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Journal, Vol. 167, No. 2 (Jun., 2001), pp. 99-110 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3060481 . Accessed: 20/01/2012 01:05
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transport and trade. No.scale and economic significanceof regionaltourism the in three leading regions in Asia. Regional tourism development is occurring in a haphazardmanner. But cases tourismhas been seen as a 'saviour'to environmental problems associatedwith tourism.have become industry.20/0 t 2001 The Royal Geographical Society . SADC. recreational activities Developingcountriesconsideredthey had a andthe entertainment industry. Palaisdes Nations. and beverages.and Mercosur-a common marketcomprisingArgentina. weather. in recent years. associated business groups and tropical forestsand exotic or authenticcultures. catering. unique wildlifeand Governments.excessiveuse of waterandwood. X ourism. stagnant industriesand traditionalagriculture. 2.has international financing institutions tendedto regard remainedan integralpart of development tourism a 'clean'industry as (especially whencomplanningin developingcountries. tion.This paper highlights generalnature.world as they possessed exceptional tourist and sideredto open vast prospectsfor employment resources attractions.excursions. suchas pollution.org Thispaper was accepted for publicationin February 2001 Regionaltourismwithindevelopingcountriesis a growingphenomenon. 167.Mercosur. Yet this aspect has been largelyneglected in social science researchas well as tourismplanning. SADC-the Southern African Development Community. operating tour and 'comparative advantage' vis-a-vis industrialized the transport. anddegraand In particular. is drawn from a research project on nationalmass tourism in developingcountriescoordinatedby the authorat the United NationsResearchInstitute for Social Development.Brazil. 99-1 l O Regional tourism and South-South economic cooperation KRISHNA GHIMIRE B United Nations ResearchInstitutefor Social Development(UNRISD). Switzerland E-mail: GhimireWunrisd. food clearly manifest.especially concerning emerging tourism trends and outcomes. ASEAN. the overconstruccreating new inter-sectoral linkages demands.Africaand LatinAmerica. Geneva. pp. KEYWORDS tourism.Paraguay and tJruguay.regionaltourismin developing countries. souvenirproduction sale are con.The topic is especiallytimely as economic self-relianceand cooperation are increasinglyreiteratedin the context of the emergence of regional groupings. as warmandsunny and such and income to diverse population groups.In some pared to manufacturing).the paper suggests that a basic appreciation the prospects of of regional tourism is not enough to produce perceptible benefits. with little attention to managing existingsocio-economic inequalitiesand centre-periphery relations. wasteproblem. June 2001. Vol.South-Southeconomic cooperation. Based on a criticalassessment of the experiences of three regional blocs (ASEAN the Association of South-EastAsian Nations. A small amount of material. with Chile being an associated member).attractive beaches. such as accommodation. ISSN 001 6-7398/01 /0002-0099/$00.The paper is based primarily the review of secondary literature on readilyavailableto the authorcombined with a few documents obtained directlyfromdifferentregionalorganizations through or Internetsearch.self-reliant economic development I <e incustry. 121 1 Geneva 10. different the branches the tourism dationof other natural of resources.The Geographical Journal.A key question addressed is whether regional tourismdevelopment representsany new and viable prospects for regionaleconomic improvementand partnership. especiallycompared to international tourismcentred on attractingvisitorsfrom industrialized countries.
At the same time. SouthCommission 1990.on the one hand.finance. in the 1950s and 1960s. industryand business.100 Regional tourism South-South and economiccooperation political instabilityand economic stagnation.where important joint initiatives continued to be mountedand sustained. it has generally provedeasier to co-operatein the political sphere. tended to respond more to the economic and political circumstances in their respective countries than to needs in Southern countries. the accompanying modernization processes and development of Westernized leisure ethic.but a few policy measures are being undertaken at the level of regional institutions.very few developing countries have a consistent policy on national tourism. developing countries (usually with financial and technical assistance from bi. there are few tangibleachievements.and. less detrimentalto the country's balance of payments and should create substantialincome and employment.they demand facilitiesand services.and at times even abroad.and culturaland environmental problemsin touristdestinationsin developing countries (de Kadt 1979. In fact.the rhetoricof solidarity. It has thus become clear that tourism. newlyindependentcountriesin Asiaand Africafrequently inferredtourism development to be a means of Xresource transfer' from the North to the South. et Increasingly. this situation reinforced 'dependency' relationshipswith industrialized countries. For several decades now. A thornyissue. South-Southcollaboration has remained an important foreign policy agenda in developingcountries. it can be said that nationaltourismis less sensitiveto international In recent years. coming mainlyfrom the industrialized countries in the North. This paper will explore this particular aspect of Southern regional tourism. was that the privileged tourist groups. Not only the privileged.Trade. with tourism policies being developed in a completely unplannedfashion. the manyprogrammes out in and set intergovernmental agreements. provision of subsidized credits and tax exemptionsto foreigninvestors.. in a number of developing countries where one would usuallyimagineinternational tourismto be providing a substantialincome. But despite this potential.Thisissue has been especiallyarticulatedin the context of the work of the Non-AlignedMovement.but increasinglythe middle and lower strata of the population groups are seeking to travel. Pleumarom1994).science and technology. however. Instead. promotion and marketing of diversified tourism products. 2001).developing countries possessed little capital. Governments have tended to cope with this process in an ad hoc manner. Kaosa-ard al.have fostered increased domestic tourism.Nationaland international tourism business groups gladly collaboratedwith governmentswhen they saw possibilities for profit. deficits have emerged between tourism receipts and expenditure by their nationals abroad.and multilateral agencies) sought to promote tourism through identification and development of new sites. ambitiousobjectivesin interthe national resolutions.based on the arrivalof international tourists from Northern countries.was not such a reliablesector as initially perceived.SAARC(South Asian Associationfor RegionalCooperation). increasingunderstanding soliand daritywithinthe South and being able to negotiate its demands in world forums. 