German I Tutorial Other German pages: German Index | German II Tutorial | German III Tutorial

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehr-shtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand. Kannst du mir helfen? Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know. Natürlich

ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ? Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-geh-sen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are... Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German letter a ä e i o ö u ü b d g ch au ei eu, äu ie j English sound ah, as in father ahh, as in fat eh ee or ih oh eh, but with rounded lips oo ee, but with rounded lips b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, doesn't exist in English ow, as in "cow" eye oy ee y

qu s ß sp st sch th v w z

kv z or ss at end of word ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f v ts

3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i
ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee

j k l m n o p q r

yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr

s t u v w x y z

ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset

Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. It's actually a double s. Some people will write it ss instead of ß.

4. Nouns and Cases
All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, schaft, -sion, -sis, -tät, -tion, -ung and -ur. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -ät, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. We see the guide. We give it to the guide. The book of the girl.

Note: The nouns I give you, and the ones you look up in a dictionary, will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles and Demonstratives
Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. Nom. dieser diese dieses diese der die das Acc. diesen diese dieses diese den die das Dat. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem Gen. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns
Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie, Sie veer we eer you (all)

air, zee, ess, mahn he, she, it, one

zee they, you (formal)

Note: Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, and to Become
Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin wir sind veer zint I am ikh bin we are ihr seid eer zide You are (fam.) du bist doo bihst you are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint He/she/it is Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) habe haben werde werden hah-buh hah-ben vair-duh vair-den hast habt wirst werdet hahst hahbt veerst vair-det hat haben wird werden haht hah-ben veert vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den warst varst wart vart hattest hah-test hattet hah-tet wurdest voor-dest wurdet voor-det war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. = I am thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

8. Useful Words
und and oont aber but ah-ber sehr very zair oder or oh-der hier here here auch also owkh beide both by-duh etwas some eht-vahss nur only noor wieder again vee-der hopefully hoffentlich hoh-fent-likh between zwischen zvish-en therefore deshalb des-halp a lot, many viel(e) feel(uh) wirklich really veerk-lish zusammen tsoo-zah-men together alle all ahl-luh jetzt now yetst also so al-zoh noch ein nohkh ine another schon already shone nicht wahr nikht vahr isn't it? schade too bad shah-duh gern gladly gehrn immediately sofort zoh-fort sicher(lich) zikh-er-likh sure(ly) sondern rather zohn-dehrn schließlich shleess-likh finally stimmt right! shtimt überhaupt anyway oo-ber-howpt genug enough guh-nook exact(ly) genau guh-now sometimes manchmal mahnch-mal immer always im-er nie never nee oft often ohft of course klar klahr perhaps vielleicht fee-likht ein bisschen ine biss-khen a little ein wenig a little ine vay-nikh not at all gar nicht gar nikht kein bisschen kine biss-khen not a bit

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.

9. Question Words
Who What Why When Where How Wer Was Warum Wann Wo Wie vehr vahs vah-room vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Whom (dat.) How come Where from Where to Which Wen Wem Wieso Woher Wohin Welchvain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin velsh

10. Numbers
0 1 Null Eins nool ines

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä. 1. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German. 11.000 would be 1 000. e) zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt .000 Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig (Ein)hundert (Ein)tausend tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei.e. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths. i.

Directions .next. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays.every. Tuesdays. while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany. Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month.previous. 14. 13. use im. use am. Austria and Switzerland. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season). months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . nächsten . use im.last (as in the last of a series). vorigen . 12. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany." All days. letzten . etc.today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend.

Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. such as for bus and train schedules.North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. 17.. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16. early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau. Es ist kalt schön heiß vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise .. always uses the 24 hour clock. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain.. At 8.. It's cold beautiful hot Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time. Um 8 Uhr.

clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf. 19.to know facts weiß vise wissen vih-sun weißt vighst wisst vihst weiß vise wissen vih-sun . Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö. ist schlecht klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. To Know People and Facts kennen . er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun.to know people kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun kennst kenst kennt kent kennt kent kennen ken-nun wissen . e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä.

