An= 0, iar dlstrlbutla de vtrtejurl rezulta din (10.

141)

.... 2V"" =
,

(IX

tg.~
"

2

+

4{sin 0);

11. ARIPA DE ANVERGURA FINITA

dlstrlbutia

de vitczc indusc

w. est e (10.148) ~=-("+4re,,sO),

00

iar codicicntii

aerodinamici

rczlllUi

din (10.152).

(10.157)

Cm, = -

4

7t

4(:= -

,,{.

Comparl nd en reznl tat.ul obtmut pcntru c = 1, unghiul "; este

prin

transformare

conformii

(Jukovski)

se eonstatll

ell

2{ .,.=- =2( e
... Daca se l nloculeste T In rclatifle (10.55) se o hl in uceleasl exprcsii cclc dinaintc. Obsernalie. Pentru IX = 0, Ao = 0, t ermcnul In tg 0/2 din expresla spune di int rarea estc lara soe. pcntru Cz sl Cm.
ell

In capltolul precedent s-au studiat profilele aerodinamice ca 0 miscare unor ai-Ipi cilindrice indefinite denumite aripi de anvergtr,ra infilllita. In realitato, aripile sint de anvergurif finita 1}i sint caracterizate prin eel putin dona elemente: - seetiwne« ar'ip'':'i (profilul) care poate fi evolufiva, cu grosime relativa. variabila, cu profilul plasat rasucit, in anvergura (incidenya vanabtla) sau chiar profile de tip diferit; - forma 1.n plan l~ aripii. Miscarea fluidului din jurul aces tor a.ripi are caracter tridimensional ~i depinde de anvergura, de profilele din fiecare sectiune Ili de forma in plan a aripii.
plana. In jurul 11.1. CONSIDERATII GENERALE .

lui y(6) dispare

~i so

11.1.1. Caraeterlstiei ueometrict ... Nota!ii. Pentru 0 aripa. de forma oarecare, axele de eoordonate aint luate ca in figura 11.1, anltindu-se totodatrL eo se inyelege prin anvergura. Se detineate alungirea unci aripi ea rapo~·tul intre pil.tmtul anvergurii I)i suprafu.ta acelei artpl. (11.1) In cazul particular al aripii dreptunghiulare de eoarda co, alungirea devine raportul intre anvergura ~i coardii A = bJco. Din punct de vedere aerodinamio este deslgur buna 0 alungire mare (miscarea se apropie mai mult de una bidimenslonala) dar aeeasta Iu ,(V) . cste limitata. de posibilitauile de cont~ ~ structl«. La 0 alungirernare momentnl . incovoietor la incaetrare devine mare. In mod obisnuit se utiliz~aza urmatOfH'tll:e'mhtngiri: pentru planoare A, = = 20... 40, la avioane de vitezii mica ~i medie A;= 6 ... 10 a.lunglrea scazind b pc masllra. ce avionul cate de vitcza .r mai mare, spre exernplu pentru avioane ."'~~. (rvtif!) .,-'.',. supersonloe alungirea este . mai mica lI"". 11.1 ).,,= 2.; ..3. , ' Dupatorma in plan, se .pot inttlniaripi dreptunghiulare (fig. 11.2, a), trapezoidale (fig. 11.2; b) cu.raport de trapeaoidalitate definit ca q = c./oo, eliptice(fig., 11.2, c)~i triunghiulare (fig. 11.2, d). 'I'oate aceste.aript.stnt 247

aripi drepte, adica an linia foearolor (da.t.a intr-o prima aproxirnath, punetele de la sfert de coarda fal;a cle bordul de atac) dreapta, l{ni~ coincide en axa ;II. Dadi, linia Iocarelor nu coincide eu axa :rJ se definest« unghinj dintrc aceasta IIi axa Y ca unghide sage:1ta (fig. 11.3). Dad), unghiul
', .

':'!11.1.2. ModeJul lui Prandtl pentru aripa dreapta, Daca se considerd o p~l'viunevde aripa ~le~tnyergUl:aimillit{L (fig. 11.4, a) se intelege ca exista. a dlferellta de presume mtre Intrados :;;i extrados atunci cind exist1\, 0 portanya (sustenh'.1;i~) ~i amune 0 suprapreaiune pe intrados 1)1 0 depresiune pe extmdos. Acelasi renomen apare IIi la 0 aripa de anvergura finitrL

.~.

.

t--rttr
_J_

z l

-~J£'
tor
<I

,--

1------------1 It- + + -)- + + + + tl +

!I

L
:J

I

~~
b

r:cf'/c"

-~.:'-.'-'
.' c

;

(fig. 11.4, b). TJa extremttatfle aripii insa, aeeasta. diferenta. de presiuni va produce 0 miscare afluidului de la Intrados la extrados. Aceasta miscaro l~tten.Hl, niVhLta.pe aripii. se continua. in aval Ili formeaza 0 suprafaVa de i virtejuri Iibere (plutind in curent). V1rtc_juri ubere, v1.rtejuti legate. Suprafata de discontinuitate din a.valul aripil poate Ii in~e1easa ca un strat: de virtejnri aproximativ paralel eu ' diree1iiacurentului general. Prin urmare, in spatele aripii apare UIl sistcm de virtejuri In forma de suvite nelimitate (semi-infinite) lib ere, care se desprind de la hordul de fuga alaripii (fig. 11.5), numite 'Vlrtej1lri iibere.

r

!Y

~
. ~.'"., d
Fill. 0.2

.

:i. ~. , .; ,":
.

~ :;. ~

a
~. :.:.:
I.; ,. :

Rageata . este redus X < 15 ... 20° (fig. ,),1.;3. a )e£eetul .de .s[Lge~1t:iL este rela.tiv mic, aripa putind fi considerata dreapta, da('a. -Infja..J; este mfli mare (30 ... 40° san ma.i mult, fig. 11.3, b}.:efectnl .esteImportant IIi ,~~ spune ca aa-ipa este in siigeatii. Un caz li:q:titp..alaripii -tl'iVpezoida.leIIi'~. sagm~ta.este aripa delia, la care q = 0 (A, fig. 11.3,0). ;.."" Gtosimea, reli1tivi:i; maxima a, pl'ofiieloruiiliza,te. pentru.iavioane viteze mid :;;imedii (SUbsoIJiee) este: In, incaatrare , E:o=,12: .. 18%, Ia extremitate ve', = 7... 11 Vo, sC;1z1nd cind, avionul este de vitezr. mare. La avioane supersonice se ajnnge 1:1gro~Jmi relative Hli,'AIllJ." mid (aripi suh'Viri) !: < 5%. '" . , , .. , .' Un alt parametru uuportant al :~11'ipiiestesupl'aj'ata S, care se cdr&-, leaza. en greutatea avionului a prin parametrul GjS (Njm 2) munit fnca:rcarea" pe arip«. La avioanemici, devi'{;ezinniea seIa GjS = BOO.• :1500 N 130 avioane de viteza medie 2 000 ... 3' 000,Njm2, la avioanede viteza. -subsonice-f 000 ... 8 000 N jll'12, lao avioane 'sli)Jersoniee ,.i, 10'000' • ·248

. : '.~: ., i

J: ~ ~"_i ~"

.ij

..

_'.

.

Fi!f.

t1.r.

Dupa teorema lui Helmholtz, aceste virtejuri nu pot fi isolate ei se leaga mtrc ele prin virtejurile Ioculiza.te pc aripa., numite 1)trtej~£1'i legate. Intr-adevar, s-a vazut in § 10.5 d:i, prorilele a,ripii pot fi inlocuite eu un strat de virtejuri dupa schelotul protilelor. . ~upra.btn, de virtejuri libere nu este stabila ~i ceva mai depnrte de a.flpa:om ~ . " in douii sub forma a dona virtejuri concentrate ca ill . flgUl'a U.n. la hordul de al
en,

249

I

11.1.8. Ecuaf-ia lnteqro-difereutlulii-u Iui Pralldt.l. Modelul pl'ezentat in figura 11,5 a, fost simplificat de Prandtl ca in figura 11.(1, eontinulnd pinza de virt.ejuri lib ere IJlna la liuia Iocarelor (a'l'ipa dreapta), jar vlrte· jurile legate concentrindu-Ie sub forma unui tub de virtej de circulatie I' variabila. Pinza de virtejuri Hbere este considerata indefinita (eatre infillit aval), netinind seama eli. ea se c1espa,rte in cele dona virtcjuri concentrate. Acm1st,aaproximare este poaibila deoa. reee viteza indusa de virtej scade repede en distanta, iar psntru studiul llli~eal'ii in imediata vocinatate a aripii se poate eonaidera ca pinza de virtejuri libel'e se intinde ca atare pilla Ia infinit aval. Aeest model se mai numeste 'Illodel de l'i'n'i.e pm'twnta dreapW, deoareee 8-:1 considerat sageala, aripii X = O. Se va obaerva mal intii d'L exista 0 legatura directa iutre circulatia pe aripa ~[ intensitatea pinzei de virtejuri libers, Intr-adevar, d:1Ca se a,plica teorema lui Stokes pe 0 suprafa.t{t a ca in Iigura 11.fi se deduce ca circulatia r(y) intr-o secFune y' este egal:l cu circulatia r, a, pinzei de v irtejuri Iibere pe portiunea de Ia extrernitatea aripii pilla Ia sec1>iunea y'. Aplicind aceasta teorema .r pentru doua sectiuni Ia s: I?i s' + dy' l'ezulta l'I!f. 11.1>
i

.dlft~()yia vitezei V 00' In eonsecll1>a, rezultantavaerodinamteg

pentru 0 hihgime' infiniteaimala dy, in sonsul anvergurn, va fi perpendiculara pc yiteza V ~i egala en dQ = pvr dy, (11.5 ) tn baz~t,teoremei Kutta-Jukovski.

Sc consta.ta eil. rezultn.nta dQ nu mai este perpendieulara deviata fata de aceasta en unghiul indus C<:i diutre V ~i 1700

pc 1700 ci

(11.6)

dr,

= - --

dr

dy'

<11;'.
.

(11.2) va induce,

Este de notat. ca, <laca "W este dirijat in jos (ca in fig. 11_7) conetltuind easulreal intilnit in practiea, rezultanta dQ este deviatain sp~te rezulttnd o rezisten~a denumita Tez1:stenta ituiusii, . , rini~d sea~ml de l'elatoiile .(11.5), .(11.6) so poate scrie pentru portani'a (normala pe viteza eurentului V00) ~l peritru rczisten~l1 indusa, exprosiile dP dBi

Virteju11iber elementa,r·semi-infinit d I', din punctul P'(y') in punctul P(y), 0 viteza dw, conform teoremei Biot-Bavart
clw =-

= dQ

COSC(i

=

P V oord/!

ar,

4" Y - Ii'

----

1

--------.. 4" dy' H - J/'

1

er

fly'

= d(J sin«, = p Iw I reb, ~

. J!'!l elF roo

.

(1l-7)

Vitez,a induaa totala in punctul F(y) rezulta prin illtegrarea rela1iiei(11.3) de Ia 0' extremita.te (- b/2) la alta (11/2) a aripii

1 -~~- ll' e (ly' w(y) = - ---- --. 411: ely' Y - y'
b 2

I

. De asemenea, in sectiunea din figura 11.7 circulatia se poate aerie cu ajutorul relatie! (10.18). Astfel, notiud en C( unghiul dintro vitoza curontului 17co ~i axa de portanta :t.M:lla (.APN) a, profilului, iar cu C(, unzhiul d.ciuciden1;a efectiv, dintre viteza V ~i axa de portant;rL Hula (nota.t :~ntenor ell C( + -r) ~i aplicind formula (10.18) rezulta
(11.8)

I'
k ~ (0,85 ... 0,9)".

in continuare, Prandtl face observn.tia ca miacarea intr-o oarecare a aripii (fig, 11.7) este aproximativ similara cu 0 miseare daca se considera viteza efectiva V avind direc,(;ia modifieata
250

unde a, ~ c/4 cR.t,e rasa cercului generator, iar c coarda profilului. Uneori , pentru a apropui datele teoretice de cele experimentalo, RC inlocuieste 11: din reIn'via de mai SUR printr-o valoare ceva mal rcdusa
(11.9) 251

'['inlnd SC~1nU1 ea unghiul indus at in rnodul esto dat de (11.6) putea scrie pentru unghiul efectiv

Cm;l

ie intr-un punct Yl va conduce la 0 portanta, suplimentara ilP. portanta totala trebuie sa ramina aceeasi, este necesar sa ;e intr-un alt punct 112,0 a,lta. perturbatie ap2 astfel Incit
(11.14)

astfcl incit, l'elayia (11.8) diferentiale

se va serie sub forma unci ecuatii
b

-2-

r=

T.C

11

00

(

a __

( _<IT, _, 471:V"" ) ely' Y - y' 1__
-2
I,

-« ,)

Prin :HlrLugm·ca. ace~toI' dona,' elemente, distribuyia vitezelor induse in dreptul punctelor ?II ~l Y2 nu este schimbata sau mai corect variania vitez~1i.. indu,:_e este de ordinul a! doilea :;;i poate neglijata. tn aceste cOndlY!,l, daca se noteaza cu ~'I si w~ vitezele induse de pinza de vtrtejuri Iibe!e 111 punctele ?Ill !I.2' reaistenta indusa suplimentarg, datorita perturbaoVlllol'PH ?j P 2 va fi

h

a

"R 0,."

,

Wj = -_ -.. "1" _ VI, 0
00

+ -_

102

V""

3P 2

=' 'Wt

-

ui; "P "
0

V""

l'

(11.15)

unde s-a t.inut seamn de semnul raportului wlV 00' Ecuatia, (11.11) zinta eouatia integro-dirererrtiala ~1i lui Prandtl. Se VH, putea determin astfel circulatia rOil daca se dau coarda in tunctie de y, (l = c(y) si unghiul de incidenta a(y). Se poate de asemenea inlooui eventual";' cu 7c din (11.9)., Aceea~i ecuatic permite IIi rezolvarea problemei inverse ~i ' minarea parametrilor o sau daca. se dr. r(y) S~1U w(y).
(x,

S~a, aeut Jnsa.ipoteza ca distributia circula,tiei este eea optima respectiv f cor~spl~n~~,rezisten~ei induse mini.me. ~n conse?inya, in v~einatatea opt~muJUl aLi/oPI = O. Se deduce asttel din relatia (11.15) ca pentru
dJ,~a,

optlIDl1ll1

" (11.16)

11.2. ARIPA DE REZISTENTA INDUsA r'1INIMA (ARIPA ELIPTICA) 11.2.1. Problema de optimum, Aripa de forma, in planc.eltptica (fig. 11 ,,' represinta, dupa cum se va vedea, osolutie remarcabil de simpla a (11.11). Inacelasi timp, aripa elipti<'il.reprezinta ~i 0 solutie optima punctul de vedere a.l rezistentei induse. Problema de optimum in daterminarea functiei r(?I) 6 Iormei in plan a a.ripii or(~sJl,u]],za"'iJ~' -----~--~ toare, pentru care reaistenta Hl'lllOi~cf;"':.

deoal'eee Iocalizarea perturbatiilor la Yl,1I2 este arbitrara, In eoncluzle, f('zistenya indusa a unei aripi este minima atunci cind v!teza,indus a u: este eonstanta pe toa~a anvergura . .Aeest rezulta.t permite s~ se l'czoln: problema Ioarte U~Ol' ~l sa se ga~easca variatia corespunzatoare a lUI r(i/) de-a lungnl anvergurii. Problema este rezolvata in [011! pI:in. (';:mninal'ca. mi~car!i la iu~init aval, Distrfbupia circulatiei rezulta. ehptlCa. (a, se vedea ~I prima aplieatio de Ia acest capitol)
(11.17 )

_---r-r-1

-----4-.;,-+-~-----" 0

2

~--~"

l'~/
11.8

/'

P~

'lOr dy
b

indusa

Este usor de verificat C':-b din relatia. (11.4) rezultalntr-adevar este constanta in aceste conditii. Astfel, utiliztnd
/I

ca vit.ez a aubstrtutia
(ll.IS)

-'2

= - -/_!_ cosO,
2

ely

= _b_
2

sinS dfl,

h l'i".

sa. fie minima. in condiyia portanta totala

I)

reliiLVia (11.4) se va scrie

P

=

pVoo~
-2
-b

rdy

W=

Fill' lUI

ramine eonstanta. Se presupune ca se aceasta circulatic optima (fig. 11 Atunci, (I abatere mica de Ia ".p',"~l.fn,a;;{;"l

(11.19)

253

unde s-a utilizat

distributia

cireulatiei

in variabila

e
(11

Caraeteristlei aerodinnmlee. Portanta
I, -2-

aripii se calculeaza usor

L

l'

=

roRinO

~i integrala generala Glauert (10.146). Pontru sectiuuea din mijlocul aripii (y

P

= 0) se va gasi

= p 1700 ~
u --2-

rdy

=

p-~-

bro 1700=

-i21.;ct

P V~b2AI·

(11.28)

ro = "c V
'00

(a. -

_1'l!:'~L)·. = 1700

nco Voo (oc

- ~), 17 2b

Cocficientul unital' dc POl'tanta este
00

de unde se deduce

O.