149 Indeed.and SADC . the issue of South-Southcollaboration has been especially reiterated through regionalorganizationssuch as ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations). national tourism has become more importantin terms of the total numberof touristsand its contribution to national economy than international tourism (Ghimire2001).especiallylookingat it as a possible way of strengtheningSouth-Southeconomic cooperation. Butler 1991.However. When a significant number of tourists begin to take holidays. the actionthathas ensued. Group of 77 and many other forums.but also many impending problems similar to those associated with internationaltourism. on the other. human rightsviolations. South-South cooperation has been regarded as an essential mechanismfor promotingeconomic development and self-reliance.in partstimulatedby the arrival Northern of tourists.transport and infrastructure have been considered as priority areas for collaboration. economicissues On therehasbeen a wide gapbetween. Recent examples include Brazil and Thailand (Diegues 2001. in several developing countries.. As such. In general. Another characteristicof tourism is the rapid development of regionaltourismwithindeveloping countries. In particular. This aspect is so far totally neglected in tourism literature.There is a vast amount of literaturethat indicates how this relationshiphas resulted in the repatriation the bulk of tourism of revenues to industrialized countries. A South Centre reportadmittedin 1990 that . technology and know-how to develop tourism. enactment of favourablelabour laws.while generating many enduringexploitativeeconomic relations. with certain emerging prospects for economic developmentin the South. Group of 15. in several developing countries.Manyof the Southerninitiatives are limitedto designingappropriate strategies and mechanismsratherthan implementing them.
They suggest that a the In some of these initiatives. In contrast. a United Nations agency different tourist groups. This regions. SADC and Mercosur is 2000). aspectsis totally these crucial tour. At the national level.points (Pleumaron1997). in ecological arrivals 2020 (compared to 58%in 1995). particular. but W1O forecasts the by travel peoplewithin sameregion. paper substantialtourismflow occurs between developwill examinewhether regionaltourismdevelop. In 1998 ment stands for a new economic dynamo for about 55 per cent of tourists in the ASEAN the region.visitors from LatinAmerica constituted tourism regional over 70 per cent of regional arrivals. SADC region originatedfrom Africa. of reflectedin the lackof its treatment core con.regional leisure travel today is undoubtedly a of cepts.But information manyof tourismbusiness groupsare keen to give optimistic industrialized figures on the currentand future patternsof tourlacking.The importanceof regionalor Southerntourism groupsinvolved. Simidevelopments. has paidtrivial gence of Southern regional tourism. for withthisrationale regional meansof revitalizing recently-especially with the creation of regional is oftenseen as an exceptional economicbase.blocs Northerntouristscomprisedonly 39. not of hereas activities only is the number of tourists from developing is tourism' identified 'Regional but countries in the region high.Indeed. example. many similarhistorical socio-economic larly. definitionsand classifications regional significant phenomenon in many regions in the the tourism. line attempted to assess the potential gain (as well as economicandpolitical regional tourism harm)from regionaltourismdevelopment.that regional tourism has the and diversifying regional and new employment incomepossibilities been considered as a phenomenon to be recogerating people-to. This is in the definitionand counting of regionaltourists.83 per cent of all the tourist arrivalsin East of standards living.This surprising in keento get involved techni. For example.whilegenerally cal and managerial politics. characteristics.based on the data protiveshavebeenstarted the to attempts discuss principal vided by W1O. . Intraregionaltourist arrivalsin Africa. in particular. Looking its past projects publications' appears especially evident when it is compared has with the numberof touristscoming fromdeveloped list.magnitudeand possible outcomes of are presented in Figure 1.Asiaand the Pacificare to be fromwithinthe region featuresand population cultural structures. WTO data suggest that that knowing inthe pastthe in 1998 within ASEAN. tourist and at ests. Since nationaltourismauthorities. to Hencetherearelikely be manydistinct in 2020 (compared to 79% in 1995). alongtheselinesindifferent Regionaltravelpatterns.nized and worth integrating into the regional and forlocalcommunities strengthening people contacts. for andSouthAmerica. tourist the W1O suggests a decrease for intraregional of in features the composition the principal to and and interests activities their touristarrivals the Americasfrom 77 per cent in leisure their groups.it is possible that people for which has responsibilities gathering been frequently crossing borders to neighbouring has planson tourism. for ASEAN.ism expansion.And a few specificpolicyinitia.cultureand so 1995 to 62 per cent in 2020 (W1O 1997). In the case of regional data and tourism.SADC and Mercosur. com. there are only a small These organizationshave sought to intensify number of developing countries that have In cooperation. influenceon the local economy. will constitute 64 per cent of all tourist proximity. it becomes clear that the organization no undertaken majorprojectsin this area (W1O countries.as well as in understanding major South. SouthEastAsia.Southern the Besides close geographical years. America most regionswithindevelopingcountriesin coming Central Africa.cooperation bodies .economiccooperation and tourism South-South Regional 101 (Southern African Development Community). countriesin a given regionmay share example. leisure travelin such as suggest a sustainedgrowthof intraregional outsidetheirusualcountryof residence.In the case of the Understanding generalnatureand scale of Mercosur. It is very cooperation.given a changingleisureethic that inequalities. and theirbehaviour inter. Despite these difficulties It countries.ing countries in the respective regions. gen. World (W1 Organization O). power relations and socio-economic expansionin tourismwithindeveloping countriesis more than likely. primarily elaborating concerned with the promotionof internationalcountries for all kinds of purposes may be registourism involving tourists from developed tered as tourists each time they pass the checkto attention the emer. position. they at times disregardthe various to Thereis no coherentapproach regional Tourism complexities involved in defining and counting the For ismdevelopment. Some 73 per cent of the visitorsto the tourism.especiallycomparedto North-South countries came from Asian and Pacificdeveloping countries.planningprocess. Future issues.the W1O and fromthe tourists to as forth compared international on North. 23 and WTOhas remained avoiding 24 per cent respectively (WTO 2000a). paper features.
