German I Tutorial Other German pages: German Index | German II Tutorial | German III Tutorial

1. Some Basic Phrases
Guten Morgen goot-en mor-gen Good Morning Gute Nacht goot-eh nakht Good Night Bis später biss shpay-ter See you later Bitte bih-tuh Please Es tut mir leid. ehs toot meer lite I'm sorry Wie geht es Ihnen? vee gayt es ee-nen How are you? (formal) Schlecht / Nicht Gut shlekht / nisht goot Bad / Not good Wie heißen Sie? vee hie-ssen zee What's your name? (formal) Freut mich. froyt mikh Pleased to meet you. Woher kommen Sie? vo-hair koh-men zee Where are you from? (formal) Wo wohnen Sie? vo voh-nen zee Where do you live? (formal) Wie alt sind Sie? vee alt zint zee How old are you? (formal) Sprechen Sie deutsch? shpreck-en zee doytch Do you speak German? (formal) Verstehen Sie? / Verstehst du? fehr-shtay-en zee / fehr-shtayst doo Do you understand? (formal / informal) Können Sie mir helfen? Guten Tag goot-en tahk Hello/Good Day Tag / Hallo / Tschüs / Tschau tahk / hah-loh / tchews / chow Hi / Hello / Bye Bis bald biss bahlt See you soon Danke (schön) dahn-kuh shurn Thank you Entschuldigen Sie ehnt-shool-dih-gun zee Excuse me Wie geht's? vee gayts How are you? (informal) Es geht. ess gate I'm ok. (informal) Wie heißt du? vee hiesst doo What's your name? (informal) Gleichfalls. glykh-fals Likewise. Woher kommst du? vo-hair kohmst doo Where are you from? (informal) Wo wohnst du? vo vohnst doo Where do you live? (informal) Wie alt bist du? vee alt bisst doo How old are you? (informal) Sprichst du englisch? shprikhst doo eng-lish Do you speak English? (informal) Ich verstehe (nicht). ikh fehr-shtay-eh nikht I (don't) understand. Kannst du mir helfen? Guten Abend goot-en ah-bent Good Evening Auf Wiedersehen owf vee-dair-zayn Goodbye Bis morgen biss mohr-gen See you tomorrow Bitte schön bih-tuh shurn You're welcome Gehen wir! geh-en veer Let's go! (Sehr) Gut / So lala zair goot / zo lahlah (Very) Good / OK Ja / Nein yah / nine Yes / No Ich heiße... ikh hie-ssuh I am called... Herr / Frau / Fräulein hair / frow / froi-line Mister / Misses / Miss Ich komme aus... ikh koh-muh ows... I'm from... Ich wohne in... ikh voh-nuh in I live in... Ich bin ____ Jahre alt. ikh bin ____ yaa-reh alt I am ____ years old. Ich spreche (kein)... ikh shpreck-uh kine I (don't) speak... Ich weiß (nicht). ikh vise nikht I (don't) know. Natürlich

ker-nen zee meer hell-fen Can you help me? (formal) Kann ich Ihnen helfen? kahn ikh ee-nen hell-fen May I help you? (formal) Wie sagt man ___ auf deutsch? vee zahkt mahn ___ owf doytch How do you say ___ in German? Was ist los? vahs ist lohs What's the matter? Keine Angst! ky-nuh ahngst Don't worry! Ich habe Hunger / Durst. ikh hah-buh hoong-er / dirst I'm hungry / thirsty. Gesundheit! geh-soont-hyt Bless you! Willkommen! vil-koh-men Welcome!

kahnst doo meer hell-fen Can you help me? (informal) Kann ich dir helfen? kahn ikh deer hell-fen May I help you? (informal) Wo ist / Wo sind... ? voh ist / voh zint Where is / Where are... ? Das macht nichts. dass makht nikhts It doesn't matter. Ich habe es vergessen. ikh hah-buh ess fehr-geh-sen I forgot. Ich bin krank / müde. ikh bin krahnk moo-duh I'm sick / tired. Herzlichen Glückwunsch! herts-likh-en glewk-voonsh Congratulations! Viel Glück! feel glewk Good luck!

nah-tewr-likh Of course Wie bitte? vee bih-tuh What? Pardon me? Es gibt... ess geept There is / are... Das ist mir egal. dass ist meer eh-gahl I don't care. Jetzt muss ich gehen. yetz mooss ikh geh-en I must go now. Ich habe Langeweile. ikh hah-buh lahn-guh-vy-luh I'm bored. Sei ruhig! zy roo-hikh Be quiet! Ich liebe dich. ikh leeb-uh dikh I love you.

Note: Ich is not actually pronounced ikh, unless you are speaking a northern dialect of German. If you are speaking a southern dialect, then it is more like ish. There is no equivalent sound in English. In standard German, It is somewhere between ish and ikh and somewhat like a soft hiss of a cat. Technically it is a voiceless palatal fricative and its voiced counterpart is the y sound in yes.

2. Pronunciation
German letter a ä e i o ö u ü b d g ch au ei eu, äu ie j English sound ah, as in father ahh, as in fat eh ee or ih oh eh, but with rounded lips oo ee, but with rounded lips b, but p at end of syllable d, but t at end of syllable g, but k at end of syllable guttural, doesn't exist in English ow, as in "cow" eye oy ee y

qu s ß sp st sch th v w z

kv z or ss at end of word ss shp (at beginning of word) sht sh t f v ts

3. Alphabet a b c d e f g h i
ah bay tsay day ay eff gay hah ee

j k l m n o p q r

yoht kah el em en oh pay koo ehr

s t u v w x y z

ess tay oo fow vay eeks irp-se-lon tset

Note: ß isn't said when reciting the alphabet. It's actually a double s. Some people will write it ss instead of ß.

4. Nouns and Cases
All nouns have a gender in German, either masculine, feminine or neuter. There really isn't a lot of logic to which nouns are which gender, so you must memorize the gender of each noun. Male persons or animals, the seasons, months, and days are all masculine, as are nouns ending in -ant, -ast, -ich, ig, -ismus, -ling, -or and -us. Female persons or animals, and numerals are all feminine, as are nouns ending in -a, -anz, -ei, -enz, -heit, -ie, -ik, -in, -keit, schaft, -sion, -sis, -tät, -tion, -ung and -ur. Young persons or animals, metals, chemical elements, letters of the alphabet, hotels, restaurants, cinemas, continents, countries and provinces are all neuter, as are nouns that end in -chen, -icht, -il, -it, -lein, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, and -um. Nouns referring to things that end in -al, -an, -ar, -ät, -ent, -ett, -ier, -iv, -o and -on, as well as most words with the prefix ge- and most nouns ending in -nis and -sal are also neuter. All nouns in German are capitalized as well. All nouns (as well as pronouns and adjectives) have a case depending on what function they serve in the sentence. These may seem strange, but remember that English uses cases also; however, we would say direct object instead of accusative, or indirect object instead of dative. Although these cases may make learning new words difficult, they actually help with word order because the position of words in a sentence is not as crucial in German as it is in English. And the reason for that is because words can occur in these four cases: Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive subject of the sentence direct objects indirect objects indicates possession or relationship The girl is reading. We see the guide. We give it to the guide. The book of the girl.

Note: The nouns I give you, and the ones you look up in a dictionary, will be in the nominative case.

5. Articles and Demonstratives
Definite Articles (The) Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Nominative der (dare) die (dee) das (dahs) die Accusative den (dane) die das die Dative dem (dame) der dem den Genitive des (dess) der des der Indefinite Articles (A, An) Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom. ein (ine) eine (ine-uh) ein Acc. einen (ine-en) eine ein Dat. einem (ine-em) einer(ine-er) einem Gen. eines (ine-es) einer eines Demonstratives (This, That, These, Those) This / These That / Those Masc. Fem. Neu. Pl. Masc. Fem. Neu. Nom. dieser diese dieses diese der die das Acc. diesen diese dieses diese den die das Dat. diesem dieser diesem diesen dem der dem Gen. dieses dieser dieses dieser des der des

Pl. die die den der

Note: Jener is an older word found in written German that was used to mean that or those, but today in spoken German the definite articles are used. Dort or da may accompany the definite articles for emphasis. Das is also a universal demonstrative and therefore shows no agreement. Notice the last letter of each of the words above. They correspond to the last letters of the words for the definite articles. Words that are formed this same way are called der-words because they follow the pattern of the der-die-das declension. Other der-words are: jeder-every, and welcher-which. Mancher (many) and solcher (such) are also der-words, but they are used almost always in the plural.

6. Subject (Nominative) Pronouns
Subject Pronouns ich du er, sie, es, man ikh doo I you (familiar) wir ihr sie, Sie veer we eer you (all)

air, zee, ess, mahn he, she, it, one

zee they, you (formal)

Note: Man can be translated as one, we, they or the people in general. When referring to nouns as it, you use er for masculine nouns, sie for feminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. However, the definite articles der, die and das can be substituted for er, sie and es to show more emphasis.

7. To Be, to Have, and to Become
Present tense of sein - to be (zine) ich bin wir sind veer zint I am ikh bin we are ihr seid eer zide You are (fam.) du bist doo bihst you are er/sie/es ist air/zee/ess isst they (you) are sie sind zee zint He/she/it is Note: You must use the subject pronouns (ich, du, er...); however, I will leave them out of future conjugations.

Present tense of haben - to have (hah-ben) Present tense of werden - to become (vair-den) habe haben werde werden hah-buh hah-ben vair-duh vair-den hast habt wirst werdet hahst hahbt veerst vair-det hat haben wird werden haht hah-ben veert vair-den Past (Imperfect) Tense sein haben werden war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den warst varst wart vart hattest hah-test hattet hah-tet wurdest voor-dest wurdet voor-det war var waren vah-ren hatte hah-tuh hatten hah-ten wurde voor-duh wurden voor-den Haben is frequently used in expressions that would normally take to be in English. Ich habe Hunger. = I am hungry. Ich habe Durst. = I am thirsty. Ich habe Langeweile. = I am bored. Ich habe Heimweh. = I am homesick. Ich habe Angst. = I am afraid.

8. Useful Words
und and oont aber but ah-ber sehr very zair oder or oh-der hier here here auch also owkh beide both by-duh etwas some eht-vahss nur only noor wieder again vee-der hopefully hoffentlich hoh-fent-likh between zwischen zvish-en therefore deshalb des-halp a lot, many viel(e) feel(uh) wirklich really veerk-lish zusammen tsoo-zah-men together alle all ahl-luh jetzt now yetst also so al-zoh noch ein nohkh ine another schon already shone nicht wahr nikht vahr isn't it? schade too bad shah-duh gern gladly gehrn immediately sofort zoh-fort sicher(lich) zikh-er-likh sure(ly) sondern rather zohn-dehrn schließlich shleess-likh finally stimmt right! shtimt überhaupt anyway oo-ber-howpt genug enough guh-nook exact(ly) genau guh-now sometimes manchmal mahnch-mal immer always im-er nie never nee oft often ohft of course klar klahr perhaps vielleicht fee-likht ein bisschen ine biss-khen a little ein wenig a little ine vay-nikh not at all gar nicht gar nikht kein bisschen kine biss-khen not a bit

Es gibt is commonly used to mean there is/are.

9. Question Words
Who What Why When Where How Wer Was Warum Wann Wo Wie vehr vahs vah-room vahn voh vee Whom (acc.) Whom (dat.) How come Where from Where to Which Wen Wem Wieso Woher Wohin Welchvain vaim vee-zo vo-hair vo-hin velsh

10. Numbers
0 1 Null Eins nool ines

Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday (N & E Germany) Sunday day morning afternoon evening night Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag Sonnabend mohn-tahk deens-tahk mit-vock don-ers-tahk fry-tahk zahms-tahk zon-nah-bent Sonntag der Tag (e) der Morgen der Nachmittag (e) der Abend (e) die Nacht (ä.000 Zwei Drei Vier Fünf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn Elf Zwölf Dreizehn Vierzehn Fünfzehn Sechzehn Siebzehn Achtzehn Neunzehn Zwanzig Einundzwanzig Zweiundzwanzig Dreißig Vierzig Fünfzig Sechzig Siebzig Achtzig Neunzig (Ein)hundert (Ein)tausend tsvy dry feer fewnf zecks zee-bun ahkht noyn tsayn elf tsvurlf dry-tsayn feer-tsayn fewnf-tsayn zeck-tsayn zeep-tsayn ahkh-tsayn noyn-tsayn tsvahn-tsikh ine-oont-tsvahn-tsikh tsvy-oont-tsvahn-tsikh dry-sikh feer-tsikh fewnf-tsikh zekh-tsikh zeep-tsikh ahkh-tsikh noyn-tsikh ine-hoon-duhrt ine-tow-zuhnt Note: Sometimes Zwo (tsvoh) is used instead of Zwei to avoid confusion with Drei. i. though a space is commonly used to separate thousandths.e. 11.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1. 1.000 would be 1 000. And the use of commas and periods is switched in German. e) zon-tahk dehr tahk mawr-gun nakh-mih-tahk ah-bunt nahkt .

