German I Tutorial Other German pages: German Index | German II Tutorial | German III Tutorial

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehr-shtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand. Kannst du mir helfen? Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know. Natürlich

ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ? Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-geh-sen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are... Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German letter a ä e i o ö u ü b d g ch au ei eu, äu ie j English sound ah, as in father ahh, as in fat eh ee or ih oh eh, but with rounded lips oo ee, but with rounded lips b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, doesn't exist in English ow, as in "cow" eye oy ee y

qu s ß sp st sch th v w z

kv z or ss at end of word ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f v ts

3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i
ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee

j k l m n o p q r

yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr

s t u v w x y z

ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset

Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. It's actually a double s. Some people will write it ss instead of ß.

4. Nouns and Cases
All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, schaft, -sion, -sis, -tät, -tion, -ung and -ur. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -ät, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. We see the guide. We give it to the guide. The book of the girl.

Note: The nouns I give you, and the ones you look up in a dictionary, will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles and Demonstratives
Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. Nom. dieser diese dieses diese der die das Acc. diesen diese dieses diese den die das Dat. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem Gen. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns
Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie, Sie veer we eer you (all)

air, zee, ess, mahn he, she, it, one

zee they, you (formal)

Note: Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, and to Become
Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin wir sind veer zint I am ikh bin we are ihr seid eer zide You are (fam.) du bist doo bihst you are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint He/she/it is Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) habe haben werde werden hah-buh hah-ben vair-duh vair-den hast habt wirst werdet hahst hahbt veerst vair-det hat haben wird werden haht hah-ben veert vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den warst varst wart vart hattest hah-test hattet hah-tet wurdest voor-dest wurdet voor-det war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. = I am thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

8. Useful Words
und and oont aber but ah-ber sehr very zair oder or oh-der hier here here auch also owkh beide both by-duh etwas some eht-vahss nur only noor wieder again vee-der hopefully hoffentlich hoh-fent-likh between zwischen zvish-en therefore deshalb des-halp a lot, many viel(e) feel(uh) wirklich really veerk-lish zusammen tsoo-zah-men together alle all ahl-luh jetzt now yetst also so al-zoh noch ein nohkh ine another schon already shone nicht wahr nikht vahr isn't it? schade too bad shah-duh gern gladly gehrn immediately sofort zoh-fort sicher(lich) zikh-er-likh sure(ly) sondern rather zohn-dehrn schließlich shleess-likh finally stimmt right! shtimt überhaupt anyway oo-ber-howpt genug enough guh-nook exact(ly) genau guh-now sometimes manchmal mahnch-mal immer always im-er nie never nee oft often ohft of course klar klahr perhaps vielleicht fee-likht ein bisschen ine biss-khen a little ein wenig a little ine vay-nikh not at all gar nicht gar nikht kein bisschen kine biss-khen not a bit

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.

9. Question Words
Who What Why When Where How Wer Was Warum Wann Wo Wie vehr vahs vah-room vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Whom (dat.) How come Where from Where to Which Wen Wem Wieso Woher Wohin Welchvain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin velsh

10. Numbers
0 1 Null Eins nool ines

i. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths.000 Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig (Ein)hundert (Ein)tausend tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei. 11.000 would be 1 000. e) zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt . 1.e.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German.

every." All days. 13. etc. Tuesdays.last (as in the last of a series). 12. use im. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season) Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. Directions . use im. months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . nächsten . vorigen . letzten . while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany. 14. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays. Austria and Switzerland. use tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend.

. Um 8 Uhr. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. such as for bus and train schedules. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. always uses the 24 hour clock. early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau. At 8. Es ist kalt schön heiß vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise . früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time... Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain.North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. It's cold beautiful hot Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. 17..

ist schlecht klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä.to know people kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun kennst kenst kennt kent kennt kent kennen ken-nun wissen .clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf. Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö. To Know People and Facts kennen .to know facts weiß vise wissen vih-sun weißt vighst wisst vihst weiß vise wissen vih-sun . er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun. 19.

so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. Mensch. ihr-her. Neuter Plural den die das die Definite Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. sein-his/its. o. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. but neuter plural nouns ending in e don't. Patient. euer-your (ihr form). Student. unser-our. u or au add an umlaut. Nachbar. Komponist. Junge. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. Ihr-your (Sie form). and the following nouns: Elefant. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: ein . Vorfahre. Possessive Adjectives Nom. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. Polizist. zwei Lampen eine Lampe zwei Türen eine Tür eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Journalist). Zeuge). Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. . Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. o . here are some rules that can help: 1. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. Soldat. ihr-their. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3.20. However. Fem. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. Acc. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. mein mein meinem meines Pl. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Kunde. Masc. Gen. Herr. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. Tourist. Löwe. Riese. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. and kein-no/not any.a/an. Neffe. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. mein meinen meinem meines Fem. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). u or au. 22. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. dein-your (du form). Dat.