and the following nouns: Elefant. . Possessive Adjectives Nom. Nachbar. However. Masc. Fem. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. 22. Polizist. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. Kunde. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. Gen. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: ein . mein meinen meinem meines Fem. Vorfahre. Löwe. zwei Lampen eine Lampe zwei Türen eine Tür eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2.a/an. sein-his/its. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. Dat. Herr. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. and kein-no/not any. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. ihr-their. Komponist. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. Zeuge). Soldat. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. u or au. u or au add an umlaut. mein mein meinem meines Pl. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. o . Acc. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. unser-our. o. Tourist. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. dein-your (du form). Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. Patient. euer-your (ihr form). here are some rules that can help: 1. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Student. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). Riese. Neffe. Ihr-your (Sie form). Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. Junge. but neuter plural nouns ending in e don't. Mensch. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. Neuter Plural den die das die Definite Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. ihr-her. Journalist).20.

the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. German only adds an -s to the noun. I give it to my brother. die Farbe des Vogels . you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. they also add -(e)n in the genitive. or an -es if the word is one syllable. for example. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession. 23. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object. Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. When speaking. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. I give (to) my brother a tie. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. Usually. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. unless they already end in an -n or -s. Take.the size of the house . the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun.Nominative & Accusative mich me uns us ich I wir we du you dich you ihr you euch you ihn him sie them er he sie they sie her Sie you sie she Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). But German relies on the endings of the dative case. In German. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc.Personal Pronouns . Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. you would have to say the apple eats me. whereas English relies mainly on word order. There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. For proper nouns. more often in writing than in speech. but in English. Usually in English. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. if you were to change word order. 24. Fem. Neuter Plural dem der dem den Definite Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form.

German does not use articles before professions.my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten . You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter.die Tasche meiner Mutter . instead I am a person from Berlin. e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Präsident (en) Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer female Arbeiterin Architektin Automechanikerin Bibliothekarin Fernsehreporterin Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor hairdresser custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer salesperson dentist male Anwalt (ä. Work and School male worker architect mechanic librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer president priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Arbeiter Architekt (en) Automechaniker Bibliothekar Fernsehreporter Ingenieur Koch (ö. Also. Neu. e) female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie . To Do or Make Machen . School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä.the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural.to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. Plural des der des der Definite Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25. This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner. because it translates to I am a jelly donut. which is Ich bin Berliner. Fem.

for bei near. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. open space. at. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps. Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. at home of or place of business nach after. that take the Dative case aus out (of). town or place) mit with. from (country.) die Aufgabe (n) 27. that may take Acc. to (some public buildings) hinter behind durch gegen um für ohne . er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. an at. to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for.Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. besides Preps. by means of (transportation) von from (person. er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. or Dat. e) Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard Easy Vacation Assignment Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. by seit since. or direction). on (horizontal surfaces). to. on (vertical surfaces.

in neben über unter vor zwischen in. Er geht in die Küche. Es ist unter dem Tisch.at home (dat.) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. of the to the through the around the . He hangs the picture over the sofa. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. among. The picture hangs over the sofa. feminine or plural countries) beside. It's lying on the table. liegen and sitzen use the dative case. Es ist neben dem Haus. before between For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. legen and setzen use the accusative case. below. He is in the kitchen. across. while stehen. Put it on the table. Stell es auf den Tisch. above. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. He goes into the kitchen. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa. Stell es unter den Tisch. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. It is under the table. Es steht an der Tafel. It is beside the house. The bottles are in front of the door.) and nach Hause . Schreib es an die Tafel. Put it under the table. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. 28. about under. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. next to over. Er ist in der Küche. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus. beneath in front of. into (building. But one exception is zu Hause . In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. enclosed space. Drive the car behind the house. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. The car is behind the house. It is on the board. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. Put it beside the house. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. Note: Stellen. Write it on the board.(to) home (acc. Put the bottles in front of the door.

das ist keine Kusine. not a. No. 31.29. Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. nicht comes last. That's not my wife. but nicht means not and kein means no. that's not a cousin. Das ist nicht meine Frau. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. or it could negate any part (verb. It is declined as an ein-word. or not any. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. adjective) or all of a sentence. Arabisch 30. Nicht also follows expressions of time. Nicht always follows the verb. It is not cold today. Countries and Nationalities Germany England France USA Russia Switzerland Italy Spain Japan China Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland Greece Holland Netherlands Ireland Korea Mexico Norway Portugal Sweden Poland Egypt Country Deutschland England Frankreich die USA Russland die Schweiz Italien Spanien Japan China Österreich Australien Belgien Kanada Dänemark Finnland Griechenland Holland die Niederlande Irland Korea Mexiko Norwegen Portugal Schweden Polen Ägypten Masc. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Ägypter Fem. That's my wife. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Ägypterin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch Ägyptisch. Heute ist es kalt. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. noun. It you want to negate an entire sentence. To and From Countries and Cities . Das ist meine Frau. Heute ist es nicht kalt. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. It is cold today.

Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket.I am from Germany. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. Nicht dürfen translates to must not. And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries.I'm flying to Germany. no ending and -s ending (I. Modal Verbs German has 6 of them. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be. 34. Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense.to be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen .I am from Switzerland. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence.to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. 32. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t . können . Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. he/she/it runs). sollen . Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it.to come komme koh-muh kommen koh-men kommst kohmst kommt kohmt kommt kohmt kommen koh-men gehen . They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb.to ought to wollen . the definite article must also be used. you.) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Ich bin aus der Schweiz . The following table is in the same format.I'm flying to Switzerland. ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form. Ich fliege nach Deutschland .to have to dürfen . To form regular verbs in German. Ich bin aus Deutschland . To Come and to Go kommen . they run vs.to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . we. Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it.nach To From aus in In Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries.to go gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in gehst gehst geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in 33.to be allowed to muß müssen darf dürfen mußt müsst darfst dürft muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to.

-t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. Examples in English would be: I wash myself. not a possessive. Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article.I don't feel well. we hate ourselves. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. In other words. then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case. 35.I'm taking off my coat. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern to get angry sich aufregen to get excited sich ausruhen to rest sich erkälten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) . Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus . When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. I am running. such as I run. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative mich uns mir uns dich euch dir euch sich sich sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. he hurts himself. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. I do run. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject.) However.

add an e before three endings. treffen-to meet. schlafen-to sleep. geschehen-to happen. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. sprechen-to speak. waschen-to wash. empfehlen-to recommend. sterben-to die. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break. tragen-to carry. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t.to read. befehlen-to command.sich hinlegen sich verletzen sich beeilen sich erholen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed to hurry sich setzen to sit down to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über to be angry at/about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen über to happy about sich gewöhnen an to get used to sich kümmern um to take care of sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. helfen-to help. Reden-to speak . Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. essen-to eat. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen.

bei.rede redest redet reden redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb. Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence. Kommen is to come. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form. have -t for du form ending instead of -st. When conjugated.vorweg. but the prefix remains attached.vorbei. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38. but ankommen is to arrive. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of." Verbs with Separable Prefixes ." With modals. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now. Separable Prefixes ab. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5.aus.zurückan.los.mit.auf. Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3.nach. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual.zu.

Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen .ge. and -arbeit. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to come back to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe 39. unternehmen . Past participles are made by adding ge. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes.to overtake.to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et.is the stem.abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen vorschlagen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen auswandern weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes.is the stem. überholen . and versprechen . they are inseparable. therefore gemacht is the past participle. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. especially in conversation. . so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . Sagen is to ask. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. so studiert is the past participle. and -mach. gewinnen . if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. erzählen .miss.to promise.to visit. Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. when they are not stressed.to entertain. they are separable. Machen is to do/make. and übersetzen . When prefixes are stressed. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending.to win.er.veremp. Studieren is to study and studier.ent. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix.to undertake. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to suggest to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to emigrate to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen vorbeikommen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen zurückkommen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to listen to to take with to board to come by to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words.to translate. Arbeiten is to work.is the stem. Inseparable Prefixes be. and -sag. therefore gesagt is the past participle.is the stem.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives. 40. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables.to tell.

as well as reflexive verbs. 2. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. The past participles begin with ge. Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begonnen begin beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten gebeten ask brechen gebrochen break empfehlen empfohlen recommend essen gegessen eat finden gefunden find fressen eat (of animals) gefressen frieren gefroren freeze geben gegeben give gewinnen gewonnen win gießen gegossen pour. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb.and end with -en (with some exceptions). both of these conditions are met: 1. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs. All modals. there is no ge. With separable prefixes. The verb is intransitive (i. then the past participles of the modals are used. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. With inseparable prefixes. if and only if. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. the prefix comes before the ge. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. and then add the prefix to the beginning. From the participle of the base verb. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. but a few use sein. For example. stehen takes haben. I broke my arm. such as angekommen and aufgestanden.in a past participle. the past participle is not used.prefix when forming the past participle. Logically. However. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense.e. 41.I asked my brother. but aufstehen takes sein. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. cannot take a direct object.) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. such as besucht and verloren.The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. but forming the participles is much more complicated. The new stems in between must be memorized. water halten gehalten hold heißen geheißen be called . whether the verb is regular or irregular. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen.

(Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. They form their past participles like regular verbs. like all irregular verbs. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt .helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen help sound let. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs.

42. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride swim be jump climb die step grow become geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden 43. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse . Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb. and many have irregular past participles. Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham ice cream jam rice das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink milk egg honey snack cheese das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä.

minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. a glass of water . e) der Fisch (e) 45.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake . Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin der Kürbis (e) olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive. All commands require an exclamation point. e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä. e) das Huhn (ü. er) der Truthahn (ä. Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. Imperative of Sein .salad soup der Salat die Suppe mustard pie der Senf die Torte (n) 44. so to say a glass of water. The genitive case implies of.ein Stück Pizza 46. Fruits.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case.

so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. I don't know if he wanted to come along. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. 2. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating.) However. She's coming to your place after she has eaten. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. Und. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. 4. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. bis-until. He is always tired when he gets up early. Sie kommt nach zu dir. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. conjunction. nachdem sie gegessen hat. Hans will call you.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. obwohl-although. aber. weil-because. Er ist müde. I'm staying home. . bevor-before. (nachdem is the sub.for/because.) Ich weiß nicht. nachdem-after. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. Während Sie in Berlin sind. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. following the infinitive. I'm staying home because I am sick. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. and hat must go to the end. when a double infinitive construction is involved. Ich bliebe zu Hause. She's coming to your place. damit-so that. wenn er früh aufsteht. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. Er ist immer müde. denn . whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. Sie hat gegessen. Ich bin krank. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb.) 3. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. während-while. da-since. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. and they do affect word order. While you are in Berlin. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. I am sick. the prefix remains attached to the verb. and bin must go to the end. Ich bliebe zu Hause. während Sie in Berlin sind. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). 1. (während is a subordinating conjunction. wenn-if/when.du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. ob-whether. telefoniert. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. the modal goes last. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. dass-that. Some examples are als-when. He is tired when he must get up early. She has eaten. and wie-how. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. weil ich krank bin.

e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) ah-poh-tek-uh droh-ger-ee fah-breek mets-geh-rie booch-lah-den flook-hahf-en gah-rah-zhuh raht-house shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-geh-sheft dry cleaner's die Reinigung (en) rien-ee-gunk der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. er) der Friedhof (ö. I'm having my son pick up the mail. Ich sehe ihn kommen. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) das Dorf (ö. I see him coming. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. Helfen.48. Usually. I helped him./We're building a house. We're having a house built. er) hospital das Stadion (Stadien) stadium das Kino (s) movie theater das Eisenwarenhardware store geschäft (e) stationery store das Schreibwaren- . er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. lassen means to let or allow. er) das Lebensmittelgrocery store geschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) library das Krankenhaus (ä. Like the modals. Ich habe ihm geholfen. I heard him coming. After verbs of this type. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. lassen and the senses Helfen. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum church square monument building house die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-oh-tek krahnk-en-house shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-war-engeh-sheft shribe-var-enpharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop bookstore airport garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store die Apotheke (n) die Drogerie (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) das Rathaus (ä) das Schloss (ö. 50. er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. e) das Denkmal (ä. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something. English often uses a present participle. but German uses a dependent infinitive.

drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. haben. Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest ich du . 52. however it used more often in writing. even in conversational German. sein. können ich konnte du konntest er. this tense corresponds I did. you saw. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. he cried.geschäft (e) geh-scheft 51. train. etc. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. sie. Mögen changes the g to ch as well. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. Imperfect Tense In English. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. For the modal verbs.. etc. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). The one exception is streetcar. they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. Nevertheless. werden. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. use mit dem and the noun. es konnte wir konnten ihr konntet sie konnten Imperfect tense of Modals müssen dürfen sollen mußte durfte sollte mußtest durftest solltest mußte durfte sollte mußten durften sollten mußtet durftet solltet mußten durften sollten wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten mögen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem.

