BOTTOM HOLE ASSEMBLIES

DEFINITION OF BHA A bottom hole assembly (known as BHA) is a component of a drill string. A BHA resides in the drill string above the drill bit and below the drill pipe. The primary component of the BHA is the drill collar. The following figure shows the possible components of a BHA and their typical location within a BHA. PURPOSE OF BHA 1. Protect the drill pipe in the drill string from excessive bending and torsional loads, 2. Control direction and inclination in directional holes, 3. Drill more vertical holes, 4. Drill straighter holes, 5. Reduce severities of doglegs, key seats, and ledges, 6. Assure that casing can be run into a hole, 7. Increase drill bit performance, 8. Reduce rough drilling, (rig and drill string vibrations), 9. as a tool in fishing, testing, and work over operations, 10. Not to place weight on the drill bit TYPES OF BHA'S y y The "SLICK" BHA is composed only of drill collars. It is least expensive and perhaps carries the least risk in regard to fishing and recovery. The "PENDULUM" BHA is designed to drill holes more vertically and to drop inclination in inclined holes. Lubinski and Woods published tables and charts to locate the lowest most stabilizers in the BHA. Most BHA theories which were intended for vertical holes apply to holes which are inclined 20 degrees or less. The "PACKED" BHA is designed to drill straight holes and to reduce the severities of doglegs, key seats, and ledges. It provides the highest assurance that casing can be run into a hole. The theory which supports the packed BHA was developed by Roch. A packed BHA can be expensive and perhaps carries the highest risk in regard to fishing and recovery. The "DIRECTIONAL" BHA is designed either to turn the hole to a chosen inclination and direction or to maintain a course selected for the hole. The directional BHA is based on the principles of levers and fulcrums. The "FISHING, TESTING, and WORKOVER" BHA is designed to assist the many tools found in these areas.

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Stabilizer blade wears 2. The rollers are on bearings and they contain tungsten carbide inserts which are similar to those placed in drill bits. it does generate and sends axial and torsional loads to the BHA. the drill bit is not a component of the BHA. with a sleeve. Mud filter cake COMPONENTS OF BHA y Drill Bit: Technically. a rotating blade type can effectively ream a hole to gauge. y Shock Sub: The purpose of shock subs is to dampen the vibration produced by the drill bit and the drill string. y Junk Sub: A narrow trough which exists in the junk sub is designed to collect small pieces of metal. In soft rock. or by pins. The blades of the rotating type may be spiraled around the body of the stabilizer or aligned vertically and attached by welding. for this fact. The BHA Page 2 . balls and rollers from bearings and broken bit teeth. Its basic function is to cut rock at the bottom of the hole. It is reasonable to surmise that shock subs prolong the life of drill bits and drill . large drill collars may be more effective in reducing bottom hole vibrations. Torque while drilling 5. There are two basic types: rotating and non-rotating. Drag during trips 6. Drill collar OD wear 3. In addition. Other factors are 1.y Many theories and practices apply equally to all four types of BHA's while others are very restricted to one of the types. such as. y Stabilizers: Stabilizers center the BHA in the hole at their location. often have limited application in straight hole drilling. Shock sub are not as stiff (resistance to axial bending) as drill collars and. Roller reamers are used in hard rock where blade reamers cause excessive drill string torque. The rubber blades of the non-rotating type are aligned with the vertical axis of the body of the stabilizer. y Roller Reamers: A reamer serves two functions: (1) it cuts the wall of the hole to gauge and (2) it centers the BHA in the hole at its location. Formation dips 4. Reamers with 3 and 6 rollers are most popular. The performance of BHA's are affected most by the rugosity (hole enlargements) of the hole.strings and in some cases the rig. however.

They are difficult to fish. They usua1ly create high rotary torque. A "cold" collar will affect a compass by less than 1/4 degree over its entire length. which is 60% nickel and 30% copper. (2) they maximize bending resistance (stiffness). the linear weight per foot of an 8 by 3 inches spiral collar is 141 ppf rather than 147 ppf. Non-magnetic collars may be manufactured from many types of material. About 4% of the weight of the drill collar is lost because of the machining of the spirals. (3) the type of material of which the collars are composed.2 inches round collar has the same stiffness as a 12. is seldom used. (3) they maximize torsional damping. BHA Page 3 . they are expensive to buy and to maintain. They act as fulcrums. y Non-magnetic Drill Collars: The primary purpose of non-magnetic drill collars is to reduce the interference of the magnetic fields associated with those sections of the BHA which are both above the below the magnetic compass contained in the survey tool with the earth's magnetic field. Thus. Hot spots can affect compasses by as much as 4 degrees (2 degrees is common). Short stabilizers can pivot in the hole and allow bending moments to be transmitted to adjacent BHA components. The non-magnetic collars reduce this type of interference by moving the BHA sections away from the survey compass. On the down side. The selection is based primarily on the corrosion resistance of the material. A BHA which does not transmit bending moments is called a "locked-up" BHA. The measurements are recorded on a strip chart versus distance into the collar. and (4) they minimize axial vibrations. These zones are detected with a magnetic permeability probe. The most common nonmagnetic material is stainless steel while monel.rubber blades are popular because they are easily washed-over and do dig into the wall of the hole causing enlargements. (2) the location of the survey compass with the non-magnetic collars. Note that an 11. There are four critical factors in selecting non-magnetic collars: (1) their total length. y Square Drill Collars: Square drill collars accomplish four goals: (1) they provide continuous centralization over their length. They grind drill bit cuttings and cavings to fines which radically increases mud consumption. Long stabilizers or stacked short ones do not pass bending moments and align themselves in the hole.125 inches square collar. "Hot spots" are zones of high magnetic field strengths within the material of the collars. and (4) distinguishing "hot spots". y Spiral Drill Collar: Spiral drill collars reduce the risk of differential pressure sticking of the BHA.

In this use the bumper subs are placed between the BHA and the drill pipe. They are also used in fishing operations in a manner similar to that of jars.A practical method of ascertaining the best location for the survey compass and the requisite non-magnetic collar length is to run a BHA into the drill hole and pull a compass through the non-magnetic collars. The outside diameter of the cutting structure of the key seat wipers are commonly selected as 1/8 to 1/2 inch larger than the collars or tool joints in which they are installed. Both may be used for jarring weight. The double acting type act if the blade section is up or down. y Key seat Wiper: The purpose of key seat wipers is to ream the "key" section out of the wall of the hole. y Safety Joint: Safety Joints are rarely used in a drilling BHA. BHA Page 4 . Their purpose is to provide a means of easily releasing a BHA. The medium collars add weight to the BHA and reduce ever present flexure stresses between large collars and drill pipe or other tools of less rigidity than the large collars. the single acting wiper which reams in the down position is required. The portion of the nonmagnetic collars which do not show the effects of the fields of the BHA may be removed from the BHA. y Heavy Weight Drill pipe: Heavy weight drill pipe is small drill collars with drill pipe tool joints. y Medium and Large Round Collars: The purposes of large round collars are to provide stiffness next to the drill bit and add weight to the BHA. but not if the section is floating between up and down because most rigs cannot raise and rotate the drill string simultaneously. Key seat wipers are either single or double acting. that is. y Bumper Sub: Bumper subs are used to counter the heave of floating drilling vessels by permitting the extension and contraction of the drill string. the blade section which slides on a mandrel reams either in the up or down position if single acting but not both. They may be operated in a buckled mode while drilling or a part of a fishing BHA. They serve the same purposes as medium weight collars. Key seat wipers are run in the BHA or the drill pipe.