Fem. In German. When speaking. German only adds an -s to the noun. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. I give it to my brother. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. more often in writing than in speech. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. For proper nouns. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte.Personal Pronouns . Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. if you were to change word order. but in English. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. or an -es if the word is one syllable. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. for example. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Take. Usually. whereas English relies mainly on word order. you would have to say the apple eats me. unless they already end in an -n or -s. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. I give (to) my brother a tie. But German relies on the endings of the dative case.Nominative & Accusative mich me uns us ich I wir we du you dich you ihr you euch you ihn him sie them er he sie they sie her Sie you sie she Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence.the size of the house . There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. die Farbe des Vogels . 23. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. 24.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. Usually in English. Neuter Plural dem der dem den Definite Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form.

to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural. Plural des der des der Definite Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25. School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä.die Tasche meiner Mutter . e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä. e) female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. which is Ich bin Berliner. e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Präsident (en) Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer female Arbeiterin Architektin Automechanikerin Bibliothekarin Fernsehreporterin Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor hairdresser custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer salesperson dentist male Anwalt (ä. To Do or Make Machen . German does not use articles before professions. instead I am a person from Berlin. Neu. because it translates to I am a jelly donut. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie .my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . Work and School male worker architect mechanic librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer president priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Arbeiter Architekt (en) Automechaniker Bibliothekar Fernsehreporter Ingenieur Koch (ö.the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Also. Fem.

open space. to (some public buildings) hinter behind durch gegen um für ohne . or direction). denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for. that take the Dative case aus out (of). by seit since. town or place) mit with. or Dat. for bei near. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü.Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. by means of (transportation) von from (person. e) Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard Easy Vacation Assignment Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. an at. Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps. on (horizontal surfaces). besides Preps.) die Aufgabe (n) 27. from (country. at home of or place of business nach after. at. to. that may take Acc. on (vertical surfaces. er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä.

The picture hangs over the sofa. Drive the car behind the house. into (building. below. It is beside the house. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. Es steht an der Tafel. Es ist unter dem Tisch. He hangs the picture over the sofa. beneath in front of. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. about under. Stell es unter den Tisch. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. He is in the kitchen. feminine or plural countries) beside. 28. Put it on the table. The bottles are in front of the door. above. Er ist in der Küche. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. among. legen and setzen use the accusative case.) and nach Hause . before between For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. Note: Stellen. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa.(to) home (acc. It is on the board.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. Write it on the board. Stell es auf den Tisch. home (dat. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. Er geht in die Küche. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. The car is behind the house. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. enclosed space. while stehen. of the to the through the around the . The lamp is between the sofa and the table. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. Put it beside the house. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. But one exception is zu Hause . next to neben über unter vor zwischen in. It is under the table. Put the bottles in front of the door. Schreib es an die Tafel. He goes into the kitchen. Put it under the table. It's lying on the table. Es ist neben dem Haus. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus.

It is not cold today. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. Das ist nicht meine Frau. nicht comes last. To and From Countries and Cities . 31. No. or it could negate any part (verb. It is declined as an ein-word. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Ägypterin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch Ägyptisch. or not any. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. It is cold today. that's not a cousin. Heute ist es kalt. That's not my wife. das ist keine Kusine. It you want to negate an entire sentence. adjective) or all of a sentence. Das ist meine Frau. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. but nicht means not and kein means no.29. That's my wife. Countries and Nationalities Germany England France USA Russia Switzerland Italy Spain Japan China Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland Greece Holland Netherlands Ireland Korea Mexico Norway Portugal Sweden Poland Egypt Country Deutschland England Frankreich die USA Russland die Schweiz Italien Spanien Japan China Österreich Australien Belgien Kanada Dänemark Finnland Griechenland Holland die Niederlande Irland Korea Mexiko Norwegen Portugal Schweden Polen Ägypten Masc. not a. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Ägypter Fem. noun. Nicht also follows expressions of time. Nicht always follows the verb. Heute ist es nicht kalt. Arabisch 30. Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation.

