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Welcome to Photoshop Seminars
1. Basic concepts and terminology 2. Scanning, importing and exporting 3. Tools that comes with the software 4. Colour Corrections 5. Filters 6. Trouble shooting and tips 7. Working together with WWW home page authoring
Basic concepts and terminology The Photoshop is a tool for photograph retouching, enhancing and will give you flexible features to produce stunning images which can be put in Web pages. If you have not fully understood the colouring of your images, you have go through the chapter on Basic Concepts.
What is computer graphics? There are two main types of computer graphics- vector and raster images. Vector images, such as those created in Adobe Illustrator, are made up of mathematically defined lines and curves called vectors. Raster images, such as those created in Adobe Photoshop, consist of a grid, or raster, of small squares, know as pixels. Several types of resolution are important when working with digitized images.
they look like unrelated collection of coloured squares. if the resolution of an image is 72 ppi(pixels per inch) . Height and Resolution option boxes shows the size and resolution of that image. this will have 5184 pixels in a square inch. Image fundamentals • • bitmapped image as a mosaic made out of square tiles of various colours. choose File->New to bring up New dialog box. Screen frequency. Monitor resolution defines the number of dots or pixels per unit length of output. Pixel depth(bit resolution) is a measurement of the number of bits of stored information per pixel. Output resolution refers to the number of dots per inch (dpi) that output device. the Width. such as a laser printer reduces. image resolution is the number of pixels per linear inch. images are coloured pixels displayed on screen. The device resolution for a Macintosh monitor is typically 72 dpi. E. or 256 possible values(colours).g. duplication and save • • Open existing images in CD-ROM or harddisk. use File->Open. Image creation. these blend together to form an image that looks like a standard photograph. Screen frequency is measured in lines per inch. and a pixel with a bit depth of 24 has 2**24 or 16 million. Image size and image resolution • image size refers to physical dimension of an image. also known as screen ruling. Greater pixel depth means more available colours and more accurate color representation in the digital image. For example. Bit resolution determines how much color information is available for each pixel. When enlarged. A pixel with a bit depth of 8 has 2**8. possible values (colours).184 pixels per square inch. If the Clipboard contains an image. After reducing. If an image has a resolution of 72 ppi.you get 5. . It is measured in dots per inch (dpi). refers to the number of halftone cells per inch in the halftone screen used to print grayscale image or colour separation. Creating a new image.Image resolution refers to the spacing of pixels in the images and is measured in pixels per inch(ppi).
Scanning. Here are some descriptions of the supported file formats. picas. specify its location on disk. columns or points. inches. or 72 to 120 pixels per inch for a Macintosh monitor. is equal to roughly 1/6 inch and a point is 1/12 pica. incidentally. If the image is used on screen. use Edit->Paste. centimeters. Creating an image from the Clipboard. or roughly 1/72 inch). . Determining the scan resolution depends on the capability of your output device. Creating a new image from scanner. Duplicating an image by choosing Image >Duplicate: This is important when you try out an effect without permanently damaging the original image on disk. use Acquire command in the File menu. the best is 96 ppi for PC compatibles. Otherwise. you can enter your own values in one of five units of measurement: pixels. It can support more through the addition of plug-in modules. Saving an image on disk by choosing File >Save and this will display Save dialog box. prompting for the name of the image. (A pica. use File->Acquire->Scan. and select its file format. Saved file formats can be up to 22 types from its Open and Save dialog boxes. importing and exporting To scan images.
Multiply 6 (the longest output dimension) by 150 (screen frequency) to get 900 pixels.0 native format (with 2. Kodak PhotoCD. PCX. the longest dimension of the original image is 5 inches. JPEG. PICT File (raster only). Compuserve GIF. Among the above file formats.5 and 3. This equals to a total of 1800 pixels needed. 2. Exporting images from Photoshop: Photoshop allows you to export to the following image formats: Photoshop 2. MacPaint. JPEG. the size of an image with a resolution of 200 ppi is four times greater than an image of identical dimensions and a resolution of 100 ppi.Scanned file size is determined by the scan resolution. You are going to produce a final image that is 5 inches wide by 6 inches high. PICT file(raster only). EPS. EPS. Scitex CT.5 and 3. PCX. then multiply this value by the ratio of the screen ruling (which is 2:1). 3. PIXAR. Then multiply 900 by 2 (the ratio of the screen). Dividing 1800 by 5 yields a scan resolution of 360 dpi. for example. Raw. Amiga IFF and HAM. Raw.0 native format. Scitex CT. some of them are plug-in modules. Suppose you are now scanning an image that is 4 inches wide by 5 inches high. MacPaint. Screen frequency is the resolution of the screen you will use when you print your final image. Multiply the longest dimension of the final image size by the screen frequency. To estimate scan resolution: 1. Amiga IFF and HAM. PixelPaint. You are using a screen frequency of 150 lpi. Tools that comes with the software . Targa and TIFF. PIXAR. Here. Targa. Importing images into Photoshop: The following image file formats are allowed: Photoshop 2. the image resolution should be twice the screen frequency to achieve the best printed results. PixelPaint. BMP. Divide the total number of pixels by the longest dimension of the original image. BMP. and TIFF. As a general rule. Adobe Illustrator.5 compatibility mode enabled). Compuserve GIF.