2% Latin America 0.1% / >\ = / _ brope 15*2% Deve}oping countries 0+6% Asia/Pacv Developed countries 0+7°/0 Mddle Ast 0. Developed countries 1.3% < Northern America 6+5% SAD4C Northern AsialPac.8% Figure 1 Touristarrivalsin ASEAN. Developed countries 15 7°fO_ Europe Mddli0 ESst 28% _ 0.SADC and Mercosur regions in 1998 (in %) Source: WTO 2000a .102 Regional tourism South-South and economiccooperation ASEAN AsialPac.6% / / Not spec0ed 4.1% wNot specified 4.5% MERCOSUR Asia/Pac. Northern America r s8.
3 science. of have also broadareas.3 per cent respectively (Table1). begunto attract considerable a number regional of As far as the tourismsector goes.In 1998. wellas to the development transport and as of of citydwellers escape to pleasure holiday andinfrastructure. for tarybodies. to and Insomeways.reasons.notablyLaos and Cambodia.information tourists.oppor. in Giventhisgrowth potential. and travelpromotion be an important to policyissue. of material natural and resources An examination the Association South-East of of available the region. concrete regionaltourism Buthow areconcretepolicymeasures undertaken policy measureshave also been undertaken. enhance the opportunityfor to and economiccooperation not new in develare travelbusinessto expandand compete across national oping countries.it would seem natural different of certain regionalblocs.andincreased disposable than tryingto promotetraveland incomes leisure more realistic for purposes amongthe middleclassesas well as the relatedbusinesswithoutcooperationwithinthe aspiring low-income classes in many regions broader issues of economyand commercial rela(Ghimire 1997).In Indonesiaand Malaysia. Among beentaken. muchof the workof these regional But organizations limitedto the level of political Regional is visitors encompass significant a groupof cooperation betweengovernments parliamen. very few tourists. especially since access by cars and regional groupshavepaidspecificattention this coaches has become possiblefrom Thailand. In a very few cases. has a reflecting lackof touristsecurity the space to discusscollaboration to seek imple.touristsin most ASEAN and countries. inthe contextof people-to-people and contactsare perceivedvitalby seekingto fosterincreased political. To in different regional contexts? Whataretheirpoliti. tourism to keep pacewithglobalisation has trendsand The perceptions collectiveregional of self-reliance marketliberalization. and transport infrastructure.and infrastructures. .First. work of the and outcomesin practice? underlying The issue is three regionalblocs in Asia. is in are regional planning processas a meansto enhance regionaleconomic cooperationin order to take ASEAN advantage human.oecific experiences regional in tourism cooperation . growingurbanization the aspiration business.or is it mainly in inducedby Asian Nations (ASEAN)instructive at leasttwo is for powerful regional business wellas national as elite it is one of the leadingSouthern groupsthatare keen to maintain closed. economicand removing andcurrency visa restrictions. as countryor region? there any regional Are policy one of the world's especially the regionis major tourism destinations.threedecades.Nor is there any lack of formal borders attract and and to regional groupings. of one typeor another nowcommonly are foundin ASEAN undateda. they repreand communication. .regional organizations the long-term investments technology sustain viability the tourism of industry.industry and activities.Although close collaboration trade example. in in and these tourists industry business. and comprised and26.Second.Regional tourism South-South and economiccooperation 103 attachesimportance recreational holiday parallel growthin regional to to and trade. only the Philippines a has areasare meagre. tune tourism market themselves? for How are the regionaleconomic cooperationextendingover rights tourism of workers protected? Crucially. Indeed. Thailand Singapore.2 of commonlycalled for and some initiatives have and 69.tourism received prehensive consideration theorganization's in work uted across differentpopulationgroups in the and strategic planning. mostcontexts in achievements these the original in members. Africaand Latin to whatextentregional tourism integrated the America assessed. emerging and Newly tourism destimentation a certain of number policiesin these nations. the case In cultural links.it believes S. educationand technology. tourismdevelopment that regionalorganizations would consider regional committees studygroupshave been created.elaborateon these developments and draw relcal and economic settings?How consistentare evantconclusions the roleof regional on tourism to these measures termsof theirgeneral in objectives promote South-South cooperation. to A areaof activity.thisapproach was spots. The specificitiesin these respects comparedto the organization sees tourismto be management international of tourism example? industryprovidingsubstantial 'an important for foreign exchange receipts and employmentopportunities'. establishment relatively numberof regional the low tourists visiting of regional organizations provided political the country. environment so forthis sentedthe substantially and higher proportions 45. 4 allregions. With viewto boosting a tourism the region. with significantexperience in a regional blocs. Given this. tions. how has comwouldthe ensuingincomeand benefitsbe distrib.Nevertheless.8 percentof totalincoming 21. Tourism understood expandin cheaper cost of livingand relatively is to unspoiled .