to have to dürfen .to ought to wollen . Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it. sollen . Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to come komme koh-muh kommen koh-men kommst kohmst kommt kohmt kommt kohmt kommen koh-men gehen .to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . Modal Verbs German has 6 of them. To form regular verbs in German. they run be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen . the definite article must also be used. like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen.I'm flying to Switzerland. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it. he/she/it runs).to be allowed to muß müssen darf dürfen mußt müsst darfst dürft muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. Ich fliege nach Deutschland . 32. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. The following table is in the same format. Ich bin aus Deutschland . take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t .I am from Switzerland. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense. können .I'm flying to Germany. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. And when aus is used with feminine or plural go gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in gehst gehst geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in 33. Ich bin aus der Schweiz . 34. Nicht dürfen translates to must not. we.I am from Germany.nach To From aus in In Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries. Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. no ending and -s ending (I.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. To Come and to Go kommen .

however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. 35. not a possessive. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. he hurts himself. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. such as I run. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. I am running.I don't feel well. I do run. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus .-t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework.) However. think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern to get angry sich aufregen to get excited sich ausruhen to rest sich erkälten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) . then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . we hate ourselves.I'm taking off my coat. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative mich uns mir uns dich euch dir euch sich sich sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. In other words. Examples in English would be: I wash myself.

befehlen-to command. helfen-to help. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. essen-to eat. sprechen-to speak. Reden-to speak . waschen-to wash. geschehen-to happen.sich hinlegen sich verletzen sich beeilen sich erholen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed to hurry sich setzen to sit down to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über to be angry at/about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen über to happy about sich gewöhnen an to get used to sich kümmern um to take care of sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. sterben-to die. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. tragen-to carry. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break. empfehlen-to recommend. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person read. treffen-to meet. schlafen-to sleep. add an e before three endings.

the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37. Kommen is to come.zu. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form.vorweg.los. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence. have -t for du form ending instead of -st.nach. When conjugated. but the prefix remains attached." Verbs with Separable Prefixes . Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of. but ankommen is to arrive." With Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb.bei. Separable Prefixes ab.zurückan.rede redest redet reden redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38.

and -mach. Machen is to do/make. and versprechen . überholen .to overtake. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t undertake. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . so studiert is the past win. Inseparable Prefixes be. unternehmen . Sagen is to ask. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to suggest to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to emigrate to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen vorbeikommen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen zurückkommen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to listen to to take with to board to come by to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. . when they are not promise. erzählen .is the stem. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past.miss. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. therefore gesagt is the past participle. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et.abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen vorschlagen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen auswandern weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like. Arbeiten is to work. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen . The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. they are inseparable.ent. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. gewinnen . Past participles are made by adding the visit. Studieren is to study and translate. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. especially in conversation.veremp. When prefixes are stressed. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to come back to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe and -sag. and übersetzen .is the they are separable. and the stem. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past entertain. therefore gemacht is the past participle.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. 40. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix.

To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. The verb is intransitive (i. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. cannot take a direct object. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt .) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. water halten gehalten hold heißen geheißen be called . such as besucht and verloren.prefix when forming the past participle. Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begonnen begin beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten gebeten ask brechen gebrochen break empfehlen empfohlen recommend essen gegessen eat finden gefunden find fressen eat (of animals) gefressen frieren gefroren freeze geben gegeben give gewinnen gewonnen win gießen gegossen pour. there is no ge.and end with -en (with some exceptions). However. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. With separable prefixes. I broke my arm. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. The new stems in between must be memorized. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense. 2. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. the prefix comes before the ge. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. as well as reflexive verbs. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. All modals. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. both of these conditions are met: 1. From the participle of the base verb. then the past participles of the modals are used. The past participles begin with a past participle. if and only if. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt. and then add the prefix to the beginning. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. For example.e. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs. but forming the participles is much more complicated. the past participle is not used. 41. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. Logically. stehen takes haben.The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be.I asked my brother. With inseparable prefixes. whether the verb is regular or irregular. but a few use sein. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. but aufstehen takes sein.

allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. like all irregular verbs. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt . but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs.helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen help sound let. They form their past participles like regular verbs.

Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride swim be jump climb die step grow become geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden 43.42. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse . er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink milk egg honey snack cheese das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä. Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham ice cream jam rice das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. and many have irregular past participles.

Imperative of Sein . so to say a glass of water. er) der Truthahn (ä.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive. The genitive case implies of. Fruits. minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin der Kürbis (e) olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü. e) der Fisch (e) 45. Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form.ein Stück Pizza 46. e) das Huhn (ü. All commands require an exclamation point. Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake .ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza .salad soup der Salat die Suppe mustard pie der Senf die Torte (n) 44. you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case. a glass of water . e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä.

bevor-before. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions.) Ich weiß nicht. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. Ich bliebe zu Hause. während Sie in Berlin sind. and hat must go to the end. (nachdem is the sub. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. when a double infinitive construction is involved. Some examples are als-when. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb.for/because. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. 1. da-since. and wie-how. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. She's coming to your place. Ich bliebe zu Hause. conjunction. and they do affect word order. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. aber. telefoniert. nachdem sie gegessen hat. Er ist müde. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. While you are in Berlin. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. I don't know if he wanted to come along. Er ist immer müde. damit-so that. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. bis-until. Und. obwohl-although. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. I'm staying home. Sie kommt nach zu dir. Ich bin krank. Während Sie in Berlin sind. weil-because. (während is a subordinating conjunction. denn . He is tired when he must get up early.du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. She has eaten. nachdem-after. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. the prefix remains attached to the verb.) However. and bin must go to the end. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause.) 3. . Hans will call you. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. weil ich krank bin. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. I'm staying home because I am sick. 4. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. dass-that. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. während-while. ob-whether. 2. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. Sie hat gegessen. wenn-if/when. following the infinitive. wenn er früh aufsteht. the modal goes last. I am sick. He is always tired when he gets up early.

these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. I heard him coming.48. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. Usually. We're having a house built. er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. e) das Denkmal (ä. er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) das Dorf (ö. Ich sehe ihn kommen. After verbs of this type. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum church square monument building house die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-oh-tek krahnk-en-house shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-war-engeh-sheft shribe-var-enpharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop bookstore airport garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store die Apotheke (n) die Drogerie (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) das Rathaus (ä) das Schloss (ö. but German uses a dependent infinitive. Ich habe ihm geholfen. I see him coming. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. 50. lassen and the senses Helfen. lassen means to let or allow./We're building a house. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. Helfen. I'm having my son pick up the mail. er) hospital das Stadion (Stadien) stadium das Kino (s) movie theater das Eisenwarenhardware store geschäft (e) stationery store das Schreibwaren- . er) der Friedhof (ö. er) das Lebensmittelgrocery store geschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) library das Krankenhaus (ä. English often uses a present participle. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. Like the modals. e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) ah-poh-tek-uh droh-ger-ee fah-breek mets-geh-rie booch-lah-den flook-hahf-en gah-rah-zhuh raht-house shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-geh-sheft dry cleaner's die Reinigung (en) rien-ee-gunk der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. I helped him.

werden. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. The one exception is streetcar. können ich konnte du konntest er. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. however it used more often in writing. Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest ich du . Imperfect Tense In English. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. he cried. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. sein. 52.. train. For the modal verbs. es konnte wir konnten ihr konntet sie konnten Imperfect tense of Modals müssen dürfen sollen mußte durfte sollte mußtest durftest solltest mußte durfte sollte mußten durften sollten mußtet durftet solltet mußten durften sollten wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten mögen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem.geschäft (e) geh-scheft 51. this tense corresponds I did. use mit dem and the noun. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. Nevertheless. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. etc. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. etc. even in conversational German. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t. haben. sie. you saw. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense.

er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö. erfinden (erfandst.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e.(du verstandest. stehen is conjugated without the -e. Most verb stems do add -est in the du form. e) der Topf (ö. Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e. er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. as they are unpredictable. to invent). but some do not. to suffer).are braten (brietst. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü. sie.(du befandest dich. to roast). travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take kommen-to come gehen-to go sangfuhrfandlasnahmkamgingIrregular Stems bliebbleiben-to stay aßessen-to eat flogfliegen-to fly gabgeben-to give riefrufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schliefschreiben-to write schriebIrregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help nennen-to name sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. singen-to sing fahren-to ride. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). to invite).) Similarly. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. You will have to memorize these stems. leiden (littst.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est. and schneiden (schnittst. laden (ludst.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. es wir ihr sie wußte wußten wußtet wußten brachte brachten brachtet brachten dachte dachten dachtet dachten kannte kannten kanntet kannten brannte brannten branntet brannten nannte nannten nanntet nannten rannte rannten ranntet rannten wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. 54. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) . e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. er) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä. to cut). finden is conjugated without the -e. For example.