=

P

ro=
P-o fiind dat de reh1tia

2b17 oo-~ 1 + flo

ct,

(11.22)
1lllde A este alungirea

.e. 17 8 2
2
00

= nJ..A1 =
1

+ flo

I

I,

(11.29)

daca se utilizeaza coeficientul Sub forma adimensionala

r=

k: dedus din experienta (11.9). rj2b Y expresia (11.22) devine
00

(11.1), iar 8 suprafata, aripii eliptiee 8 = nbco/4. Este interesant de reprezenta.t derivata dOz/dct in funetie de alungirea Apentru a vedea care este domeniul de aplicabilitate al rela.tiei (11.29) dedusa <lin teoria liniei poi-tanto drepte (fig. 11.10). Dae:"Lse inloeuie~te (1'0 cu expresia sa (11.23) in l'elatia (11.29) se (Mine

zu« o _~_"_~_ sau ~z -2k
1

+ -_._
ToA
_'

O

.=

2n()(_ 1

+ _""-A

')

(11.30)

Ir

0

= 1 ~_o f~o ct=

Al

~---


0

~i derivata dO./da

dO.!._=--2n
dct

Din aceeaai ccuatie a circula.tiel (11.11) sCl'isa. pentru oareeare I;\i 0 ineidenta ct = const se va gaBi

sectiune

1 de {,

.\

2 +-_.-

(11.31)

A

ia urma toarelo

valori

in funetie
dO."...

da

= 2n

pentru 11.--'>-00, pentrn X =

In eonsecinta, pentru ct = consj:,. tOI;i termenii (~in partea a reln,1;iei(11.2.')) stnt constanni ~i atunci eoarda c trebuie S~L alba 0 elipticf'L

o.

(11.32)

vn,,1·ln,tlp.'i;

I
sau in variabila

c = Co V 1-

1/--------(

2y 1 -b-) ,

e

,------1 I C = Co sin e
1

Se constata ell, dOz/da Linde zero pen tru A --'>-() ca . (dO./doch_,o=nA (fig.n.lO). Rezultatele obtinuto prin teorii mai exacte [8:3] se departeaza insa d~ acestea la alungiri mici. Se poate retine ca. pentru alungiri mfi,ri (11.>4) teoria de Iinie po.r'tanta dre<1pta este suficient
Spre de preeisa.
88

-----------

I

Din relatiile (11.26), (11.27) r~zu~W,c~ fo~ma in plan a aripii . tenFL indusii minima este atunei eliptiea (fig, 11.8). 254

.La alungiri mici rezultatele indeparteaza de realitato dcoarece modelul lnsusi se inde-

{J

r

Ii

1/

255

\

parteazii. de fenomenul real. De exemplu teorii mai exaete amta e~,. tinde spre zero ca .,.1../2 nu ca 7tA a~a cum se obtine prin teoria portante drepte. Hezistent-a, indusa se va scrie, t,inind seama de (11.12)

distributia r(y) poate fi pusa sub forma unei dezvoltari in serie, de la disbributia de baza cunoseuta, eea elipbiea (11.25). p'Xt~lHII·'lU dintre autori (Betz, Fuchs etc.) pornese de la a,ceasta inmultita cu 0 funetie de corec~ie dezvoltata in aerie de
'_',,-,v,-u.u.

(11.37) Este de notat ca pentru aripi slmetrice, VOl' exista in aceasta dezvoltare numai coeftcienti pari. o alta cale, oarecum aimilara (sugerata de Treffts si mal ales de Glauert) pleaca de la 0 dezvoltare in aerie trigonometrica in variabila 6 definita prin (11.18), in care primul termon reprezinta tocruai cireulatia eliptica
(11.38)

unde s-an utilizat

l'elatiile (11.1.9), (11.22), (11.24), (11.28). Coeficientul de rezi:,tenta indusa se deduce sub forma

0,.;=-7tA

O~-I
.

Hezistenva tol,ala la inaintare se deduce ad:lugind Ia expresia mai sus un coeficient Ox. corespunz5,tor rezistentei provenita din efeet~ do frecare

de

in aceasta reprezentare se vede cil., daca aripa este n este impar, iar da,oil,este total antinimetrici; n nea de aimetrie ~i antiaimetrie toktli't V[L include desigu.r metric iii incidenta cc . .Metoda Glauert. Viteza iudusii. (11.4) poatefi ealculata aplicind integrala (10.146)
numarul
2"
b

total aimetrica, este par. Notin~i conturul geofara dificultati,

In Hnr~it, unghiul indus in valoare absoluta este (11.6).
=

fJ.;

'Voo

I _I._.'L.._ = Al .
IW

'

I

CCt

= -g_~- I,
TC /,

I

(11.36) .

.

'W = - ----

T co
n:

.T

~

±
1

nA"cosnO'

--2-

r,

cosa' -cos0

( '= - V 00 .£..J

16

~ .,'I.An _sl_n ___/'0 1 1 sin6

n.

t:\

(11.39)

unde s-au considerat relatiile (11.19), (11.24) ~i (11.29). 11.3. ARIPA DRE:APTA DE FORMA, iN PLAN, OARECARE Ecuatia (11.11) cu neeunoscuta r(y) are 0 singuri't solutie particulars lnchisa COl'espunzatmLre aripii elip tice, Pentru aripi de forma, oareeare, la care se ounoaste varh""ia corzii c(y) ~i incidenta cc(:IJ), e y_oate ~etel~"'; s mina . oirculatia r(y) prin dozvoltarea in serie a SO.lU!iIel (sene 111\ " puteri, serie trigonometrica etc.) san prin metode numerice.
11.3.1. Metode tie ealeul, Problema c1et.erminarii circulatiei r(!I) pentl;" aripi cu eontur dat a, constituit ohiectul a, numeroase cerce.t~ri, ef~ctuate( in deeeniul al treilea ~i al patrnlea la aceatui secol, Se mentioneaza as~f~l... printre ;"l~ii, numele unor cercetatori ca Betz, Fuchs, Munk, Trefft2?, Blenk, Glauert Oaratoli, Multhopp etc.. o sirrteza a aces tor cereetari poate fi urmanta. ill lucrarile de nelotlI·, namica [07], [Ol.L]. Se VOl' da in continuare citeva clemente de a acestor met-ode.
y' y • y. • .' .

~i dad), se introduce in ecuatilt lui Praudtl

I

~Q_

sinO

t

A"sinnO+fLo

t

(11.11)

se obtiue reht\;ia fLoCCsin61·
(11.40)

,nAn sinn0=

unde s-a notat eu fLo parametrul dat de (11.23). Pentru g'J.sirea coeficienuilor .An ai acestei ecuatii, se VOl' Ina n valor i pe aripa (sau numai pe jumatatea aripii, daca aceasta este aimetrica ) adiea 01' 01; O2, 62" ••• ; On' On~i se VOl' forma n ecuatii cu n neeunoseute : .AI" •• ,An (metoda aoloaaJiei). Metoda Oarafoli de generalitate mai mare [07] care fnrnizeaza explicit formula fiecarui coeticient An' consta in a reprezenta functia Co sin 6/0 printr-o serie finita, respectiv printr-un polinom trigonometric. Se va co~sidera, pentru simpIificare, cazul curent al aripilor eu geometric simetrlCa; in variabila 0, simetria impune numai termeni pari, in cos m 0,
(11.41)

256

257
18

/
unde de obicei se ian primii trei termeni Po, Pz, P4' 0 asemene~t es te suriclcnta pentrn a reprezcnta tdpurile uzuale de aripi ~i trapezoidale, precum ~i eele eu contur curl? cont.inuu. 90eficienyii Pm se YOI' numi coei'icienji de 101'1nli. . In a.ceste conditii, relatia (11.40) se scrie
fLo

" f nAn

sin

II.

0+·

(m + ~o

12PzlItCOS

2mO ~ All sin 1108=[Lo((sinfJ ~i dezvoltarea

.) "

'

I,
I

unei aripi de anVer(0. = 2ka), iar 2k", panta ~ore~pun;d

t~:1re a,1'ipii de a.lungirc a:), se poate d.etermi~a .ungh!ul lll~U~. dlll, reIa~la (1~.1?) care «»e , ••_•• t-n dnitre unghn~1 d~ ~n.?lden1;f1 al ~1'l}~ll de anvergura lllfillita ~i aripii de anvergum fllllta la aeelasi ('z·
'nlllll"'.WO>

<)k este punta coeficienbului corespunzator

__ .__

(11.48)

unde eventual se poate introduce

j ('f.sin0 =
daci'L Incidenta a: cste variabila. So va observa mai departe
2 sinn8cos2m0=sill(n+

--_."

f

a:"si.nn0 ,

-.-,

S-;1,

notat
(11.49)

ea

se poatc pune
2m)O + sin

en -

2m)fl,

teny~1induaa se doterminii en ajutorul este lIatrt de (11.39)
-.£b r.-

relayiei (11.12), unde viteza

in care caz, relatia (11.42) conduce Ia

u, = P \ !w!
--2
-b

rely

= pb21';;, ~( ~; lui" sinn 0) (~ .11"SinnO) (HI=
0

Soluyiona1'ea problemei se poate face aproximativ, ohservind c~ la un anumit rang n, coefieientii A,,+a, .11.+4" •• pentru aripilo cUl'ente ', suficient de mici pentru a fi neglijaui, situatie 111 care reIa,yitt (11.45) transforma ill tr-o rolatie de reeurenta. Prirrtre alte metode dezvoltate pentru determinarea cil'culayici la . drepte, mentionam metoda lui Mulrhopp care necesita in final rezoi numerica a unui sistem de n ecuauii cu n necunoscute. Un alt practic de ealeul al coeticientilor A" a, fast p1'OpUS de O. Berbente, 11.3.2. Forte ~i momente aerodinamiee, In cazul eind distribuyia Iatiei este cunoseuta, atunci determinarea 1'or1,e101' momentelor ~i narnice poate H facuti.'1.fara difieulta.ti. Se va calcula : portanta, indusa ~i eele trei momente dupa eele trei axe de coordonato. Portanta se deduce diu (11.13), unde r este data de (11.38)

,>
n

(11.50)

de rezistl'llta

indusa

va Ii (11.51)

1

+ 3=

".11 v n--~-,1 ' .l
.lj

2

I
A"sill

.ili

(11.52)

p = p V oc

~
b

rdy

= pb2Y,;,

~ (~
0

110)Sill

Hd 0 = 2e.. V';'b2nA1•

-2

Rezistenta totala ~e Yt~ ob1'_ine ~drH1gin111a r;:z~stenta. indusa (11.51) de freeare ~l de [orrml. (avind drept coe1.JClentunttar C,,)

Ooeficientul alungirii A,

unital' de portanta

se va scrie, tiniud seama de (11.53)

aeeasta relatie apare elar de ce aripa eliptica are cea mai redusa rezia(deoareco 3 = 0). .
258
27

259

\
Momentul de tangaj, ill jurul axei Oy (fig. 11.11), est« cazul aripilor drepte, numai de momentul la portanta nu]1.\, l a din fiecare sectrune y. Irrtr-adevar, focarul profilelor din diJ'erite se va g:'.Lsi c axa Oy, jar p aripii (simetrice) va fi situat ill originca siatemnlui de nate. Se va putea se,rie deei tul degiratie, .de 1'Uli~l,
2"
b

in jurul axei Oe, apare In aceleasi conditii ca ~i

P ~ tvrdy
-2"
~

=

-i-

1t

V;,b

3

~ ( ~~ 0

nA"sin n a) (

t
A

A.sin n

f)) cos Bd e =
('11.58)

~=uncle c1 este 0 coarda de convenabil aleasa. Daca profilele sint geometric asemenea, Omo este constant ~i scoate afara de sub integrala ; iar daca ill plus se aJege drept referinta cea rezultata din relatla M",

eonstata ca M 1 0-1 Az
1

~ (2p + 1)ApAp+l=3Al

+5A3+

_4

A2

(7Aa -I- 9As)

+

(11.59) Pentru 0 artpa elipt.ica pcntru care toti coeficicrrtii An (impari) si?t ·liuli, afara de AI' acest raport are 0 e:xpresie Ioarte simpla, care se sene, seama de (11.47)

I~=M" denumita coarda medic aeTodinarnica, atunei J{YI = 0"'0 respectiv cientul de moment 130 portanta nula 301 aripii este egal cu coefieientul moment 130 portanta nula al profilului din care este generata aripa. Momentu1 de ruliu, ill jurul axei Ox, apare numai daca distribu1;i:L circulatie se departeaza de una simetrica. Intr-adevar
-2b
'It

30.
1tt..

I.

(11.60)

I

I,

- Aceasta relatie este aproximativ valabila pentru toate aripile curente, deoarececaraeteristicile aerodinarnice sint; foarte apropiate unele de altele. . Coeficientu1 unital' de moment va fi
(11.61)

M",

= pVoo ~ --2
b

yr dy =

-

~ Vt,b3~ (U"sin
0··

ne) sine cosade =

unde A2 (11.38) conduce evident Ia 0 distributie arrtisimetrica a Coefieientul unital' de moment va fi

11.3.3. Treeerea de In () alungire la alta. Se poate constata ca relatia .53) reprezinta 0 variapic parabolica :;1, lui Ox en Ot; de aceea, curba . toare se numeste pamboZa -i'lldtbSa. De asemenea, C, = 1( Ox) nume:;;te polara arip'ii (deoarece in coordonate polare da rezultanta tota}a ~i inclinarea ei). . In mod obisnuit, prin aceasta denumire se illtelege tot setul de curbe G. =_j'((Y.), Ox = 1((Y.), Ox =1(0.), Om =1(0.), care caracterizeaza compor. tarea din punct de vedere aerodinamie a unei aripi. Aceste curbe Slit , prezen tate ill figura 11.12.

Cm! I
,

-

uncle 260

Om

este coa,rda medie geometr'ica (cm

= Sib).