investments.andfrom fires in Indonesia.New Zealand 3 Data only specified for Thailand incentives 3 tourismmanpowerdevelopment.6 27.0 2.4) (26.9 7.g.1)3 2. 1).2 0.3) (9.0 79. Canada 2 Japan.8 15. the ASEAN Tourism to ing as an annualevent.1 49.3) (1.and in to visit these countries. and officials tourism Organizations (NTOs) have remained especially businesspeople.2 16.Theythus attemptedto reassuretourists throughthis Forum.2) (73 . Australia.4 0.00) Source:WTO 2000.65 0. promotion.8 45.0) (69.8) (21 .1 11.5 2.6 6.3 1. tourism The NTOs have also sought to tackle problems was Forum established such as epidemics (e. tourism tourism.6 6.Furthermore. motivated to promote tourism more energetically themes: strategic in order to help to overcome the financial and the 1 marketing ASEAN regionas a singletourism currency crisis that the region faced in 1997.2 1.83 0. began to take In and projects theirenhancedmarketing.the Mekongregionhas provedalluring economic investment and tourism develop.3 5. 1 US.3 15.0 45.1 0.6 4.1 1.6 19.4 4.15 0.2 0.It designated1992 a 'Visit as well as businesspartners ASEAN NTOswere that to ASEAN Year'with variousmeasures promote doing their best to address these issues jointly to In in tourism the region. most of these these activities.11 (89.104 economiccooperation and tourism South-South Regional Table 1 Touristarrivalsat frontiersof the ASEANcountries by countries of origin in 1998 (in %) Tourists'origins Asia/Pacific developing countries All ASEAN Countries visited North Latin Africa America America Not Middle Asia/Pacific developed countries2 Europe East specified 4.4 14. the organization since major collaboration efforts of for on Tourism the development coordinated development place in the 1970s.4) (45.dated b.3 0. the ASEAN National Tourism groups various attracting thereby mentprojects.4 0.2 0.4 4.1 1. further provide traits and natural cultural tourism.5 24.0 0.6) (20.4 21.of tourism policies informationdissemination.government promoters.71 Total for ASEAN 0. national was collaboration seen as an active in formulating action.2 10.46 0. 11-803 Notes.2 11.9 1.3 78.5 0.4 6.04 6.23 Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam 0.research and activities have consistently was mentin tourism already In Indeed.affect touristarrivals marketing. areas of regional principal to recognized be an training.4 55.ASEAN proposed These organizations were also on focus its tourismactivities the followingfive (Hamdi 1997). In order to improve the region's image and boost destination. cooperation. Inthe late 1960s andearly1970s.0 0.5 17.the haze originat1981.1 49.4 0. when trade and economic investment develop.2 4.5 38. of In recent years.6 0. recent 4 environmentally-sustainable travel (ASEAN unfor 5 facilitation of intra-ASEAN years. Variousaspects relating negative media reports and research train.6 46. tourism in other problems which ing are discussedand plansof actionelaborated the region.1 59.6) (6.and regionaltourism tourism Regional They have served as strategiesand plans of of spheresoon afterthe establishment a useful institutional important mechanismfor the exchange ASEAN in 1967. cholera). 1998. been identified as core issues of regional tourism elementin fostering important createda Sub-Committee 1976.6 26.9 5.3 22.47 91.5 18.4 29.1 16. marketing.3 0.6 7.ASEANdesignated 2002 the 'VisitASEAN 2 encouraging .9 7.8 0.2 24.9 6. and experience. harmonization were the of vital information and programmes.32 1.69 (36.8 9.
g. risein Western-style manynegative in the regionis thoughtto trigger practices.Howmade by ASEAN achievements ever.Businessand tourismgroupsfromthe lattercountriesare encouraged to make investmentsin new destinationsand products. most of the touristsin the regioncome countries. Economic links have continued to flourish among South East Asian countries in spite of national political instabilities regimes (e. employment development.customs. regionaltourismwas geared towards needs of a and travel vacation meetingthe leisure groupof whitepeople and a few black privileged But elites and businessmen. the organization prospectsfor expansionin regionaltrade and have various institutions been created investment. 1). countries.the recent financial and economic instabilitieshave encouraged many South EastAsiantouristspreviouslytravelling to NorthAmericaand Europeto take theirholidays in theirown countriesor the region. and glorified distorted identifiedthe and data collection. an NGO designed to foster popular debate and action on tourism. a marked difference in standardsof living between the poorer countries (Cambodia. As business). from wouldbe one of the mainsectorsbenefiting The closer regionalintegration. states that: 105 travel leisure the Increasingly.g. In addition. largestregional the end of the not the key player. specific goal of has tourism been to development to contribution regional maximize tourism's exchange of and the through generation retention foreign creation.in line with the countries. resources human and imagesof reality spendmoney structure. But most of the efforts have been put into the development of international tourism. develInthe contextof regional to is opmentof tourism considered be a keypolicy Thisis guidedby the idea thattourism objective.creatingmore jobs and reducingpovertyin the region. Table2.Indeed. African in is Tourism important most Southern safaritourism.humanresourcesdevelearnings.Singaporeand means that not all South EastAsians have Thailand) an equal capacityfor leisuretravel. in promotingthis new or regional-level tourism initiativelittleattention is given to the uncaused by desirablesocial and economic hardships tourism. or the establishmentof authoritarian Myanmar).The