next. Months of the Year January (Austria) Januar Jänner yah-noo-ahr yeh-ner February (Austria) March April May June July August September October November December month year monthly yearly Februar Feber fay-broo-ahr fay-ber März April Mai Juni Juli August September Oktober November Dezember der Monat (e) das Jahr (e) monatlich jährlich mehrts ah-pril my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zehp-tehm-ber ok-toh-ber no-vehm-ber deh-tsem-ber moh-naht yaar moh-naht-likh jehr-likh Note: To say in a certain month. Tuesdays. etc. use im. In der Woche is the expression for "during the week" in Northern and Eastern Germany. Seasons Winter Spring Summer Autumn der Winter der Frühling der Sommer der Herbst dehr vin-ter dehr frew-ling dehr zom-mer dehr hehrpst Note: To say in the (any season). use im. 12. nächsten . 13. vorigen .today tomorrow tonight yesterday last night week weekend daily weekly heute morgen heute Abend gestern gestern abend die Woche (n) das Wochenende (n) täglich wöchentlich hoy-tuh mawr-gun hoy-tuh ah-bunt geh-stairn geh-stairn ah-bunt voh-kuh voh-ken-en-duh teh-glikh wer-khent-likh Note: To say on a certain day or the weekend. months and seasons are masculine so they all use the same form of these words: jeden . Directions .last (as in the last of a series).every. 14. Austria and Switzerland. Add an -s to the day to express "on Mondays. use am.previous. while unter der Woche is used in Southern Germany." All days. letzten .

such as for bus and train schedules. Time What time is it? (It is) 2 AM 2 PM 6:20 half past 3 quarter past 4 quarter to 5 10 past 11 20 to 7 noon midnight in the morning in the evening It's exactly. 17. Es ist kalt schön heiß vahs fewr (ine) vet-ter ist hoy-tuh es seet nahkh ray-gen ows ess isst kahlt shern hise . early(ier) late(r) Wie spät ist es? Es ist Zwei Uhr nachts Es ist Zwei Uhr nachmittags Es ist Sechs Uhr zwanzig Es ist halb vier Es is Viertel nach vier Es ist Viertel vor fünf Es ist zehn nach elf Es ist zwanzig vor sieben Es ist mittags Es ist mitternachts morgens abends Es ist genau. always uses the 24 hour clock. Weather How's the weather today? It looks like rain. früh(er) spät(er) vee shpayt isst ess ess ist tsvy oor nahkts tsvy oor nahk-mih-tahks zex oor tsvahn-tsikh hahlp feer feer-tel nahk feer feer-tel for fewnf tsyan nahk elf tsvahn-tsikh for zee-bun mih-tahks mih-ter-nahks mawr-guns aah-bunts ess ist guh-now oom akht oor frew(er) shpayt(er) Note: Official time.. Colors and Shapes orange pink purple blue yellow red black brown gray white green orange rosa violett / lila blau gelb rot schwarz braun grau weiß grün square circle triangle rectangle oval octagon cube sphere cone cylinder das Viereck der Kreis das Dreieck das Rechteck das Oval das Achteck der Würfel die Kugel der Kegel der Zylinder 16.North South East West der Norden der Süden der Osten der Westen 15. It's cold beautiful hot Was für (ein) Wetter ist heute? Es sieht nach Regen aus.. Um 8 Uhr... At 8.

Family Parents Mother Father Son Daughter Brother Sister Grandfather Grandmother Grandson Granddaughter Niece Nephew Cousin (m) Cousin (f) Uncle Aunt Boy Girl Man Woman Friend (m) Friend (f) die Eltern die Mutter (ü) der Vater (ä) der Sohn (ö.to know people kenne ken-nuh kennen ken-nun kennst kenst kennt kent kennt kent kennen ken-nun wissen .to know facts weiß vise wissen vih-sun weißt vighst wisst vihst weiß vise wissen vih-sun .clear icy warm windy cloudy hazy muggy humid foggy It's snowing It's raining It's freezing The weather is clearing is bad klar eisig warm windig bewölkt dunstig schwül feucht nebelig Es schneit Es regnet Es friert Das Wetter klärt sich auf. To Know People and Facts kennen . e) die Tochter (ö) der Bruder (ü) die Schwester (n) der Großvater (ä) die Großmutter (ü) der Enkel (-) die Enkelin (nen) die Nichte (n) der Neffe (n) der Vetter (n) die Kusine (n) der Onkel (-) die Tante (n) der Junge (n) das Mädchen (-) der Mann (ä. ist schlecht klahr ise-ikh varm vin-dikh beh-verlkt doons-tikh schvool foisht neh-beh-likh ess schnite ess rayg-net ess freert dahs vett-er klairt sikh owf isst shlehkt 18. 19. er) die Frau (en) der Freund (e) die Freundin (nen) Note: The letters in parentheses indicate the plural form of the noun.

Masc. Many nouns with a stem vowel of a. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign origin add -s. so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. Journalist). Acc. but neuter plural nouns ending in e don't. Possessive Adjectives Nom.a/an. Zeuge). Komponist. and the following nouns: Elefant. Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. such as international nouns ending in -t (Dirigent. Soldat. Polizist. . Neffe. Riese. Gen. Plurals that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a. Student. Patient. Neuter Plural den die das die Definite Indefinite einen eine ein keine Note: Some masculine nouns add an -(e)n to the accusative form. Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an umlaut as well. nouns ending in -e denoting male persons or animals (Drache. And wen (whom) is the accusative of wer (who). mein meinen meinem meines Fem. Note that only the masculine changes in this case. 22. Mensch. Masculine Neuter ein Bruder zwei Brüder ein Fenster zwei Fenster 4. Herr. dein-your (du form). sein-his/its. meine meine meinen meiner Note: Other words that are formed like mein are: ein . Dat. Formation of Plural Nouns Plural nouns in German are unpredictable. meine meine meiner meiner Neu. here are some rules that can help: 1. euer-your (ihr form). ihr-their. Masculine Neuter ein Rock zwei Röcke ein Heft zwei Hefte ein Mann zwei Männer ein Buch zwei Bücher 3. unser-our. ihr-her. u or au. and kein-no/not any. Here are the accusative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. o . u or au add an umlaut. zwei Lampen eine Lampe zwei Türen eine Tür eine Studentin zwei Studentinnen 2. Tourist. Masculine and neuter nouns usually add -e or -er. mein mein meinem meines Pl. Fem. Junge. ein Hobby zwei Hobbys ein Hotel zwei Hotels 21. However. Ihr-your (Sie form). Kunde. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. Accusative Case The accusative case corresponds to direct objects. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Löwe. Nachbar. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. o.20. Vorfahre.

German only adds an -s to the noun. In German. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. word order reflects (subjective) focus: the noun having the speakers focus is usually put as much as possible towards the beginning of a sentence. for example der Name becomes des Namens and das Herz becomes des Herzens. you can switch the word order around without affecting the meaning. And wem (to/for whom) is the dative of wer (who). There are some irregular nouns that add -s after -en in the genitive case as well. But German relies on the endings of the dative case. Usually. the noun in the dative case precedes the accusative noun. Feminine and Plural nouns do not change in the Genitive case. For proper nouns. more often in writing than in speech. for example. Usually in English. Here are the dative forms of the definite and indefinite articles. I give it to my brother. 24. or an -es if the word is one syllable. whereas English would add an apostrophe and an -s. die Farbe des Vogels . And all plural nouns add an -(e)n in the dative plural. English does not accommodate for the direct object to be placed before the subject and verb like German does. Dative Case The dative case corresponds to indirect objects. but in English. you would have to say the apple eats me. 23. Neuter Plural dem der dem den Definite Indefinite einem einer einem keinen Note: Those same masculine nouns that added an -(e)n in the accusative form also add an -(e)n in the dative form. they also add -(e)n in the genitive.Personal Pronouns . Masculine and Neuter nouns add an -s if the word is more than one syllable. Fem. if you were to change word order.the size of the house . I give (to) my brother a tie. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. Personal Pronouns mir me uns us dir you euch you ihm him ihnen they ihr her Ihnen you ihm it In sentences that show with both a direct and indirect object.Nominative & Accusative mich me uns us ich I wir we du you dich you ihr you euch you ihn him sie them er he sie they sie her Sie you sie she Sie you es it es it German uses the case system to show the function of a word in a sentence. Genitive Case The genitive case is used to show possession.the color of the bird die Grösse des Hauses . When speaking. unless they already end in an -n or -s. unless the accusative case is a pronoun. the following sentences: Ich esse den Apfel translates into I eat the apple. Den Apfel esse ich is also I eat the apple. Take. most people use von (of) plus the dative case to show possession. Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. we use the words to or for to indicate an indirect object. Except the weak masculine nouns that added -(e)n in the accusative and dative. whereas English relies mainly on word order.

the student's pencil Definite and Indefinite Articles Masc. instead I am a person from Berlin. You would only say Ich bin Kellner if you mean I am a waiter. while all the feminine add -nen in the plural. Fem. er) Linguistik Geschichte Naturwissenschaft Psychologie Soziologie Geographie Informatik Wirtschaft Chemie .to do or make mache mock-uh machen mock-en machst mockst macht mockt macht mockt machen mock-en 26. Also.my mother's purse der Bleistift des Studenten .die Tasche meiner Mutter . e) female Anwältin Ärztin Bankangestellte (n) Dirigentin Friseurin Hausmeisterin Kassiererin Kellnerin Krankenpflegerin Postangestellte (n) Richterin Schriftstellerin Verkäuferin Zahnärztin Note: Besides the plural forms shown above. School University Foreign languages Literature Social Studies Biology Philosophy Earth science Math Geometry Mechanical Engineering die Schule (n) die Universität (en) Fremdsprachen Literatur Sozialkunde Biologie Philosophie Erdkunde Mathematik Geometrie Maschinenbau High School Subject Linguistics History Natural Science Psychology Sociology Geography Computer science Economics Chemistry die Oberschule (n) das Fach (ä. Work and School male worker architect mechanic librarian TV reporter engineer cook pilot police officer president priest secretary flight attendant taxi driver Arbeiter Architekt (en) Automechaniker Bibliothekar Fernsehreporter Ingenieur Koch (ö. which is Ich bin Berliner. because it translates to I am a jelly donut. This is why JFK was made fun of for saying Ich bin ein Berliner. German does not use articles before professions. the rest of the male professions are the same (they do not add anything) in the plural. Plural des der des der Definite Indefinite eines einer eines keiner 25. Neu. e) Arzt (e) Bankangestellte (n) Dirigent Friseur Hausmeister Kassierer Kellner Krankenpfleger Postangestellte (n) Richter Schriftsteller Verkäufer Zahnarzt (ä. To Do or Make Machen . e) Pilot (en) Polizist (en) Präsident (en) Priester Sekretär Flugbegleiter Taxifahrer female Arbeiterin Architektin Automechanikerin Bibliothekarin Fernsehreporterin Ingenieurin Köchin Pilotin Polizistin Präsidentin Priesterin Sekretärin Flugbegleiter (in) Taxifahrerin lawyer doctor bank employee conductor hairdresser custodian cashier waiter nurse postal worker judge writer salesperson dentist male Anwalt (ä.

town or place) mit with. e) Art Band Class Lunch School Supplies Stapler Ruler Chalk Notebook Sheet of Paper Calculator Homework Boy Friend (f) Pupil (f) Student (f) Teacher (f) Hard Easy Vacation Assignment Kunst Musikkapelle die Klasse (n) das Mittagessen die Schulsachen die Heftmaschine (n) das Lineal (e) die Kreide das Heft (e) das Blatt Papier der Taschenrechner (-) die Hausaufgaben der Junge (n) die Freundin (nen) die Schülerin (nen) die Studentin (nen) die Lehrerin (nen) schwer leicht die Ferien (pl. an at. by seit since. that take the Genitive case während during trotz in spite of anstatt instead of wegen because of Preps. on (vertical surfaces. or direction). to (cities and countries) zu to (mostly people and specifically named buildings) gegenüber across from außer except for.) die Aufgabe (n) 27. or Dat. open space. by means of (transportation) von from (person. denotes border or limiting area) auf onto. at home of or place of business nach after. for bei near. to (some public buildings) hinter behind durch gegen um für ohne . on (horizontal surfaces). er) die Schere (n) das Radiergummi (s) das Buch (ü. Prepositions Prepositions that take the Accusative case through against around for without Preps. besides Preps. to. er) der Bleistift (e) die Schultasche (n) der Kugelschreiber / der Kuli das Mädchen (-) der Freund (e) der Schüler (-) der Student (en) der Lehrer (-) die Noten der Kurs (e) das Semester (-) der Stundenplan (ä. that take the Dative case aus out (of). at.Physics Music Drawing Test Lunchtime Dictionary Scissors Eraser Book Pencil Schoolbag Pen Girl Friend (m) Pupil (m) Student (m) Teacher (m) Grades Course Semester Schedule Physik Musik Zeichnen die Prüfung (en) die Mittagspause das Wörterbuch (ü. from (country. that may take Acc.

liegen and sitzen use the dative case. The bottles are in front of the door. before between For the two-way prepositions: the dative form indicates position and location and answers the question where? The accusative form indicates direction and movement and answers the question where to? For example: In die Schule means to school and uses the accusative form because it is a direction. Es ist neben dem Haus. He is in the kitchen. feminine or plural countries) beside. Prepositional Contractions an dem auf das für das in das zu dem an das bei dem in dem von dem zu der durch das um das am aufs fürs ins zum ans beim im vom zur durchs ums to/at the upon the for the into the to the to/on the at the in the from. Es steht an der Tafel. into (building. Dative: location & position Das Bild hängt über dem Sofa. Drive the car behind the house. next to over. It's lying on the table. Stell es unter den Tisch. Schreib es an die Tafel. enclosed space.in neben über unter vor zwischen in. He hangs the picture over the sofa. about under. Put it under the table. In der Schule means in school and uses the dative form because it is a location. beneath in front of. Stellen Sie die Flaschen vor die Tür. 28. Stell die Lampe zwischen das Sofa und den Tisch. Put the lamp between the sofa and the table. Fahren Sie den Wagen hinter das Haus.) and nach Hause . Er ist in der Küche. Der Wagen steht hinter dem Haus. Stellen Sie es neben das Haus. legen and setzen use the accusative case. It is beside the house. It is under the table. among. across. while stehen. The car is behind the house. The picture hangs over the sofa. But one exception is zu Hause .at home (dat. It is on the board. Es ist unter dem Tisch. Die Flaschen stehen vor der Tür. above. Stell es auf den Tisch. below. of the to the through the around the .) Ich bin zu Hause is I am at home. Note: Stellen. He goes into the kitchen. Die Lampe steht zwischen dem Sofa und dem Tisch. The lamp is between the sofa and the table. Put the bottles in front of the door. Er geht in die Küche. Es liegt auf dem Tisch. Write it on the board. Put it on the table. Accusative: movement & direction Er hängt das Bild über das Sofa.(to) home (acc. and Ich gehe nach Hause is I am going home. Put it beside the house.