---~---Tz
Fig. 11.12

Relatiile (11.48), (11.[)3) permit treeerea de la 0 polara (teoretica '(lxper!mentfl,l~)a unei al.'ipi de .al~lllgire Al ]a 0 alta vpolara a unei aripi' alungiro 1.2 fit de aceeasi forma, ill plan. Intr-adevar, pentru aeeh1Ri unghiurile de incidenta corespunzatoare VOl' fi, respectiv .

undes-a

notat

eu

a.,

incidenta

efectiv:: .. (11.10). Rozulta

deci,

In mod analog, din rela\,ia (11.5:3), se deduce

Aceste relatii de trecere, de la t.ehniea aerodinamiea:

0

alungire la alta, sint

11.:3."1. Jilflmmj.a aripioareler, Metoda prezent;:ttrtin precedente permite t)i .oonaiderarea efectelor introduse mobile de comandaale unui avion : aripioare, proi'undqr,· de intrados, flapsuri etc. Intr-adevar, a:;;aemil S-~L aratat in § IG pil,r1;iimobile f1, unui profil poate fi interpreta.t en. modificare a. '~~""'''lU elective, conform Iormulei (10.170). In conseeinta, (I aripa eu pi1.rYi braeate, poate fi interprctatt; I~i calculata C;;L0 aripa en incidents. (in salttu-i) pe portiuni. Pentru ilustrs .. ea procedeului, pe11t.111 r cazul , fieat al unci arip i eliptiee, se pol; urmari problemele 2 :;;i :3 rezolvate acest capitol. '11.4. EXTENSIl)f\l1 ALE tEORIEI ARIPII DE ANVERGURA. FINITA

x

T

II

aripa de anvm'!lura iini.ta. Pentru problernei aripii de anvergura finita eel mai simplu model este, dUPfL i)-a al"1tl~t, eel propus de Prandtl In care 0 aripa dreapta se J.UlLV"lll~'~ en un sistom de virtejtu-i legate, plasate pe linia focareloraicu un sis virtejuri Iibere care se desprind de ltripa in aval (fig. 11.6, model'ul portante dreptes. 'I'ot pentru cazul Jiniei portante drepbe se utilizes .. ii. un model z inlocuire al aripii derivat din eel p1'op118 de Prandtl. Inaeeasti1 se inlncuiestcaripa en 0 sumu, de potcoave de virt.ej f.inite ea. in tensi (fig. 1l.L1) dar )'oarte inguste, iar viteza indusa intr-un punct P coordonata y, rezulta ca sumit a vitezelor induse de Iiecare potcoavs
virt.ej. Pornind deb

1104.1. AH(l modele pentru

baza acestuimodel so atudia :;;i 0 supmfa,til. in geuerat.F'iecarc are Intensitatea
d I' = ycl.-v. Prin

aoestor potcoave r trcbuie sa retatea I' ~i .. acesteia corespunzatoare profilului din seeviune~L reapectivii
5).

l~
r

acest model, prin cxtinrlere, rezultii un al t.reilca . eel al Iiniei portante genemlizate. Principiul acestni 'model in care se inlocuieste de asemenea cu 0 sumii de virt.ejuri, este Ul"a.t[~(; IIfiguml1 I 262

.

'

al patrulsa model in vederea tmtarii unei suprafete portante T··,',HOl.l't>,n"'''n est~ ~el prezentat in figura 11.16. Se observa ef.. speeifieul acestui " e?IlSGam aceea eiJ., pe zona aripii, se considera 0 retea de ochiuri vu'tej C[tre pot fi considerate ea rezultind din fragmentarea potcoavelor la modelul anterior. 263

_

_l_

~~_~~~~

__

~

_

(fig. 11.17, a) sau 0 aripa. in sageata (£ig.11.17,b) se po ate estima calitativ al sage~ii X asupra caracteristieilor aerodmamice VV''''',up.''m,

11.4.2. Consideratli asupra aripii in (lcl'ivii. Pentru

0

arip~ in

rezulta

scaderea

eoefieientului

de rezistenta

la inaintarc

eu

/
,- -·1--·------l
I
Fin. 11.17

(11.69) .A.cesterclaW (11.67), (11.69) expliea avantajul utilizarii aripii in sagcata viteze mari (faptul ea rczistenta Ia inaintare scade eu eos3X pe ciud scade numai en cos-x ). Din relaVia (11.66) se poa,t(;arktt'a. de asemenea cum seade panta eoefibientului de portanta eu incidenta, Iunetie de sageata x. p - ...£- V2l'1 llD
2
(

dC,,,)
d«,
)(=0

N

_

V·'tl

-

_£_ 2

172

00

8 (d~~)

dC( x

a1

(11.70 a)

aripa infinita in deriva, deei neglijind in prim~ aproximatie zona nah1 ~i pentru aripa in sageata ~i .zon~ eentmla.. .. ._ . In aceste conditii considerind directia cu1'entuhu.de Ia u:,fIDlt,~l normals la Iinia focarelor (fig. 11.18) se pot SCrIe urrnatoarele geometrice
-I

V 1l =V

00

cosX

,

()( n

=-~-I"
eos X
00-

I( dC~)
da:

x

= (dCz~)
da:n

x~o

cos

X I'

(11.70, b)

s-a tinut

seama de eele doua relati; (11.65).
11.5. PROBLEME REZOLVATE

Dupa cum se vede in fig~m~ ~1.18, compor:enta vi!~zei. ill lungul V nu intluenteaza caracteristieile :1erodIllamle~, "dectt prlllt1'-~. OI~dinul doi datorita frecarii, care ar d(~ 0 mica compononta :u , vitezei V Din aceasta oauza, in urmeaza se neglijeaza efeetul Portanta a1'ipii se poate serie in variante legate de cele doua '''", .-i. '~ ~ earacteristlce

Sa se 5letermine eirc1!-Ia1;.il1(JI) pentru miscarea in j:uul unei aripi ~ anvergura b care are dlStl'lbut;lH, de viteze w constanta (1.1'0 = canst.)
Rezolonre, transversal pentru
00

Se va examtna Oyz departe un punct

rniscarea In aval

prorlusa (fig. 11.19)

de ptnza

de vlrt ejurl la illlinit w' cst e constantl\

aval.

lnll'-un

mlscnrr a pot cnt lala IJlm3 de vlrlejuri

est e bidimensionala In ~i ['galil cu 2w. la _ 00 III cstu hllinsa

unci tiiicturi de Iungime
la

b pc axa

011, pc care vltezu
se comport

.

+

situat

dcpart e III aval senma

In spate).

In consccmt a Liiietur3

a

en 0 pl:1cli pInna co se drplnseaza

,-:._~

'~"

jos ell viteza 2wo 111 fluid irnobfl. Ti ntnd rtzultil ca potentlalul complex va Ii

de solllj!a

data la upllca[Ia

2 de la § 10.9,

. ,."......

Of'.

r, _--

!_"I-_,R

A . ".
Fill. 11.111

~

/

""

I

~
~,

I

(1;)

=S-a

Vooi

V~·(a ell

4~1'·sin o: cst e est e

=-

2w.i

V~.'-:2,
I
I

......'1-....

de unde rezulta coeficientul tani;a al aripii in functie de profilului dupa .normala

Cz.

deanrece

ct

=

eereului complexa

7!/2, Yoo generator). ~=

=

2111., b = 4a notat

<; ............... ' /

y+ iz,

I; varl-

Vit eza complcx:'\ --2il/l.~ __

............ /

II c, = .•c,

COS2X

.

\,

--

df

= o' -

iure« -

d~ Pc taictul'il

V~2-b-'/4

.,.....---~o::+i---~-.-.,,"·,..,., --.--;1.,,.'

deei un o. mai mie en eos2';(. Pentl'~ re~isteJ?-ta ~a l~aintare aerie, considerind numai componenta in directia vitezci V00
R
P = R " cos X' = -2

(asimilata

ell

placa plami de

z = 0 jar dill rclatla de mal

.... ---.--1-----.--1. --:-.. l'i". 11.19

i

i

b~~8

V "IJ. ·(YC
2

.."

cos X '

= __1

2

e..

72 00

8C.,
#

v'= __

iy' - -bj4

2_i_w_o}I__=

2w_o_!'_.

264

265

.nalcu larea Rezult a pentru

integralelor

dlstrtbutia

de circulatle

y (8.59)
21" = -

y = - --ely care devine pri n intl'grarc

dr

=

--===-=== '
4wol! f1b2f4 __ yO

'" = (0:0 -I- e) -I- ~~ [_s_in_2_0_: " 2

o,J'
2/10, ] 2/1
A",ai

rela]!a identid!

ell (11.17). Codicicnpi
0:"

. 2~ ",":11+1-IT

[SiL12(P

+ 1)0,

-

sin ..

2(p -I- 1)

') ::;Vse determine circulatia I' pentru 0 aripi'b eUptiei1 care prezintil nn Il~ volet central ~ pc portiuneav, (fig. ~1.20), ell ntPOI;tu~ elic constan t.

i;n~~~1j

fiinel

cunoscutt se determina irnedlat coeficicntii
An

distributle] cireulat iet dill

= __ f'_o_
1 -I- lif'o
I

Cl.

w

3. Sa se re20lve aceeasi problema, peni;l'u aripa eliptica dar en bracaj de aripioare pr ntrn comanda lateralil. a avionulni (eleroane). Bracajul ~. este acelasi !n valoare absoluta pentru aripioara.djn stillga~i aripioara din dreapta dar de semne eOlltral'O ea in figura 11.21.
Fig. 11.20 . Rezoluare, Procedind prccedcnta seama in mod asemandtcr cocliincidentcl

r~----~
~'
I

lb.

I

I, ". i, __ I"
1

o

8

L..,

!.

J!

I i8.{

ff

I
I

Rezolnare. Cocficieufil
care pentru aripa cliptici\

11" al dtstrtbutlel devine ~
I

clrculatlcl

(11.38)

se dctermina

din relatta

(11.40)

en In problema cientli cr." j.jllind estc autisimetrtca

se det er-mina eil varj'tiia

rl,,(1 -I- llf'O) sin ,,0 .;

:~()(Y.

sin

e,
,

Fir,. 11.21 " = 0:1)
-

e peutru - b/2 ;;;;Y ,;:; - Y,;
pcnt ru Yl

0

<
(J ,;:;

e < 0"
IT -

sttlud ca c =
Inci

Co

sin 0:
LlrUlfl~o~rc:,

.:.'

~
0'.

!I, ,;:;II .;;

Y,;

H,,;:;
it -

0"

dcntu

o: nrc variatia

=!

,"=
"-=
a;

"-0

pentru

-

T ,;:; Y ,;:;
-

b

-

!ll; 0 ,;:;

° ,;:;

=

itu

+~

pentru

<

U~

b/2;

81 < 0 ~ rr,

I,):

undo

G

arc acceasl

cxpresle

0"

"0

-I-

E

pcntru
Y',

1ft ,;:; Y ,;:; y,;

0, ,;:; 0 ,;:; 1C

~

OJ,

c~~f:I

=

"'0

p errt.ru

<

!I .;; b/2 ;: ." -

0,

<.? «

rr,

RezLLltii pentru scrla Fourier a Inncttel ,,(0) sin fJ eodicienti dif.,rll,i eicntll ell iudice par ~i desl gur primnl cncf'ictcnt (41care dcplnd« de'-incidcnta

V

7 --'-.
c de zero nurnai globaHi a o cocfi-

uncle

e este dat

de (10'.170)

,.

la acest car. f unctta

"- sin 0 va tl dczvo ltat ii In scrie Fourier CI.(O) sin G

C~

I;
]

(Y."

sin rIo
". • '~ .•. ..; !

"2P

0=

.3.~:[~r~(:l_/1IT

1~1

_

2p -

1

sil1(2/1 +- l)"~J 2/1 + 1

.

1'1 : ",;,:,~ n

~i va

rczultu

pcntru

cocttclcnttl

(1.n

dill
'rr

.'

4. Sa se determine circulatia arc parametrul !l.o == 1/:3.
Rezoloare, S,' va utlltzn dez voltarea

r

pcntrn 0 arilla. dreptunghiulara

'

care

in ser!e

lrigollometricii

(11.38)

cr."."'" : ~
o

ell 3 t ermcnl

",~O) sin (),sinnOdO,

....... ~:.:

..

l' = 2b l'co(A,siu

() -I- A,si1130

-I-

A.sin5e).

266:

267

in trei punete pentru il]1par~iti la unghiul

si se va utiliza metoda colocatlel, adica va fi pusa condlt!a ca l'elati~, (1i.40) . ,

e = 1t/12,

tt/4, tt/2. Se va tntclcge prin A.l, A3, A, cocficicntiiAl, A3,

,

S" fie san

.

Gt

Relatla

(11.40)

va deveni, tlnlnd seama de faptul -I- 3 sin3IJ

(3 sine -I- 1) A'

1

(

1 -I- -.son

1), e

ca
A3

cole = 1 ~i (..to 11:i =

+ sin50

(. + -;-_.. 5),
3 sui B

12. INTERFERENTE AERODINAMICE
A5 = 1,

care pcntru punctcle mentionate

mai inainte duce In SistCIll111,

1,776 A.~ + 10,317 A~ 3,121 A{ -I- 5,121 A;
U~ -

+ 21,558 11~= 1 + 7,121 A; = 1

6A~

+ 8A~ = 1

Solutla acestui ststem este
A~ = 0,284, A~ = 0,0325, A~ = 0,0074 si se pot cornpara aceste (tabelul 18.1 [C 7]). valori cu cele obtlnute

pe

0

calc mal

cxaota

de Acad.

Carafoli In

in capitolele precedente 8-;1,n examinat 0 serie de probleme de baza ale mecanicii aplicate ale fluidelor, in spet,a ale aerodinamicii. Aceste .probleme au fost insa studiate tn conditii simplificate : profit aerodinamic arip~],zolata etc. Aplicatiile efective constau insa din probleme mai com~ i pliclbte.De exemplu la un avion, lntereseaza miscarea in [urul ansamblulni al'ipa - fuselaj, eventual aripa - fuselaj - ampenaj, Asemenea p1'obleriJecomplexe, in particular influenta reciproca a mai multor frontiel'e (solide sau fluide) asupra miscnrii sint cunoscute adesea subdemunirea de interferente aerodinamiee.
12.1. METODE DE STUDIU

A~ = 0,286, A;

=

0,0293, ~1~= 0,006.

, Studinl misoarii 1lI jurul a mai multe corpuri, san in jurul unni.eorj, dar si in prezentaaltor trontiere este desigur mai dificil iar calcule corecte lin pot fi efcctuate decit prin metode numerice. Se pot totusi obtine informat.ii asupra rnodificarii caracteristicilor miscarii prin anumits simpl]. fical'i judicioase, 12.1.1. Frontiere snlide, In cazul misearii unui corp, de exemplup1'ofil aerodinamic san al'ipa de avian, in prezenta alter frontiere rigide, conditia aditionala care trebuie satisfacutaeste evident aeeea ea frontie1'ele suplimentare sa fie linii (supratete) de curent, respectiv ca viteza fluidnlni sa f.jetangentaIa acestea (daca frontierele sint imobile). Mai general, conditia pe frontierele supllmentare est.e aceea corespunzind orioarei frontiers solide -(4.22). ·12.1.2. Frontiere Iluide, Notiunea de fTontiera fluida a mai fost folosita ~ianterior ~i a fost lnterpretatit ca o suprafat,a de discontinuitatcpentrn vitezele tangentiale (§ 6.2, § 8.2). In cazul eind frontiera este libera (frontie1'a unui jet de exemplu), conditla fizica de eehilibru este ca presiunan de 0 parte ~i de alta sa fie aceeasi ; fluidul nu traverseaza evident frontiera (viteza normala zero), conditia care implicii alinierea frontierei ap1'oximativ dupa viteza generalaa eurentului (incazul cind miscarea generals se datn. reste unui curent uniform). Se poate arata c:"t, inanumite aituatii, conditiilo fizicede mai lJUB impun ea frontiera libera sa fie linie de egalpotential. Fie de exemplu orniscare, cuprinzind dona domenii : nn .domenm D lnconjurat de un alt domeuiuD', separate printr-o fro11tierl1 iibera.

