de-motivated.

EDWIN LOCKE'S GOAL SETTING THEORY .

. difficult and clearly stated goals led to better performance than easy and vague goals. Meaning.People are motivated by clear goals and appropriate feedback.

To motivate. goals must take into consideration the degree to which each of the following exists: .

Clarity A goal must be clear and specific. with a definite time set for completion.1. .

. Challenge People are often motivated by achievement. and they'll judge a goal based on the significance of the anticipated accomplishment.2.

people don’t need a lot of motivation. If the goal is easy. the more commitment is required. Commitment The harder the goal.3. .

Feedback It provides an opportunities or targets for individuals so that they can determine for themselves how they’re doing. .4.

Provide enough time for the person to practice or learn what is expected and required for success. .5. Task Complexity Give the person sufficient time to meet the goal or improve performance.

. and commit yourself to achieving them. challenging goals.Use clear.

THE END srv 7-02-11 .

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