Countries and Nationalities Germany England France USA Russia Switzerland Italy Spain Japan China Austria Australia Belgium Canada Denmark Finland Greece Holland Netherlands Ireland Korea Mexico Norway Portugal Sweden Poland Egypt Country Deutschland England Frankreich die USA Russland die Schweiz Italien Spanien Japan China Österreich Australien Belgien Kanada Dänemark Finnland Griechenland Holland die Niederlande Irland Korea Mexiko Norwegen Portugal Schweden Polen Ägypten Masc. It is not cold today. 31. Heute ist es kalt. Das ist meine Frau. Arabisch 30.29. Nicht also follows expressions of time. or not any. That's my wife. noun. Kein precedes the nouns in sentences. It is cold today. Ist das eine Kusine? Is that a cousin? Nein. but nicht means not and kein means no. adjective) or all of a sentence. that's not a cousin. Negative Sentences Nicht and kein are forms of negation. It you want to negate an entire sentence. but usually precedes the part of the sentence to be negated. It is declined as an ein-word. That's not my wife. To and From Countries and Cities . not a. Nicht negates nouns preceded by a definite article or a possessive adjective. Nationality Deutscher Engländer Franzose Amerikaner Russe Schweizer Italiener Spanier Japaner Chinese Österreicher Australier Belgier Kanadier Däne Finnländer Grieche Holländer Niederländer Ire Koreaner Mexikaner Norweger Portugiese Schwede Pole Ägypter Fem. Nicht always follows the verb. das ist keine Kusine. Nationality Deutsche Engländerin Französin Amerikanerin Russin Schweizerin Italienerin Spanierin Japanerin Chinesin Österreicherin Australierin Belgierin Kandierin Dänin Finnländerin Griechin Holländerin Niederländerin Irin Koreanerin Mexikanerin Norwegerin Portugiesin Schwedin Polin Ägypterin Adjective or Language Deutsch Englisch Französisch Amerikanisch Russisch Schweizerisch Italienisch Spanisch Japanisch Chinesisch Österreichisch Australisch Belgisch Kanadisch Dänisch Finnisch Griechisch Holländisch Niederländisch Irisch Koreanisch Mexikanisch Norwegisch Portugiesisch Schwedisch Polnisch Ägyptisch. nicht comes last. No. Kein is used to negate nouns that either have no articles or are preceded by the indefinite article. or it could negate any part (verb. Heute ist es nicht kalt. Das ist nicht meine Frau.

I am from Switzerland.to go gehe geh-uh gehen geh-in gehst gehst geht gate geht gate gehen geh-in 33.to be allowed to muß müssen darf dürfen mußt müsst darfst dürft muß müssen darf dürfen Note: Nicht müssen translates to do not have to or do not need to. 32. the definite article must also be used. Ich kann eine Fahrkarte kaufen. The following table is in the same format. Ich möchte eine Fahrkarte kaufen means I would like to buy a ticket. Ich fliege nach Deutschland .to have to dürfen . Nicht dürfen translates to must not. Conjugating Regular verbs To conjugate means to give the different forms of a verb depending on the subject. he/she/it runs). They express an attitude about an action or condition described by the main verb.nach To From aus in In Note: In also means to when it is used before a country that has a definite article (feminine and plural countries. we. The modal auxiliary is conjugated and placed where the verb should be.to ought to wollen .I am from Germany. they run vs. take off the -en ending and add these endings: -e -en -st -t .I'm flying to Switzerland. können .I'm flying to Germany.to come komme koh-muh kommen koh-men kommst kohmst kommt kohmt kommt kohmt kommen koh-men gehen . no ending and -s ending (I. Modal Verbs German has 6 of them.to want soll sollen will wollen sollst sollt willst wollt soll sollen will wollen Subjunctive of mögen möchte möchten möchtest möchtet möchte möchten mögen . And when aus is used with feminine or plural countries. To Come and to Go kommen . To form regular verbs in German. The main verb is in the infinitive form and at the end of the sentence. Ich bin aus der Schweiz . Ich bin aus Deutschland . English only has two regular conjugations in the present tense. 34. Du darfst es nicht machen is you must not (or are not allowed) to do it.to like mag mögen magst mögt mag mögen Note: This subjunctive of mögen expresses would like to and is used more often than the indicative of mögen. you. sollen .) Ich fliege in die Schweiz . Refer back to the subject pronouns and the conjugations of to be and to have. Du mußt es nicht machen is you don't have to do it.to be able to kann können kannst könnt kann können müssen . ( I can buy a ticket) Kann is the conjugated auxiliary verb and kaufen is the main verb in infinitive form.

I am running. Reflexive Pronouns Accusative Dative mich uns mir uns dich euch dir euch sich sich sich sich The reflexive pronoun follows the verb and agrees with the subject. Ich mache gerade meine Hausaufgaben is translated as I'm doing my homework. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs express an action that reciprocates back to the subject. Ich mache meine Hausaufgaben can be translated as I do my homework or I'm doing my homework. 35. however there are more reflexive verbs in German than in English. Examples in English would be: I wash myself. think dauern-to last schwimmen-to swim wünschen-to wish. you can add gerade after the verb to indicate the progressive form.-t -en Regular Verbs kaufen-to buy arbeiten-to work besuchen-to visit sitzen-to sit helfen-to help bleiben-to remain. Reflexive Verbs sich ärgern to get angry sich aufregen to get excited sich ausruhen to rest sich erkälten to catch a cold sich freuen to be happy sich (wohl) fühlen to feel (well) . Also note that parts of the body and articles of clothing use the definite article. stay stehen-to stand lernen-to learn brauchen-to need sagen-to say rufen-to call fliegen-to fly liegen-to lay lehren-to teach suchen-to look for gehen-to go stecken-to put schreiben-to write fragen-to ask finden-to find laufen-to run machen-to make denken-to think lieben-to love kommen-to come glauben-to believe. Usually the -self words are a clue in English. whoever is speaking is doing an action to himself. such as I run. not a possessive. desire antworten-to answer tanzen-to dance essen-to eat bezahlen-to pay for beginnen-to begin trinken-to drink entdecken-to discover reisen-to travel singen-to sing erfinden-to invent studieren-to study fischen-to fish ergänzen-to complete rauchen-to smoke sparen-to save (money) warten-to wait erzählen-to tell trennen-to separate wischen-to wipe bekommen-to get versprechen-to promise winken-to wave passieren-to happen verdienen-to earn (money) verstehen-to understand gewinnen-to win verlieren-to lose benutzen-to use erlauben-to permit rennen-to run schlafen-to sleep treffen-to meet ziehen-to move sehen-to see vergessen-to forget waschen-to wash kennen-to know (people) English has three ways of expressing the present tense. Accusative: Ich fühle mich nicht wohl . then the reflexive pronoun is in the dative case since the other object is in the accusative case.I'm taking off my coat.) However. I do run. In other words. we hate ourselves.I don't feel well. All three of these tenses are translated as one tense in German (ich laufe. he hurts himself. This is when you use the dative reflexive pronouns instead of the accusative ones. When a clause contains another object besides the reflexive pronoun. Dative: Ich ziehe mir den Mantel aus .

treffen-to meet. add an e before three endings. essen-to eat. Geben-to give gebe geben gibst gebt gibt geben Examples: brechen-to break. tragen-to carry. werfen-to throw *nehmen has another irregularity: it doubles the m and drops the h* nehme nehmen nimmst nehmt nimmt nehmen 4) Verb stems ending -d or -t. Reden-to speak . laufen-to run 2) Some verbs change the e to ie in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Sehen-to see sehe sehen siehst seht sieht sehen Examples: lesen. stehlen-to steal 3) Some verbs change the e to an i in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. Exceptions: Irregularities in Regular verbs 1) Some verbs require an umlaut over the a in the 2nd and 3rd person singular. empfehlen-to recommend. geschehen-to happen. helfen-to help.sich hinlegen sich verletzen sich beeilen sich erholen to lie down sich anziehen to get dressed to get hurt sich ausziehen to get undressed to hurry sich setzen to sit down to relax sich vorstellen to imagine Reflexive Verbs + Accusative: sich ärgern über to be angry at/about sich erinnern an to remember sich freuen über to happy about sich gewöhnen an to get used to sich kümmern um to take care of sich interessieren für to be interested in sich verlieben in to fall in love with Reflexive Verbs + Dative: sich erkundigen nach to ask about sich fürchten vor to be afraid of 36. befehlen-to command. Fahren-to travel fahre fahren fährst fahrt fährt fahren Examples: fallen-to fall.to read. waschen-to wash. schlafen-to sleep. sterben-to die. sprechen-to speak.

Tun-to do / Segeln-to sail tue tun segle segeln tust tut segelst segelt tut tun segelt segeln 37.vorweg.zu.zurückan.bei. Verbs with Prepositions arbeiten an + dative erzählen von + dative fahren mit + dative haben Angst vor + dative helfen bei + dative halten von + dative handeln von + dative träumen von + dative denken an + accusative lachen über + accusative lesen über + accusative nachdenken über + accusative schreiben an + accusative schreiben über + accusative sprechen über + accusative warten auf + accusative bitten um + accusative glauben an + accusative sorgen für + accusative to work on to talk about to go (by means of) to be afraid of to help with to think of. but ankommen is to arrive.aus. When conjugated.auf." Verbs with Separable Prefixes . Sitzen-to sit sitze sitzen sitzt sitzt sitzt sitzen 6) Infinitives ending in -n (not -en) only have -n ending for wir and sie forms. Ich will jetzt ausgehen means "I want to go out now." But Er kommt um drei Uhr means "he is coming at 3. Infinitive stems ending in -el or -er can drop the e in the ich form.los.zusammenThese prefixes are added to the infinitive and change the meaning of the verb. Er kommt um fünf Uhr an means "he is arriving at 5. to value to deal with to dream of to think of to laugh about to read about to think about to write to to write about to talk about to wait for to ask for to believe in to care for 38. have -t for du form ending instead of -st." With modals.mit. the infinitive goes to the end of the sentence as usual. but the prefix remains attached. Separable Prefixes ab.nach.rede redest redet reden redet reden 5) Verb stems ending in an s or z sound. Kommen is to come. the prefix goes to the end of the sentence.vorbei.

Regular verbs use a form of haben or sein and a past participle.to translate. watch to tidy up (clothes) to empty to open to close to turn on to turn off to clear (the table) to come back to introduce to mop up to wipe clean to invite to observe 39. so they are all inseparable: unterhalten . When prefixes are stressed.to undertake.to visit. and -sag. especially in conversation.er. but they are much more commonly used as inseparable prefixes.is the stem. when they are not stressed. Verbs ending in -ieren only add the -t ending.zerThese prefixes always remain attached to their infinitives.abholen ankommen anrufen aufhören aufstehen ausfüllen ausgehen aussehen einkaufen einpacken fernsehen austragen vorschlagen wegstellen einschlafen anfangen aufwachen auswandern weggehen abtrocknen mitkommen anschauen to pick someone up to arrive to call up to stop to get up to fill in (the blanks) to go out to look like. and versprechen . therefore gesagt is the past participle.to tell. The inseparable prefixes are unstressed syllables. Some examples of verbs with inseparable prefixes are besuchen . Inseparable Prefixes be. 40. they are separable. The stress on the following verbs in not on the prefix. and -arbeit. überholen . gewinnen . they are inseparable. and is equivalent to I have asked or I asked. if stem ends in -t or -d) to the end.ge.to promise. Past participles are made by adding ge.to win.to entertain. appear to shop to pack up to watch TV to deliver to suggest to put away to fall asleep to begin to wake up to emigrate to go away to dry (dishes) to come with to look at zuhören mitnehmen einsteigen vorbeikommen anzünden ausgeben anziehen ausziehen ansehen aufräumen ausleeren aufmachen zumachen anmachen ausmachen abräumen zurückkommen vorstellen aufwischen abwischen einladen zusehen to listen to to take with to board to come by to light (candles) to spend to put on clothes to take off clothes to look at. .is the stem. unternehmen .is the stem. Machen is to do/make.veremp. so studiert is the past participle.is the stem. therefore gemacht is the past participle.miss. Sagen is to ask. and -mach. therefore gearbeitet is the past participle. Present Perfect or Past Indefinite Tense This tense is used more often than the simple past. Unter and über can function as separable prefixes.to overtake.ent. and übersetzen . Studieren is to study and studier. erzählen .to the beginning of the verb stem and -t (or -et. as compared to the separable prefixes which can stand alone as different words. Arbeiten is to work.