. 'Evulimren eleetelor nnor Irontlere solido. Se val' onurnera mai exemple semnif'ieative. .Miscarea in jurul a dona profile poate fi atudiata rlguros transformarilor eonfonne [011 J. 0 manierii simplificata de a aceeasi problema este aceea de a inlocui pc rind unul din tre on un virtej in focal' (fig. 12.2). Aeelafii procedeu poate fi aplicat p ~ p", - pV",1t , pi '_~lfl cazul n, dona profile in (fig. 12.:3, a.) ~i chiar, ell 0 -/~')""'<:__7~'- imatie ceva mai mare, pentru Daea punctele P ~i pi sint si prof'ilelor ell tanta de bord in imediata veeina.tate a / ~ i . t! de atac (fig, 12.3, b). de o parte ~i de alta" eehilihru este .'. J~feGt'lll de sol. Un prof'il care evo-~~~/~/_/_I_/--__/_/--.-'lilea,~il'in imediata aprop iere a solului P =p'. ......va n,vea, aracterlstici modificate fata c Fill. 12.2 O' -V":' tn consecin ta (, de U11 profil izolat, Intr-adevar FI!l' 12.1 L".,.,,,,,,,,.o,,c;· (fig.12.4)' pentru ca solnl sa, fie linie de curenf este necesar sa' se eonsiV con = V:"1b'. rlere un profil imagine, simetric fat-a de profilul real, care, 1:1 rtndul s(m, Daca in plus miscarile in domeniile j) ~i D' sint irotationale, ele ponte fi eventual inlocuit aproximativ en un virtej.,Oomparilld fignrile (lite un potential de viteze, fie <p, respcctiv <p'. Seriind, in n = 17pI Dx, respectiv 11.' = iJ <p' / om, rezulta prin integrare <

Daea se admite ca in amonte miscarca se reduce 130 curenti unif'ormj, trontiera va avea forma aproximativ eilindrica (fig. 12.1), mi~carea domeiul D, avind in amonte 0 viteza Tlo iar cea din domeniul D c viteza V~. . tn ipoteza perturhatiilor mid presiunile intr-un IJlIDet P f)i intr-un punct P' VOl' fi legate de presiuhea.l1&, din .amonte, prin

/ / _f /
fJ;./

De exernplu daea Irontiera este foarte sbba, sieventual disparc V:x,--+ Y"" C -> 0 iar relania (12.4) nu mai exprima decit; eonti lUl"a,."" ..,'. poteutialului 'P.1n schimb, daca 1UHl din viteze este zero, de V~ = 0 (jet in fluid imobil) atunci eonditia (12.4) arata cafrontiera rl,,'vh1'A.,"· linie (suprafata) de ega.1potential. 12.1.3. Metode apruximative de 'evaluare II interferentel," Dupa s-a rnai mentionat, studlul riguros al problemelor de interferenta adescu f'oarte dif'icil, astfel lncitunele poaibilita] i de aimplif'lcare a' devin extrem de utile. . S-~l aratat de exemplu (§ 10.:i) ei:'L influonta unui profil 1& 0 dil1tanta. de acesta ('1';0 aproxirnativ ecb.ivaleuta cu aceea :1 unui coneentrat, de aceeasi cireulatie I', plasat in focal'. o alit!. aproximatie utila. priveste influenta produsa de 0 aripi1 dnn.n"'a·C, de aoeasta, care este aproximativ echivalenta ell aceea dlLta. de 0 p ,"F""a""". de virte] (fig. 11.5). Asemenea observatii l)ot simplifica mull; tratarea, Iapt care va fi trat in cele ce unneazitprtn. citeva exemple aerrmificative,
12.2. EXEMPLE DE INTERFERENTE

12.4 Hi 12.2 se eonstata ea efectul este oarecum invers decit in cazul Iiiplanului. De exemplu portanta unui profil create cbtorita etcctului
solului,

Studiu 1 de detaliu :11 problernelor de in terterenta depa~r~te cadrul mului de fata. De aceea se VOl' prezenta in cele ee urmcaza principii calcul pentru citeva modele simplifieate, urmind ca pentru amanunte so consulte tratate de specialitate [07], ErN], [83].

12.2.2. li~c:U'ea printr-o retea tie JI!:ofile.Ut.ilizar! ale retelelorxle pro-' file sint numeroase, cum ar f1 : palete !'i!l' 12.4 deflectoare (coturi deflector! de direc, tie ete.), compresoare (sau difuzoare, in care vitexa abaoluta scade eonsnmindu-se lucru mecanie), turbine (sau retele confuzoare, in care viteza absoluta creste, producindu-se lueru mecanie). Oaracteristieile principale ale unei retele de profile sint: t - pasul retelei, masurat pe linia AB, numita ~i frontnl retelei, Y1 - viteza in amense de retea, Y2 ~viteza in aval de retea, diferita ca direetie ~i marime fa1;a de viteza din iamonte, circulatiaIn jurul+unui profil (fig.. 12.5.). .... Studiul mi~ca,rii prin retele de profile se poate face extinzind metodele dip.~apitolu~ 10 pent.rnp:'ofile iz.o~a~e,n':r;articular,we~oda tr~n~formari~or i cO)lfQtn~e .. ~ metoda singularitatdlo» ~ .. [Ol1J. ,Oa!~tatlv, eXlsta,anunllte, <leQ~ebi;rLaparep.te. Astfel in nnscaceannui profil izolat, 'Viteza Ia-infinif amonts ~i Ia infinit aval este aceeasi, aceea de.cureatunitorm eu 0 viteza V 00'

Ietele

r..:_.

270

uniform l' VII es t'e, d upa' cum s-a, menuonat, t dif erita d e Vlteza V din (Ill t' ., . 1 ' 2 . Particul~rit~tea de mai sus poate fi u~~r explicata" daea se flCcare profil din ret,e~L un vrrtej de Clrculatie r plasat in cu 12.()). Oonfigura.1;iaastf'el obVinnta. a fost tratata anterior (§ 8.4)

In cazul 'unei retele de profile viteza iml'entului

. \y \r
~

Interierenln aripa-ampenaj orizontal, L~ avioanele l~e.. CO~l~urenta, ampenajul orizontal es~e ~lasat III spa~ele aripu ; III "cOllditii miscarea l!l jurul ampenajului este alterata de prezent a datol'itit vrtezelor induse ~le aceasta. .." , ,',' ntru un profil, 0 ariIJ~L produce pe axa longitudinala 0 Vlt.eza, 81 pc "I , 'e monte '1','J'ata in jos 111 ava (' 0 vtteza"dIll, usa (1 St'IlS con tr In a, , I si ,1al, (111 , , " 10,80). in con,sc_?inta, intr-o prima aprox__m,latJe, ,ampena.J~l, tot ca 0 aripa, dar care nu este plas,at.a in eUIen~ul ll,mlo!m ci in alt curent, avind aproximativ acelasi mcdul al vitezei (J; 00) deflectat en unghiul
"A

:ra

/)= wdVoo
este viteza indusa de aripa in dreptul ampenajului.

(12.9)

Fill. 12.5

a calcula acest unghi, se va t1':11:a pr<?blema: ?,oua ipotcze, taptul ea pinza de virtejl~ri, (~in, eauza, mstablhtatll, se desface formind doua nuclee de vtrt.ejurr margmale: , " oteoava de virtej eehivalenta cu int.ensitatea ,m,~(lIe,r",,~l disi;tro cele doua virtejuri Iibere egal:'i en an~ergu~'a RnpJ_l (~lg. 12..1, a) ; b otcoava de virtei cu intensitatea roegaJa en circulatia din sectiunea IJa aripii ~i distant a intrc cele dona virtejuri lib ere egala en b' 12.7, b).
Fill. 12.6

?~

aratat ea, un sir de virte~Uli induce I~ d,istant5l mari viteze finite paralele cu frontul1'el;eleJ. In consecinta, daea se noteaza cu V 00 transversala, aeeeasi in amonto ~i aval, va rezulta in amonts,
T7'

±
0

,

"

"I

=

T7'
"00

r +-J, 2t
-e-

unde s-a notat en J versoruldirectiei frontului retelei, in mod analog in aval
IT T7'

"2=

"oo-~j. 2t

r ,_
/I

Se eonetata ca 'V 00 nu este altceva decit vitesa medie

1'111' '12.7

prima ipoteza, eirculatia m~die r", se det~1'~ina din caleulul portantei eoeficientul de portanta global al arrpn in plus se poate arata [011] dt teorema Kutta-Jnkovski apliea ~i pentru un profil din retea, sub forma
(12.10)

P = pl'V",

X

r,
r=
m

unde s-a atribuit eonvenpional lui r sensul veetorulni virtej, portanta tlnd in eontinuare perpendieulara pe viteza 11m' De altfel relatia " poate fi dedusa fara difieultati, aplicind teorema impulsulu] pe ' de control sehitata in figura 12.5.

Voob ~ 2 A

(12.11)

A este alungirea aripii.

272

273

I

til
i! r, '.'.:.'.!

I

in acest caz, viteza induaa in punctul P situat Ia distanta, L aI'ip~'L, ste datoratu. vlrtejurilor marginale libere ~i vlrtejului leg at e aripa
'W,

== --- rm. ...----

i~ .

~~7tIJ

Sill

r; cos Y+ -- ( y 7tb
6).

+ 1)

. Interferenta Rl'i]Ja-fnselaj. Acea.,t~1.problema poate, in anuconditii ~ii- fie ~.tudia.ti1 eu ajutorul transfol'mar:ilol' conforme: de eJ1.ernplu 0 :tripil, simetrid1 previl,zuL:'\, en un Iuselaj cilindric circular, 'iph~~iat ,entl'al. AsHe.!,. da.cil, tigura 12.8, a. reprezint~ Ul'm~ ansambln.lni c ''-lihdevam aval, atunci printr-o transtormare conforms de t.IP .Iukovsk! a
t'

:i '.'.(
i

(vezi aplicatia

:3 de la capitolul

~'inind searna de expresia (12.11) pentru
tg y l'ezulta unghiul de deflectiun e
= b/2L =

I'; ~i cit

A

1/,,;,

11

i
<:

'5

a = _~ =.!}_z__
r.,
nl.

+ ~i-

': ,~
\

2e:
lui

(12.14)
a

. ~=-~
! b

l,=~

!t
(0

=

In a, doua ipoteza circulatia
7t/2)

este

ro, valoarea

r dlnscctiunea
;J~lllni ~uselajului nu mai altercazti miscarea, problema ;I'edueindu·se la aceea a unei aripi izolate [07]. ])up~i, rcvenirea, Ia planul fizic, distri""' . 1.1 I'---.. ;:E;:.;------j bntia de circulatie rezulta ea in
yz se poate trnnsforma cereul intr-o placa plana verticala, in contiguratia, astfel obtinuta (fig. 12.8, b), mi~carca f'iind simetrlca, urma

i1
~i din calculul portantoi rezulta distant a b' intre cele doua virtejurl marginale
(12.16)

adieU.
b' ~ xli;
x=7t'

4 .ill -

A;3

.

41

+ Ai,'"

~.-~.
:::-.;4

., 1t

Relatia (12.14) ram1.no evident de aeeeasi forma, numai se tnloeuieso en e' si I,'

ca

e: ~i i(12.18)

arM.at, eil, virtejurile libcre em string in doua vtrtejuri cnncentrat«, de iutensitato rn, situate Ja 0 distantl], b' == vb, Existent-a
fuselajului (care trebuie tl:1. fie

figura 12.8, e. • Un model uproximativ, dar mult mai simplu pentru acet'a~j problema, este prezentat in figura 12.9, eehiya,lent en modelul potcoavei de virtej din tigura 12.7. Astf'el, undeva in aval, S':1

/;

I

'____-+-l~-' ;-~" -~---I

I
I

f~I .:r-~
IW
I
"tj- ...

,;;1.

/1

1;'-

r
("\

I

'. i

s:

_j

in

aceste

conditii

unghiul de doflcctiune

rezulta

(12.Hir
On aceasta deflectiune (12~19)sau (12.14), cousiderata ca valoare

medie pe tot ampenajul, se determina care este incident a efeetiva in dreptul lui. 274.

linie de curent in acest plan) impune apai-itia unor virtejuri imagine, de sens contrar, in interiorul Iuaelajului lu distant o egalo ell '2R"//I' (§ 8A). Se constata eil. dista-ibutia reaH't de cil'cula{;ie este illloeuih1. in acest model cu dona zone de eireuconstanta roModelul din figura 12.9 per·mite evaluarea simpli1 a rnodului in care portanta se distribuie I

l'ig. 12.9

275

pe al'ipa, reapectiv

])(1

(8.113) rezulta imediat

fuselaj. Astfel aplieind teorema Kntta-J

.

P

aU)

=

2 .p

V

00

r0 (~

-

R) ;
=1+7;
'I'
~fl'
I

se poate demonstra ca in acelea~i puncte A',. ~~' a;par virtejul'i de acelasi sens en cele reprezentmd urma. arl~ll (fIg. 12.10,' b). Pentru a demonstra aceasta, fic cazul general din figura 12.11, unde 1(.2/a.

unde s-a notat eu Pa(/) portanta aripii din exteriorul fuselajului f,li eu p cea din interiorul fuselajului. Rezulta apoi
Pita)

p ..(!)

+

P'la)

2R =--. b'

Dac~ inflgura ~2.9 .in loc~tl eire~a\;!ei r., distrib\lita. p~ ~istaut,a b' se considers; aproximativ 0 circulatle In. < I'° dar distribuita pe toad anvergura b, rezulta relatii aimilare, avind doar 7)' inlocuit eu 7) = 2R/b. Rezultatele de mai sus corespund aproximativ cu cele obtinute prin metode mai. exacte ~i, de asemenca, sint destul de biue verificate experimental. In sfin;dt, modelul poate Ii perfectionat tinind seama de variatia In anvergura a circulatiei [07], [S3]. 12.2.5. Coreelii de tunel. Se VOl' determina, in eontiuuare, eoreetiile ee trebuie aplieate asupra rezultatelor experiment ale determinate in suflerii aerodinamice eu seetiune cireulara datol'ita faptului ea vtna de eurent este Iimitata fic de 0 trontiera solida, fie de una fluida, FieD, diametrul sufleriei si b anvergura aripii care este a~ezata in eentrn (fig. 12.10). Intr-o sectiune in avalul aripii, se va inlocui pinza de virtejuri en dona virtejnri concentrate ca in modelul din fig. 12.7, de intensitate rm sau ro- Oaleulele vor fi efectuate pentru prima situatie. Daca frontiera este solida, cercul reprezentind camera de experienta a suileriei va trebui sa fie linie de curent; in conseeinta in exterior, in

" -----..,....,.
'-..
1'10' 12.11.

./ /

Fie un punct P pe cerc; triunghinrile POA ~~ BOP sint asemenea unghinl in 0 este acelasi ~i rapoartele laturilor, deduse din relafi~ = B2/a sint egale. Inconsecinta, OA OF

=

a R

=-;=

s

OP OB·

(12.22)

Bezulta apoi umatoarea relatie intre unghiuri (12.23) Pentru perechea de virtejuri 'Putinlnd seama de (8.46)
cP = _,-(Ob 1 2Tr

din A ~i B se poate. scrie potentialul

r

r + 0..) = -2Tr

(rr

+ 0).

(12.24.) din Al ~i B; se (12.25)

in mod asemanator pentru perechea de virtejnri poate a:rata m'i. existit relataa intre unghiuri
Oa, + 0.,'
b CP2 este

=

0,

(12.26)
r: Fi!l. 12.10

.punctele 'A'~i B', ~~L distante ± D2/2b de origine, vor apiirea virtejuri imagine de sensuri contrarii, (fig. 12.10, a).. .., Daca frontiera. este fluida, conditiile de miscare sint cele Inentionate pentru care frontiera rezulta linie de egal potential (12.4). In aceste
216

Atunci potentialul total este
m
T

=

m

Tl

+ m. == - 2 ™

·T

=const.

.

(12.27) 277

R.evcninclla figurile 12,10, a" b, vit,ezele suplimental'c induse in aripii, tntr-un punct y al anvEl'guri.i, dato1'ita virtejmilo1' imagine' exterior VOl' fi egale cu
to

UI. MECANICA

r. = ± _-

4r.:.1)2

[1

+----.- , ])2
--_"'.-"
r

1]

FLUIDELOR PERFECTE COMPRESIBILE

C

___ ...... -

unde semnul + coref\pumle cazului frontierei solide, iar semnul tierei fluide,Intr-adevar se constat.a, din j'igura 12,10 cit in caznl solide viteza indus a 'W este dirijat-i1in sui; (pozitiv[L) iar in cazul fran fluide viteza reznltil. dirijata. in jos (nega.t,iva), Viteza to (la.ta de (12.28) reznlta, variahiJii, en 11; 11entru a in continuare t1'ata.1'ea, in locul vitezei va1'iabi1e 10 se va euusiuera vuloare medie 10m constanta pe toatii. allvergura.
_~_ ) 112 h
tV
m

21J

,II

'-'

+Y

(AERODINAMICA VITEZELOR MARl)
13. RELATIlLE DE BAZA ALE MI$CARII FLUIDELOR COMPRESIBILE
13.1. ECUATIlLE FUNDAMENTALE ALE MI~CARII FLUIDELOR PERFECTE COMPRESIBILE

=~

(wdY
I,

Ii

=

_E.__In =_~_J)2
21t1i

'_in acest capitol ~e vorprez,ent.,n. ecuayiile geJ?-erale~l~ ~ni.~carii luidelor f
2

Dadi. se dezvolta in serie logaritrnul din relatia r no en expresia. sa din (12.11) se obtine
10".