as they are unpredictable. but some do not. to roast).(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d. e) der Topf (ö. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü. e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) . erfinden (erfandst. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est.(du verstandest. es wir ihr sie wußte wußten wußtet wußten brachte brachten brachtet brachten dachte dachten dachtet dachten kannte kannten kanntet kannten brannte brannten branntet brannten nannte nannten nanntet nannten rannte rannten ranntet rannten wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. to invent).) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. stehen is conjugated without the -e.(du befandest dich. laden (ludst.er. to invite). 54. For example. e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot. and schneiden (schnittst.(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e.) Similarly. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü. er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. sie. singen-to sing fahren-to ride. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. leiden (littst. travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take kommen-to come gehen-to go sangfuhrfandlasnahmkamgingIrregular Stems bliebbleiben-to stay aßessen-to eat flogfliegen-to fly gabgeben-to give riefrufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schliefschreiben-to write schriebIrregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help nennen-to name sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. You will have to memorize these stems. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö. to cut). Most verb stems do add -est in the du form. Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. finden is conjugated without the -e.are braten (brietst. to suffer). er) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä.

the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used.). Ich bin in der Kirche. before name of place or business Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. I'm flying to the USA. or at public buildings Sie sind auf der Bank. The car comes from the right. I'm flying to Paris. aus such as country.). in enclosed spaces I'm at church. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. It's on the table. He's going to the market. zu and people Sie gehen zu McDonald's. Direction When talking about locations. Wir sind in der Schule. I know it from him. von particular direction or person Ich weiß es von ihm. comes from enclosed or defined space. such as der Iran (m. Das Auto kommt von rechts.dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. When talking about directions or going to a place. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. nach countries and cities that have no articles Ich fliege nach Paris. We are at school. She comes from the bedroom. . ceiling door garden. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. in building or enclosed space. Er geht auf den Markt. e) der Rasen alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket. die Schweiz (f. yard der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. I'm going to the bank. an denotes border or limiting area Das Bild ist an der Wand. countries and cities that have definite articles* I'm going to church. She's going to the beach. Ich gehe in die Kirche. because they are not neuter. Ich fliege nach Österreich. They are at the bank. an. He is at the lake. Er ist am See. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. town or building Ich komme aus den USA.).). die Türkei (f. auf open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe auf die Bank. the prepositions in. I work at McDonald's. Ich fliege in die USA. die Niederlande (pl. I come from the USA. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer. bei where someone lives or works Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. and die USA (pl. * Only a few countries include the articles. specifically named buildings or places. Sie geht zum Strand. Location vs. The picture is on the wall. comes from open space. They're going to McDonald's.). I live at my Aunt's (house). I'm flying to Austria. auf on surfaces. Es ist auf dem Tisch.

4. to do so. 3. tomorrow. Asking Questions 1. and uses time expressions. yet it uses the present tense. such as tonight. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. (Expresses probability) 58. Werden werde werden wirst werdet wird werden I will fly to Germany. My friend should be home now. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin.56. e) 57. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence. and implies a future action. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (ü. To express present or future probability. in both German and English. e) das Kostüm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). 2. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. etc. Simply add a question mark Invert the verb and subject Use a question word + verb + subject Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement . pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. Wir werden Latein lernen. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen.

kein guter Wein keine guten Freunde Acc. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. tall wide fat. Plural die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Nom. Neu. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Dat. Plural gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Nom. 60. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. Fem. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc. einige (some). adjectives used with ein words.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös bequem besorgt richtig . Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. Fem. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. and independent adjectives. Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. Neu. andere (other). Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich lieb berühmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig high. they turn into manch ein and so ein). The bread is fresh. der gute Wein die guten Freunde Acc. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Neu.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. Plural keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Nom. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. wenige (few). guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). In the singular.59. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. The rest of the endings are the same. and neuter accusative. guten Wein Dat. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot Dat. keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. Fem.

an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. To form the superlative. lang. Comparative Superlative gern lieber am liebsten . Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. froh. Jens runs faster than Ernst. oft. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. Hans is am jüngsten. She is the most intelligent. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. Adjectives that end in -el. t or s sound. schwach.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. The kitchen is as big as the living room. arm. such as alt. 2. or an s sound. scharf. o. toll. Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. German always uses the -er ending. add -(e)st to the adjective. Superlative 1. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. rasch. kalt. The adjectives that end in -el. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. Comparative 1. add -er to the adjective or adverb. Irregular Forms Adj. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. drop the -e in the comparative form. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. followed by als (than). Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank.pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic nett preiswert teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig 61. Hans is the youngest. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. groß. stolz. grob. kurz. roh. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. warm. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. klar. voll and zart. stark. klug. jung. A radio is cheaper than a TV. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d. -t. krank. dumm. hart. / Adv. -en. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. -en or -er. Sie ist am intelligentesten. schlank. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. 2.