Irregular Past Participles that use Haben beginnen begonnen begin beschliessen decide beschlossen bitten gebeten ask brechen gebrochen break empfehlen empfohlen recommend essen gegessen eat finden gefunden find fressen eat (of animals) gefressen frieren gefroren freeze geben gegeben give gewinnen gewonnen win gießen gegossen pour.I asked my brother. German using the present tense (rather than the past) and the word schon. Irregular Past Participles Like regular verbs.) When modals are used in the present perfect tense with a dependent infinitive. The verb expresses motion or change of condition. The new stems in between must be memorized.in a past participle. With separable prefixes. Haben or Sein Most verbs use haben. there is no ge. When there is no other infinitive in the sentence. you use a form of haben or sein and a past participle. stehen takes haben. both of these conditions are met: 1. water halten gehalten hold heißen geheißen be called . but aufstehen takes sein. With inseparable prefixes. The infinitive of the modal acts as the past participle. From the participle of the base verb. but a few use sein. For example. and then add the prefix to the beginning. such as angekommen and aufgestanden. and the past participle goes to the end of the sentence. I had to go home would be translated as ich habe nach Hause gehen gemußt.and end with -en (with some exceptions). All modals.prefix when forming the past participle. Ex: Ich habe meinen Bruder gefragt . However. I had to would be translated as Ich habe gemußt. But note that the prefix does change the entire meaning of the verb. The past participles begin with ge. The reflexive pronouns follow the auxiliary verb as in Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. use haben instead of sein in the present perfect tense. for they are unpredictable and many contain vowel and consonant changes. as well as reflexive verbs. the past participle is not used. but forming the participles is much more complicated. "I have been studying German for two years" translates to Ich studiere Deutsch schon zwei Jahre. Logically. if and only if. cannot take a direct object. such as besucht and verloren.The form of haben or sein is placed where the verb should be. I broke my arm. then the past participles of the modals are used. and it may take a different auxiliary verb than its base verb. To express something that has been going on or happening for a period of time. the prefix comes before the ge.e. The verb is intransitive (i. 2. it is actually Ich habe nach Hause gehen müssen. 41. whether the verb is regular or irregular.

like all irregular verbs. but take the endings for regular verbs instead of irregular verbs.helfen klingen lassen leiden lesen liegen lügen nehmen reissen riechen rufen scheinen schlafen schließen schneiden schreiben schreien schweigen schwingen sehen senden singen sitzen sprechen stehen tragen treffen trinken tun vergessen verlassen verlieren verstehen verzeihen waschen werfen ziehen help sound let. (Ge-stem-t) Infinitive brennen-to burn bringen-to bring denken-to think kennen-to know (people) nennen-to call. name rennen-to run wenden-to turn wissen-to know (facts) Irregular Stem brannbrachdachkannnannrannwandwußPast Participle gebrannt gebracht gedacht gekannt genannt gerannt gewandt gewußt . allow suffer read recline lie take tear smell call shine sleep shut cut write cry be silent swing see send sing sit speak stand wear meet drink do forget leave lose understand forgive wash throw pull geholfen geklungen gelassen gelitten gelesen gelegen gelogen genommen gerissen gerochen gerufen geschienen geschlafen geschlossen geschnitten geschrieben geschrieen geschwiegen geschwungen gesehen gesandt gesungen gesessen gesprochen gestanden getragen getroffen getrunken getan vergessen verlassen verloren verstanden verziehen gewaschen geworfen gezogen Some verbs change their stems. They form their past participles like regular verbs.

Food and Meals breakfast lunch dinner glass fork spoon knife napkin plate silverware tea steak cake chicken coffee fish ham ice cream jam rice das Frühstück das Mittagessen das Abendessen das Glas (ä. e) das Wasser der Wein das Bier die Limonade die Milch das Ei (er) der Honig der Imbiss der Käse . and many have irregular past participles. bleiben fahren fallen fliegen geboren gehen gelingen geschehen kommen laufen passieren reisen reiten schwimmen sein springen steigen sterben treten wachsen werden remain drive fall fly be born go succeed happen come run happen travel ride swim be jump climb die step grow become geblieben gefahren gefallen geflogen geboren gegangen gelungen geschehen gekommen gelaufen passiert gereist geritten geschwommen gewesen gesprungen gestiegen gestorben getreten gewachsen geworden 43. Sein Verbs and Past Participles The following verbs use sein as the auxiliary verb.42. er) die Gabel (n) der Löffel (-) das Messer (-) die Serviette (n) der Teller (-) das Besteck der Tee das Steak der Kuchen das Huhn der Kaffee der Fisch der Schinken das Eis die Marmelade der Reis bread pepper salt ice vinegar oil sugar butter table dishes juice water wine beer soft drink milk egg honey snack cheese das Brot (e) der Pfeffer das Salz das Eis der Essig das Öl der Zucker die Butter der Tisch (e) das Geschirr der Saft (ä.

The genitive case implies of. you would literally say a glass (in the nominative case) water (in the genitive case.ein Stück Pizza 46. minus -(s)t Geh! ihr form conjugated form Geht! Sie form conjugated form with Sie following Gehen Sie! Note: Verbs that take an umlaut in conjugations leave it off in commands. e) der Fisch (e) 45. Fruits. so to say a glass of water. er) der Truthahn (ä. Vegetables and Meats fruit pineapple apple apricot banana pear strawberry raspberry cherry lime lemon orange peach grape vegetable cauliflower bean pea cucumber carrot potato cabbage das Obst die Ananas (-) der Apfel (ä) die Aprikose (n) die Banane (n) die Birne (n) die Erdbeere (n) die Himbeere (n) die Kirsche (n) die Limone (n) die Zitrone (n) die Orange (n) der Pfirsisch (e) die Traube (n) das Gemüse der Blumenkohl die Bohne (n) die Erbse (n) die Gurke (n) die Karotte (n) die Kartoffel (n) der Kohl pumpkin der Kürbis (e) olive raddish lettuce tomato onion meat roast veal lamb beef ham pork bacon sausage poultry duck goose chicken turkey fish die Olive (n) der Rettich (e) der Salat die Tomate (n) die Zwiebel (n) das Fleisch der Braten (-) das Kalbfleisch das Lammfleisch das Rindfleisch der Schinken (-) das Schweinefleisch der Speck die Wurst (ü.ein Stück Kuchen a slice of pizza . Genitive Partitive The genitive partitive is mostly used when talking about quantities of food. a glass of water . e) das Huhn (ü. Verbs that change their stem vowel from e to i use the changed stem in the du form. All commands require an exclamation point.ein Glas Wasser a piece of cake . Imperative of Sein . e) das Geflügel die Ente (n) die Gans (ä.) Remember to add -(e)s to the masculine nouns in the genitive.salad soup der Salat die Suppe mustard pie der Senf die Torte (n) 44. Commands Gehen-to go du form conjugated form.

denn . I don't know if he wanted to come along. the modal goes last. während Sie in Berlin sind.) Ich weiß nicht. The subordinate clause becomes the first position. the conjugated verb is forced to the end of the clause (not sentence) and a comma is placed before the conjunction. Und. aber. 1. Hans telefoniert mit Ihnen. and bin must go to the end. She's coming to your place. weil-because. telefoniert. da-since. and hat must go to the end. Er ist immer müde. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence.du form Sei! ihr form Seid! Sie form Seien Sie! 47. She has eaten. the main clause begins with the conjugated verb in keeping with the normal word order of German that states verbs are always in the second position. Ich bliebe zu Hause. While you are in Berlin. and oder are the coordinating conjunctions. ob-whether. nachdem-after. the conjugated verb form precedes the two infinitives. telefoniert Hans mit Ihnen. 2. Er ist müde. dass-that. Ich bliebe zu Hause. An independent (or main) clause contains a subject and verb and can stand alone as its own sentence. bis-until. bevor-before. . He is always tired when he gets up early. Während Sie in Berlin sind. Sie hat gegessen. I am sick.) 3. conjunction. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause.for/because. so the second position must be occupied by the verb of the main clause. and interrogative words can also act as subordinating conjunctions. The rest of the conjunctions act as subordinating. She's coming to your place after she has eaten.) However. the prefix remains attached to the verb. Some examples are als-when. When a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction. weil ich krank bin. Ich bin krank. There are also other conjunctions (called coordinating) that do not affect word order. ob er hat mitkommen wollen. and they do affect word order. (während is a subordinating conjunction. Hans will call you. and wie-how. Sie kommt nach zu dir.) Sie kommt nach zu dir. (weil is the subordinating conjunction. I'm staying home because I am sick. während-while. Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect an independent and dependent clause together. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). damit-so that. and the subordinating clause occupies the first position of the sentence. In clauses introduced by subordinating conjunctions. so the verb of the main clause must occupy the second position. I'm staying home. nachdem sie gegessen hat. following the infinitive. (nachdem is the sub. The easiest way to tell the two types of conjunctions apart is to memorize the coordinating ones. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end. wenn er früh aufsteht. 4. but is introduced with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone as its own sentence. A dependent (or subordinate) clause also contains a subject and verb. (The double infinitive always goes to the end of the clause or sentence. when a double infinitive construction is involved. Hans will call you while you're in Berlin. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. He is tired when he must get up early. wenn-if/when. obwohl-although.

lassen means to let or allow. Ich habe ihm geholfen. Helfen. Holiday Phrases Frohe Weihnachten! Frohe Ostern! Gutes Neues Jahr! Herzlichen Glückwunsch zum Geburtstag! Alles Gutes zum Geburtstag! Merry Christmas! Happy Easter! Happy New Year! Happy Birthday! 49. e) das Denkmal (ä. Ich sehe ihn kommen. Places street bank hotel restaurant theater store museum church square monument building house die Straße (n) die Bank (en) das Hotel (s) das Restaurant (s) das Theater (-) strass-uh bahnk hoh-tel res-toh-rahn tay-ah-ter lah-den moo-zay-um keer-kuh plahtz denk-mall guh-boy-duh house lay-buns-mittel-geh-sheft beeb-lee-oh-tek krahnk-en-house shtah-dee-on kee-noh ise-en-war-engeh-sheft shribe-var-enpharmacy drugstore factory butcher shop bookstore airport garage town hall castle school city bar cathedral village cemetery backery shoe store die Apotheke (n) die Drogerie (n) die Fabrik (en) die Metzgerei (en) der Buchladen (ä) der Flughafen (ä) die Garage (n) das Rathaus (ä) das Schloss (ö. Wir lassen uns ein Haus bauen./We're building a house. Lassen can have different meanings depending on how it is used in the sentence. er) das Lebensmittelgrocery store geschäft (e) die Bibliothek (en) library das Krankenhaus (ä. Ich habe ihn kommen hören. We're having a house built. I helped him. English often uses a present participle.48. Usually. I'm having my son pick up the mail. er) der Friedhof (ö. but German uses a dependent infinitive. I see him coming. lassen and the senses Helfen. After verbs of this type. Like the modals. Ich lasse meinen Sohn die Post abholen. er) das Gebäude (-) das Haus (ä. I heard him coming. e) die Kneipe (n) der Dom (e) das Dorf (ö. e) die Bäckerei (en) das Schuhgeschäft (e) ah-poh-tek-uh droh-ger-ee fah-breek mets-geh-rie booch-lah-den flook-hahf-en gah-rah-zhuh raht-house shlohss shoo-luh shtaht knigh-puh dome dorf freed-hoff beck-er-ie shoo-geh-sheft dry cleaner's die Reinigung (en) rien-ee-gunk der Laden (ä) das Museum (Museen) die Kirche (n) der Platz (ä. these verbs require a double infinitive construction when forming the present perfect tense if there is a dependent infinitive involved. er) die Schule (n) die Stadt (ä. lassen and verbs indicating the senses (such as sehen and hören) function like modal auxiliaries. er) hospital das Stadion (Stadien) stadium das Kino (s) movie theater das Eisenwarenhardware store geschäft (e) stationery store das Schreibwaren- . 50. as in Laß den Jungen spielen! Let the boy play! (Notice that lassen takes an accusative object) But it can also mean to have something done or to have someone do something.

