Behold, 4G is coming soon.

As 3G services are on the verge of start, operators are already chalking out plans for deploying 4G here in India. As you might know Verizon in USA and Vodafone D2 in Germany have successfully launched 4G services, many operators around the world are ready to follow soon. The following post briefs about Long Term Evolution (LTE) ± System Architecture Evolution (SAE), a 4G technology. While 3G was revolution, 4G is evolution. The main aim of 4G technology was to enable users with high speed mobile internet access, thus enabling several other features. Also other aim was to converge all the existing networks into one network. It¶s truly a technological evolution. While 3G was more of an extension to 2G, 4G is entirely new. The entire mobile network architecture was redesigned so as to achieve always on high speed connectivity and also enable operators with various mobile networks to converge into one network. There are two parts to this evolution. LTE ± This is mainly an air interface evolution. Technologies like OFDMA, 64 QAM and MIMO were used for LTE over air interface making it possible to squeeze a lot of data in limited frequency. All technological evolutions of LTE are being tracked by 3GPP as part of Release 8. Other part of the network is the core network which is referred to as SAE. The core network also has been modified from a 3G network, so as to cope with fast air interface. Major change in core network is the flat all IP network. Also SAE is designed in such a way to accommodate other networks like CDMA, WiFI and Wimax. This means a mobile from CDMA, wifi or wimax network can smoothly roam into a SAE network. This was a huge advantage of LTE SAE over other 4G technologies. The flat IP architecture has reduced the number of nodes in the network making it easy for the maintenance. LTE-SAE is truly a remarkable achievement, but it has its own caveats. The biggest problem with LTE is that there is no traditional voice call support. This means you simply cannot dial a number. All the calls are supposed to be VOIP calls. Several solutions like, CS Fallback, VOLGA, IMS, are proposed to support voice over LTE but operators are still not convinced with any of the solutions. For now the LTE deployments are mainly aimed at providing high speed internet access.

that will simultaneously connects to numerous high date speed networks offers faultless handoffs all over the geographical regions. Some people say that 4G technology is the future technologies that are mostly in their maturity period. when tied together with mobile phones with in-built higher resolution digital cameras and also High Definition capabilities will facilitate video blogs. MIMO and WiMAX to the some extent. wireless mesh networks and cognitive radio network to guarantee secure connection & competently allocates equally network traffic and bandwidth. Integrated wireless and Customized services. Many network operators possibly utilize technologies for example. 4G technology is likely to enable ubiquitous computing.4G Technology freewimaxinfo. OFDM. question comes to our mind is what is 4G Technology. Some of the companies trying 4G mobile communication at 100 Mbps for mobile users and up to 1 Gbps over fixed stations. As far as other competitor¶s mobile communication companies working on 4G technology even more quickly. TD-SCDMA. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. The word ³MAGIC´ also refers to 4G technology which stands for Mobile multimedia. But at this time nobody exactly knows the true 4G definition.html What is 4G technology When talking about 4G. nothing of this possibly will matter. Global mobility solutions over. After successful implementation. 4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. They planned on publicly launching their first commercial wireless network around 2010. If the Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia sub-system movement achieves what it going to do. Some of the other developed countries like United Kingdom stated a plan to sale via auction of 4G mobile frequencies couple of years back. Many Technologies appear in many different flavours and have many diverse tags attached to them. 4G is short for Fourth (4th) Generation Technology. 4G networks. . Any-where. The technologies that fall in the 4G categories are UMTS. but that does not really indicate that they are moving in dissimilar tracks. Sprint Nextel was planned to launch WiMAX over 4G broadband mobile network in United States. and therefore the acceptance of several architectures by a particular network operator ever more common. SDR. WiMAX or mobile structural design will become progressively more translucent. 4G Technology offers high data rates that will generate new trends for the market and prospects for established as well as for new telecommunication