,1-]52

(12.29)

ecun.tu. de contlllUltate fll eCl1av1H eneIglel . De usemenea, s~ va analizH problema. })l',ol?agi'Lrii pertnrbatiilor, deosebit importanta. in cazul,fl1iidelor cOInpreslbllc.
13.1.1. ECIlHliiltl de mi~cnre ~i de eontinnitatr:. Aeeste ecuat,ii au fost anterior (2.1~), (2.30) fli form,e~za. u~ slstem de .patru ecuai;': trei ecna.tii ca uroiectii a. ecuavlel de mu~mwe.vectoriala si ecu"t~n , r • • ,,,la

=

---81:--

VooG/)

(. 1 (IJ')4 1 -I-- 3 \ D .'.-I-- •.•

1
J

uud e s-a notat

cu :L: aria t.nnelului acrodinamic
~ =~ --,
1tD2

de contilluita.te)

(

DV __r=i Dt
D 3_

.

':

1 -]1,

P

4

(l~~,l)

iar S este Buprafata anpn. Existenva acestei vitcze i11(1u8C face ea. in ca:11I1frontieiei solide, a denta reala sa. fie mai mare dedi; cea masurata O:",iI,· ci.{o incideni
numita

Dt

-I--

V(pV) = 0,

suplimentara..
a,

,

= ~l~I"_'
Voo
::= Clmd.s

(f.

'8~

=

Sii_ [1 + _1_ (_~.)4 -+ .. ' ]
3

D ,., ~ .'

,.

en cffici necunoscute, in cazulfluidelor compre~ibile 11, 1', '10, p,p. III eaz 1 'lij~1~~""~TI~".f111id1~lor incompresibile conditia p = const fll CUn?8?ut reduce numar~~l necunoscutelor Ia patru !;Iisistemul devine compatlb~l. De data aceast ~' "~~Ila este neeesarii inca. 0 ecuatie; in acest, s.ens se poateface apel la eC11"j-:a
de stare (1.9). p

Cf. real

-1-

<l..~

'

~irezistenta

la inaintare

1'(,:1]:1.

O.<w.lsa fie mai mare decit. cea masnn~t.a 0.
•. !

JL= BT,

(1.'3.2)

Gx«

'= O"""ls. '-1- ~--'-\

.• -

In cazul frontierci f1llide sensul vitezei induse este in JOB avil1d "f'.,,'('~,;:L<· mi1rime (12.30) ~i deci incident a reula ~i rezistenta la inaintare l'eala. vor

f
t
278

darse n:.trodUCf>, r:~HlrL o necur.;osc~til, viJ?- plus. '1', ceca ce i,mplie.a neceaita_ tea nnei alte ,Cclmtn. Aceasta ul,tl~l1.?'ec~m~le.este c(:llatl~, energiei. Pro· blen~a deville 111 acest fel C~11~])~tlbl1a., .eXlstmcll-)ase ecuatu cl_l)ltSe netlUi noscute, dar rezolvareaunm astfel de slstem e:>tefoarte eomphcata,. , 0 al~a. calc d~ ~bor~are a. prob~cl11e~est~ lnlocuh~ea ~cl:atiei (le state ~t ecuatlel energlel, IJrllltr-o relatle cllrect>', de legatura. mtre presiun ~i densitate p = 1)(p), deci considerinc1 Huicllli barotropic. 'e ,', ABt.fcl.."yari~Viilei"ilt1 \preshme :la mi~carea nnui a~ioll sllltdatol'ate v.al'iI11;oiHorQ,(}: vi.t~~r~. aci\.· vit£.zl1l de deplasarc a avienului este n1:11'e , D

L----_------~~--------------------------------

--------~ -

00

iar codicicntii

aerodinamici

rczlllUi

din (10.152).

(10.157)

Cm, = -

4

7t

4(:= -

,,{.

Comparl nd en reznl tat.ul obtmut pcntru c = 1, unghiul "; este

prin

transformare

conformii

(Jukovski)

se eonstatll

ell

2{ .,.=- =2( e
... Daca se l nloculeste T In rclatifle (10.55) se o hl in uceleasl exprcsii cclc dinaintc. Obsernalie. Pentru IX = 0, Ao = 0, t ermcnul In tg 0/2 din expresla spune di int rarea estc lara soe. pcntru Cz sl Cm.
ell

In capltolul precedent s-au studiat profilele aerodinamice ca 0 miscare unor ai-Ipi cilindrice indefinite denumite aripi de anvergtr,ra infilllita. In realitato, aripile sint de anvergurif finita 1}i sint caracterizate prin eel putin dona elemente: - seetiwne« ar'ip'':'i (profilul) care poate fi evolufiva, cu grosime relativa. variabila, cu profilul plasat rasucit, in anvergura (incidenya vanabtla) sau chiar profile de tip diferit; - forma 1.n plan l~ aripii. Miscarea fluidului din jurul aces tor a.ripi are caracter tridimensional ~i depinde de anvergura, de profilele din fiecare sectiune Ili de forma in plan a aripii.
plana. In jurul 11.1. CONSIDERATII GENERALE .

lui y(6) dispare

~i so

11.1.1. Caraeterlstiei ueometrict ... Nota!ii. Pentru 0 aripa. de forma oarecare, axele de eoordonate aint luate ca in figura 11.1, anltindu-se totodatrL eo se inyelege prin anvergura. Se detineate alungirea unci aripi ea rapo~·tul intre pil.tmtul anvergurii I)i suprafu.ta acelei artpl. (11.1) In cazul particular al aripii dreptunghiulare de eoarda co, alungirea devine raportul intre anvergura ~i coardii A = bJco. Din punct de vedere aerodinamio este deslgur buna 0 alungire mare (miscarea se apropie mai mult de una bidimenslonala) dar aeeasta Iu ,(V) . cste limitata. de posibilitauile de cont~ ~ structl«. La 0 alungirernare momentnl . incovoietor la incaetrare devine mare. In mod obisnuit se utiliz~aza urmatOfH'tll:e'mhtngiri: pentru planoare A, = = 20... 40, la avioane de vitezii mica ~i medie A;= 6 ... 10 a.lunglrea scazind b pc masllra. ce avionul cate de vitcza .r mai mare, spre exernplu pentru avioane ."'~~. (rvtif!) .,-'.',. supersonloe alungirea este . mai mica lI"". 11.1 ).,,= 2.; ..3. , ' Dupatorma in plan, se .pot inttlniaripi dreptunghiulare (fig. 11.2, a), trapezoidale (fig. 11.2; b) cu.raport de trapeaoidalitate definit ca q = c./oo, eliptice(fig., 11.2, c)~i triunghiulare (fig. 11.2, d). 'I'oate aceste.aript.stnt 247

aripi drepte, adica an linia foearolor (da.t.a intr-o prima aproxirnath, punetele de la sfert de coarda fal;a cle bordul de atac) dreapta, l{ni~ coincide en axa ;II. Dadi, linia Iocarelor nu coincide eu axa :rJ se definest« unghinj dintrc aceasta IIi axa Y ca unghide sage:1ta (fig. 11.3). Dad), unghiul
', .

':'!11.1.2. ModeJul lui Prandtl pentru aripa dreapta, Daca se considerd o p~l'viunevde aripa ~le~tnyergUl:aimillit{L (fig. 11.4, a) se intelege ca exista. a dlferellta de presume mtre Intrados :;;i extrados atunci cind exist1\, 0 portanya (sustenh'.1;i~) ~i amune 0 suprapreaiune pe intrados 1)1 0 depresiune pe extmdos. Acelasi renomen apare IIi la 0 aripa de anvergura finitrL

.~.

.

t--rttr
_J_

z l

-~J£'
tor
<I

,--

1------------1 It- + + -)- + + + + tl +

!I

L
:J

I

~~
b

r:cf'/c"

-~.:'-.'-'
.' c

;

(fig. 11.4, b). TJa extremttatfle aripii insa, aeeasta. diferenta. de presiuni va produce 0 miscare afluidului de la Intrados la extrados. Aceasta miscaro l~tten.Hl, niVhLta.pe aripii. se continua. in aval Ili formeaza 0 suprafaVa de i virtejuri Iibere (plutind in curent). V1rtc_juri ubere, v1.rtejuti legate. Suprafata de discontinuitate din a.valul aripil poate Ii in~e1easa ca un strat: de virtejnri aproximativ paralel eu ' diree1iiacurentului general. Prin urmare, in spatele aripii apare UIl sistcm de virtejuri In forma de suvite nelimitate (semi-infinite) lib ere, care se desprind de la hordul de fuga alaripii (fig. 11.5), numite 'Vlrtej1lri iibere.

r

!Y

~
. ~.'"., d
Fill. 0.2

.

:i. ~. , .; ,":
.

~ :;. ~

a
~. :.:.:
I.; ,. :

Rageata . este redus X < 15 ... 20° (fig. ,),1.;3. a )e£eetul .de .s[Lge~1t:iL este rela.tiv mic, aripa putind fi considerata dreapta, da('a. -Infja..J; este mfli mare (30 ... 40° san ma.i mult, fig. 11.3, b}.:efectnl .esteImportant IIi ,~~ spune ca aa-ipa este in siigeatii. Un caz li:q:titp..alaripii -tl'iVpezoida.leIIi'~. sagm~ta.este aripa delia, la care q = 0 (A, fig. 11.3,0). ;.."" Gtosimea, reli1tivi:i; maxima a, pl'ofiieloruiiliza,te. pentru.iavioane viteze mid :;;imedii (SUbsoIJiee) este: In, incaatrare , E:o=,12: .. 18%, Ia extremitate ve', = 7... 11 Vo, sC;1z1nd cind, avionul este de vitezr. mare. La avioane supersonice se ajnnge 1:1gro~Jmi relative Hli,'AIllJ." mid (aripi suh'Viri) !: < 5%. '" . , , .. , .' Un alt parametru uuportant al :~11'ipiiestesupl'aj'ata S, care se cdr&-, leaza. en greutatea avionului a prin parametrul GjS (Njm 2) munit fnca:rcarea" pe arip«. La avioanemici, devi'{;ezinniea seIa GjS = BOO.• :1500 N 130 avioane de viteza medie 2 000 ... 3' 000,Njm2, la avioanede viteza. -subsonice-f 000 ... 8 000 N jll'12, lao avioane 'sli)Jersoniee ,.i, 10'000' • ·248

. : '.~: ., i

J: ~ ~"_i ~"

.ij

..

_'.

.

Fi!f.

t1.r.

Dupa teorema lui Helmholtz, aceste virtejuri nu pot fi isolate ei se leaga mtrc ele prin virtejurile Ioculiza.te pc aripa., numite 1)trtej~£1'i legate. Intr-adevar, s-a vazut in § 10.5 d:i, prorilele a,ripii pot fi inlocuite eu un strat de virtejuri dupa schelotul protilelor. . ~upra.btn, de virtejuri libere nu este stabila ~i ceva mai depnrte de a.flpa:om ~ . " in douii sub forma a dona virtejuri concentrate ca ill . flgUl'a U.n. la hordul de al
en,

249

I

11.1.8. Ecuaf-ia lnteqro-difereutlulii-u Iui Pralldt.l. Modelul pl'ezentat in figura 11,5 a, fost simplificat de Prandtl ca in figura 11.(1, eontinulnd pinza de virt.ejuri lib ere IJlna la liuia Iocarelor (a'l'ipa dreapta), jar vlrte· jurile legate concentrindu-Ie sub forma unui tub de virtej de circulatie I' variabila. Pinza de virtejuri Hbere este considerata indefinita (eatre infillit aval), netinind seama eli. ea se c1espa,rte in cele dona virtcjuri concentrate. Acm1st,aaproximare este poaibila deoa. reee viteza indusa de virtej scade repede en distanta, iar psntru studiul llli~eal'ii in imediata vocinatate a aripii se poate eonaidera ca pinza de virtejuri libel'e se intinde ca atare pilla Ia infinit aval. Aeest model se mai numeste 'Illodel de l'i'n'i.e pm'twnta dreapW, deoareee 8-:1 considerat sageala, aripii X = O. Se va obaerva mal intii d'L exista 0 legatura directa iutre circulatia pe aripa ~[ intensitatea pinzei de virtejuri libers, Intr-adevar, d:1Ca se a,plica teorema lui Stokes pe 0 suprafa.t{t a ca in Iigura 11.fi se deduce ca circulatia r(y) intr-o secFune y' este egal:l cu circulatia r, a, pinzei de v irtejuri Iibere pe portiunea de Ia extrernitatea aripii pilla Ia sec1>iunea y'. Aplicind aceasta teorema .r pentru doua sectiuni Ia s: I?i s' + dy' l'ezulta l'I!f. 11.1>
i

.dlft~()yia vitezei V 00' In eonsecll1>a, rezultantavaerodinamteg

pentru 0 hihgime' infiniteaimala dy, in sonsul anvergurn, va fi perpendiculara pc yiteza V ~i egala en dQ = pvr dy, (11.5 ) tn baz~t,teoremei Kutta-Jukovski.

Sc consta.ta eil. rezultn.nta dQ nu mai este perpendieulara deviata fata de aceasta en unghiul indus C<:i diutre V ~i 1700

pc 1700 ci

(11.6)

dr,

= - --

dr

dy'

<11;'.
.

(11.2) va induce,

Este de notat. ca, <laca "W este dirijat in jos (ca in fig. 11_7) conetltuind easulreal intilnit in practiea, rezultanta dQ este deviatain sp~te rezulttnd o rezisten~a denumita Tez1:stenta ituiusii, . , rini~d sea~ml de l'elatoiile .(11.5), .(11.6) so poate scrie pentru portani'a (normala pe viteza eurentului V00) ~l peritru rczisten~l1 indusa, exprosiile dP dBi

Virteju11iber elementa,r·semi-infinit d I', din punctul P'(y') in punctul P(y), 0 viteza dw, conform teoremei Biot-Bavart
clw =-

= dQ

COSC(i

=

P V oord/!

ar,

4" Y - Ii'

----

1

--------.. 4" dy' H - J/'

1

er

fly'

= d(J sin«, = p Iw I reb, ~

. J!'!l elF roo

.

(1l-7)

Vitez,a induaa totala in punctul F(y) rezulta prin illtegrarea rela1iiei(11.3) de Ia 0' extremita.te (- b/2) la alta (11/2) a aripii

1 -~~- ll' e (ly' w(y) = - ---- --. 411: ely' Y - y'
b 2

I

. De asemenea, in sectiunea din figura 11.7 circulatia se poate aerie cu ajutorul relatie! (10.18). Astfel, notiud en C( unghiul dintro vitoza curontului 17co ~i axa de portanta :t.M:lla (.APN) a, profilului, iar cu C(, unzhiul d.ciuciden1;a efectiv, dintre viteza V ~i axa de portant;rL Hula (nota.t :~ntenor ell C( + -r) ~i aplicind formula (10.18) rezulta
(11.8)

I'
k ~ (0,85 ... 0,9)".

in continuare, Prandtl face observn.tia ca miacarea intr-o oarecare a aripii (fig, 11.7) este aproximativ similara cu 0 miseare daca se considera viteza efectiva V avind direc,(;ia modifieata
250

unde a, ~ c/4 cR.t,e rasa cercului generator, iar c coarda profilului. Uneori , pentru a apropui datele teoretice de cele experimentalo, RC inlocuieste 11: din reIn'via de mai SUR printr-o valoare ceva mal rcdusa
(11.9) 251

'['inlnd SC~1nU1 ea unghiul indus at in rnodul esto dat de (11.6) putea scrie pentru unghiul efectiv

Cm;l

ie intr-un punct Yl va conduce la 0 portanta, suplimentara ilP. portanta totala trebuie sa ramina aceeasi, este necesar sa ;e intr-un alt punct 112,0 a,lta. perturbatie ap2 astfel Incit
(11.14)

astfcl incit, l'elayia (11.8) diferentiale

se va serie sub forma unci ecuatii
b

-2-

r=

T.C

11

00

(

a __

( _<IT, _, 471:V"" ) ely' Y - y' 1__
-2
I,

-« ,)

Prin :HlrLugm·ca. ace~toI' dona,' elemente, distribuyia vitezelor induse in dreptul punctelor ?II ~l Y2 nu este schimbata sau mai corect variania vitez~1i.. indu,:_e este de ordinul a! doilea :;;i poate neglijata. tn aceste cOndlY!,l, daca se noteaza cu ~'I si w~ vitezele induse de pinza de vtrtejuri Iibe!e 111 punctele ?Ill !I.2' reaistenta indusa suplimentarg, datorita perturbaoVlllol'PH ?j P 2 va fi

h

a

"R 0,."