For the modal verbs. train. 52. es konnte wir konnten ihr konntet sie konnten Imperfect tense of Modals müssen dürfen sollen mußte durfte sollte mußtest durftest solltest mußte durfte sollte mußten durften sollten mußtet durftet solltet mußten durften sollten wollen wollte wolltest wollte wollten wolltet wollten mögen mochte mochtest mochte mochten mochtet mochten The following verbs are called mixed verbs because although they have an irregular stem. sie. this tense corresponds I did. etc. Transportation bus train airplane ship boat motorcycle automobile streetcar moped bike car on foot der Bus (se) der Zug (ü. er) der Wagen (-) zu Fuss boos tsook flook-tsoyk shiff boat moh-toh-raht ow-toh shtrass-en-bahn mo-ped raht vah-gen foos Note: To say by bus. The one exception is streetcar. These are the same stems that are used in the present perfect tense as well. können ich konnte du konntest er. Imperfect tense of Mixed Verbs wissen bringen denken kennen brennen nennen rennen wenden wußte brachte dachte kannte brannte nannte rannte wandte wußtest brachtest dachtest kanntest branntest nanntest ranntest wandtest ich du . they still use the imperfect endings for regular verbs. add an -e before all endings for pronunciation. e) das Flugzeug (e) das Schiff (e) das Boot (e) das Motorrad (ä. etc. er) das Auto (s) die Straßenbahn (en) das Moped (s) das Rad (ä. wissen and the modal verbs are preferred in the simple past tense than in the present perfect tense. drop the umlaut found in the infinitive before adding the endings. you saw. however it used more often in writing. Imperfect Tense In English. haben. Mögen changes the g to ch as well.. use mit dem and the noun. and is used less often in spoken German than the present perfect tense. Nevertheless.geschäft (e) geh-scheft 51. even in conversational German. werden. where you use mit der instead of dem (because it's feminine). he cried. sein. All regular verbs add these endings to their original stems: -te -ten -test -tet -te -ten Note: Verb stems ending in -d or -t.

sie.are braten (brietst. to cut). e) die Schublade (n) das Besteck das Geschirr das Spülbecken (-) der Schreibtisch (e) . er) die Dusche (n) die Badewanne (n) die Treppe (n) der Herd (e) der Backofen (ö) der Kühlschrank (e) die Geschirrspülmaschine (n) der Wasserhahn (ä. the du form ending becomes -est (du aßest. e) der Sessel (-) der Spiegel (-) das Handtuch (ü. es wir ihr sie wußte wußten wußtet wußten brachte brachten brachtet brachten dachte dachten dachtet dachten kannte kannten kanntet kannten brannte brannten branntet brannten nannte nannten nanntet nannten rannte rannten ranntet rannten wandte wandten wandtet wandten 53. to invite). travel finden-to find lesen-to read nehmen-to take kommen-to come gehen-to go sangfuhrfandlasnahmkamgingIrregular Stems bliebbleiben-to stay aßessen-to eat flogfliegen-to fly gabgeben-to give riefrufen-to call schlafen-to sleep schliefschreiben-to write schriebIrregular Imperfect Endings -en -st -t -en sehen-to see sprechen-to speak stehen-to stand tragen-to carry waschen-to wash helfen-to help nennen-to name sahsprachstandtrugwuschhalfnann- Note: There are no endings for the 1st and 3rd person singular. 54. House and Furniture window curtain clock bookcase lamp table sofa chair armchair mirror towel toilet wastebasket bathroom sink (clothes) closet picture nightstand vase das Fenster (-) die Gardine (n) die Uhr (en) das Bücherregal (e) die Lampe (n) der Tisch (e) das Sofa (s) der Stuhl (ü. pan drawer silverware dishes kitchen sink desk Erdgeschoss erster Stock der Boden (ö) das Dach (ä. laden (ludst. Irregular Stems in Imperfect Tense Irregular verbs have a different stem for the past tense and add different endings than those of the regular verbs. er) die Toilette (n) der Papierkorb (ö. finden is conjugated without the -e.(du fandst) while sich befinden is conjugated with the -e.(du standst) while verstehen is conjugated with the -e. to suffer). Most verb stems do add -est in the du form. For example. stehen is conjugated without the -e. erfinden (erfandst. e) das Bild (er) der Nachttisch (e) die Vase (n) ground floor 1st floor floor roof shower bathtub steps stove oven refrigerator dishwasher faucet pot.(du befandest dich. but some do not. leiden (littst. er) das Waschbecken (-) der (Kleider)schrank (ä.) The other main verbs that are conjugated without the -e. and schneiden (schnittst. as they are unpredictable. e) der Topf (ö.er.(du verstandest. singen-to sing fahren-to ride.) If the verb stem ends in -t or -d. If the verb stem ends in an s sound (such as aß-). You will have to memorize these stems. the ihr form ending becomes -et while the du form ending sometimes becomes -est.) Similarly. to roast). to invent).

zu and people Sie gehen zu McDonald's. Es ist auf dem Tisch. an denotes border or limiting area Das Bild ist an der Wand. Ich bin in der Kirche. auf on surfaces. Sie geht zum Strand. Ich fliege in die USA. She comes from the bedroom. countries and cities that have definite articles* I'm going to church. die Niederlande (pl.). Das Auto kommt von rechts. the prepositions in and auf followed by the accusative case or zu and nach followed by the dative case are used. nach countries and cities that have no articles Ich fliege nach Paris. Note: Remember the two idioms with Haus: zu Hause is a location and means at home. while nach Hause is a direction and means (to) home. The car comes from the right.). Wir sind in der Schule. von particular direction or person Ich weiß es von ihm. e) die Decke (n) die Tür (en) der Garten (ä) 55. The picture is on the wall. . bei where someone lives or works Ich wohne bei meiner Tante. I live at my Aunt's (house). Er geht auf den Markt. die Schweiz (f. I know it from him. It's on the table. Location vs. such as der Iran (m. because they are not neuter. I'm flying to the USA. They're going to McDonald's. e) der Rasen alarm clock shelf television telephone VCR CD Player computer radio pillow cupboard blanket.). * Only a few countries include the articles. auf open spaces or public buildings Ich gehe auf die Bank. in enclosed spaces I'm at church. auf and bei (followed by the dative case) are used to signify fixed locations. specifically named buildings or places. Er ist am See.). I'm flying to Austria. I work at McDonald's. Direction When talking about locations.). I'm going to the bank. Ich fliege nach Österreich. town or building Ich komme aus den USA. in building or enclosed space. She's going to the beach. When talking about directions or going to a place. comes from enclosed or defined space. comes from open space. aus such as country. and die USA (pl. Sie kommt aus dem Zimmer.dresser bed rug room bathroom bedroom living room kitchen hallway balcony furniture wall lawn die Kommode (n) das Bett (en) der Teppich (e) das Zimmer (-) das Badezimmer (-) das Schlafzimmer (-) das Wohnzimmer (-) die Küche (n) der Flur (e) der Balkon (e) die Möbel die Wand (ä. while aus and von (also followed by the dative case) are used to signify origin. He is at the lake. I come from the USA. ceiling door garden. before name of place or business Ich arbeite bei McDonald's. die Türkei (f. yard der Wecker (-) das Regal (e) der Fernseher (-) das Telefon (e) der Videorekorder (-) der CD-Spieler (-) der Computer (-) das Radio (s) das Kopfkissen (-) der Schrank (ä. the prepositions in. I'm flying to Paris. or at public buildings Sie sind auf der Bank. an. He's going to the market. They are at the bank. We are at school. Ich gehe in die Kirche.

e) das Kostüm (e) das Sakko (s) die Tasche (n) die Unterwäsche die Hose (n) der Regenmantel (ä) der Mantel (ä) der Hut (ü. tomorrow. 4. Mein Freund wird jetzt wohl zu Hause sein. such as tonight. To express present or future probability. Ich werde nach Deutschland fliegen. Wir gehen morgen nach Deutschland is translated as we are going to Germany tomorrow. My friend should be home now. er) der Ohrring (e) der Handschuh (e) die Jeans die Armbanduhr (en) die Brille der Anzug (ü. (Expresses probability) 58. Note that German usually relies on the present tense to indicate the future (this is called implied future). e) 57. yet it uses the present tense.56. Wir werden Latein lernen. Clothing jacket dress blouse shirt T-shirt skirt sweater pullover tie sock shoe boot sandal purse belt scarf swimsuit die Jacke (n) die Kleid (er) die Bluse (n) das Hemd (en) das T-Shirt (s) der Rock (ö. e) ring necklace bracelet earring glove jeans watch glasses man's suit woman's suit sports jacket bag. and uses time expressions. 2. etc. in both German and English. use wohl (probably) with the future tense. Werden werde werden wirst werdet wird werden I will fly to Germany. You will help me! Du wirst mir helfen! We will learn Latin. and implies a future action. Future Tense The future tense is simple to form in German. e) der Pullover (-) der Pulli (s) die Krawatte (n) die Socke (n) der Schuh (e) der Stiefel (-) die Sandale (n) die Handtasche (n) der Gürtel (-) der Schal (s) der Badeanzug (ü. 3. to do so. Simply add a question mark Invert the verb and subject Use a question word + verb + subject Add nicht wahr to the end of the statement . Asking Questions 1. pocket underwear pants raincoat coat hat der Ring (e) die Halskette (n) das Armband (ä. Just use the present tense forms of werden and put the other infinitive to the end of the sentence.

der gute Wein die guten Freunde Acc. but in the plural they function as normal limiting words.) are not declined and usually follow a form of sein. The bread is fresh. thick thin narrow weak strong deep lazy cheap dumb early near hoch breit dick dünn eng schwach stark tief faul billig dumm früh nah light dark terrible sweet in love serious clean dirty shy nervous comfortable worried right hell dunkel furchtbar süß verliebt ernsthaft sauber schmutzig schüchtern nervös bequem besorgt richtig . and independent adjectives. Fem. The strong endings (below) are used on adjectives that have no preceding article. Fem. keines guten Weines keiner guten Milch keines guten Brotes keiner guten Freunde The only difference between the adjectives used after der words and the adjectives used after ein words are the masculine and neuter nominative. des guten Weines der guten Milch des guten Brotes der guten Freunde Adjectives used after ein words (Weak Endings) Masc. guten Wein Dat. and mehrere (several) are all plural expressions that do not act as limiting words. Adjectives that follow them take strong endings. The rest of the endings are the same. tall wide fat. Plural gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Nom. Declensions of Adjectives There are three types of declensions for adjectives: adjectives used with der words. Neu. These types of attributive adjectives are the weak endings. mancher (many a) and solcher (such) also use strong endings (when used with another adjective in the singular. In the singular. andere (other). Neu. kein guter Wein keine guten Freunde Acc. Neu. Predicate adjectives (Das brot ist frisch. Adjectives short long loud quiet cute perfect sad happy dear famous different easy difficult kurz lang laut ruhig niedlich perfekt traurig glücklich lieb berühmt unterschiedlich leicht schwierig high.59. they turn into manch ein and so ein). Adjectives used after der words (Weak Endings) Masc. 60.) Independent Adjectives (Strong Endings) Masc. Plural keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot keine guten Freunde Nom. einige (some). Plural die gute Milch das gute Brot die guten Freunde Nom. They are the same as the endings for the der words (with the exception of the masculine and neuter genitive. dem guten Wein der guten Milch dem guten Brot den guten Freunden Gen. guter Wein gute Milch gutes Brot gute Fruende Acc. keinem guten Wein keiner guten Milch keinem guten Brot keinen guten Freunden Gen. adjectives used with ein words. keinen guten Wein keine gute Milch kein gutes Brot Dat. Fem. gutem Wein guter Milch gutem Brot guten Fruenden Gen. den guten Wein die gute Milch das gute Brot Dat. and neuter accusative. guten Weines guter Milch guten Brotes guter Fruende Note: Viele (many). wenige (few).

grob. Hans is the youngest. drop the -e in the comparative form. Hans is am jüngsten. Comparative Superlative gern lieber am liebsten . Die Küche ist so gross wie das Wohnzimmer. Comparative and Superlative For comparisons of equality. or an s sound. 2. although English sometimes uses the word more before the adjective instead of the ending. Lydia ist intelligenter als ihr Bruder. followed by als (than). To form the superlative. add -(e)st to the adjective. froh. Eine Waschmaschine ist nicht so schwer wie ein Kühlschrank. The ending -est is used when the word ends in -d.) This is the only form of the superlative of adverbs. You can also add nicht in front of the so for a comparison of inequality. t or s sound. stark. -en.pretty ugly small large good bad new tired angry annoying wonderful hübsch häßlich klein groß gut schlecht neu müde wütend ärgerlich wunderbar nice inexpensive expensive crazy far beautiful curious old young interesting fantastic nett preiswert teuer verrückt weit schön neugierig alt jung interessant fantastisch wrong jealous drunk popular excellent valuable alone important busy sick ready falsch eifersüchtig betrunken beliebt ausgezeichnet wertvoll allein wichtig beschäftigt krank fertig 61. schwach. The kitchen is as big as the living room. add -er to the adjective or adverb. The same adjectives that took an umlaut in the comparative take an umlaut in the superlative as well. Superlative 1. warm. and dunkel becomes dunkler instead of dunkeler. but either forms of the superlative can be used for adjectives. rasch. When the adjective or adverb ends in a d. groß. voll and zart. The adjectives that end in -el. A radio is cheaper than a TV. The superlative also has an alternative form: am + adjective or adverb + sten. dumm. o. hart. use the construction so + adjective or adverb + wie to mean as + adjective or adverb + as. Ein radio is billiger als ein Fernseher. such as alt. kurz. or u add an umlaut in the comparative. Comparative 1. kalt. For comparisons of superiority and inferiority. scharf. Jens runs faster than Ernst. -t. stolz. lang. krank. oft. 2. Teuer becomes teurer instead of teuerer. German always uses the -er ending. klar. jung. Adjectives that end in -el. / Adv. schlank. an e is inserted between the stem and ending (am grössten is an exception. Sie ist am intelligentesten. roh. She is the most intelligent. -en or -er. klug. toll. Jens läuft schneller als Ernst. Lydia is more intelligent than her brother. A washing machine is not as heavy as a refrigerator. or -er retain the -s in the superlative form. Some one-syllable adjectives and adverbs whose stem vowel is a. arm. Adjectives that never add an umlaut are flach. Irregular Forms Adj.

desto besser. Nature barn bridge hill mountain beach lake river street farm die Scheune (n) die Brücke (n) der Hügel (-) der Berg (e) der Strand (ä. The more money he has. Je mehr Geld er hat. Julia wird immer hübscher. the better. Haben Sie billigere Anzüge? Do you have less expensive suits? Diese Anzüge sind die billigsten. These suits are the least expensive. The more. Keep in mind that the comparative and superlative forms take normal adjective endings when they precede a noun. e) die Straße (n) der Bauernhof (ö. Die preise werden immer höher. e) stream sky island air meadow desert pond grass leaf der Bach (ä. e) der See (n) die Fluss (ü. And the adjective form of the superlative must always take an adjective ending because it is preceded by the definite article. er) . The prices are getting higher and higher. Sports golf soccer volleyball football basketball baseball hockey tennis bowling sailing horseback riding boxing roller-skating ice-skating skiing bicycling swimming Golf Fußball Volleyball Football Basketball Baseball Hockey Tennis Kegeln Segeln Reiten Boxen Rollschuhlaufen Schlittschuhlaufen Skilaufen Radfahren Schwimmen 63. Julia is getting prettier and prettier. 62.gut hoch nah viel Common forms of the comparative besser höher näher mehr am besten am höchsten am nächsten am meisten Je mehr. the happier he is. e) der Himmel der Insel (n) die Luft die Wiese (n) die Wüste (n) der Teich (e) das Gras das Blatt (ä. desto glücklicher ist er.