I'm flying to Paris. before name of place or business Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. in enclosed spaces I'm at church. We are at school. Ich fliege nach Österreich.). countries and cities that have definite articles* I'm going to church. He's going to the market. zu and people Sie gehen zu McDonald's.). nach countries and cities that have no articles Ich fliege nach Paris. in building or enclosed space. Ich fliege in die USA. auf on surfaces. I know it from him. I work at McDonald's. ceiling door garden. She comes from the bedroom. He is at the lake. such as der Iran (m. comes from enclosed or defined space. I come from the USA. von particular direction or person Ich weiß es von ihm. It's on the table. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. Das Auto kommt von rechts. The picture is on the wall.). an. aus such as country. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. When talking about directions or going to a place. die Niederlande (pl. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations.dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. yard der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. Sie geht zum Strand. Es ist auf dem Tisch. Er geht auf den Markt. I'm flying to Austria. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. bei where someone lives or works Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. Location vs. comes from open space. die Schweiz (f. The car comes from the right. She's going to the beach. I'm going to the bank.). e) der Rasen alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. Ich gehe in die Kirche. I'm flying to the USA. and die USA (pl. an denotes border or limiting area Das Bild ist an der Wand. or at public buildings Sie sind auf der Bank. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. I live at my Aunt's (house). town or building Ich komme aus den USA.). Ich bin in der Kirche. * Only a few countries include the articles. . They are at the bank. the prepositions in. Direction When talking about locations. die Türkei (f. Er ist am See. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used. specifically named buildings or places. because they are not neuter. auf open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe auf die Bank. They're going to McDonald's. Wir sind in der Schule.

You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin.56. and uses time expressions. etc. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. To express present or future probability. e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. to do so. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. 2. e) das Kostüm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. Werden werde werden wirst werdet wird werden I will fly to Germany. yet it uses the present tense. 3. (Expresses probability) 58. such as tonight. in both German and English. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. Simply add a question mark Invert the verb and subject Use a question word + verb + subject Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement . Wir werden Latein lernen. My friend should be home now. e) 57. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. Asking Questions 1. and implies a future action. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. tomorrow. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (ü. 4.

Neu. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. 60. In the singular. thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös bequem besorgt richtig . Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich lieb berühmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig high. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. they turn into manch ein and so ein). der gute Wein die guten Freunde Acc. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. Fem. Plural die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Nom. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot Dat. tall wide fat. Neu. wenige (few). einige (some). Plural keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Nom. Fem. gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. Neu. kein guter Wein keine guten Freunde Acc. keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. and neuter accusative. Plural gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Nom. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. and independent adjectives. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. guten Wein Dat. The rest of the endings are the same. Fem. andere (other). These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Dat. adjectives used with ein words.59. The bread is fresh. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words.

Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. Comparative Superlative gern lieber am liebsten . The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. groß. Hans is the youngest. klug. rasch. The kitchen is as big as the living room. oft. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst.pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic nett preiswert teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig 61. kurz. toll. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. Irregular Forms Adj. German always uses the -er ending. -en or -er. lang. hart. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. krank. / Adv. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. 2. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. -t. Jens runs faster than Ernst. t or s sound. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. voll and zart. froh. schlank. To form the superlative. Adjectives that end in -el. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. such as alt. dumm. Superlative 1. -en.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. A radio is cheaper than a TV. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. stolz. Hans is am jüngsten. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. or an s sound. kalt. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. add -(e)st to the adjective. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. warm. Sie ist am intelligentesten. grob. schwach. scharf. add -er to the adjective or adverb. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. followed by als (than). drop the -e in the comparative form. jung. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. Comparative 1. arm. roh. 2. o. She is the most intelligent. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. stark. klar. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. The adjectives that end in -el.