When you use the magic wand tool. or tolerance. The edges of the stroke are more diffused than those created with the paintbrush tool. This tool can be useful for selecting a consistently colored area (for example. you can track the exact distance you are moving a selection. You can choose to change . The eraser tool changes pixels in the image as you drag through them. the marquee is dragged from its corner. You can also constrain all or part of the outline to straight-edged segments. When you deselect the selection. When the Info palette is open. The pressure setting for the airbrush tool determines how quickly the spray of paint is applied. Adobe Photoshop determines whether the adjacent pixels are within the color range. The airbrush tool lets you apply gradual tones (including sprays of color) to an image. The magic wand tool lets you select portions of an image based on the color similarities of adjacent pixels. a red flower) without having to trace the outline with the lasso tool. Photoshop creates a temporary layer called a floating selection. The paintbrush tool lets you create soft strokes of color.The marquee tool lets you select rectangular or elliptical areas by dragging over an area of the image. that you specify. It simulates the effect produced by traditional airbrush techniques. The lasso tool lets you make a selection by dragging a freehand outline around an area. You move a selection by dragging it to a new location using the move tool. which appears in the Layers palette. By default. its contents become part of the underlying layer. When you move a selection.
The toning tools include the dodge and burn tools. which lets you change the color saturation of an area. The rubber stamp tool lets you paint a copy. or sample. or to revert the affected area to its previously saved version. which lets you blur hard edges or areas in an image to reduce detail. The Clone options of the rubber stamp tool make a copy of. which lets you sharpen soft edges to increase clarity or focus. The dodge and burn tools are based on the traditional photographer’s technique of increasing the amount of exposure given to a specific area on a print. Other rubber stamp options let you paint with a pattern or with an “impressionistic” copy of the image. or a modified copy. The sponge tool is useful for subtly increasing or reducing the saturation in an area. The tool picks up color from where the stroke begins and pushes it in the direction in which you drag. In Grayscale mode. of an image or color into the same image or into another image. The pencil tool creates hard-edged freehand lines and is most useful for bitmapped images. Photographers hold back light during an exposure to lighten an area on the print (dodging) or increase the exposure to darken areas on a print (burning-in). respectively. an image and paint an exact duplicate of that image. and the sponge tool. You can also restore painted areas to their last-saved states. specific areas of an image. The smudge tool simulates the actions of dragging a finger through wet paint.the color and transparency of the affected pixels. The focus tools include the blur tool. the sponge tool increases or decreases contrast by moving gray levels away . which let you lighten or darken. and the sharpen tool.
The paint bucket tool fills adjacent pixels that are similar in color value to the pixels you click. You can choose from the existing gradient fills in the Gradient Tool Options palette. Normally. If you begin drawing first. Adobe Photoshop lets you add bitmap type to an image using the type tool). A gradient fill can be applied as either a radial or a linear fill. The paint bucket options let you specify a mode . Line tool options let you specify the width of lines. and alignment of the type. or if you use TrueType‘ fonts. if you use the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) program installed with Adobe Photoshop. A linear gradient fill creates a gradient from one point to another in a straight line. If you don’t select a specific part of the image to fill. or you can draw with the pen tool first and then save the path in the Paths palette. and create lines with arrowheads. The gradient tool lets you create a gradual transition between two or more colors. the gradient tool applies the fill to the entire active layer. large bitmap characters appear jagged on the screen. set anti-aliasing. You create a path using one of two methods: you can create a new path in the Paths palette and then begin to draw with the pen tool. A radial fill creates a gradient fill from a center point outward in all directions. However. the path you draw is saved automatically. You can specify the leading. spacing. characters appear almost as smooth and as well-defined as outline type. type styles.from or toward the middle gray. The line tool draws straight lines on an image. or you can create and edit your own gradient fills. You must save a work path to preserve its contents during a work session. If you create a path in the Paths palette first. the path you draw appears in the Paths palette as a temporary work path.