Except when the accusative is a pronoun. er) die Nase (n) das Ohr (en) .) sie they Sie you (pol. Object Pronouns Subject (Nom. e) der Finger der Fuss (ü. e) das Fussgelenk (e) chin knee bone head lip stomach nail mouth nose ear das Kinn (e) das Knie (-) der Knochen (-) der Kopf (ö.) Direct Objects (Acc.) mir (to) me dir (to) you ihm (to) him ihr (to) her ihm (to) it uns (to) us euch (to) you ihnen (to) them Ihnen (to) you Note: The dative form precedes the accusative form in sentences. er) das Tal (ä.) er he sie she es it wir we ihr you (pl. Parts of the Body body arm eye cheek belly leg chest finger foot ankle der Körper (-) der Arm (e) das Auge (n) die Backe (n) der Bauch (ä. then that pronoun precedes the dative noun or pronoun. e) die Lippe (n) der Magen (ä) der Nagel (ä) der Mund (ü.field forest plant city sea bay mountain range das Feld (er) der Wald (ä. e) das Meer (e) die Bucht (en) das Gebirge flower ocean tree country valley coast jungle die Blume (n) der Ozean (e) der Baum (ä. Note: Some verbs always take indirect objects (Dative case). e) das Bein (e) die Brust (ü. er) die Pflanze (n) die Stadt (ä. even if they seem to take direct objects in English: antworten schenken bringen danken zuhören gehören glauben helfen gratulieren begegnen to answer (a person) to give to bring to thank to listen to to belong to to believe to help to congratulate to meet The following four need an object as a subject: schaden to be harmful to schmecken to taste good to stehen to suit passen to fit The following two need the subject and object inverted from the original English construction: fehlen gefallen to be missing to to be pleasing to 65. er) die Küste (n) der Dschungel (-) 64. e) das Land (ä.) mich me dich you ihn him sie her es it uns us euch you sie them Sie you Indirect Objects (Dat.) ich I du you (fam.

Dat. e) die Hand (ä. it is accusative. with whom I you seen have? Who was the woman (whom) I saw you with? 67.words that correspond to who. mit der ich dich gesehen haben? Who was the woman. to whom I nothing about it told have. My father is the only person (to) whom I have told nothing about it. Fem. that I last week seen have.) The conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well. Der Hund. the preposition determines the case. (In the following example. is called the Danube. e) die Zehe (n) die Zunge (n) das Gesicht (er) die Wange (n) 66. the relative pronoun is in the masculine accusative case because Mantel is masculine. and the correct case depending on its function in the clause. and is a direct object of the verb "to buy". that and which in English. Nom. A comma always precedes the relative pronoun. e) das Handgelenk (e) die Haut (ä. That's the coat (that) I bought yesterday. den ich letzte Woche gesehen habe. The river that flows through Vienna is called the Danube. Plural der die das die den die das die dem der dem denen dessen deren dessen deren Examples Der Fluss. e) das Herz (en) der Kiefer (-) back shoulder forehead tooth toe tongue face cheek der Rücken (-) die Schulter (n) die Stirn (en) der Zahn (ä. Relative Pronouns Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns . therefore. war Julias. that through Vienna flows. while the gender and number are determined by the noun. der durch Wien fliesst. whom. The dog. Das is der Mantel. My father is the only person. The river. which is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. den ich gestern gekauft habe. Gen. heißt Donau. Nominative Accusative Dative When a relative pronoun follows a preposition. but must be included in German. Da and Wo Compounds .brain hair neck hand wrist skin heart jaw das Gehirn das Haar (e) der Hals (ä. These may be omitted in English. The dog that I saw last week was Julia's. Relative pronouns have the same gender and number as the nouns they refer to. was Julia's. and the forms closely resemble those of the definite articles: Masc. dem ich nichts davon erzählt habe. Wer war die Frau. Acc. Mein Vater ist der einzige Mensch. Neu. The preposition and pronoun always stay together as one unit as well.

The city. 68. in which we live. This shortcut can only be used with things and not people. cost a lot. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. = Die Uhr. ausser. hat viel gekostet. Die Uhr. worin wir wohnen. Ohne. Animals . Wo(r) can be substituted in all of the above da(r) compounds. in der wir wohnen. womit er reist.Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. mit der er reist. auf dem Tisch (on the table) becomes darauf (on it) in der Tasche (in the pocket) becomes darin (in it) vor der Schule (in front of the school) becomes davor (in front of it) hinter den Häusern (behind the houses) becomes dahinter (behind them) zwischen dem Haus und der Schule (between the house and the school) becomes dazwischen (between them) daraus damit davon dazu dadurch dafür out of it/them with it/them from it/them to it/them through it/them for it/them Da(r) Compounds dagegen against it/them darin in it/them daran in it/them darauf on top of it/them dahinter behind it/them davor in front of it/them darüber darunter daneben dazwischen dabei darum over it/them underneath it/them next to it/them between it/them on me/you that's why Note: Dabei and darum are idioms. Hast du Geld dabei? Do you have any money on you? Darum hast du kein Glück. However.as the prefix. Worüber sprechen Sie? What are you talking about? Woran denkst du? What are you thinking about? Mit wem gehst du ins Theater? Who are you going to the Theater with? Ich spreche darüber. Mit ihr! With her! Wo compounds can also be used as shortcuts for the relative pronouns because you do not need to the know the gender or case to form the relative pronoun. Ich denke daran. Die Stadt.(or dar. I'm thinking about it. a compound using da. has a large concert hall. use a preposition and wen/wem. and use a preposition and the corresponding personal pronoun to answer. hat ein großes Konzerthaus. That's why you have no luck. with which he travels. when you need to refer to a thing. When asking about people. = Die Stadt. and seit can never form a da(r) compound. Not all prepositions + pronouns can be replaced by the da(r) compounds. I'm talking about it. hat viel gekostet. and here are others that cannot: ohnedies bis dahin ausserdem seit dem without it until then besides since stattdessen trotzdem währenddessen deswegen instead nevertheless in the meanwhile for that reason There are also corresponding questions word that use wo(r). The watch.if the preposition begins with a vowel) plus the preposition is used.

Ich spiele nicht gern Basketball. e) der Wurm (ü. e) das Pferd (e) die Ratte (n) die Schildkröte (n) die Schlange (n) bull wolf worm bird rooster hen eagle chick ant bee fly grasshopper moth mosquito butterfly spider der Stier (e) der Wolf (ö. nicht gern. I don't like the restaurant. . It is always in the dative case in German. but it becomes the subject in German. Or just use haben with any of the four phrases for general likes/dislikes. 70. Das Zimmer is the object in English. er) der Vogel (ö) der Hahn (ä. And of course. I prefer to play hockey. And the object in German (mir) would become the subject in English (I). I like soccer. I like Julia most of all. e) die Henne (n) der Adler (-) das Kücken (-) die Ameise (n) die Biene (n) die Fliege (n) die Heuschrecke (n) die Motte(n) die Mücke (n) der Schmetterling (e) die Spinne (n) 69. Ich habe Fussball gern. Present perfect: Ich habe in Wiesbaden gewohnt. Ich habe Julia am liebsten. It consists of the imperfect of haben or sein and a past participle and is comparable to the present perfect tense. lieber. I (have) lived in Wiesbaden. I like to play tennis most of all. I don't like to play Basketball. e) der Löwe (n) die Maus (ä. I had lived in Wiesbaden. er) das Kaninchen (-) die Katze (n) das Katzchen (-) die Kuh (ü. Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Tense or Pluperfect corresponds to the English had + past participle and refers to something that had already happened when something else happened. Past perfect: Ich hatte in Wiesbaden gewohnt. I like the room. I like to play soccer. Likes and Dislikes Use the words gern. German sentence Literally Translated Das Zimmer gefällt mir. you could always just use the verb mögen to express likes and dislikes.animal bear squirrel fox hare dog calf rabbit cat kitten cow lion mouse horse rat turtle snake das Tier (e) der Bär (en) das Eichhörnchen (-) der Fuchs (ü. you must switch the object in English with the subject in German. It literally means to please. Ich habe das Restaurant nicht gern. Ich spiele lieber Hockey Ich spiele am liebsten Tennis. Gefallen is another verb used for expressing likes. and am liebsten after a verb to express preferences. To use it correctly. e) die Hase (n) der Hund (e) das Kalb (ä. Ich spiele gern Fussball. The room pleases me.

. whereas normally the prefix would go to the end.. Ich will nach Hause gehen. wenn ich krank bin. In sentences with dependent clauses (phrases that have a subject and verb but cannot stand alone as sentences). Dependent clauses are introduced with a comma and certain conjunctions. wann er kommt. I stay in bed when I am sick. Als ich ihn fand. the verb in the dependent clause is last. dass-that. Als. but the subject follows it. these conjunctions use normal word order: und-and. bis-until. wenn-if/when. In most sentences. such as als-when.. the modal goes last. wenn and wann All three words correspond to when and act as subordinating conjunctions (therefore. If he comes. (followed by past tense) Whenever he comes. damit-so that. Morgen gehe ich mit dem Bus in die Schule. When there are two verbs in a dependent clause (such as a modal and an infinitive). ob-whether. 6. da-since. Sometimes another element begins a sentence instead of a subject.. and the entire verb goes to the end of the sentence. 72. obwohl-although. the order is subject . bevor-before. wenn er früh aufsteht. as well as in future time.Present perfect: Was ist passiert? What (has) happened? Past perfect: Was war passiert? What had happened? 71. Ich bleibe im Bett.) Als is used in past time contexts for a single event. denn-for/because. Er ist immer müde. Ich weiß nicht... In sentences with more than one verb or with past participles. (followed by future tense) I don't know when (or at what time) he's coming. you can usually just invert the subject and verb. When I found him. When asking questions.. When he comes. wenn is used to mean whenever or if.manner . 3. following the infinitive. . He is always tired when he gets up early. Kann ich jetzt gehen? Can I go now? 5. the conjugated verb remains in the normal position and the infinitive or past participle goes to the end of the sentence. weil-because.place. oder-or. and wann is an adverb of time or a question word and can be used in declarative sentences. nachdem-after. and wie-how. 7. I'm going to school tomorrow by bus.verb ... However. Then the verb is still in the second position. 4. Ich gehe morgen mit dem Bus in die Schule.. the conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence. Ich habe dir geglaubt. Wenn er kommt.. If there is a separable prefix verb in a dependent clause. I believed you. Tomorrow I'm going to school by bus. I want to go home. Review of Word Order 1. 2.time . the prefix remains attached to the verb. aber-but. während-while.

So basically the only time the accusative is placed before the dative is when the accusative is a pronoun. or implies something is obvious emphasis emphasis indicates impatience. 9. I give my brother a tie. and the true subject follows the verb.Er ist müde. This is almost like in English when we say I hate it when that happens instead of I hate when that happens. just sometime. es is commonly contracted with the preceding word by 's. but it can also be used as an introductory word for emphasis or stylistic reasons. No one is at home. If the direct object is a pronoun. or softens commands 74. Other idioms: . These words are mostly for emphasis. Wenn ich krank bin. Flavoring Particles German has many words that cannot be translated literally into English. Es can also be used to anticipate a dependent clause or infinitive phrase. I stay in bed. And when a dependent clause begins a sentence. 73. remember that if the direct object is a noun it is placed after the indirect object. Ich kann es nicht glauben. but it is not incorrect to say it. If you have both direct and indirect pronouns in your sentence. doch ja aber denn gerade nur. Ich schenke meinem Bruder eine Krawatte. bleibe ich im Bett. He is tired when he must get up early. someday counteracts negative statement. nichts davon zu wissen. "It" has no real meaning in the first sentence. or adds emphasis to question immediacy used in suggestions. Ich schenke sie meinem Bruder. I give it to my brother. of course really is it ever well then right now only. used for persuasion. daß er sich vor nichts fürchtet. wenn er früh aufstehen muss. Er haßt es. Es ist niemand zu Hause. Colloquial Expressions and Idioms In informal speech and writing. bloss mal yes. When I am sick. Es kommen heute drei Kinder. it's raining). it acts as an element. I can't believe that he's not afraid of anything. it goes before the indirect object. 8. therefore the subject and verb in the following clause are inverted. Es begins the sentence. Three children are coming today. Geht es = geht's Es is also used as an impersonal pronoun (es regnet. He hates not knowing anything about it.