e) die Straße (n) der Bauernhof (ö. 62. the better. The prices are getting higher and higher. the happier he is. Julia wird immer hübscher. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. The more money he has. The more. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. desto besser. Die preise werden immer höher. These suits are the least expensive. Je mehr Geld er hat. e) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf der Bach (ä.gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative besser höher näher mehr am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten Je mehr. er) . e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. desto glücklicher ist er. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63.

e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. even if they seem to take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65. e) das Fussgelenk (e) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl.) ich I du you (fam. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun.) sie they Sie you (pol. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. e) das Land (ä. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) . er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) 64.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.field forest plant city sea bay mountain range das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. Except when the accusative is a pronoun.) Direct Objects (Acc. er) das Tal (ä. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case). e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä.

but must be included in German. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. Nom. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. Fem. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. to whom I nothing about it told have. These may be omitted in English. The dog. is called the Danube. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman. Da and Wo Compounds . therefore. Nominative Accusative Dative When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. that through Vienna flows. whom. der durch Wien fliesst. Acc. that I last week seen have. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. den ich gestern gekauft habe. war Julias.words that correspond to who. it is accusative. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. Wer war die Frau. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. Neu. Dat. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday.brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. Plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". (In the following example. Der Hund. Das is der Mantel. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. was Julia's. that and which in English. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. My father is the only person. heißt Donau. The river. e) die Hand (ä. Gen. the preposition determines the case. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66.

Ohne. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. The watch. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. The city.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is the prefix. I'm thinking about it. when you need to refer to a thing. That's why you have no luck. When asking about people. use a preposition and wen/wem. However. = Die Uhr. hat viel gekostet. mit der er reist. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. in der wir wohnen. cost a lot. = Die Stadt. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them Da(r) Compounds dagegen against it/them darin in it/them daran in it/them darauf on top of it/them dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben dazwischen dabei darum over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them between it/them on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. and seit can never form a da(r) compound.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people.(or dar. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem währenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). Die Uhr. ausser. has a large concert hall. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. a compound using da. womit er reist. Ich denke daran. Die Stadt. Animals . in which we live. worin wir wohnen. 68. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. with which he travels. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. I'm talking about it. hat viel gekostet.

It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense.animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. I like soccer. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. 70. Ich habe Fussball gern. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. lieber. And of course. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. I don't like the restaurant. The room pleases me. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. e) der Wurm (ü. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. It literally means to please. I like to play tennis most of all. but it becomes the subject in German. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. I don't like to play Basketball. I like to play soccer. Das Zimmer is the object in English. I prefer to play hockey. I had lived in Wiesbaden. . Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. I like Julia most of all. nicht gern. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. It is always in the dative case in German. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. Ich spiele gern Fussball. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. To use it correctly. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. I like the room. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern.

the modal goes last. Ich habe dir geglaubt. the order is subject . 3. 72.. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. wenn-if/when. 4. If he comes. following the infinitive. 7.verb .. dass-that. damit-so that.. wann er kommt. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule. denn-for/because. nachdem-after. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore.. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. während-while. Then the verb is still in the second position. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes. When I found him. wenn ich krank bin. ob-whether. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. weil-because. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. and wie-how. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. When asking questions. Review of Word Order 1.. However. Als ich ihn fand. da-since.. oder-or. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. bis-until. as well as in future time. wenn er früh aufsteht. the prefix remains attached to the verb. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. Ich weiß nicht. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive).Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. In most sentences. He is always tired when he gets up early. obwohl-although.. bevor-before.manner . the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. I want to go home. Er ist immer müde. the verb in the dependent clause is last. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. Ich bleibe im Bett. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. 6. When he comes. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. but the subject follows it... wenn is used to mean whenever or if. Als. I believed you... these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and. 2. Wenn er kommt. aber-but. I stay in bed when I am sick.time . If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. such as als-when.) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event. .place. Ich will nach Hause gehen.