e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. Je mehr Geld er hat. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63. 62.gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative besser höher näher mehr am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten Je mehr. The prices are getting higher and higher. e) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf der Bach (ä. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. the better. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. Die preise werden immer höher. er) . Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. These suits are the least expensive. The more. The more money he has. Julia wird immer hübscher. e) die Straße (n) der Bauernhof (ö. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. desto besser. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. desto glücklicher ist er. the happier he is. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun.

e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü. e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü. e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun. Except when the accusative is a pronoun.) Direct Objects (Acc. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom.) ich I du you (fam. er) das Tal (ä. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. e) das Land (ä. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case).) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) .field forest plant city sea bay mountain range das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) 64.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences. even if they seem to take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl. e) das Fussgelenk (e) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö.) sie they Sie you (pol.

Der Hund. to whom I nothing about it told have. Da and Wo Compounds . Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. that through Vienna flows. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. heißt Donau. whom. that and which in English. therefore. war Julias. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. The dog. is called the Danube.brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. den ich gestern gekauft habe. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. (In the following example. Wer war die Frau. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. e) die Hand (ä. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66. Neu. Gen. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. Das is der Mantel. Fem. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". Nom. The river. the preposition determines the case. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . Plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's.words that correspond to who. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. Dat. it is accusative. der durch Wien fliesst. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. These may be omitted in English. that I last week seen have. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. but must be included in German. My father is the only person. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. Acc. was Julia's. Nominative Accusative Dative When a relative pronoun follows a preposition.

and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. and seit can never form a da(r) compound. I'm thinking about it. with which he travels. Die Stadt. = Die Uhr. in which we live. womit er reist. has a large concert hall. in der wir wohnen. Ohne. use a preposition and wen/wem. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. when you need to refer to a thing. When asking about people. cost a lot. ausser. That's why you have no luck. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem währenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). Die Uhr. However. The watch. Animals . Ich denke daran. Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. mit der er reist.as the prefix. worin wir wohnen.(or dar. 68. = Die Stadt. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. hat viel gekostet.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them Da(r) Compounds dagegen against it/them darin in it/them daran in it/them darauf on top of it/them dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben dazwischen dabei darum over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them between it/them on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. I'm talking about it. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. a compound using da. The city.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. hat viel gekostet. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun.

animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. I like Julia most of all. It is always in the dative case in German. It literally means to please. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. I prefer to play hockey. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. 70. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. I like the room. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. . Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. e) der Wurm (ü. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. I don't like the restaurant. lieber. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. I like to play soccer. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. Ich habe Fussball gern. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. To use it correctly. Ich spiele gern Fussball. I like soccer. The room pleases me. I like to play tennis most of all. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. I had lived in Wiesbaden. I don't like to play Basketball. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. but it becomes the subject in German. Das Zimmer is the object in English. And of course. Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern. Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. nicht gern. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä.

I stay in bed when I am sick. Wenn er kommt.. and wie-how. da-since. In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles.. Then the verb is still in the second position. Als. However. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. 3. Ich weiß nicht. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject. When I found him.. . Ich bleibe im Bett. I believed you.. the prefix remains attached to the verb. the order is subject . während-while. these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and.. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. such as als-when. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule.place. wenn ich krank bin. wenn-if/when. 72. 2.. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus. as well as in future time. I want to go home. Er ist immer müde. Ich will nach Hause gehen. Als ich ihn fand.. the modal goes last. Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. When he comes.. ob-whether. (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes. weil-because. When asking questions. wann er kommt. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. but the subject follows it.manner . following the infinitive. 4. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. bevor-before. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. denn-for/because. wenn er früh aufsteht. obwohl-although.. bis-until. He is always tired when he gets up early. wenn is used to mean whenever or if. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive).time . In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). Ich habe dir geglaubt. 7. Review of Word Order 1. damit-so that. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. nachdem-after. If he comes.. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. aber-but.Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. In most sentences. dass-that. oder-or.verb .) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event.. the verb in the dependent clause is last. 6.