TourismInvestigation toring team. as well as the privatesector (ASEAN tourismis recognizedas a vitalelement in Clearly. opmentand rural 4 SADCundated. development and issues in the Mekong sub-region. Attentive NGOs and academics have tended to point out how this division in the standardof livingand nationaleconomic strengthare allowing richercountriesto take more advantageof regional economic and tourismcollaboration. development visitor Instead.One problemwas that until 1994 South economicpower.But the economic competition among countries and concern about rapid immigration from poorer neighbouringcountries at times also tended to hold back development in regionaltravel and tourism.was the Africa.Following regime.especiallyinternational In significant. Regional tourism development has tended to receive insignificantattention. there have been few tangibleaccomplishments. health shopping. Myanmarand Vietnam)and the relativelybetter-offones (Malaysia. 1 New Frontiers997. despite the fact that regional touristsare clearlythe largesttouristgroups in most South EastAsiancountries. the Southern acceleraimsto bring (SADC) opmentCommunity ated economic growth.economiccooperation and tourism South-South Regional Year'underthe leadershipof the NTOs Millennium undated b. consequenceson traditional and familyand communityvalues (Pleumarom 1 999).people are seduced to increasingly research development. Among the strategiesdeveloped to enhance regional tourism are improved transport links.On the whole.with littlecontrol over theiractivities.Laos.humanrightsviolationsand environmental and Monidegradation. 3 need to promote tourismon a regionalscale .for environmental example.secstrata the of and tionsof the middle lower-middle have shown interestin leisuretravel. shownin treatment. in recentyears. A five-yeartourismdevelopmentstrategywas elaboratedin 1994 which examinedinvestment and infrafacilities of consume needs. has tourism also remained Regional the past.althoughupper and upper-middle classes even in the poorer countries have always had sufficient economic means to travelin the region. regionaleconomic development and cooperation. population frequentlycombined with other activities(e.It specifically on to enjoythe sightsand pleasures offer. SADC DevelAfrican knownas the Southern Originally and Conference(SADCC) opment Coordination DevelAfrican in established 1980. fromthe SADC the cooperation.the countryhas swiftlymoved apartheid of to hold 'centre stage' withinthe functioning sees bright As the organization. and steady removalof visa restrictions the provision of easier currencyexchange.therebyproviding further impulse to regional tourism development. signedin these areasin recent and new protocols years.
9 0.8 0.2 3.In particular.1 ) (11.2 7.8 o.00 (8.7) (4. provided have tives have been takento attractincreasedinter. 1999). proposedthe creationof a tourism-related in the: andfacilities include single touristvisa for the entire regionto ease for restrictions formalities international and Spatial Development.3 0. severalinitia. Canada 2 Japan. in attractions * Lubombo bearing mindmanyuniquetourist in outcomeof * Okavango International tourism region. physicaland social infrastructure September1998.9 98.6 1 4.49 4.7 2.72 0.17 1.Anotherprojectincludesthe creationof transBut mentingsome of the above activities.9 0.1 3. especially the implemenand touristsand by identifying developingnew tation of most projectsis left to the individual (Retosa 2000.2) (?) (98.7 73.0 0.7 15.2) (71.Some of the recent projects the regionto exchangetheirpointsof view and undertaken with the specific goal of expanding organizeprotocolmeetings.8 4.64 2.5 38.3 1.1 0.3 4. workbecame limitedmainly the improvedaccommodation its facilitiesfor tourists in promotion tourism the region.4 0.7 3.New Zealand 3 Based on 1997 statistics 4 Data including visitors from Japan 5 Data excluding visitors from Japan 6 In 1996 and Spatial Development.9 1.0) (78.3 2.02 0.7) (71. border * Trans Africa Coast2Coast by and tourists.67) 6.increased officials in institutional space for tourism nationaltourism.6 1.9 75.9 72.8 29.68 2.de Beer countries market nichesforthe region whichhaveto dealwithmanycompeting et al.5 14.0 0.2 76. 1 999). of Africa Tourism Organization Southern and in 1996.42 Source: WTO 2000a.7 9.6) (75. 11-803 Notes: ' US.9 1.4 3.5 0. (RETOSA). primary A UpperZambezi the Southern African of this strategy was the establishment a Regional zone (de Beeret al.17 0.8 12.1 0.2 7.1 66.1 16.0) (88.1 0. as the frontier Mozambique parks betweenSouthAfrica.8 41.4 1.9 71.9 80. (Koch of of 1994).9 1.Butprogress the execution many in the has the organization soughtto increase volume of theseprojects beenslowdue primarily the to has of tourismbusiness by welcominginternationallackof necessary as funds.4 4. the issuehassince been discussed Corridor.09 1.1 18.8 2.1 0.4) (64.8 63.1 1. easy and thereby facilitating travel to resources. Australia.0 4.65 2.6 79.5 0.7 1.9 83. needs (cf.03 2.7 0.3 2.6 18.106 and economiccooperation Regional tourism South-South Table 2 Tourist arrivalsat frontiers of the SADC countries by countries of origin in 1998 (in %) Tourists'origins Africa Countries visited All SADC Latin America North America' Asia/Pacific developing countries Asia/Pacific developed countries2 Europe Middle East Not specified Angola Botswana3 Congo DR Lesotho Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Zambia Zimbabwe Total for SADC 141 89.01 1.9 12.de Beeret al.7) (68.1 0.36 0.Theaboveinitiatives nevertheless Besidesthe creationof RETOSA.One such meeting.0) (53. 1999).3 0. withthe view of coordinating imple.2 19. * Maputo Development . organization lacked both human and financial and Zimbabwe.