If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. I stay in bed. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions.Er ist müde. just sometime. and the true subject follows the verb. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. bleibe ich im Bett. it goes before the indirect object. If the direct object is a pronoun. Three children are coming today. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. I give my brother a tie. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. When I am sick. it acts as an element. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. doch ja aber denn gerade nur. Es begins the sentence. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. someday counteracts negative statement. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. 9. Es ist niemand zu Hause. used for persuasion. but it is not incorrect to say it. He is tired when he must get up early. 73. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. nichts davon zu wissen. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. Er haßt es. it's raining). Ich kann es nicht glauben. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. He hates not knowing anything about it. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. 8. Wenn ich krank bin. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. These words are mostly for emphasis. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. bloss mal yes. of course really is it ever well then right now only. No one is at home. or softens commands 74. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. Other idioms: . I give it to my brother. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence.

wandern (to hike) . (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between).everything that is old die Alten .the old man die Alte .kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. The exceptions are erste. The definite article precedes the adjective. just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19. der Alte .) Alles ist in Butter. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well.Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities.the old people 77. Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. klar (clear) .die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place. and achte. (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less.Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a a word a negative or opposite meaning.) 75. the prefix un. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers.Architektin (female architect) 76. and using the gender of the last word. dritte. and -ste for 20 and up.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. siebte. and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns. She makes her judgments rather quickly.the old woman das Alte . das Ende (the end) . Architekt (male architect) . das Kind (the child) . Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English. Everything is fine. Frankfurt (a city) . (Literally: Everything is in butter. He does as he pleases. adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. first second erste zweite eleventh twelfth elfte zwölfte .

if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. Februar. = This novel has been read by many students.third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth dritte vierte fünfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste In writing dates. = This novel was read by many students. Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. However. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. On May 18th. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. when saying this out loud. = This novel will be read by many students. Today is October ninth. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. = This novel had been read by many students. *Notice that in the passive voice. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. Many students read this novel. . Many students have read this novel. Many students read this novel. Many students will read this novel. 78. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. German uses the number followed by a period. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. = This novel is read by many students. Many students had read this novel. you would say am zweiten Februar. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. change three things: 1. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. On February 2nd would be am 2.

Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. They caught the thief. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. etc. Avoiding the Passive 1. That is quickly done. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. then es is omitted. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. 80. The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. Das ist schnell zu machen. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive. such as a dative object or time expression. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. there would be no accusative object. but if it were turned into the passive.Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire.). The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. 3. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. wind. you. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. can be put in the first position. they.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. That can be done quickly. or no apparent subject at all. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. Man translates to one. only an implied es. But sometimes there is no accusative object. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. 2. 79. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. es is used as the subject. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. We can't remove the stain.) But if another element. There is no apparent subject. people and constitutes the subject. we. . Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically. The stain cannot be removed. es. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es.

Commonly. That can be done. = She closes the window. Das läßt sich machen. Sie macht das Fenster zu. um nicht zu frieren. = Sie macht das Fenster zu. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage . however. 82.4. and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. damit and um…zu (so that. in order to not freeze. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. She closes the window. That can be done. damit sie nicht friert. so that she won't freeze . in order to) show the goal of an action. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. Das kann gemacht werden. Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. 81. whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel.

zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly. ohne mich anzusehen. It takes a long time to drive through the city.zu are used with infinitives.) Er kam.rubber band ink pad string das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Wache security guard drive-thru window der Autoschalter der Tresor safe 84. It is too early to get up. sollten wir ihn suchen. Instead of sitting here. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. Hast du Lust. we should look for him. without looking at me. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive. while ohne.. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used. Das ist nicht zu machen. Sie sagte es. and translated as present participles in English.zu and anstatt. durch die Stadt zu fahren. That can't be done. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer (or Computer) der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopier die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. She said it. zu is used to indicate purpose. Um.. Um. He came in order to pick up the book. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. Expressions of Time . (Um.. but the construction is far more common in German. They introduce infinitival clauses. Statt hier zu sitzen..... um das Buch abzuholen. That can be found in any store. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden. 85.

e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. Time expressions with the prepositions an. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. It gets cold at night. in and vor are in the dative case. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. Ein(e) ander. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause.and noch ein. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück.means a different one. One morning he'll be late. In der Nacht wird es kalt. He visited us last year. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? . but they cannot be used interchangeably. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü.The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Eines Tages war er krank. Three years ago it was just as cold here. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. Another Ein(e) ander. She's going to Germany next week. Noch ein means one more.both mean another. and ander. One day he was sick. Last Sunday I stayed home. and may refer to the future or past. We must return on Sunday. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. 87.