but the tenth may send it to a decline. known as colour corrections. You can magnify up to 1600% of the original image view. Modifying the sample size of the eyedropper affects the color readouts displayed in the Info Palette. The image window’s title bar displays the magnification or reduction percentage at all times. you can click in a background window without making it the active window. For example. . you can set the eyedropper to sample the color values of a 3-by-3screen-pixel area under the pointer.and opacity. The eyedropper tool lets you sample color from an area of an image to designate a new foreground or background color. or tolerance. no matter how much money you spend. you are not creating special effects. You can sample from the active image or from another image. In this case. It is important to keep this principle in mind because it demonstrates that colour mapping is a balancing act. The zoom tool and the Zoom commands let you magnify and reduce the view of an image. It seems that the first nine operations you have performed may make an image look progressively better. You can view different areas of an image using the image window scroll bars or the hand tool.) You can also specify the sample area that the eyedropper tool reads. and choose whether to fill with the foreground color or a pattern. of pixels to be filled. indicate the color range. You can also choose to create smooth edges for the filled selection. (When you’re using the eyedropper. Colour Corrections The most common reason to use colour mapping is to enhance the appearance of a scanned image. just making straightforward colour adjustments. Scans are never perfect. You can also zoom to an exact percentage of the original view by entering values in the zoom percentage box at the lower left of the window.
the brightness of every colour component changes to 255 minus the original brightness value. Replace Colour. Levels and Curves. Posterize automatically divides the full range of 256 colours brightness values into a specified number of equal increments. Equalize It searches for the lightest and darkest colour values in a selection. such as Hue/Saturation. because it is its own oppposite. such as Invert and Threshold.e. You can apply the change to individual colour channels or affect all colours equally across the spectrum. and those that are more complicated but provide better control and better functionality. i. the command lets you . Invert Converts every colour in your image to its exact opposite. Threshold Converts all colours to either black or white based on their brightness values. Photoshop display a single option box and a slider bar. as always true. save your work on disk before launching into the colour mapping process. it can retain as many colour as you like. just as in a photographic negative.The tips is. According to the value you entered. such as the Brightness/Contrast and Colour Balance commands. Hue Shifting and Colourizing Provides two functions: it enables you to adjust colours in an image according to their hues and saturation levels. The only colour that doesn't change is medium grey. And second. those requiring significantly more work but are nonetheless designed to be understood by novices. Then it maps the lightest colour in all the colour channels to white. maps the darkest colour in the channels to black and distributes the remaining colour to other brightness levels in an effort to evenly distribute pixels over the entire brightness spectrum. Posterize Better than Threshold (which is good for two colours). Photoshop will convert the colour lighter than the value to white and any colour darker than the value to black. either of which you can use to specify the medium brightness value in the image. Photoshop's colour correction functions fall into three categories: those that produce immediate and useful effects.
you can selectively fade and fortify colours. pencil. the colours will be shifted around the colour wheel. airbrush. or click in an open image window with the eyedropper tool. Colourizing images: Photoshop provides four colour controls in the toolbox: Foreground colour The foreground colour icon indicates the colour you apply when you use the type. You can change the foreground colour by clicking on the colour icon to display the Colour Picker dialog box. Switch colours Click on this icon (or press the X key) to exchange the foreground and background colours. according to their factory settings. The background colour also ends any gradation created with the gradient tool. all pixels will stand up. For example. Default colours Click on this icon (or press the D key) to make the foreground colour black and the background colour white. or paintbrush tool. You can also apply the foreground colour beginning with any gradation with the gradient tool. A pixel that was red becomes yellow. The Saturation option is especially useful for toning down images captured with low quality scanners that exaggerate certain colours.. To change the background colour.. click on the background colour icon to display the Colour Picker dialog box or press Alt-click in any open image window with the eyedropper. except that none of the chairs disappear. Background colour The active background colour indicates the colour you apply with the eraser tool. By applying the saturation values to specific colour options. line. paint bucket.colourize images by applying new hue and saturation values while retaining the core brightness from the original image. It is as if the pixels were playing a colourful game of musical chairs. To apply the background to a selection. By moving the Hue slide bar in the Hue/Saturation dialog box. a pixel that was yellow become green and so on. march one sixth of the way around the colour wheel and sit down. press the Delete key. Filters Filters basics: . if you select the Master radio button and enter a value of +60 degrees.