targetbeingto achieve a free single marketin four membercountries by January 2002. Regionaltourism is a well-establishedphenomcritical issuesat the SADC enon in South Americaand recent policy measures and to improveinfrastructure visitorfacilitiesas well as to reduce frontier formalities have produced several positive results in terms of increasingthe number of tourists in various countries. and of SouthAfrica. on in included in these subgroups.few-if fiscal policies. for example. with regionaltouristscomprisingnearlyhalf of the total incomingtourists(Table3).therebymaking Westernized tourism destina.progressis limited. Paraguay and Uruguay. still Visaand custom restrictions remaincomplex. The organizationhas also sought to there is stilla widespread to privi. The Financial the tangible results.tourism by easing border restrictions. tion activitiesare targetedtowardsinternationalworking of Mercosur.trial and agricultural policies.nationaland ism. This has on the region. Despite the overwhelming UnlikeASEANand SADC.launch a more coordinated marketingstrategyon whichconsiders 'tourism be an exclusive manyblacksfeel the Internetby seeking to promote leadingtourism lege of whites'. policies and development of transportwould have and historical monuments.an indirectinfluence in the expansion of tourismin in On the whole government facilities not reflect the region. investments accom. No Mercosur market' Spanish. hasbeen.has also tendedto concentrate the in particular. their implementation has been extremely slow countries (SADC undated).At the nationallevel Brazil Argentina.tourism has received structureand most tourism promo. level.Also.financialand politicalinstabilities haveto datebeen under. In Brazil. However. Mercosurhas two in objectives: countries. this group comprises between two-thirdsand three-quarters of total tourists. and 1 free tradebetweenmember tradepolicy. And the TechnicalCommittee No.54 per cent of the touristscome from neighbouringcountries. case Times 1 September 2000).manufacturing agricultaken. Established 1991.are mainlyinterested holidayrecreationinvolvingvisits to cities and ation of customs. regional tourists came mainly from Argentinaand Uruguay before the 1970s.the dominance of Braziliannational interests to any. travelby owing to the lack of coordinationin monetaryand As far as regionaltourisminvolving and citizensof SADCcountriesis concerned. countries havealsoentered PeruandotherAndean into various cooperationagreementswith the group. especially for tourists from poorer countries.concretemeasures and such as promote its automobile. Littleattentionis given to many of these 2000). .Bolivia. 2 a commonexternal and of It aimsat fullliberalization expansion trade its within wro regulations.littleattentionwithin the institutional number regional of tourists. In Argentina.forexample. Most of its decisions are products are taken under 11 working subgroups that extend too tourists fromthe North. muchof the somewhat influenced the Mercosur secretariatto as international tourism investment tourismhas tended to come from recognize the economic potentialof regionaltourin foreigngroups. whichis seen as crucial tourism and have active tourism policies. These issues were conthis for sidered by the SpecialistMeeting on Tourismand regulations in SouthAfrica. 2 on Custom Affairs regionalvisitorsare frequently cultural preconception (OAS 1995). sector (DEAT 1996). Tourism is not focusingmainly naturetourism. It has looked at ways of facilitatingregional merelyas subordinate part. totally disregarded by the Mercosur group of in to development countries. although harmonizists.The participation the privatesector. common taxationand investment shopping entertainment. in Mercosur (meaning 'southern is and in Portuguese is called Mercosul) comit Brazil. and prisedof Argentina.indusRegional tour. do modation othervisitor and of of the interests motivations the bulk regional This is not to suggest that the tourism sector is and of visitors.In many countries. Bucar1997). Paraguay Uruguay. Visaand currency intractable.althougha numberof countries. the localinvestors remain groupsand the limited development and improvement in cross-border nersof foreigninvestment has remained a constant concern government attemptsto encouragedomesticor infrastructure has communityentrepreneurship producedfew (The Economist 12 October 1996. on the other hand.economiccooperation Regional tourism South-South and 107 in immigration authorities the differentmember Althoughvarious strategies have been elaborated. but in recent decades the number of incoming tourists from other neighbouringcountries has increased significantly a resultof the improvementin roads as and communicationsystems (Diegues 2001). from tax and customs mattersto transport.sites and facilities in the region (see Mercosur uneasyaboutvisiting tions. nichemarket.Tourist this heavilybiasedto servicing groupof tourists. In Chile. with Chile being an associatedmember. have noted the importance this turalsectors (Grandi Schutt1999.