,

Wj = -_ -.. "1" _ VI, 0
00

+ -_

102

V""

3P 2

=' 'Wt

-

ui; "P "
0

V""

l'

(11.15)

unde s-a t.inut seamn de semnul raportului wlV 00' Ecuatia, (11.11) zinta eouatia integro-dirererrtiala ~1i lui Prandtl. Se VH, putea determin astfel circulatia rOil daca se dau coarda in tunctie de y, (l = c(y) si unghiul de incidenta a(y). Se poate de asemenea inlooui eventual";' cu 7c din (11.9)., Aceea~i ecuatic permite IIi rezolvarea problemei inverse ~i ' minarea parametrilor o sau daca. se dr. r(y) S~1U w(y).
(x,

S~a, aeut Jnsa.ipoteza ca distributia circula,tiei este eea optima respectiv f cor~spl~n~~,rezisten~ei induse mini.me. ~n conse?inya, in v~einatatea opt~muJUl aLi/oPI = O. Se deduce asttel din relatia (11.15) ca pentru
dJ,~a,

optlIDl1ll1

" (11.16)

11.2. ARIPA DE REZISTENTA INDUsA r'1INIMA (ARIPA ELIPTICA) 11.2.1. Problema de optimum, Aripa de forma, in planc.eltptica (fig. 11 ,,' represinta, dupa cum se va vedea, osolutie remarcabil de simpla a (11.11). Inacelasi timp, aripa elipti<'il.reprezinta ~i 0 solutie optima punctul de vedere a.l rezistentei induse. Problema de optimum in daterminarea functiei r(?I) 6 Iormei in plan a a.ripii or(~sJl,u]],za"'iJ~' -----~--~ toare, pentru care reaistenta Hl'lllOi~cf;"':.

deoal'eee Iocalizarea perturbatiilor la Yl,1I2 este arbitrara, In eoncluzle, f('zistenya indusa a unei aripi este minima atunci cind v!teza,indus a u: este eonstanta pe toa~a anvergura . .Aeest rezulta.t permite s~ se l'czoln: problema Ioarte U~Ol' ~l sa se ga~easca variatia corespunzatoare a lUI r(i/) de-a lungnl anvergurii. Problema este rezolvata in [011! pI:in. (';:mninal'ca. mi~car!i la iu~init aval, Distrfbupia circulatiei rezulta. ehptlCa. (a, se vedea ~I prima aplieatio de Ia acest capitol)
(11.17 )

_---r-r-1

-----4-.;,-+-~-----" 0

2

~--~"

l'~/
11.8

/'

P~

'lOr dy
b

indusa

Este usor de verificat C':-b din relatia. (11.4) rezultalntr-adevar este constanta in aceste conditii. Astfel, utiliztnd
/I

ca vit.ez a aubstrtutia
(ll.IS)

-'2

= - -/_!_ cosO,
2

ely

= _b_
2

sinS dfl,

h l'i".

sa. fie minima. in condiyia portanta totala

I)

reliiLVia (11.4) se va scrie

P

=

pVoo~
-2
-b

rdy

W=

Fill' lUI

ramine eonstanta. Se presupune ca se aceasta circulatic optima (fig. 11 Atunci, (I abatere mica de Ia ".p',"~l.fn,a;;{;"l

(11.19)

253

unde s-a utilizat

distributia

cireulatiei

in variabila

e
(11

Caraeteristlei aerodinnmlee. Portanta
I, -2-

aripii se calculeaza usor

L

l'

=

roRinO

~i integrala generala Glauert (10.146). Pontru sectiuuea din mijlocul aripii (y

P

= 0) se va gasi

= p 1700 ~
u --2-

rdy

=

p-~-

bro 1700=

-i21.;ct

P V~b2AI·

(11.28)

ro = "c V
'00

(a. -

_1'l!:'~L)·. = 1700

nco Voo (oc

- ~), 17 2b

Cocficientul unital' dc POl'tanta este
00

de unde se deduce

O.

=

P

ro=
P-o fiind dat de reh1tia

2b17 oo-~ 1 + flo

ct,

(11.22)
1lllde A este alungirea

.e. 17 8 2
2
00

= nJ..A1 =
1

+ flo

I

I,

(11.29)

daca se utilizeaza coeficientul Sub forma adimensionala

r=

k: dedus din experienta (11.9). rj2b Y expresia (11.22) devine
00

(11.1), iar 8 suprafata, aripii eliptiee 8 = nbco/4. Este interesant de reprezenta.t derivata dOz/dct in funetie de alungirea Apentru a vedea care este domeniul de aplicabilitate al rela.tiei (11.29) dedusa <lin teoria liniei poi-tanto drepte (fig. 11.10). Dae:"Lse inloeuie~te (1'0 cu expresia sa (11.23) in l'elatia (11.29) se (Mine

zu« o _~_"_~_ sau ~z -2k
1

+ -_._
ToA
_'

O

.=

2n()(_ 1

+ _""-A

')

(11.30)

Ir

0

= 1 ~_o f~o ct=

Al

~---


0

~i derivata dO./da

dO.!._=--2n
dct

Din aceeaai ccuatie a circula.tiel (11.11) sCl'isa. pentru oareeare I;\i 0 ineidenta ct = const se va gaBi

sectiune

1 de {,

.\

2 +-_.-

(11.31)

A

ia urma toarelo

valori

in funetie
dO."...

da

= 2n

pentru 11.--'>-00, pentrn X =

In eonsecinta, pentru ct = consj:,. tOI;i termenii (~in partea a reln,1;iei(11.2.')) stnt constanni ~i atunci eoarda c trebuie S~L alba 0 elipticf'L

o.

(11.32)

vn,,1·ln,tlp.'i;

I
sau in variabila

c = Co V 1-

1/--------(

2y 1 -b-) ,

e

,------1 I C = Co sin e
1

Se constata ell, dOz/da Linde zero pen tru A --'>-() ca . (dO./doch_,o=nA (fig.n.lO). Rezultatele obtinuto prin teorii mai exacte [8:3] se departeaza insa d~ acestea la alungiri mici. Se poate retine ca. pentru alungiri mfi,ri (11.>4) teoria de Iinie po.r'tanta dre<1pta este suficient
Spre de preeisa.
88

-----------

I

Din relatiile (11.26), (11.27) r~zu~W,c~ fo~ma in plan a aripii . tenFL indusii minima este atunei eliptiea (fig, 11.8). 254

.La alungiri mici rezultatele indeparteaza de realitato dcoarece modelul lnsusi se inde-

{J

r

Ii

1/

255

\

parteazii. de fenomenul real. De exemplu teorii mai exaete amta e~,. tinde spre zero ca .,.1../2 nu ca 7tA a~a cum se obtine prin teoria portante drepte. Hezistent-a, indusa se va scrie, t,inind seama de (11.12)

distributia r(y) poate fi pusa sub forma unei dezvoltari in serie, de la disbributia de baza cunoseuta, eea elipbiea (11.25). p'Xt~lHII·'lU dintre autori (Betz, Fuchs etc.) pornese de la a,ceasta inmultita cu 0 funetie de corec~ie dezvoltata in aerie de
'_',,-,v,-u.u.

(11.37) Este de notat ca pentru aripi slmetrice, VOl' exista in aceasta dezvoltare numai coeftcienti pari. o alta cale, oarecum aimilara (sugerata de Treffts si mal ales de Glauert) pleaca de la 0 dezvoltare in aerie trigonometrica in variabila 6 definita prin (11.18), in care primul termon reprezinta tocruai cireulatia eliptica
(11.38)

unde s-an utilizat

l'elatiile (11.1.9), (11.22), (11.24), (11.28). Coeficientul de rezi:,tenta indusa se deduce sub forma

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0,.;=-7tA

O~-I
.

Hezistenva tol,ala la inaintare se deduce ad:lugind Ia expresia mai sus un coeficient Ox. corespunz5,tor rezistentei provenita din efeet~ do frecare

de

in aceasta reprezentare se vede cil., daca aripa este n este impar, iar da,oil,este total antinimetrici; n nea de aimetrie ~i antiaimetrie toktli't V[L include desigu.r metric iii incidenta cc . .Metoda Glauert. Viteza iudusii. (11.4) poatefi ealculata aplicind integrala (10.146)
numarul
2"
b

total aimetrica, este par. Notin~i conturul geofara dificultati,

In Hnr~it, unghiul indus in valoare absoluta este (11.6).
=

fJ.;

'Voo

I _I._.'L.._ = Al .
IW

'

I

CCt

= -g_~- I,
TC /,

I

(11.36) .

.

'W = - ----

T co
n:

.T

~

±
1

nA"cosnO'

--2-

r,

cosa' -cos0

( '= - V 00 .£..J

16

~ .,'I.An _sl_n ___/'0 1 1 sin6

n.

t:\

(11.39)

unde s-au considerat relatiile (11.19), (11.24) ~i (11.29). 11.3. ARIPA DRE:APTA DE FORMA, iN PLAN, OARECARE Ecuatia (11.11) cu neeunoscuta r(y) are 0 singuri't solutie particulars lnchisa COl'espunzatmLre aripii elip tice, Pentru aripi de forma, oareeare, la care se ounoaste varh""ia corzii c(y) ~i incidenta cc(:IJ), e y_oate ~etel~"'; s mina . oirculatia r(y) prin dozvoltarea in serie a SO.lU!iIel (sene 111\ " puteri, serie trigonometrica etc.) san prin metode numerice.
11.3.1. Metode tie ealeul, Problema c1et.erminarii circulatiei r(!I) pentl;" aripi cu eontur dat a, constituit ohiectul a, numeroase cerce.t~ri, ef~ctuate( in deeeniul al treilea ~i al patrnlea la aceatui secol, Se mentioneaza as~f~l... printre ;"l~ii, numele unor cercetatori ca Betz, Fuchs, Munk, Trefft2?, Blenk, Glauert Oaratoli, Multhopp etc.. o sirrteza a aces tor cereetari poate fi urmanta. ill lucrarile de nelotlI·, namica [07], [Ol.L]. Se VOl' da in continuare citeva clemente de a acestor met-ode.
y' y • y. • .' .

~i dad), se introduce in ecuatilt lui Praudtl

I

~Q_

sinO

t

A"sinnO+fLo

t

(11.11)

se obtiue reht\;ia fLoCCsin61·
(11.40)

,nAn sinn0=

unde s-a notat eu fLo parametrul dat de (11.23). Pentru g'J.sirea coeficienuilor .An ai acestei ecuatii, se VOl' Ina n valor i pe aripa (sau numai pe jumatatea aripii, daca aceasta este aimetrica ) adiea 01' 01; O2, 62" ••• ; On' On~i se VOl' forma n ecuatii cu n neeunoseute : .AI" •• ,An (metoda aoloaaJiei). Metoda Oarafoli de generalitate mai mare [07] care fnrnizeaza explicit formula fiecarui coeticient An' consta in a reprezenta functia Co sin 6/0 printr-o serie finita, respectiv printr-un polinom trigonometric. Se va co~sidera, pentru simpIificare, cazul curent al aripilor eu geometric simetrlCa; in variabila 0, simetria impune numai termeni pari, in cos m 0,
(11.41)

256

257
18

/
unde de obicei se ian primii trei termeni Po, Pz, P4' 0 asemene~t es te suriclcnta pentrn a reprezcnta tdpurile uzuale de aripi ~i trapezoidale, precum ~i eele eu contur curl? cont.inuu. 90eficienyii Pm se YOI' numi coei'icienji de 101'1nli. . In a.ceste conditii, relatia (11.40) se scrie
fLo

" f nAn

sin

II.

0+·

(m + ~o

12PzlItCOS

2mO ~ All sin 1108=[Lo((sinfJ ~i dezvoltarea

.) "

'

I,
I

unei aripi de anVer(0. = 2ka), iar 2k", panta 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t~:1re a,1'ipii de a.lungirc a:), se poate d.etermi~a .ungh!ul lll~U~. dlll, reIa~la (1~.1?) care «»e , ••_•• t-n dnitre unghn~1 d~ ~n.?lden1;f1 al ~1'l}~ll de anvergura lllfillita ~i aripii de anvergum fllllta la aeelasi ('z·
'nlllll"'.WO>

<)k este punta coeficienbului corespunzator

__ .__

(11.48)

unde eventual se poate introduce

j ('f.sin0 =
daci'L Incidenta a: cste variabila. So va observa mai departe
2 sinn8cos2m0=sill(n+

--_."

f

a:"si.nn0 ,

-.-,

S-;1,

notat
(11.49)

ea

se poatc pune
2m)O + sin

en -

2m)fl,

teny~1induaa se doterminii en ajutorul este lIatrt de (11.39)
-.£b r.-

relayiei (11.12), unde viteza

in care caz, relatia (11.42) conduce Ia

u, = P \ !w!
--2
-b

rely

= pb21';;, ~( ~; lui" sinn 0) (~ .11"SinnO) (HI=
0

Soluyiona1'ea problemei se poate face aproximativ, ohservind c~ la un anumit rang n, coefieientii A,,+a, .11.+4" •• pentru aripilo cUl'ente ', suficient de mici pentru a fi neglijaui, situatie 111 care reIa,yitt (11.45) transforma ill tr-o rolatie de reeurenta. Prirrtre alte metode dezvoltate pentru determinarea cil'culayici la . drepte, mentionam metoda lui Mulrhopp care necesita in final rezoi numerica a unui sistem de n ecuauii cu n necunoscute. Un alt practic de ealeul al coeticientilor A" a, fast p1'OpUS de O. Berbente, 11.3.2. Forte ~i momente aerodinamiee, In cazul eind distribuyia Iatiei este cunoseuta, atunci determinarea 1'or1,e101' momentelor ~i narnice poate H facuti.'1.fara difieulta.ti. Se va calcula : portanta, indusa ~i eele trei momente dupa eele trei axe de coordonato. Portanta se deduce diu (11.13), unde r este data de (11.38)

,>
n

(11.50)

de rezistl'llta

indusa

va Ii (11.51)

1

+ 3=

".11 v n--~-,1 ' .l
.lj

2

I
A"sill

.ili

(11.52)

p = p V oc

~
b

rdy

= pb2Y,;,

~ (~
0

110)Sill

Hd 0 = 2e.. V';'b2nA1•

-2

Rezistenta totala ~e Yt~ ob1'_ine ~drH1gin111a r;:z~stenta. indusa (11.51) de freeare ~l de [orrml. (avind drept coe1.JClentunttar C,,)

Ooeficientul alungirii A,

unital' de portanta

se va scrie, tiniud seama de (11.53)

aeeasta relatie apare elar de ce aripa eliptica are cea mai redusa rezia(deoareco 3 = 0). .
258
27

259

\
Momentul de tangaj, ill jurul axei Oy (fig. 11.11), est« cazul aripilor drepte, numai de momentul la portanta nu]1.\, l a din fiecare sectrune y. Irrtr-adevar, focarul profilelor din diJ'erite se va g:'.Lsi c axa Oy, jar p aripii (simetrice) va fi situat ill originca siatemnlui de nate. Se va putea se,rie deei tul degiratie, .de 1'Uli~l,
2"
b

in jurul axei Oe, apare In aceleasi conditii ca ~i

P ~ tvrdy
-2"
~

=

-i-

1t

V;,b

3

~ ( ~~ 0

nA"sin n a) (

t
A

A.sin n

f)) cos Bd e =
('11.58)

~=uncle c1 este 0 coarda de convenabil aleasa. Daca profilele sint geometric asemenea, Omo este constant ~i scoate afara de sub integrala ; iar daca ill plus se aJege drept referinta cea rezultata din relatla M",

eonstata ca M 1 0-1 Az
1

~ (2p + 1)ApAp+l=3Al

+5A3+

_4

A2

(7Aa -I- 9As)

+

(11.59) Pentru 0 artpa elipt.ica pcntru care toti coeficicrrtii An (impari) si?t ·liuli, afara de AI' acest raport are 0 e:xpresie Ioarte simpla, care se sene, seama de (11.47)

I~=M" denumita coarda medic aeTodinarnica, atunei J{YI = 0"'0 respectiv cientul de moment 130 portanta nula 301 aripii este egal cu coefieientul moment 130 portanta nula al profilului din care este generata aripa. Momentu1 de ruliu, ill jurul axei Ox, apare numai daca distribu1;i:L circulatie se departeaza de una simetrica. Intr-adevar
-2b
'It

30.
1tt..