(Literally: He goes with his head through the wall.everything that is old die Alten .) Alles ist in Butter. der Alte . and achte. Architekt (male architect) . adjectives can sometimes be used as nouns. (Literally: She is quick at hand with her judgments.Frankfurter (a person from Frankfurt) The suffix -in This suffix designates a female person and is added to the male counterpart. first second erste zweite eleventh twelfth elfte zwölfte . Ordinal Numbers To form the ordinal numbers.die Wanderung (the hike) The suffix -er This suffix designates a person is from a certain place.) 75.the old woman das Alte . He does as he pleases. and -ste for 20 and up.Sie ist mit ihrem Urteil immer sehr schnell bei der Hand. The adjectival nouns take the regular adjective endings for adjectives preceded by a der word as well.Architektin (female architect) 76.kindhaft (childlike) The suffix -ung This suffix may be added to the stem of a verb to form a noun. which is now capitalized because it is functioning as a noun.unklar (unclear) The suffix -los This suffix is often the equivalent of the English suffix -less. Everything is fine.the old man die Alte . Adjectival Nouns When referring to people. The definite article precedes the adjective. dritte.gives a word a negative or opposite meaning. All nouns ending in -ung are feminine. Die Woche (week) + der Tag (day) = der Wochentag (Days of the week) The prefix unAs in English. wandern (to hike) . das Ende (the end) . and using the gender of the last word. the prefix un.endlos (endless) The suffix -haft The suffix -haft is used to form adjectives from nouns so as to designate related qualities.) Er geht mit dem Kopf durch die Wand. das Kind (the child) . klar (clear) . siebte. just add -te to the cardinal numbers for 1-19. (Literally: Everything is in butter. Word Formation Noun compounds German uses compounds more often than English and they are formed by simply putting the two words together (sometimes adding an -n or -s in between). Frankfurt (a city) . The exceptions are erste. and is used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns.the old people 77. She makes her judgments rather quickly.

Many students will read this novel. accusative object of active sentence to nominative subject of passive sentence 2. Imperfect Tense Viele Studenten lasen diesen Roman. when saying this out loud. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen. However. Welches Datum is heute? What is today's date? Heute ist der neunte Oktober. . Februar. Past Perfect Tense Viele Studenten hatten diesen Roman gelesen. Today is October ninth. = Dieser Roman wird von vielen Studenten gelesen werden. Many students read this novel.third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth dritte vierte fünfte sechste siebte achte neunte zehnte thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth dreizehnte vierzehnte fünfzehnte sechzehnte siebzehnte achtzehnte neunzehnte zwanzigste In writing dates. subject to von + dative object in the passive sentence. Many students had read this novel. On February 2nd would be am 2. Present Perfect Tense Viele Studenten haben diesen Roman gelesen. Many students have read this novel. Passive Voice To change a sentence from the active to the passive. the past participle of werden is worden and not geworden. active verb to a tense of werden plus the past participle of verb in active sentence 3. = Dieser Roman wurde von vielen Studenten gelesen. German uses the number followed by a period. On May 18th. = Dieser Roman war von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. *Notice that in the passive voice. = Dieser Roman ist von vielen Studenten gelesen worden. change three things: 1. 78. you would say am zweiten Februar. = This novel had been read by many students. = This novel was read by many students. = This novel has been read by many students. Many students read this novel. You must use the construction am + -en to answer a question beginning with Wann? But you use the construction der + -e to answer the question Welches Datum? Wann sind Sie geboren? When were you born? Am achzehnten Mai. if agent is mentioned Present Tense Viele Studenten lesen diesen Roman. = This novel will be read by many students. Future Tense Viele Studenten werden diesen Roman lesen. = This novel is read by many students.

can be put in the first position. Der Dieb wurde gefunden. Problems with the Passive False Passive Grammatically. Diese Bluse wird gereinigt. We can't remove the stain. 2. es is used as the subject. but it cannot be used if preceded by a limiting word (such as an article or adjective.Durch can replace von when the agent is an impersonal force (fire. Den Flecken kann man nicht entfernen. 3.). Der Flecken kann nicht entfernt werden. then es is omitted. The thief was caught Man fand den Dieb. That is quickly done. They are dry-cleaning this blouse. Man + modal + an infinitive is frequently used with müssen or können. But sometimes there is no accusative object. so the form of werden remains wird to agree with es. we. And where you might expect something like Das Haus hat werden müssen verkauft. Avoiding the Passive 1. es. Since a verb cannot be in the first position of sentence without turning the sentence into a question. 79.) Passive with modals Shifts in tense will only affect the modal part of the sentence. while the true passive indicates the house is in the process of being sold (action). The passive would have to be es wird ihnen nicht geantwortet. Passive with Absentee Subjects Passive forms may have a definite or indefinite subject. Man antwortet ihnen nicht is an active sentence. or no apparent subject at all. but you only need to worry about these in the present perfect and past perfect tenses. the false passive is the same as sein + an adjective. you. etc. such as a dative object or time expression. That can be done quickly. They caught the thief. while das Haus wird verkauft is the true passive. Sein + zu + an infinitive can be used with können or müssen to express the possibility or necessity of an action. 80. but if it were turned into the passive. The construction man + an active verb can be used instead of the passive voice. The false passive sentence indicates that the house is already sold (condition). The stain cannot be removed. (Here werden agrees with the apparent subject. the actual construction is Das Haus hat verkauft werden müssen because of the double infinitive construction. Ihnen wird nicht geantwortet can also be used as the passive. wind. Double infinitives always go to the end of the sentence. Das kann schnell gemacht werden. only an implied es. The accusative object of an active sentence becomes the nominative subject of the passive sentence. people and constitutes the subject. they. The infinitive forms of the past participles are used with modals in the passive voice as well. . Das ist schnell zu machen. there would be no accusative object. There is no apparent subject. Man translates to one. This construction describes a condition rather than an action. This blouse is being dry-cleaned Man reinigt diese Bluse.) But if another element. Das Haus ist verkauft is the false passive.

damit sie nicht friert. Sie macht das Fenster zu. Showing Purpose Weil (because) + a dependent clause shows the reason for an action. Commonly. That can be done. 82. Sich lassen + an infinitive can replace können and a passive infinitive. Shopping box VCR camera video camera film watch handkerchief perfume wallet radio razor size department (in store) greeting card die Schachtel der Videorecorder die Kamera die Videokamera der Film die Uhr das Taschentuch das Parfüm der Geldbeutel. die Geldbörse das Radio das Rasiermesser die Größe die Abteilung die Glückwunschkarte 83. Das kann gemacht werden. however. That can be done. She closes the window. so that she won't freeze . Post Office and Bank letter postcard stamp phone booth mailbox mail slot address return address label packing tape package postmark der Brief die Postkarte die Briefmarke die Telefonzelle der Briefkasten der Briefeinwurf die Adresse der Absender das Etikett das Paketklebeband das Paket der Poststempel teller bill check checkbook ATM key lock filing cabinet safety deposit box notepad credit card security camera der Kassierer (in) der Schein der Scheck das Scheckbuch der Geldautomat die Schlüssel das Schloß der Aktenschrank das Bankschließfach der Notizblock die Kreditkarte die Überwachungsanlage .4. Das läßt sich machen. you use damit when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the dependent clause. in order to not freeze. 81. and um…zu when the understood subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. damit and um…zu (so that. Damit is also followed by a dependent clause. whereas um…zu introduces an infinitive. in order to) show the goal of an action. um nicht zu frieren. = She closes the window. = Sie macht das Fenster zu.

. That can be found in any store. That can't be done. Um. Sein + zu + an infinitive are used the same way in English and German. Um. den Dom zu besichtigen? Do you feel like visiting the cathedral? Es dauert lange. while ohne. Office / School Supplies compact disc disc document computer monitor keyboard mouse printer memo paper photocopier typewriter software file cabinet briefcase die Compact Disc die Diskette das Dokument der Komputer (or Computer) der Monitor die Tastatur die Maus der Drucker die Mitteilung das Papier das Fotokopier die Schreibmaschine die Software die Akten der Schrank die Aktentasche calculator eraser notebook folder colored pencil ruler pencil sharpener pencil pen scissors glue binder chalk chalkboard backpack stapler der Rechner der Radiergummi das Heft das Prospekt der Buntstift das Lineal der Anspitzer (or Spitzer) der Bleistift der Kuli die Schere der Klebstoff der Ordner die Kreide die Tafel der Rucksack die Heftmaschine 86. Hast du Lust. Sie sagte es. She said it. durch die Stadt zu fahren. and translated as present participles in English. Das ist in jedem Laden zu finden.. um das Buch abzuholen. Es ist zu früh um aufzustehen. 85.zu must be used instead of just zu when the English equivalent "in order to" can be used sensibly. sollten wir ihn suchen. without looking at me.. but the construction is far more common in German.. He came in order to pick up the book. Expressions of Time . ohne and anstatt can be used with zu as well. If a separable prefix is used in the infinitive. (Um.zu and anstatt. Zu with Infinitives Infinitives are usually preceded by zu except when modals are used. Instead of sitting here.. It is too early to get up.rubber band ink pad string das Gummiband das Stempelkissen die Schnur die Wache security guard drive-thru window der Autoschalter der Tresor safe 84.) Er kam. Das ist nicht zu machen.zu are used with infinitives. ohne mich anzusehen. zu is used to indicate purpose. Statt hier zu sitzen.. we should look for him. They introduce infinitival clauses. It takes a long time to drive through the city.. the zu is inserted between the prefix and the stem.

Er hat uns voriges Jahr besucht. One day he was sick. Sie fährt nächste Woche nach Deutschland. Travelling / Airport Customs Office Airline Office Travel Agency Information Office Train Station departure arrival flight tickets baggage bag suitcase passport left right next (to) near straight ahead along the (noun) over the (noun) past the (noun) up to. Wir müssen am Sonntag zurück. and ander. but they cannot be used interchangeably. The genitive case is used to express indefinite time. Ein(e) ander. Letzten Sonntag blieb ich zu Hause. 87. It gets cold at night.both mean another. and may refer to the future or past. in and vor are in the dative case. She's going to Germany next week. Noch ein means one more. He visited us last year. noun) an (noun) vorbei bis zu (noun) gegenüber von (noun) 88. e) die Flugkarten das Gepäck die Tasche (-n) der Koffer (-) der Pass (ä. Sollen wir ein anderes Mal wiederkommen? Should we come again at another (a different) time? . Last Sunday I stayed home. Time expressions with the prepositions an. Another Ein(e) ander.The accusative case is used to indicate definite time when no preposition is used. Eines Morgens wird er zu spät kommen. noun +) entlang über (+ acc. e) die Abfahrt (en) die Ankunft (ü. Three years ago it was just as cold here. In der Nacht wird es kalt. One morning he'll be late. Vor drei Jahren war es hier genau so kalt. We must return on Sunday. Eines Tages war er krank. e) links rechts neben bei geradeaus (acc. as far as the (noun) across from the (noun) das Zollamt das Büro der Fluglinie das Reisebüro das Auskunftsbüro der Bahnhof (ö.and noch ein.means a different one.takes the adjective endings for adjectives preceded by ein words.

then (wenn.. the subjunctive II is identical to the imperfect tense. dann) statements and conditional sentences. and adds the following endings: -e -en -est -et -e -en haben hätte hätten hättest hättet hätte hätten sein wäre wären wärest wäret wäre wären werden würde würden würdest würdet würde würden Some exceptions include: Imperfect brachte dachte durfte konnte mochte sollte wollte mußte hatte wußte Subjunctive II brächte dächte dürfte könnte möchte sollte wollte müßte hätte wüßte The past tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the past perfect tense of the indicative. Cosmetics / Toiletries toothbrush toothpaste dental floss hair brush comb shampoo curling iron shaving cream razor mousse die Zahnbürste die Zahnpasta die Zahnseide die Bürste der Kamm das Shampoo der Lockenstab die Rasiercreme das Rasiermesser der Schaum hair spray hair dryer nail polish mascara lipstick powder soap makeup perfume cologne der Haarfestiger der Fön der Nagellack die Wimperntusche der Lippenstift der Puder die Seife die Schminke das Parfüm das Kölnisch Wasser 90. The present tense of Subjunctive II is derived from the imperfect tense of the indicative....Möchtest du noch einen Raum anschauen? Would you like to look at another (one more) room? 89. There are two forms of the German subjunctive: Subjunctive II and Subjunctive I. adds an umlaut where possible. Subjunctive II or General Subjunctive This subjunctive mood is used to make statements that are contrary to fact. For weak (regular) verbs. Subjunctive I or special subjunctive is a less common mood that is used with indirect discourse. instead of factual statements that are made in the indicative mood. Subjunctive II or the general subjunctive is used with if. It is composed of a form of the subjunctive of sein or haben and a past participle. the present tense of the subjunctive II takes the past tense stem of the imperfect. . For strong (irregular) verbs.