2) (76.5 0.more effectively orderto attractan increased prised36 per cent of the total.regional tourism development involving the what low.tariatbodies and nationaltourismorganizations as tendednegative impacts the environment. the largenumber Japanese of Fewconcretepolicymeasures havebeen underregional tourists. too.6 0.75 1 1. However. Research. SADC research.04 8.1 0.108 Regional tourism South-South and economiccooperation Table 3 Touristarrivalsat frontiers of the Mercosur countries by countries of origin in 1998 (in %) Tourists'origins LatinAmerica Countries visited Africa All Mercosur North America] Asia/Pacific developing countries Asia/Pacific developed countries2 Europe Middle East Not specified Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Uruguay Total for Mercosur 0.In SADC and Mercosur.5 76.7 76. actualnumbers.and totaltourists respectively Tables 2 and3).6 0.3 4.Despite Clearly.2) (59.12 Source: WTO 2000ar 11-803 Notes: ' US. especiallyas most of the investment major in infrastructure projects the earnings and fromregional tourism shouldin principle costs involvedare gigantic. In Mercosur.Thepercentage of number of tourists from developed countries.5 77. was important giveimpetus regional it to to much discussion.Giventhis. mostof these Whatis evidentfromthe above discussion that institutional is structures and activitiesconcerning regional tourism significant all three regional tourism is in weregearedtowards marketing region the blocs.58 1.3 18*0 4.36) 8 94 11.5 4. Also. up to coordinate tourismdevelopment activities.9 70.9) (47.2 million biased towardsinternational had tourism.9 0.7 0. data collectionand regionaltourismcooperation. The econregional visitors (WrO2000a). regional tourists ASEAN in countries standssome. attemptshave been made to promotetourismin the region. In the economic potentialas well as the socio(see 1.2 0. and Thailand. the mid-1990s in ASEAN regional environmental problemsthey represent.79 0.13 59. The centralsecreanalysis tourism on potential. Canada 2 Japan. their aspirations and interests. in Also. partlybecause there is a substantial nationals member of countries received littleor no international transit tourists of throughSingapore attention.36 77.03 2. resultsin investments takingplace in a highly The ASEAN bloc has extendedexperiencein haphazard manner. there is littleunderstanding who the regional of regional tourists addedupto 59 and69 percent of touristsare.7 and and Mercosur respectively 7. Australiaand New Zealand 3 ExcludingMexico 4 Including Mexico specific policy measures have been adopted therebycreatingnew employmentand income towardscreatinga single currency facilitating prospectsfor varioussectionsof the population. In tourists who come to the regionlessenthe figure takenfavouring for regionaltourists.9 8.4 0. 10. there has been no noteworthy tourismdevelopment.1 12.In to economiesand livelihood systemsare completely SADC. well as its unin. the firstplace. althoughon a Assessment conclusion and considerably lesserscale.3 0. or currencyexchangefor regionaltourists. the lack of a remain the regionitself. on local are mobilized fostertourismin the region.5 24.Howevermuchof this coherent regionaltourism developmentpolicy has remained purely hypothetical.16 1.regional omic capacityand specificrecreation enterand tourism a certain held degreeof economic potential tainment interests regional of tourists scarcely are for increasedinvestmentand entrepreneurship.3) (53.9 9.7 0.8) (70.9 and 7.29 (67.2 0.21 0.3 1. regional a tourism organization beenset has absent. takenintoaccountwithregard funding to tourism .1 15. In ASEAN countriesregional in tourists com.4 8. Tourism data collectionand analysis heavily are tourists comprised annually million.
The trend is where powerful Thaipoliticians. there is no countries.logical impacts at the local level. Indeed. businessgroups.currency communityentrepreneurship and shareholding from it. policies. Brazilretained of of tourismis hardlysufficient produce tangible nearly60 per cent of Mercosur'sGDP (50 per cent to the economy had economic results.as wellas in rural urban and development reflected in the makingand functioningof regional in specificnational contexts. short-term profits. SouthAfrican investment regional in tourism tourism and policies. createfree trading zones. which remain policies in these three regional blocs are simply totally absentin present regional tourism strategies. no tourism-awareness ralsing Thailandand Vietnam) GDP (World Bank 2000. immigration. transport.November-December 1999 and July.The crucialquestionis whetherregional which frequently remain key barriersto regional tourism likelyto help to changeexistingecon. in This example..Also. improving community livelitradeare most likelyto take the lead in tourism hood systems.progress. .tax incentivesand cheap labour projects involving creation environmentally-for generating hefty.relations. Tourism likely reinforce situation guaranteethat regionalbusiness groups would be is to the since the countrieswhich have political weight. policies established by the World Trade Organizenergy and telecommunication there is actually ation. UNDP 2000). economy accounted for over 72 per cent of the since the latterremainmore or less invisible in Mekong region's (Cambodia. .includinga level of communitywelfare at . tourism policles.thisregional domina. Myanmar. such. in particular. . as these groups commonly duced many unintendedsocio-economic and ecocontrol the entire chain of tourism develop. in tourism. hasbeenthe case.promotion As ingthatthereareno concretemeasures promote and marketing. any attempt fosterregional In to political blocs state theirglobal policy framework include to integration. and refugee issues and so forth.it is not surpris. .integration.e. in the absence of any instituof groupsand areas. In any event.including formulation tourism the of plans.instrumentin regional economic self-relianceand August 2000). the lack of government if Chileis included). groupsof tourists. But research ment. national economic interests (i. simplify cus. measuresare developedtargeting these regional UNDP 2000). present tourism cooperation monitoring critical and evaluation. glomerates to exploit readily marketableregional in Some of these groups are involved in shady features. Given their overwhelmingpoliticaland economic There been little has assessment the specificrole command. Pleumarom 1999a. development roadlinks of and issues. more concerned with promoting regional econrelatively largeGDPand dominance over regional omic development. it becomes very difficult to differentiate littleguarantee that accruedbenefitsas well as regional tourism investment groups from multiassociated costswillbe equally sharedby member national corporations. .as well as the benefits derived to Travel formalities. Laos. although in nant role is guaranteed (see for exampleNew principle regional tourism represents a useful Frontiers. In short. training.and the rapid most of the tourismpromotionactivitiessponsored golf exploitation unspoiled of historical ecotourism by regional blocs facilitatedthis alliance and proand sites. Insome ways. and employment income-sharingexchange.products. theirdomiIn conclusion.and strong private sector involvement within the ing of commonindustrial programmes. and debate are lacking on many of these critical promotion. and there are no particular attemptsto tion of Thailandis quite expected as in 1999 its broaden those targetingregionaltourists.and whatsupplementary policy tionalarrangements share the costs and benefits to measures could be envisaged when this was not of tourism in a more egalitarianmanner among the case?Thisrequires continual a processof policy member countries. protecting workers' rights and investment the region. often team up with the national corporations and regional tourism congovernment regionaleffortsto boost tourism.firm adherence to economic liberalization policies tomsandtaxregulations increase and public financ.Also. the of of regional tourism regional in economicdevelop. towardsa ratherclose collaborationbetween multithe army.heavily reflect the interests of these is omic relations morein favour pooreror weaker countries.blocs in generaland tourisminvestment. likely to reinforce the prevailingcentre-periphery One major problem regional in economiccoop. Pluss 1996).Regional tourism South-South and economiccooperation 109 projects.with Thailand withinthe Mekong-belt. of integrated national regional in or economicpolicies.interests of national business groups) tend to be ment. . a lion's share of 69 per cent of the total GDP of 13 mean that in the majority cases they are not SADCcountries (WorldBank2000.and the like. erationis the handling existing of centre-periphery Another dilemma is that since these regional relations. In 1999. investment othertourism in activities. Braziland South Africaare equallystriking cases A simplerecognition the potential regional in their respective regions. the of damaging coursesand casinos. it can be said that. In any event.for conserving the environment (see for example.