I.

(11.60)

I

I,

- Aceasta relatie este aproximativ valabila pentru toate aripile curente, deoarececaraeteristicile aerodinarnice sint; foarte apropiate unele de altele. . Coeficientu1 unital' de moment va fi
(11.61)

M",

= pVoo ~ --2
b

yr dy =

-

~ Vt,b3~ (U"sin
0··

ne) sine cosade =

unde A2 (11.38) conduce evident Ia 0 distributie arrtisimetrica a Coefieientul unital' de moment va fi

11.3.3. Treeerea de In () alungire la alta. Se poate constata ca relatia .53) reprezinta 0 variapic parabolica :;1, lui Ox en Ot; de aceea, curba . toare se numeste pamboZa -i'lldtbSa. De asemenea, C, = 1( Ox) nume:;;te polara arip'ii (deoarece in coordonate polare da rezultanta tota}a ~i inclinarea ei). . In mod obisnuit, prin aceasta denumire se illtelege tot setul de curbe G. =_j'((Y.), Ox = 1((Y.), Ox =1(0.), Om =1(0.), care caracterizeaza compor. tarea din punct de vedere aerodinamie a unei aripi. Aceste curbe Slit , prezen tate ill figura 11.12.

Cm! I
,

-

uncle 260

Om

este coa,rda medie geometr'ica (cm

= Sib).

---~---Tz
Fig. 11.12

Relatiile (11.48), (11.[)3) permit treeerea de la 0 polara (teoretica '(lxper!mentfl,l~)a unei al.'ipi de .al~lllgire Al ]a 0 alta vpolara a unei aripi' alungiro 1.2 fit de aceeasi forma, ill plan. Intr-adevar, pentru aeeh1Ri unghiurile de incidenta corespunzatoare VOl' fi, respectiv .

undes-a

notat

eu

a.,

incidenta

efectiv:: .. (11.10). Rozulta

deci,

In mod analog, din rela\,ia (11.5:3), se deduce

Aceste relatii de trecere, de la t.ehniea aerodinamiea:

0

alungire la alta, sint

11.:3."1. Jilflmmj.a aripioareler, Metoda prezent;:ttrtin precedente permite t)i .oonaiderarea efectelor introduse mobile de comandaale unui avion : aripioare, proi'undqr,· de intrados, flapsuri etc. Intr-adevar, a:;;aemil S-~L aratat in § IG pil,r1;iimobile f1, unui profil poate fi interpreta.t en. modificare a. '~~""'''lU elective, conform Iormulei (10.170). In conseeinta, (I aripa eu pi1.rYi braeate, poate fi interprctatt; I~i calculata C;;L0 aripa en incidents. (in salttu-i) pe portiuni. Pentru ilustrs .. ea procedeului, pe11t.111 r cazul , fieat al unci arip i eliptiee, se pol; urmari problemele 2 :;;i :3 rezolvate acest capitol. '11.4. EXTENSIl)f\l1 ALE tEORIEI ARIPII DE ANVERGURA. FINITA

x

T

II

aripa de anvm'!lura iini.ta. Pentru problernei aripii de anvergura finita eel mai simplu model este, dUPfL i)-a al"1tl~t, eel propus de Prandtl In care 0 aripa dreapta se J.UlLV"lll~'~ en un sistom de virtejtu-i legate, plasate pe linia focareloraicu un sis virtejuri Iibere care se desprind de ltripa in aval (fig. 11.6, model'ul portante dreptes. 'I'ot pentru cazul Jiniei portante drepbe se utilizes .. ii. un model z inlocuire al aripii derivat din eel p1'op118 de Prandtl. Inaeeasti1 se inlncuiestcaripa en 0 sumu, de potcoave de virt.ej f.inite ea. in tensi (fig. 1l.L1) dar )'oarte inguste, iar viteza indusa intr-un punct P coordonata y, rezulta ca sumit a vitezelor induse de Iiecare potcoavs
virt.ej. Pornind deb

1104.1. AH(l modele pentru

baza acestuimodel so atudia :;;i 0 supmfa,til. in geuerat.F'iecarc are Intensitatea
d I' = ycl.-v. Prin

aoestor potcoave r trcbuie sa retatea I' ~i .. acesteia corespunzatoare profilului din seeviune~L reapectivii
5).

l~
r

acest model, prin cxtinrlere, rezultii un al t.reilca . eel al Iiniei portante genemlizate. Principiul acestni 'model in care se inlocuieste de asemenea cu 0 sumii de virt.ejuri, este Ul"a.t[~(; IIfiguml1 I 262

.

'

al patrulsa model in vederea tmtarii unei suprafete portante T··,',HOl.l't>,n"'''n est~ ~el prezentat in figura 11.16. Se observa ef.. speeifieul acestui " e?IlSGam aceea eiJ., pe zona aripii, se considera 0 retea de ochiuri vu'tej C[tre pot fi considerate ea rezultind din fragmentarea potcoavelor la modelul anterior. 263

_

_l_

~~_~~~~

__

~

_

(fig. 11.17, a) sau 0 aripa. in sageata (£ig.11.17,b) se po ate estima calitativ al sage~ii X asupra caracteristieilor aerodmamice VV''''',up.''m,

11.4.2. Consideratli asupra aripii in (lcl'ivii. Pentru

0

arip~ in

rezulta

scaderea

eoefieientului

de rezistenta

la inaintarc

eu

/
,- -·1--·------l
I
Fin. 11.17

(11.69) .A.cesterclaW (11.67), (11.69) expliea avantajul utilizarii aripii in sagcata viteze mari (faptul ea rczistenta Ia inaintare scade eu eos3X pe ciud scade numai en cos-x ). Din relaVia (11.66) se poa,t(;arktt'a. de asemenea cum seade panta eoefibientului de portanta eu incidenta, Iunetie de sageata x. p - ...£- V2l'1 llD
2
(

dC,,,)
d«,
)(=0

N

_

V·'tl

-

_£_ 2

172

00

8 (d~~)

dC( x

a1

(11.70 a)

aripa infinita in deriva, deei neglijind in prim~ aproximatie zona nah1 ~i pentru aripa in sageata ~i .zon~ eentmla.. .. ._ . In aceste conditii considerind directia cu1'entuhu.de Ia u:,fIDlt,~l normals la Iinia focarelor (fig. 11.18) se pot SCrIe urrnatoarele geometrice
-I

V 1l =V

00

cosX

,

()( n

=-~-I"
eos X
00-

I( dC~)
da:

x

= (dCz~)
da:n

x~o

cos

X I'

(11.70, b)

s-a tinut

seama de eele doua relati; (11.65).
11.5. PROBLEME REZOLVATE

Dupa cum se vede in fig~m~ ~1.18, compor:enta vi!~zei. ill lungul V nu intluenteaza caracteristieile :1erodIllamle~, "dectt prlllt1'-~. OI~dinul doi datorita frecarii, care ar d(~ 0 mica compononta :u , vitezei V Din aceasta oauza, in urmeaza se neglijeaza efeetul Portanta a1'ipii se poate serie in variante legate de cele doua '''", .-i. '~ ~ earacteristlce

Sa se 5letermine eirc1!-Ia1;.il1(JI) pentru miscarea in j:uul unei aripi ~ anvergura b care are dlStl'lbut;lH, de viteze w constanta (1.1'0 = canst.)
Rezolonre, transversal pentru
00

Se va examtna Oyz departe un punct

rniscarea In aval

prorlusa (fig. 11.19)

de ptnza

de vlrt ejurl la illlinit w' cst e constantl\

aval.

lnll'-un

mlscnrr a pot cnt lala IJlm3 de vlrlejuri

est e bidimensionala In ~i ['galil cu 2w. la _ 00 III cstu hllinsa

unci tiiicturi de Iungime
la

b pc axa

011, pc care vltezu
se comport

.

+

situat

dcpart e III aval senma

In spate).

In consccmt a Liiietur3

a

en 0 pl:1cli pInna co se drplnseaza

,-:._~

'~"

jos ell viteza 2wo 111 fluid irnobfl. Ti ntnd rtzultil ca potentlalul complex va Ii

de solllj!a

data la upllca[Ia

2 de la § 10.9,

. ,."......

Of'.

r, _--

!_"I-_,R

A . ".
Fill. 11.111

~

/

""

I

~
~,

I

(1;)

=S-a

Vooi

V~·(a ell

4~1'·sin o: cst e est e

=-

2w.i

V~.'-:2,
I
I

......'1-....

de unde rezulta coeficientul tani;a al aripii in functie de profilului dupa .normala

Cz.

deanrece

ct

=

eereului complexa

7!/2, Yoo generator). ~=

=

2111., b = 4a notat

<; ............... ' /

y+ iz,

I; varl-

Vit eza complcx:'\ --2il/l.~ __

............ /

II c, = .•c,

COS2X

.

\,

--

df

= o' -

iure« -

d~ Pc taictul'il

V~2-b-'/4

.,.....---~o::+i---~-.-.,,"·,..,., --.--;1.,,.'

deei un o. mai mie en eos2';(. Pentl'~ re~isteJ?-ta ~a l~aintare aerie, considerind numai componenta in directia vitezci V00
R
P = R " cos X' = -2

(asimilata

ell

placa plami de

z = 0 jar dill rclatla de mal

.... ---.--1-----.--1. --:-.. l'i". 11.19

i

i

b~~8

V "IJ. ·(YC
2

.."

cos X '

= __1

2

e..

72 00

8C.,
#

v'= __

iy' - -bj4

2_i_w_o}I__=

2w_o_!'_.

264

265

.nalcu larea Rezult a pentru

integralelor

dlstrtbutia

de circulatle

y (8.59)
21" = -

y = - --ely care devine pri n intl'grarc

dr

=

--===-=== '
4wol! f1b2f4 __ yO

'" = (0:0 -I- e) -I- ~~ [_s_in_2_0_: " 2

o,J'
2/10, ] 2/1
A",ai

rela]!a identid!

ell (11.17). Codicicnpi
0:"

. 2~ ",":11+1-IT

[SiL12(P

+ 1)0,

-

sin ..

2(p -I- 1)

') ::;Vse determine circulatia I' pentru 0 aripi'b eUptiei1 care prezintil nn Il~ volet central ~ pc portiuneav, (fig. ~1.20), ell ntPOI;tu~ elic constan t.

i;n~~~1j

fiinel

cunoscutt se determina irnedlat coeficicntii
An

distributle] cireulat iet dill

= __ f'_o_
1 -I- lif'o
I

Cl.

w

3. Sa se re20lve aceeasi problema, peni;l'u aripa eliptica dar en bracaj de aripioare pr ntrn comanda lateralil. a avionulni (eleroane). Bracajul ~. este acelasi !n valoare absoluta pentru aripioara.djn stillga~i aripioara din dreapta dar de semne eOlltral'O ea in figura 11.21.
Fig. 11.20 . Rezoluare, Procedind prccedcnta seama in mod asemandtcr cocliincidentcl

r~----~
~'
I

lb.

I

I, ". i, __ I"
1

o

8

L..,

!.

J!

I i8.{

ff

I
I

Rezolnare. Cocficieufil
care pentru aripa cliptici\

11" al dtstrtbutlel devine ~
I

clrculatlcl

(11.38)

se dctermina

din relatta

(11.40)

en In problema cientli cr." j.jllind estc autisimetrtca

se det er-mina eil varj'tiia

rl,,(1 -I- llf'O) sin ,,0 .;

:~()(Y.

sin

e,
,

Fir,. 11.21 " = 0:1)
-

e peutru - b/2 ;;;;Y ,;:; - Y,;
pcnt ru Yl

0

<
(J ,;:;

e < 0"
IT -

sttlud ca c =
Inci

Co

sin 0:
LlrUlfl~o~rc:,

.:.'

~
0'.

!I, ,;:;II .;;

Y,;

H,,;:;
it -

0"

dcntu

o: nrc variatia

=!

,"=
"-=
a;

"-0

pentru

-

T ,;:; Y ,;:;
-

b

-

!ll; 0 ,;:;

° ,;:;

=

itu

+~

pentru

<

U~

b/2;

81 < 0 ~ rr,

I,):

undo

G

arc acceasl

cxpresle

0"

"0

-I-

E

pcntru
Y',

1ft ,;:; Y ,;:; y,;

0, ,;:; 0 ,;:; 1C

~

OJ,

c~~f:I

=

"'0

p errt.ru

<

!I .;; b/2 ;: ." -

0,

<.? «

rr,

RezLLltii pentru scrla Fourier a Inncttel ,,(0) sin fJ eodicienti dif.,rll,i eicntll ell iudice par ~i desl gur primnl cncf'ictcnt (41care dcplnd« de'-incidcnta

V

7 --'-.
c de zero nurnai globaHi a o cocfi-

uncle

e este dat

de (10'.170)

,.

la acest car. f unctta

"- sin 0 va tl dczvo ltat ii In scrie Fourier CI.(O) sin G

C~

I;
]

(Y."

sin rIo
". • '~ .•. ..; !

"2P

0=

.3.~:[~r~(:l_/1IT

1~1

_

2p -

1

sil1(2/1 +- l)"~J 2/1 + 1

.

1'1 : ",;,:,~ n

~i va

rczultu

pcntru

cocttclcnttl

(1.n

dill
'rr

.'

4. Sa se determine circulatia arc parametrul !l.o == 1/:3.
Rezoloare, S,' va utlltzn dez voltarea

r

pcntrn 0 arilla. dreptunghiulara

'

care

in ser!e

lrigollometricii

(11.38)

cr."."'" : ~
o

ell 3 t ermcnl

",~O) sin (),sinnOdO,

....... ~:.:

..

l' = 2b l'co(A,siu

() -I- A,si1130

-I-

A.sin5e).

266:

267

in trei punete pentru il]1par~iti la unghiul

si se va utiliza metoda colocatlel, adica va fi pusa condlt!a ca l'elati~, (1i.40) . ,

e = 1t/12,

tt/4, tt/2. Se va tntclcge prin A.l, A3, A, cocficicntiiAl, A3,

,

S" fie san

.

Gt

Relatla

(11.40)

va deveni, tlnlnd seama de faptul -I- 3 sin3IJ

(3 sine -I- 1) A'

1

(

1 -I- -.son

1), e

ca
A3

cole = 1 ~i (..to 11:i =

+ sin50

(. + -;-_.. 5),
3 sui B

12. INTERFERENTE AERODINAMICE
A5 = 1,

care pcntru punctcle mentionate

mai inainte duce In SistCIll111,

1,776 A.~ + 10,317 A~ 3,121 A{ -I- 5,121 A;
U~ -

+ 21,558 11~= 1 + 7,121 A; = 1

6A~

+ 8A~ = 1

Solutla acestui ststem este
A~ = 0,284, A~ = 0,0325, A~ = 0,0074 si se pot cornpara aceste (tabelul 18.1 [C 7]). valori cu cele obtlnute

pe

0

calc mal

cxaota

de Acad.

Carafoli In

in capitolele precedente 8-;1,n examinat 0 serie de probleme de baza ale mecanicii aplicate ale fluidelor, in spet,a ale aerodinamicii. Aceste .probleme au fost insa studiate tn conditii simplificate : profit aerodinamic arip~],zolata etc. Aplicatiile efective constau insa din probleme mai com~ i pliclbte.De exemplu la un avion, lntereseaza miscarea in [urul ansamblulni al'ipa - fuselaj, eventual aripa - fuselaj - ampenaj, Asemenea p1'obleriJecomplexe, in particular influenta reciproca a mai multor frontiel'e (solide sau fluide) asupra miscnrii sint cunoscute adesea subdemunirea de interferente aerodinamiee.
12.1. METODE DE STUDIU

A~ = 0,286, A;

=

0,0293, ~1~= 0,006.