Talking about the standard of 4G technology.How 4G Works How 4G Technology Works As the need for communication rather fastest communication is the foremost priority of present era also the need of quick data transfer. still not defined as set standard. wide spectrum. Based on the IP wireless connectivity. 4G supports two basic equipments. and increase band. Ever growing technology is the example of one such step towards the fastest transmission of data. 4G has an advantage of having the WiMAX as a product because IEEE introduces and releases it already therefore economic as no need to pay for its manufacturing price. y y WiMAX Network system (network infrastructure) mobile phone set Smartphones with Wireless Access are going to be introduced in the market are the model 4G mobiles. Internet connectivity with specific IP not only increases the speed but also reliability of the sending and receiving of data. It manages the voice through packet-switching instead of circuit switching. it increases the optimization for the internet. y y WiMAX LTE ITU promotes the technologies against the defragmentation and incompatibilities in 4G technologies. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access previously worked as fixed wireless facility under the 802. this . Distant business correspondence by sharing data becomes very important. two technologies are supposed to be the based features of 4G.16e band. 4G stands for Fourth Generation is the latest technology with high speed transferability of data with security measurements.16m has been developed with the properties of speed. Now the modified standard 802. During a phone call when caller send the information by connecting to WiMAX network. These smartphone are equipped with the wireless internet accessibility and no fear of losing connection while travel from one tower to another tower range. It is coming with wireless broadband for the instant download.

LTE is considered to be promising high data transfer speed. This WiMAX technology has a high speed of data transfer rate with additional capacity for the subscribers and ready to carry big amount of data. 4G Network What is 4G Network With the advent of Wireless technology there opens a new door to the communication standard. LTE will not only support the functions of 3G but also incorporate some newer ones. LTE is supposed to provide internet facility using both systems. In case spectrum is not wide. Previous generations were suffering because of low speed which ultimately covered in the 4G. 3G is the 21st generation network and is enjoying its privilege. 1G is the first complete wireless standard removes the fuss of wiring and per channel 1 user. Arrival of 4G has diminished all the fears of lower bandwidth. bandwidth and data. Parallel to WiMAX. LTE is developed on radio waves technology. the future is of mobile business. Most of the time this transmission happens very fast problems arise in case of spectrum. The specification under consideration is the high speed for the data transfer with online security. shorten bandwidth and specific data carries through the internet. The lodging of multi user in one channel becomes possible when 2G comes with improved version after a decade (1990) of 1G. 4G is the fourth level of the wireless generation. narrow spectrum and amount of data send / receive. 4G network or wireless communication is not a new terminology as 1G. As LTE is compatible with 3G technology so it not only increases the speed but also prevents the need of new network and can work through the same infrastructure. All generations have their particular traits to attract the user for its use. 4G Networks will hopefully come into the field with the promises it is making with the customer of speed and security. The successor of 3G is now its way of implementation and is known as 4G. The video facility and speed which is introduced by 3G will be . All the giants of mobile industry and tech engineers are busy to research and devise it with full confidence.information first processed to the internet home and then spread widely. This not only increases the speed but also the amount of data allowed through the same bandwidth and results into lower cost. 2G & 3G are already in the market and has been used by the people since 1980. LTE (Long Term Evolution) is introduced by Verizon. 3G revolutionized the concept of internet. While seeing the working methodologies of both technologies considered to be the standards of 4G. LTE is using MIMO (Multiple input multiple output) able to send and receive huge data negative in the sense that it will overload the base stations networks. The implementation and access to the 4G network is still in it development stage. It has the ability of transition from one mode to another.

It promises all basic features together with high speed. Its first step is the provision of quality service to its clients. Antennas are considered as the fastest mode of communication. 4G network is heading towards a new dimension in the field of wireless technology. Above are the specifications processed by ITU while different technological groups are also placing suggestions as how to improve 4G network.the true essence of 4G. . It is also specifies on behalf of ITU that will facilitate interactive roaming everywhere. It is hopefully would be the fastest wireless network ever experienced by the users. Their first suggestion is the WiMax privilege as compared to any other wireless protocol. The ITU has laid down the specifications for the 4G standard and if it will meet the criterion set by International Telecommunications Union then it will recognized because already different improved versions are introduced but nominated as 3. An enhanced experience will be provided by the 4G network for audio / visual and other multimedia services.1 ± 3. A special characteristic given to 4G network is the transmission through antennas which will make it possible to communicate within an organization reliably. Their second recommendation is the data transfer in packet mode having specific IP. 4G will make sure that the information should be passed along with authentication. A new technology in this response is introduced in the field with the name of special multiplexing in a series form that will be possible between one transmitter and receiver. Speculations are that 4G will come up with ultimate speed of 100 mega bits per second. Second point is the refine signals for reliable communication with no fear of data loss.9 G.