countries WashingtonDC Earthscan.html resultsare not uniqueto the tourismsector. 1999 The rise and fall of South-EastAsian tourism Third World Resurgence 103 13-16 References 1999a Tourism. globalization and sustainable developASEANI undateda Plan of action on ASEANcooperation in ment ThirdWorld Resurgence 103 4-8 tourism. taking into account politicaland economic realitiesand Hamdi R 1997 ASEANcrisis team takes haze action http:// www. C http://www. Geneva unequal relations among member countries and support the interests of business groups.Geneva mewith many helpfulcomments. Mahlalela S G.htm constraints. Geneva http:// ed 2001 The native tourist: tourism development www.gwu. Organization of American States 1995 An analytical compendium of western hemisphere trade arrangements http:// Acknowledgements www. this needs careful planning. Most activitiesremained limited at the level of a declarationof good intentionsand elabo. New York Diegues 2001 Regionaland domestic mass A tourism in Brazil:an overview in Ghimire K ed The World Bank 2000 World development report 2000/2001 native tourist:tourism development within developing publishedfor the World Bank by Oxford University Press. RETOSA Mmatli R A (Regional Tourism Organization of Southern Africa) and Maseko A T 1999 A regionalapproach 2000 The essence of Africa Halfway House (South to tourism Africa).or.travel.sadc.asean.int/sadcmain/docs6_4sector.asia. Mahumane A.hfni.com/10_1 0_9 7/stories/asian. but are common to many other sectors. Madrid .oas.de Kadt E 1979 Tourism passport to development? Oxford University Press.London forthcoming outcomes.br/mercosul/ index_frame_principal.htm und entwicklung. so far there have been few sustained countries Earthscan. Pretoria UNDP by Oxford lJniversityPress. New York ration of policy strategies.gsehd.sice. marketing.com/Sectoral%2 OReports%2 000/ 02 within tou developingcountries Earthscan. R environment sustainable and develThe Economist 1996 12 October 19-22 opmentEnvironmental Conservation 18 21 0-1 9 The Financial Times2000 1 September DEAT (Department Environmental of Affairs and Tourism) UNIDP (United Nations Development Programme) 2000 1996 Development and promotion of tourism in South Human development report published for AfricaDEAT.edu/ibi/minerva/Falil South 997/ Commission 1990 The challenge to the South Oxford Eliane.sadcreview.world-tourism.htm view http://www. These Mercosur 2000 http://www.htm Pluss 1996 Liberalizationin tourism Discussion paper on undated b Tourism http://www.Bucar.id/economic/poa_tour.org/cpO6 109 6/English/toc. such as trade and NewFrontiers 1997 Vol 3 no 12 December 3 investment.org annees de Mercosur Problemes d'Amerique Latine 3 January-March 2000a Yearbook of tourism statistics vols 1 and 2 52nd 95-8 edition WTO.sindicato. London forthcoming Ghimire B 1997 Emerging mass tourism in the K WTO (World Tourism Organization) 1997 South Tourism Discussion 2020 vision: executive summary Madrid Paper85 UNRISD.they reflect a structuralweakness in 1999 Vol 5 no 6 November-December 2 South-South 2000 Vol 6 no 4 July-August 1 collaboration.asean.asp Theauthorwould like to thank Hella Dietz for her PleumaromA 1994 The political economy of tourism The assistancein the search for literatureas well as Ecologist 24 142-7 contactingregional groups for information.org.or. rism.html UniversityPress.Althoughthe establishmentof regional Kaosa-ard M.id/economic/ the GATS implications for tourism Arbeitskreistourismus ov_tur. Basel de Beer G R M.The 1997 Politicaleconomy of regional tourism development author also gratefulto two anonymous referees is and environmental change in the Mekong sub-region whocarefullyread the earlierdraft and provided unpublished draft report UNRISD. Oxford Butler 1991 Tourism.htm London Grandiand Schutt D 1999 Bilande sept J 2000 http://www.1 10 Regional tourism South-South and economiccooperation the local level. while the measures Koch E 1994 Peace parks in Southern Africa implemented thus far have tended to encourage UNRISD. managementand developmentunpublished RETOSA mlmeo SADC undated Sectorial responsibilitieschart: tourism http:// BucarB 1997 Mercosur an evaluation:a E Brazilian point of www. Bezic D and White S 2001 Domestic blocs has helped to bringto the fore some of the tourism in Thailand: supply and demand in Ghimire K ed The native rationale and importanceof regionalcooperationin tourist: tourism development within developing tourism.
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