No one is at home. it acts as an element. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. used for persuasion.Er ist müde. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. nichts davon zu wissen. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. and the true subject follows the verb. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. I give it to my brother. Er haßt es. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. doch ja aber denn gerade nur. or softens commands 74. just sometime. Ich kann es nicht glauben. someday counteracts negative statement. He hates not knowing anything about it. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. Wenn ich krank bin. I stay in bed. Other idioms: . it goes before the indirect object. If the direct object is a pronoun. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. Es ist niemand zu Hause. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. Es begins the sentence. it's raining). These words are mostly for emphasis. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. I give my brother a tie. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. 8. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. 73. 9. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. When I am sick. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. but it is not incorrect to say it. bloss mal yes. bleibe ich im Bett. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. of course really is it ever well then right now only. Three children are coming today. He is tired when he must get up early. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence.

and achte.) 75. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. siebte. der Alte . The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well. das Ende (the end) . (Literally: He goes with his head through the wall. The exceptions are erste.Architektin (female architect) 76. the prefix un. das Kind (the child) .) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. and -ste for 20 and up. (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments. dritte.) Alles ist in Butter. Architekt (male architect) . He does as he pleases. first second erste zweite eleventh twelfth elfte zwölfte . She makes her judgments rather quickly. The definite article precedes the adjective.the old woman das Alte . Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between). klar (clear) . and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English. and using the gender of the last word.gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. Everything is fine.everything that is old die Alten .Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers.Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less.the old people 77. wandern (to hike) .the old man die Alte .die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place. just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19. Frankfurt (a city) . Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. (Literally: Everything is in butter.

Many students will read this novel. Many students read this novel. On May 18th. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. change three things: 1. if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. = This novel was read by many students. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. However. when saying this out loud. Many students have read this novel. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. German uses the number followed by a period. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. = This novel is read by many students.third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth dritte vierte fünfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste In writing dates. Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. *Notice that in the passive voice. = This novel will be read by many students. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. On February 2nd would be am 2. = This novel has been read by many students. = This novel had been read by many students. Februar. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. you would say am zweiten Februar. Today is October ninth. . = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. Many students read this novel. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. Many students had read this novel. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. 78.

The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. etc. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. The stain cannot be removed.) But if another element. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. such as a dative object or time expression. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. we. es is used as the subject. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. they. . Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. you. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es. 80. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. 3. es. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. They caught the thief. That can be done quickly. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. That is quickly done. Avoiding the Passive 1. while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. or no apparent subject at all. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. There is no apparent subject. 2. but if it were turned into the passive.). there would be no accusative object. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. people and constitutes the subject. then es is omitted. Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically. But sometimes there is no accusative object. the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. can be put in the first position. wind. Das ist schnell zu machen. 79. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. Man translates to one. only an implied es. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive.Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire. We can't remove the stain.

= She closes the window. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. = Sie macht das Fenster zu. and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel. Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action. She closes the window. Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage . Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. damit and um…zu (so that. Das kann gemacht werden. That can be done. Commonly. Sie macht das Fenster zu. um nicht zu frieren. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. 81. damit sie nicht friert. That can be done. in order to not freeze. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. 82. however. Das läßt sich machen.4. in order to) show the goal of an action. so that she won't freeze .

but the construction is far more common in German. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. That can't be done.rubber band ink pad string das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Wache security guard drive-thru window der Autoschalter der Tresor safe 84. She said it. ohne mich anzusehen. 85. He came in order to pick up the book. Um. sollten wir ihn suchen.) Er kam.zu are used with infinitives.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly.. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange.. we should look for him.. Hast du Lust. Instead of sitting here.. It takes a long time to drive through the city. and translated as present participles in English.. (Um. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden.. Um. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used. That can be found in any store. durch die Stadt zu fahren. Sie sagte es. Statt hier zu sitzen. They introduce infinitival clauses. Das ist nicht zu machen. um das Buch abzuholen. while ohne.. zu is used to indicate purpose. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen. Expressions of Time .zu and anstatt. without looking at me. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem. ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer (or Computer) der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopier die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. It is too early to get up.

We must return on Sunday. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü. but they cannot be used interchangeably. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? . Ein(e) ander. He visited us last year. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. and ander. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. In der Nacht wird es kalt. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. and may refer to the future or past. Another Ein(e) ander.both mean another. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. She's going to Germany next week.The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Last Sunday I stayed home. One day he was sick.means a different one. Eines Tages war er krank. in and vor are in the dative case.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words. Noch ein means one more. noun +) entlang über (+ acc.and noch ein. Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. 87. One morning he'll be late. It gets cold at night. Three years ago it was just as cold here. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. Time expressions with the prepositions an.

. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fön der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser 90. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I.Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect. dann) statements and conditional sentences. For weak (regular) verbs. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. adds an umlaut where possible. . It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle.. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if.then (wenn. and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte Subjunctive II brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. For strong (irregular) verbs... The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative.

Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. then he'll come tomorrow. nennen. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht.. except with these eight verbs: helfen. Kommt er heute nicht. wenn er zu heiß ist. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order.. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. haben or sein. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen.Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. haben and werden. stehen. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. Moreover. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest er. Present Subj. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. and rennen. I would go to the movies. and in this case. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. bitte. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German. For this reason. (then) I would have gone to the movies. Past Subj. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. werfen. sein. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. If I had had time. 91. If I had time. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. If he's not coming today. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. then (wenn. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? mögen möchte möchtest möchte möchten möchtet möchten . Wenn ich Geld hätte. sie. If I had money. kennen. (so) kommt er morgen. brennen. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. (then) I would go to the movies. = We would like two colas. dann) pattern in both English and German. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. However. I would fly to Germany. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. please. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. Wenn ich Zeit hätte.. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries. dann ginge ich ins Kino. If I had time. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. sterben.. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well.

The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. In this case. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. In certain cases.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. impartial way. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) . the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä. e) der Kofferraum (ä. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. although they are important. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. 93. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä.92. In everyday conversation.

In Space astronaut der Astronaut beaker das Becherglas ." Both introduce a dependent clause. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. Present Participle To form the present participle. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. He acts as though he had nothing better to do.94. both require the subjunctive II. simply add -d to the infinitive. they both mean "as if" or "as though. so the conjugated verb must go to the end. In the Ocean scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker shipwreck helm der Schiffbruch der Helm 96. In addition. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. 97.

He will have gone. It is formed with the future of haben or sein. and the past participle. Ich werde es genommen haben. 99. Er wird gegangen sein. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild . or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him. so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. Es wird dunkel geworden sein. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. That will have been Rudi.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. / That was probably Rudi. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. I will have taken it. When using modals. It will have become dark. Das wird Rudi gewesen sein.space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem laboratory das Labor 98. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it).

Dat. Also. 101. Singular: Nom. Abend. Write ss after a short vowel. Recht haben. A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. 2. Gen. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch. there has been a spelling reform of the German language. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Morgen. Leid tun… 3. Acc. Spelling Reform Recently. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. so it must be written as SS. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. Mittag. .elf giant tower knight squire der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe sword lance ax das Schwert die Lanze die Axt drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown king queen princess prince throne die Krone der König die Königin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron court jester der Hofnarr minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger die Rüstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schloß 100. 4. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong.

5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. Pl. Pl. Acc. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. Nom. Plural der Vater die Väter den Vater die Väter dem Vater den Vätern des Vaters der Väter Nom. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. Pl. Gen. Lion(s) Singular Plural die Löwen Nom. -er. Dat. Gen. der Mann die Frau das Kind den Männern den Frauen den Kindern Dat. the Nominative. Dat. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. and Accusative Plural are the same. then add nothing. Sing. Forest der Wald die Wälder die Wälder den Wäldern der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. der Löwe Acc. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. Pl.) Sing. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge.Singular: Nom. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. Genitive. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. Gen. Acc. -en. Dat. Sing. unless it already ends in -s or -n. Pl. -r. Nom. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. Acc. Man Woman Child Nom.and end with -e . Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. -e. -en. end in -el. Some may add -n. Sing. -er. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases. Sing.

Plural Nom. . and das Hotel.Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable. most masculine that denote living things. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. Accusative. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. Genitive. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. dem Mann den Männern Gen. die Frucht die Früchte Dat. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. such as das Radio. dem Auto den Autos Gen. der Student Acc. Genitive. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. der Frucht den Früchten Gen. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. and Genitive. Plural Nom. der Mann Acc. das Auto die Autos Dat. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. das Auto die Autos Acc. and Accusative. den Mann die Männer Dat. das Restaurant.) Sing. Plural die Studenten Nom. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. and Accusative. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc.) Sing. Plural die Männer Nom. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. -en to Dative Fruit (fem.) Sing.

) Sing. Plural Nom. das Bett die Betten Dat. das Herz Dat.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular. may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing. das Herz die Herzen Acc. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. Plural die Herzen Nom.Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. dem Bett den Betten . Plural die Namen der Name den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 .Group 6 . des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing. das Bett die Betten Acc.

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