All-IP network (access and core networks). An equal opportunity network of networks. the 4G working groups have defined the following as the objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard. Multimedia Messaging Service. let us understand some of the characteristics of 4G. Cost per bit: 1/10-1/100 lower than 3G Infrastructure cost-1/10 lower than 3G. DVB and minimal service like voice and data at anytime and anywhere 4G is being developed. The objective of 4G is to cater the quality of service and rate requirements set by the forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access. mobile TV. video chat. High definition TV content. which are summarized here in table 1. Plug & Access network architecture.    Spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bit/s/Hz/site) High network capacity. Table 1: Characteristics of 4G Achievable Data Rates Networking 10 Mbps (wide coverage) to 1 Gbps (local area). seamless communications. These are design targets and represent cell overall throughput. Person to person communication Person to Machine communication/Machine to machine communication.4G Objective Before studying the objectives of 4G. Ubiquitous Cost Reduction Connected Abilities Mobile. 10 times higher than 3G Nominal data rate of 100 Mbps at high speeds and 1 Gbps at stationary conditions as defined by the ITU-R Data rate of at least 100 Mbps between any two points in the world Smooth handoff across heterogeneous network   .

Table 2 compares some of the key parameters of 3G and 4G. Though 4G does not have any solid specification as of yet. mobile TV. . Figure 1: Prospective physical layer of 4G Key Parameters The move to 4G is complicated by attempts to standardize on a single 3G protocol. designers face significant additional challenges. the 4G system should dynamically share and utilize the network resource to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users. high speed data.e. Without a single standard on which to built. QoS. High-Definition Television (HDTV) video content. etc) Higher frequencies: Microwave: 3-10 GHz Interoperable with the existing wireless standards All IP system. seamless services with fixed NW (Net Work) and private High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio. MoIP (Mobile over IP) Lower system costs: 1/10 of IMT-2000       In summary. packet switched network Next-generation Internet support: IPV6. it is clear that some standardization is in order. Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks i. Figure 1 illustrates here a prospective view of physical layer of 4G.

Table 2: Comparison of key parameters of 3G and 4G Key Parameters Frequency Band Bandwidth Data Rate Access Forward Error Correction Switching Mobile Top Speeds 3G 1. Table 3: Requirement for future networks (tentative) Media Transmission speed Delay Connection Latency < 1 sec Terminal capabilities 3D sound field control High efficiency loud speakers Speech/3D Audio < 1 Mbps < 50ms .8-2.0 4G Network Requirement From above it is clear that 4G is immensely complicated and hence there will be special requirement for future networks. Some of these tentative requirements are hereby summarized in table 3. including IP 5. multiband adapters IP A number of air link protocols.0) Component Design Optimized antenna design.5 GHz 5-20 MHz Upto 2 Mbps W-CDMA Convolutional Rate 4G 2-8 Ghz 5-20 MHz Upto 20 Mbps MC-CDMA or OFDM (TDMA) Concatenated coding scheme Circuit/Packet 200 km/h Packet 200 km/h Smarter Antennas. software multiband and wideband radios All IP (IP6.

e. which are described in table 4. Let us study here two phases.Video/3D video 10 Mbps (2D video) 30 Gbps (3D video) < 1 Mbps < 50ms < 1 sec Real time hologram Eyeglass display 3D and multimodal UI Enhanced Reality  50 ms Should be predictable N/A Five senses communications Tele-existence < 1 Mbps < 50ms N/A Five sense sensors Alter-ego robot < 10Mbps (Robotic I/F) < 10 ms < 1 Gbps (Virtual avatar) < 30ms 1 Sec < 5 ms (Small < 100 Mbps (Alter-ego and known jitter) existence) Development of 4G There are many phases of developing 4G mobile communication systems.5G mobile-communications system 4G Mobile-communications enhancing IMT-2000 (HSDPA/1xEV-DV) systems Transmission speed Service level 30 Mbps High-level application service 50 Mbps-100 Mbps Service with higher-level authentication and security General users Main users Advanced users . Table 4: Stepwise development of 4G mobile communications 4G Mobile Communications Phase 1 (2009-2010): Developmental Period Core cellular systems 3. development period and maturity period. i.5G Phase 2 (2011): Maturity Period 4G 3.