For weak (regular) verbs. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect. adds an umlaut where possible. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood.. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact..Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89.. and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte Subjunctive II brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fön der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser 90. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I. .then (wenn. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle. For strong (irregular) verbs.. dann) statements and conditional sentences. The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense.

Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. Moreover. If I had time. werfen. please. brennen. then he'll come tomorrow. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. bitte. except with these eight verbs: helfen. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. Kommt er heute nicht. (so) kommt er morgen. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. haben and werden. Wenn ich Geld hätte. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries.Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. If I had money. sterben. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. (then) I would have gone to the movies. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. I would go to the movies. kennen. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte.. and rennen. If I had time. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. = We would like two colas. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. However. dann) pattern in both English and German. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? mögen möchte möchtest möchte möchten möchtet möchten .. dann ginge ich ins Kino. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. wenn er zu heiß ist. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest er. nennen. I would fly to Germany. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. If I had had time. (then) I would go to the movies. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. and in this case. then (wenn. haben or sein. 91. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause... dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. sie. For this reason. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen. If he's not coming today. Present Subj. Past Subj. stehen. sein.

If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. e) der Kofferraum (ä. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. 93. In everyday conversation. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) . The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. although they are important. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts. In this case. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. In certain cases.92. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. impartial way. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time.

Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable." Both introduce a dependent clause. so the conjugated verb must go to the end. they both mean "as if" or "as though. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. In Space astronaut der Astronaut beaker das Becherglas . He acts as though he had nothing better to do. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte. In addition. simply add -d to the infinitive. Present Participle To form the present participle. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. In the Ocean scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker shipwreck helm der Schiffbruch der Helm 96. both require the subjunctive II.94. 97.

Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild . It is formed with the future of haben or sein. so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. When using modals. Ich werde es genommen haben. I will have taken it. / That was probably Rudi. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem laboratory das Labor 98. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. 99. Er wird gegangen sein. It will have become dark. and the past participle. That will have been Rudi. He will have gone. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though.

Dat. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Also. Mittag. Gen. Abend.elf giant tower knight squire der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe sword lance ax das Schwert die Lanze die Axt drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown king queen princess prince throne die Krone der König die Königin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron court jester der Hofnarr minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger die Rüstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schloß 100. 4. Recht haben. 101. Write ss after a short vowel. there has been a spelling reform of the German language. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Morgen. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Singular: Nom. . Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. so it must be written as SS. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. Acc. Spelling Reform Recently. 2. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. Leid tun… 3.

Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. Nom. -er. -en. Dat. Acc. Pl.Singular: Nom. end in -el. Nom. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. Lion(s) Singular Plural die Löwen Nom. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. Gen. Acc. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above.and end with -e . -en. Sing. -er. der Mann die Frau das Kind den Männern den Frauen den Kindern Dat. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. Pl. Gen. Genitive. Plural der Vater die Väter den Vater die Väter dem Vater den Vätern des Vaters der Väter Nom. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. -r. Sing. the Nominative. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. Man Woman Child Nom. Sing. 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. Dat. Pl. der Löwe Acc. Gen. Sing.) Sing. Pl. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. Pl. unless it already ends in -s or -n. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge. Forest der Wald die Wälder die Wälder den Wäldern der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. then add nothing. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. Some may add -n. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. Dat. Acc. and Accusative Plural are the same. -e.

dem Mann den Männern Gen. Plural die Männer Nom. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. Genitive. den Mann die Männer Dat. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. -en to Dative Fruit (fem. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. Plural Nom. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. dem Auto den Autos Gen. der Frucht den Früchten Gen. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. . der Mann Acc. such as das Radio. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. Accusative. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable. der Student Acc. Plural Nom. and Genitive.Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. and Accusative. most masculine that denote living things. and Accusative.) Sing. die Frucht die Früchte Acc.) Sing. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. das Auto die Autos Acc. Plural die Studenten Nom.) Sing. die Frucht die Früchte Dat. Genitive. das Auto die Autos Dat. das Restaurant. and das Hotel.

may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing. das Bett die Betten Acc. Plural die Herzen Nom.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. das Herz die Herzen Acc. Plural Nom. das Bett die Betten Dat. das Herz Dat.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular.) Sing. des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing.Group 6 . dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. Plural die Namen der Name den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 . dem Bett den Betten .

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