except with these eight verbs: helfen. Present Subj. If I had time. If I had time. (then) I would have gone to the movies. haben or sein. conversational German tends to replace many subjunctive II forms of strong verbs with the würde construction. then (wenn.. dann würde ich nach Deutschland fliegen. I would go to the movies. = We would like two colas. (so) kommt er morgen. (then) I would go to the movies. Wir hätten gern zwei Colas. Moreover. II: Wenn ich Zeit gehabt hätte. We don't drink coffee if it is too hot. dann würde ich ins Kino gehen. you may hear Würden Sie mir helfen? but never Hülfen Sie mir? mögen möchte möchtest möchte möchten möchtet möchten . and rennen. (dann) ginge ich ins Kino. brennen. bitte. nennen. and in this case. kennen. Dann can be omitted in these sentences also. Other uses of Subjunctive II To be more polite. For this reason. please. and forces the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. dann ginge ich ins Kino. sie. the subjunctive forms of mögen has become almost a synonym of wollen. but dann is never used and the clause uses normal word order. If I had money. Remember that wenn is a subordinating conjunction. Forms of würden + an infinitive Würde and an infinitive translate to would + infinitive and is more common than the one word form in the dann clause. Wir trinken den Kaffee nicht. Past Subj. If he's not coming today. I would fly to Germany. haben and werden. Kommt er heute nicht. wenn er zu heiß ist. use the subjunctive II form of the modals. Was willst du? = What do you want? Was möchtest du? = What would you like? Hätte gern is also becoming common as a synonym for "would like" especially when ordering food. this construction cannot be used with modal auxiliaries. Wenn ich Zeit hätte. These eight verbs use the würde construction in the wenn clause because the one word forms are archaic. Wenn ich Geld hätte.. 91. then he'll come tomorrow. werfen.Conditional sentences These sentences are based on an if. sterben. stehen. Wenn clauses may be introduced by a verb. dann wäre ich ins Kino gegangen. dann) pattern in both English and German. sein. dann flöge ich nach Deutschland.. Wenn clauses tend to avoid the würde construction. Note that these polite forms are only limited to the modal verbs. wenn disappears and dann may be replaced by so. Subjunctive II forms of modals können müssen dürfen sollen wollen ich könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte du könntest müsstest dürftest solltest wolltest er. II: Wenn ich Zeit hätte. es könnte müsste dürfte sollte wollte wir könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten ihr könntet müsstet dürftet solltet wolltet sie könnten müssten dürften sollten wollten Könnten sie mir bitte helfen? Could you please help me? Dürfte ich Ihr Telefon benutzen? Could I use your phone? In modern German.. A conditional sentence may begin with the dann clause as well. However. If I had had time.

The indicative can also be used to imply a statement of fact. the subjunctive I forms and the indicative forms are identical. then the indirect quotation is in the past tense of the subjunctive I. Note that the subjunctive I forms never have the stem vowel change found in their present indicative counterparts.) If the direct quotation is in the future tense. The future tense of Subjunctive I is just like the regular future tense in the indicative. If the direct quotation is in the present tense of the indicative. the tendency is to avoid the subjunctive I and to choose instead between the indicative and subjunctive II. -e -en -est -et -e -en The only exception is sein.92. In certain cases. If the direct quotation is in any tense referring to past time in the indicative. e) der Reifen (-) der Scheibenwischer (-) der Sicherheitsgurt (e) der Sitz (e) das Lenkrad (ä. then the indirect quotation must be in the present tense of the subjunctive I. If the original quotation is in subjunctive II. 93. although they are important. er) der Wagen (-) die Ampel (n) die Autobahn (en) die Kreuzung (en) die (Einbahn)straße (n) der Fussgänger (-) der Fussgängerweg (e) der Stau (s) der Strafzettel (-) das (Verkehrs)schild (er) das Nummernschild (er) . The tense used in an indirect quotation is dependent upon the tense used in the direct quotation that underlies it. It is composed of the subjunctive I form of haben or sein and a past participle. which has no endings in the ich and er forms: sei seien seiest seiet sei seien The past tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present perfect tense of the indicative. The present tense of Subjunctive I is derived from the present tense of the indicative and formed by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb. Parts of a Car brake horn hood flat tire gear trunk tire windshield wiper seat belt seat steering wheel parking space die Bremse (n) die Hupe (n) die Motorhaube (n) die Reifenpanne (n) der Gang (ä. the subjunctive II forms must be used instead.) These three distinctions are quite subtle. er) die Parklücke (n) wheel car traffic light highway intersection (one-way) street pedestrian sidewalk traffic jam ticket (traffic) sign license plate das Rad (ä. (Subjunctive I only has one tense when referring to past time. The only difference is that werden uses the subjunctive I forms. then the future tense of subjunctive I is used. while the subjunctive II can be used to imply the statement is open to question (since subjunctive II is used with contrary to fact statements. In this case. In everyday conversation. as compared to the three tenses of the indicative. then the indirect quotation will also be in subjunctive II. Subjunctive I or Special Subjunctive The Subjunctive I form is used with indirect discourse when reporting what someone says in a formal. e) der Kofferraum (ä. impartial way.

Present Participle To form the present participle. In addition. In the Ocean scuba diver wet suit flipper oxygen tank snorkel mask starfish jellyfish sea urchin sea horse seaweed fishing line fish hook der Taucher der Wasseranzug die Schwimmflosse anchor der Lufttank treasure chest der Schnorchel barnacle die Tauchermaske (or Tauchmask) coral der Seestern seashell die Qualle wave der Seeigel sand das Seepferdchen bubble der Seetang clam die Angelschnur crab der Angelhaken die Krabbe die Muschel die Blase der Sand die Welle die Muschel die Koralle die Entenmuschel die Schatzkiste der Anker shipwreck helm der Schiffbruch der Helm 96. so the conjugated verb must go to the end." Both introduce a dependent clause.94. Sometimes they are used like present participles in dependent clauses as in English. but this is rare and almost never used in spoken German. kochendes Wasser boiling water die führenden Kritiker the leading critics 95. simply add -d to the infinitive. Als ob ich das nicht wüßte! As if I didn't know that! Er tut. He acts as though he had nothing better to do. Als ob / Als wenn The conjunctions als wenn and als ob are interchangeable. It usually functions as an adjective and takes the normal adjective endings. 97. both require the subjunctive II. In Space astronaut der Astronaut beaker das Becherglas . they both mean "as if" or "as though. als wenn er nichts Besseres zu tun hätte.

Das wird Rudi gewesen sein. Er wird gegangen sein. It is formed with the future of haben or sein.space shuttle control panel satellite spaceship alien asteroid space suit lunar rover die Raumfähre die Kontrolltafel der Satellit das Raumschiff der Ausserirdische der Asteroid der Raumanzug das Mondfahrzeug test tube galaxy Earth moon sun planet rings crater stars comet rocket robot nebula das Reagenzglas die Milchstraße die Erde der Mond die Sonne der Planet die Höfe der Krater die Sterne der Komet die Rakete der Roboter der Nebelfleck landing capsule das Landungsgerät space station solar panel meteor shower constellation solar system die Raumstation die Sonnenzellen der Meteorschwarm das Sternbild das Sonnensystem laboratory das Labor 98. Es wird dunkel geworden sein.) The latter case commonly uses the past tense in English though. When using modals. the future perfect tense can create the double infinitive construction. That will have been Rudi. It will have become dark. He will have gone. Die Uhr wird sehr viel gekostet haben müssen. Ich werde es genommen haben. Make Believe Stuff dragon fairy der Drache die Fee unicorn shield das Einhorn der Schild . 99. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is comparable to the other perfect tenses. The future perfect deals with the future as if it were already past time (he will have done it). so make sure to put the double infinitive at the very end. and the past participle. or it is used to imply probability (that was probably him. I will have taken it. / That was probably Rudi.

Acc. Write ss after a short vowel. Dat. . A comma is not necessary when two independent clauses are joined by und. 2. Also. 4. Morgen. Gen. Abend. Spelling Reform Recently. Typewriter die Schreibmaschine die Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine der Schreibmaschine Street die Straße die Straße der Straße der Straße 2) All Neuter and most Masculine Singular add -s or -es (if one syllable) to Genitive Singular. there is no capital letter that corresponds to the lower case ß. there has been a spelling reform of the German language.elf giant tower knight squire der Elf / die Elfe der Riese der Turm der Ritter der Edelknabe sword lance ax das Schwert die Lanze die Axt drawbridge die Zugbrücke crown king queen princess prince throne die Krone der König die Königin die Prinzessin der Prinz der Thron court jester der Hofnarr minstrel armor dungeon moat castle der Minnesänger die Rüstung der Kerker der Burggraben das Schloß 100. Mittag. Please note that ß is not used in Switzerland or Liechtenstein and a lot of people don't pay attention to this rule anyway. 101. The forms of Du (familiar you) are no longer capitalized in letters. Review of Declensions of Nouns 1) Feminine Singular nouns remain unchanged in all Singular cases. so it must be written as SS. Singular: Nom. The following are a few points that have changed: 1. Leid tun… 3. and ß after a long vowel or diphthong. Recht haben. Words that are now capitalized: (auf) Deutsch.

the Nominative. Dat. Pl. der Löwe Acc. and Accusative Plural are the same. Pl. add -n or -en to the Nominative Plural. -r. 5) In Plurals of all declensions of all genders. and some nouns do not change from singular to plural. end in -el. Nom. Most singular declensions can be formed from the first three rules above. unless it already ends in -s or -n. Dat. Plural der Vater die Väter den Vater die Väter dem Vater den Vätern des Vaters der Väter Nom. Forest der Wald die Wälder die Wälder den Wäldern der Wälder Pear die Birne die Birnen die Birnen den Birnen der Birnen Note: To form the Dative Plural. Pl. but plural nouns are more complex and irregular. Nom. -er.Singular: Nom.) Sing. Man Woman Child Nom. Sing. -er. dem Löwen den Löwen Gen. Nouns belonging to this group: Most nouns whose Nom. Genitive. den Löwen die Löwen Dat. Gen. Shoe der Schuh den Schuh dem Schuh des Schuhes Shirt das Hemd das Hemd dem Hemd des Hemdes Note: The genitive singular of shoe is generally written des Schuhs in colloquial German. -e. Sing. Gen. Sing. -en. -en. then add nothing. Pl. Gen. and designate living things add -n to form both Singular and Plural for all cases.and end with -e . Dat. 3) Masculine nouns that end in -e in Nom. and neuter nouns that begin with Ge. Acc. Sing. der Mann die Frau das Kind den Männern den Frauen den Kindern Dat. or an umlaut over the stem vowel with a final -e. Group 1 -Singular follows rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -n to all datives Father(s) (masc. des Löwen der Löwen 4) All Dative Plural either adds -n or -en. Lion(s) Singular Plural die Löwen Nom. Pl. Acc. Acc. Some may add -n.

Plural Nom.) Sing. Feminine follows rule -Plural adds -n or -en to all forms Student (s) Sing. die Frucht die Früchte Acc. dem Auto den Autos Gen. -ern to Dative Man/men (masc. no feminine nouns Group 4 -Singular adds -en to all Masculine Dative. den Mann die Männer Dat. and Genitive. Plural die Studenten Nom. .) Sing. dem Mann den Männern Gen. dem Studenten den Studenten Gen. der Student Acc. das Auto die Autos Acc. des Studenten der Studenten Woman/Women Sing. das Auto die Autos Dat. and Accusative.Group 2 -Singular follows rules -Plural sometimes adds umlaut to stem vowel and -e to Nominative. Genitive. die Frucht die Früchte Dat. Plural die Frau die Frauen die Frau die Frauen der Frau den Frauen der Frau der Frauen Nouns belonging to this group: Most feminine that are more than one syllable. Plural Nom. Genitive. der Mann Acc. Plural die Männer Nom. and das Hotel. most masculine that denote living things. des Autos der Autos Nouns belonging to this group: Foreign origin words. -en to Dative Fruit (fem.) Sing. Accusative. des Mannes der Männer Nouns belonging to this group: Many neuter that are one syllable. half of feminine and neuter that are one syllable Group 3 -Singular follow rules -Plural adds umlaut to stem vowel and -er to Nominative. das Restaurant. den Studenten die Studenten Dat. no neuter nouns Group 5 -Add -s to Genitive Singular -Add -s to all plural forms Auto(s) (neu. der Frucht den Früchten Gen. such as das Radio. and Accusative. der Frucht der Früchte Nouns belonging to this group: Masculine that are one syllable.

Plural die Herzen Nom. das Bett die Betten Acc. dem Bett den Betten .) Sing. das Herz Dat. des Herzens der Herzen Name(s) Sing.Group 6 . das Bett die Betten Dat.Irregular -Add -ns or -ens to Genitive Singular -Add -en to Dative Singular. Plural die Namen der Name den Namen die Namen dem Namen den Namen des Namens der Namen Group 7 .Mixed -Add -s or -es for Genitive Singular -Add -n or -en for all plural Bed(s) (neu. may add -en to Accusative Singular -All plural add -en Heart(s) Sing. dem Herzen den Herzen Gen. das Herz die Herzen Acc. Plural Nom.

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