To get best results from these filters. making the filter more important than the image. How and When to use filters: Corrective Filters: the effects that you have applied are subtle enough that a user won't even notice what you have done through the corrective filters. These filters include those that change the focus of an image (Blur. And make sure to "Save" your image to disk before applying a destructive filter so that you can revert to the saved image if you found the changes are not the way that you had wanted. 2. Preview filter effects before you apply them. Once is not enough (sometimes!). add depth to an image or completely rip it apart and resample it into a hunky pile of goo. Photoshop's filters can accomplish a great deal more. You can slightly increase the focus of an image.In Photoshop. Samples: Add noise Blur Lighting Wave Wind Patchwork Color Pencil Facet Trouble shooting and tips . Reapplying the last filter. apply them to selected portion of an image. introduce random pixel. Destructive Filters: found under the Filer-> Distort. Sharpen). enhance colour transitions (High Pass). "filters" enable you to apply automated effects to an image. Pixelate. Stylize and Render which produce effects that completely overwhelm your artwork. In addition to allowing you to correct lighting and perspective fluctuations. Many number of special effects are made available via filters. General Filtering techniques: 1. rather than to the entire image. and randomize pixels (Add Noise).
Run Run Shaw Building. there is an inverse relationship between size and resolution--size goes up when the resolution goes down. 1)if you are in Quick Mask mode and are trying to edit the protected part of an image. 5B. The tools do not seem to work? 4A. With resizing. 4. To support both Photoshop and Windows applications. The Photoshop software is available in three platforms: in Unix. One copy of the software is installed in the Silicon Graphics Web Force station located in the Special Facilities Room in the Run Run Shaw Building. enter new drive to Secondary Scratch Disk. The tools in the toolbox may appear not to work. from File menu. What is resizing and what is resampling? 3A. 3. select Preference and select Memory and Image Cache. select Preference and select Plug-ins & Scratch Disks. . from File menu. Resampling affacts either size or resolution alone. Where can I use the Photoshop software? 1A. 3)if you accidentally selected an alpha channel as the target channel but you are viewing the composite RGB or CMYK channel. The best way to improve the performance of Photoshop is to increase the amount of RAM. 2. in PC and in Macintosh. The PC version is installed in the student laboratories in the Run Run Shaw Building and the Old Library Building. enter Cache Level or Physical Memory Usage. Photoshop often displays out-of-memory messages? 5A. To designate a secondary scratch disk. it will use a virtual memory scheme which allows you to use the disk space for storing data and performing computation temporarily during a work session. 2) if there is an active selection that is hidden. To increase the amount of RAM available to Photoshop software. it is better to have 32MB to 256MB of RAM.FAQ's 1. What is the best memory configuration in order to run Photoshop? 2A. There is also a Power Macintosh connected to a scanner with one user license in Room 104. and vice versa. 5. But when the RAM is not enough.
thus it is faster to transfer a JPEG file than a Gif file. Adobe Photoshop User Guide.jpg Netscape browser can display both Gifs and JPEG format images without launching other helper applications.6. Our examples are in the University's Estates home page of The University of Hong Kong. JPEG. A tip on using images in Web Page is to use smaller stamp-size Gif file for easy preview and link this to a good quality of the original JPEG image.5? 6A. There are a lot of enhancement in the new version of Photoshop. 2000 . Last updated by the Computer Centre on August 25. But it is commonly used to contain photographic images in the BBS and Internet. However. select Contents to read What's new. with both Gif file and JPEG file containing the same dimension of image. 2. the higher the compression. For file transferring. 3.jpeg or .Joint Photographic Experts Group format. More information about the Photoshop can be found at Adobe Photoshop web site. Adobe Photoshop Getting Started. you can determine how much you would like to keep the image quality. supports 256 colours only. These files usually end with .CompuServe Graphic Interchange Format. Working together with WWW home page authoring Image requirements: Gif and JPEG formats are supported: Gif . Please refer to Help Menu. These files usually end with . is most efficient and essential compression. What are the new features in Adobe Photoshop V. Adobe Photoshop Beyond the Basics. The lower the image quality.gif extension. It is a compression which sacrifices image quality to conserve space on disk. JPEG file size is about one third of Gif file. The above materials are based on the following references: 1.
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