Linear 4G vision and the Concurrent 4G vision. services and terminals in order to meet ever increasing user demands. Defining 4G Technology from the User¶s Perspective Posted On: 2010-01-11 21:47:46 / Views: 6655 Posted By: Umeshsatija This paper develops and provides an insight for the next generation of technology:. development of a relevant and pragmatic definition of 4G and developing system design. a technology that is sensitive to user personalization. whereas the latter focuses on the seamless technology provisioning across all the wireless systems and delivering the optimum services. There is a natural interaction among applications in a well designed system. This could be overcome by the development of devices with evolutionary designs and by means of personalization transfer.Users¶ needs and expectations. Terminal heterogeneity and Network heterogeneity will make 4G a success. 2G undoubtedly was the most widespread and the popular. services and devices. This leads to minimizing the interactions between the various applications. 3G was proposed with an idea of seamless technology but with its evolution the only benefit was higher data rates. This means that the customers need to buy a single device on which they have the potential to get the right service without any restrictions. System design rules for 4G includes: - . There is an insight to what users really need and demand from their day to day life: . This way the features of 4G could be specified from the user-centric approach.4G. A top ±down methodology has to be followed where it starts from: . new services mapping with the functional needs. 4G needs to user friendly. 4G needs to encompass different terminals providing them common service independent of their capabilities. 4G on the other hand is an ultra-high-speed broadband wireless network. handy access to internet with high speeds. The technical step up of 4G in regard to 3G is seamless integration of existing and new networks. There are two visions for the next generation technology:.Functions Seam-lessness with other systems Social impact Basic functions Flexible realization of seamlessness with other systems Positioning with social functions Fully-fledged system Seamlessness with no awareness thereof Positioning as a factor inducing changes in social structure. This seems to be a challenge for the device makers as there is a constraint to the number of access technologies supported by the user¶s personal device.information with mobility. To achieve this approach to develop 4G the user¶s functional needs and expectations need to be kept in view. The former vision focuses on the cellular system with very high data rates exceeding 100 Mbps.

Power consumption: . To attain this 4G needs to have multimode/reconfigurable and interworking devices.The power consumption capability of the 4G devices needs to be reduced so as to prolong their battery life.Widespread coverage due to exploitation of various existing networks. Bandwidth: .Resource sharing among the various networks will smoothen the spectrum limitation. Provisioning of heterogeneous services would be the next. embedding the Global Positioning System in the 4G device in addition to the higher data rates. Therefore the real advantage in terms of services that 4G incorporates will be based on the integration of technologies designed to match the needs of different segments which include accessing short range wireless technologies. With all these design aspects and user centric approach the potential 4G applications would be . with the concept of vertical handover. Services are heterogeneous in nature.Coverage:. audio and video streaming in a much more efficient way.

Marcos D. user personalization.revolutionary. 4G will be a platform for seamless technology providing widespread coverage. 2006 Page(s):35 ± 41 http://4gwirelessjobs. References: Simone Frattasi. The question which needs further justification are:1. Through the help of multimedia content such as streaming videos and audio explanations users would get all the information they may need in the most simple and convenient way. so as to work on them and make it a bigger success than 2G? Conclusion:The article identifies the need for a next generation of wireless technology. Katz.php?Defining-4G-Technology-from-the-User-sPerspective&Arid=ODI=&Auid=MTY= . Aalborg University. Hence this article lays a foundation for developing a bridge between the user¶s needs and the design of 4G system. The area that needs further exploration is a way for 4G to be really seamless and a technology which is not just limited for cellular systems but also the mobile capabilities which are to be designed in such a manner that they support the seamlessness integration of the next generation wireless systems. just like the Mobile Tourist Guide.Feb. The location information can therefore be used to help users reach wherever they are going. IEEE Source: Network. Hanane Fathi. Issue 1. so that the architecture could be proposed. time and money with the outcome of possible outdated and/or irrelevant information. the detailed information is really needed for this mobile tourist guide application. What other applications we need in day to day life to make it more alluring to users? 3. IEEE . What would be the traffic trend when major section solely needs ³Voice´? 4. A top-down approach comprehends this task. This could be configured with the route planner as well. Would it be cost effective for the network provider and the user? 2. Any foreseen limitations for 4G. Jan. Frank H. The mobile tourist ensures an everlasting memory of the users¶ personalized trips. Volume In order to overcome the costs.P Fitzek. and Ramjee Prasad . The key features of 4G are user friendliness. terminal heterogeneity and network heterogeneity. The indoor localization will be performed by exploiting the operator¶s short range wireless network which provides the user with the download or streaming of guided tours. bandwidth and power consumption with higher data rates. For this the usercentric approach needs to be followed which relies on the needs and demands of the end user to establish the conceptual and technical pillars of 4G. Samsung Electronics.

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