, Studinl misoarii 1lI jurul a mai multe corpuri, san in jurul unni.eorj, dar si in prezentaaltor trontiere este desigur mai dificil iar calcule corecte lin pot fi efcctuate decit prin metode numerice. Se pot totusi obtine informat.ii asupra rnodificarii caracteristicilor miscarii prin anumits simpl]. fical'i judicioase, 12.1.1. Frontiere snlide, In cazul misearii unui corp, de exemplup1'ofil aerodinamic san al'ipa de avian, in prezenta alter frontiere rigide, conditia aditionala care trebuie satisfacutaeste evident aeeea ea frontie1'ele suplimentare sa fie linii (supratete) de curent, respectiv ca viteza fluidnlni sa f.jetangentaIa acestea (daca frontierele sint imobile). Mai general, conditia pe frontierele supllmentare est.e aceea corespunzind orioarei frontiers solide -(4.22). ·12.1.2. Frontiere Iluide, Notiunea de fTontiera fluida a mai fost folosita ~ianterior ~i a fost lnterpretatit ca o suprafat,a de discontinuitatcpentrn vitezele tangentiale (§ 6.2, § 8.2). In cazul eind frontiera este libera (frontie1'a unui jet de exemplu), conditla fizica de eehilibru este ca presiunan de 0 parte ~i de alta sa fie aceeasi ; fluidul nu traverseaza evident frontiera (viteza normala zero), conditia care implicii alinierea frontierei ap1'oximativ dupa viteza generalaa eurentului (incazul cind miscarea generals se datn. reste unui curent uniform). Se poate arata c:"t, inanumite aituatii, conditiilo fizicede mai lJUB impun ea frontiera libera sa fie linie de egalpotential. Fie de exemplu orniscare, cuprinzind dona domenii : nn .domenm D lnconjurat de un alt domeuiuD', separate printr-o fro11tierl1 iibera.

. 'Evulimren eleetelor nnor Irontlere solido. Se val' onurnera mai exemple semnif'ieative. .Miscarea in jurul a dona profile poate fi atudiata rlguros transformarilor eonfonne [011 J. 0 manierii simplificata de a aceeasi problema este aceea de a inlocui pc rind unul din tre on un virtej in focal' (fig. 12.2). Aeelafii procedeu poate fi aplicat p ~ p", - pV",1t , pi '_~lfl cazul n, dona profile in (fig. 12.:3, a.) ~i chiar, ell 0 -/~')""'<:__7~'- imatie ceva mai mare, pentru Daea punctele P ~i pi sint si prof'ilelor ell tanta de bord in imediata veeina.tate a / ~ i . t! de atac (fig, 12.3, b). de o parte ~i de alta" eehilihru este .'. J~feGt'lll de sol. Un prof'il care evo-~~~/~/_/_I_/--__/_/--.-'lilea,~il'in imediata aprop iere a solului P =p'. ......va n,vea, aracterlstici modificate fata c Fill. 12.2 O' -V":' tn consecin ta (, de U11 profil izolat, Intr-adevar FI!l' 12.1 L".,.,,,,,,,,.o,,c;· (fig.12.4)' pentru ca solnl sa, fie linie de curenf este necesar sa' se eonsiV con = V:"1b'. rlere un profil imagine, simetric fat-a de profilul real, care, 1:1 rtndul s(m, Daca in plus miscarile in domeniile j) ~i D' sint irotationale, ele ponte fi eventual inlocuit aproximativ en un virtej.,Oomparilld fignrile (lite un potential de viteze, fie <p, respcctiv <p'. Seriind, in n = 17pI Dx, respectiv 11.' = iJ <p' / om, rezulta prin integrare <

Daea se admite ca in amonte miscarca se reduce 130 curenti unif'ormj, trontiera va avea forma aproximativ eilindrica (fig. 12.1), mi~carea domeiul D, avind in amonte 0 viteza Tlo iar cea din domeniul D c viteza V~. . tn ipoteza perturhatiilor mid presiunile intr-un IJlIDet P f)i intr-un punct P' VOl' fi legate de presiuhea.l1&, din .amonte, prin

/ / _f /
fJ;./

De exernplu daea Irontiera este foarte sbba, sieventual disparc V:x,--+ Y"" C -> 0 iar relania (12.4) nu mai exprima decit; eonti lUl"a,."" ..,'. poteutialului 'P.1n schimb, daca 1UHl din viteze este zero, de V~ = 0 (jet in fluid imobil) atunci eonditia (12.4) arata cafrontiera rl,,'vh1'A.,"· linie (suprafata) de ega.1potential. 12.1.3. Metode apruximative de 'evaluare II interferentel," Dupa s-a rnai mentionat, studlul riguros al problemelor de interferenta adescu f'oarte dif'icil, astfel lncitunele poaibilita] i de aimplif'lcare a' devin extrem de utile. . S-~l aratat de exemplu (§ 10.:i) ei:'L influonta unui profil 1& 0 dil1tanta. de acesta ('1';0 aproxirnativ ecb.ivaleuta cu aceea :1 unui coneentrat, de aceeasi cireulatie I', plasat in focal'. o alit!. aproximatie utila. priveste influenta produsa de 0 aripi1 dnn.n"'a·C, de aoeasta, care este aproximativ echivalenta ell aceea dlLta. de 0 p ,"F""a""". de virte] (fig. 11.5). Asemenea observatii l)ot simplifica mull; tratarea, Iapt care va fi trat in cele ce unneazitprtn. citeva exemple aerrmificative,
12.2. EXEMPLE DE INTERFERENTE

12.4 Hi 12.2 se eonstata ea efectul este oarecum invers decit in cazul Iiiplanului. De exemplu portanta unui profil create cbtorita etcctului
solului,

Studiu 1 de detaliu :11 problernelor de in terterenta depa~r~te cadrul mului de fata. De aceea se VOl' prezenta in cele ee urmcaza principii calcul pentru citeva modele simplifieate, urmind ca pentru amanunte so consulte tratate de specialitate [07], ErN], [83].

12.2.2. li~c:U'ea printr-o retea tie JI!:ofile.Ut.ilizar! ale retelelorxle pro-' file sint numeroase, cum ar f1 : palete !'i!l' 12.4 deflectoare (coturi deflector! de direc, tie ete.), compresoare (sau difuzoare, in care vitexa abaoluta scade eonsnmindu-se lucru mecanie), turbine (sau retele confuzoare, in care viteza absoluta creste, producindu-se lueru mecanie). Oaracteristieile principale ale unei retele de profile sint: t - pasul retelei, masurat pe linia AB, numita ~i frontnl retelei, Y1 - viteza in amense de retea, Y2 ~viteza in aval de retea, diferita ca direetie ~i marime fa1;a de viteza din iamonte, circulatiaIn jurul+unui profil (fig.. 12.5.). .... Studiul mi~ca,rii prin retele de profile se poate face extinzind metodele dip.~apitolu~ 10 pent.rnp:'ofile iz.o~a~e,n':r;articular,we~oda tr~n~formari~or i cO)lfQtn~e .. ~ metoda singularitatdlo» ~ .. [Ol1J. ,Oa!~tatlv, eXlsta,anunllte, <leQ~ebi;rLaparep.te. Astfel in nnscaceannui profil izolat, 'Viteza Ia-infinif amonts ~i Ia infinit aval este aceeasi, aceea de.cureatunitorm eu 0 viteza V 00'

Ietele

r..:_.

270

uniform l' VII es t'e, d upa' cum s-a, menuonat, t dif erita d e Vlteza V din (Ill t' ., . 1 ' 2 . Particul~rit~tea de mai sus poate fi u~~r explicata" daea se flCcare profil din ret,e~L un vrrtej de Clrculatie r plasat in cu 12.()). Oonfigura.1;iaastf'el obVinnta. a fost tratata anterior (§ 8.4)

In cazul 'unei retele de profile viteza iml'entului

. \y \r
~

Interierenln aripa-ampenaj orizontal, L~ avioanele l~e.. CO~l~urenta, ampenajul orizontal es~e ~lasat III spa~ele aripu ; III "cOllditii miscarea l!l jurul ampenajului este alterata de prezent a datol'itit vrtezelor induse ~le aceasta. .." , ,',' ntru un profil, 0 ariIJ~L produce pe axa longitudinala 0 Vlt.eza, 81 pc "I , 'e monte '1','J'ata in jos 111 ava (' 0 vtteza"dIll, usa (1 St'IlS con tr In a, , I si ,1al, (111 , , " 10,80). in con,sc_?inta, intr-o prima aprox__m,latJe, ,ampena.J~l, tot ca 0 aripa, dar care nu este plas,at.a in eUIen~ul ll,mlo!m ci in alt curent, avind aproximativ acelasi mcdul al vitezei (J; 00) deflectat en unghiul
"A

:ra

/)= wdVoo
este viteza indusa de aripa in dreptul ampenajului.

(12.9)

Fill. 12.5

a calcula acest unghi, se va t1':11:a pr<?blema: ?,oua ipotcze, taptul ea pinza de virtejl~ri, (~in, eauza, mstablhtatll, se desface formind doua nuclee de vtrt.ejurr margmale: , " oteoava de virtej eehivalenta cu int.ensitatea ,m,~(lIe,r",,~l disi;tro cele doua virtejuri Iibere egal:'i en an~ergu~'a RnpJ_l (~lg. 12..1, a) ; b otcoava de virtei cu intensitatea roegaJa en circulatia din sectiunea IJa aripii ~i distant a intrc cele dona virtejuri lib ere egala en b' 12.7, b).
Fill. 12.6

?~

aratat ea, un sir de virte~Uli induce I~ d,istant5l mari viteze finite paralele cu frontul1'el;eleJ. In consecinta, daea se noteaza cu V 00 transversala, aeeeasi in amonto ~i aval, va rezulta in amonts,
T7'

±
0

,

"

"I

=

T7'
"00

r +-J, 2t
-e-

unde s-a notat en J versoruldirectiei frontului retelei, in mod analog in aval
IT T7'

"2=

"oo-~j. 2t

r ,_
/I

Se eonetata ca 'V 00 nu este altceva decit vitesa medie

1'111' '12.7

prima ipoteza, eirculatia m~die r", se det~1'~ina din caleulul portantei eoeficientul de portanta global al arrpn in plus se poate arata [011] dt teorema Kutta-Jnkovski apliea ~i pentru un profil din retea, sub forma
(12.10)

P = pl'V",

X

r,
r=
m

unde s-a atribuit eonvenpional lui r sensul veetorulni virtej, portanta tlnd in eontinuare perpendieulara pe viteza 11m' De altfel relatia " poate fi dedusa fara difieultati, aplicind teorema impulsulu] pe ' de control sehitata in figura 12.5.

Voob ~ 2 A

(12.11)

A este alungirea aripii.

272

273

I

til
i! r, '.'.:.'.!

I

in acest caz, viteza induaa in punctul P situat Ia distanta, L aI'ip~'L, ste datoratu. vlrtejurilor marginale libere ~i vlrtejului leg at e aripa
'W,

== --- rm. ...----

i~ .

~~7tIJ

Sill

r; cos Y+ -- ( y 7tb
6).

+ 1)

. Interferenta Rl'i]Ja-fnselaj. Acea.,t~1.problema poate, in anuconditii ~ii- fie ~.tudia.ti1 eu ajutorul transfol'mar:ilol' conforme: de eJ1.ernplu 0 :tripil, simetrid1 previl,zuL:'\, en un Iuselaj cilindric circular, 'iph~~iat ,entl'al. AsHe.!,. da.cil, tigura 12.8, a. reprezint~ Ul'm~ ansambln.lni c ''-lihdevam aval, atunci printr-o transtormare conforms de t.IP .Iukovsk! a
t'

:i '.'.(
i

(vezi aplicatia

:3 de la capitolul

~'inind searna de expresia (12.11) pentru
tg y l'ezulta unghiul de deflectiun e
= b/2L =

I'; ~i cit

A

1/,,;,

11

i
<:

'5

a = _~ =.!}_z__
r.,
nl.

+ ~i-

': ,~
\

2e:
lui

(12.14)
a

. ~=-~
! b

l,=~

!t
(0

=

In a, doua ipoteza circulatia
7t/2)

este

ro, valoarea

r dlnscctiunea
;J~lllni ~uselajului nu mai altercazti miscarea, problema ;I'edueindu·se la aceea a unei aripi izolate [07]. ])up~i, rcvenirea, Ia planul fizic, distri""' . 1.1 I'---.. ;:E;:.;------j bntia de circulatie rezulta ea in
yz se poate trnnsforma cereul intr-o placa plana verticala, in contiguratia, astfel obtinuta (fig. 12.8, b), mi~carca f'iind simetrlca, urma

i1
~i din calculul portantoi rezulta distant a b' intre cele doua virtejurl marginale
(12.16)

adieU.
b' ~ xli;
x=7t'

4 .ill -

A;3

.

41

+ Ai,'"

~.-~.
:::-.;4

., 1t

Relatia (12.14) ram1.no evident de aeeeasi forma, numai se tnloeuieso en e' si I,'

ca

e: ~i i(12.18)

arM.at, eil, virtejurile libcre em string in doua vtrtejuri cnncentrat«, de iutensitato rn, situate Ja 0 distantl], b' == vb, Existent-a
fuselajului (care trebuie tl:1. fie

figura 12.8, e. • Un model uproximativ, dar mult mai simplu pentru acet'a~j problema, este prezentat in figura 12.9, eehiya,lent en modelul potcoavei de virtej din tigura 12.7. Astf'el, undeva in aval, S':1

/;

I

'____-+-l~-' ;-~" -~---I

I
I

f~I .:r-~
IW
I
"tj- ...

,;;1.

/1

1;'-

r
("\

I

'. i

s:

_j

in

aceste

conditii

unghiul de doflcctiune

rezulta

(12.Hir
On aceasta deflectiune (12~19)sau (12.14), cousiderata ca valoare

medie pe tot ampenajul, se determina care este incident a efeetiva in dreptul lui. 274.

linie de curent in acest plan) impune apai-itia unor virtejuri imagine, de sens contrar, in interiorul Iuaelajului lu distant o egalo ell '2R"//I' (§ 8A). Se constata eil. dista-ibutia reaH't de cil'cula{;ie este illloeuih1. in acest model cu dona zone de eireuconstanta roModelul din figura 12.9 per·mite evaluarea simpli1 a rnodului in care portanta se distribuie I

l'ig. 12.9

275

pe al'ipa, reapectiv

])(1

(8.113) rezulta imediat

fuselaj. Astfel aplieind teorema Kntta-J

.

P

aU)

=

2 .p

V

00

r0 (~

-

R) ;
=1+7;
'I'
~fl'
I

se poate demonstra ca in acelea~i puncte A',. ~~' a;par virtejul'i de acelasi sens en cele reprezentmd urma. arl~ll (fIg. 12.10,' b). Pentru a demonstra aceasta, fic cazul general din figura 12.11, unde 1(.2/a.

unde s-a notat eu Pa(/) portanta aripii din exteriorul fuselajului f,li eu p cea din interiorul fuselajului. Rezulta apoi
Pita)

p ..(!)

+

P'la)

2R =--. b'

Dac~ inflgura ~2.9 .in loc~tl eire~a\;!ei r., distrib\lita. p~ ~istaut,a b' se considers; aproximativ 0 circulatle In. < I'° dar distribuita pe toad anvergura b, rezulta relatii aimilare, avind doar 7)' inlocuit eu 7) = 2R/b. Rezultatele de mai sus corespund aproximativ cu cele obtinute prin metode mai. exacte ~i, de asemenca, sint destul de biue verificate experimental. In sfin;dt, modelul poate Ii perfectionat tinind seama de variatia In anvergura a circulatiei [07], [S3]. 12.2.5. Coreelii de tunel. Se VOl' determina, in eontiuuare, eoreetiile ee trebuie aplieate asupra rezultatelor experiment ale determinate in suflerii aerodinamice eu seetiune cireulara datol'ita faptului ea vtna de eurent este Iimitata fic de 0 trontiera solida, fie de una fluida, FieD, diametrul sufleriei si b anvergura aripii care este a~ezata in eentrn (fig. 12.10). Intr-o sectiune in avalul aripii, se va inlocui pinza de virtejuri en dona virtejnri concentrate ca in modelul din fig. 12.7, de intensitate rm sau ro- Oaleulele vor fi efectuate pentru prima situatie. Daca frontiera este solida, cercul reprezentind camera de experienta a suileriei va trebui sa fie linie de curent; in conseeinta in exterior, in

" -----..,....,.
'-..
1'10' 12.11.

./ /

Fie un punct P pe cerc; triunghinrile POA ~~ BOP sint asemenea unghinl in 0 este acelasi ~i rapoartele laturilor, deduse din relafi~ = B2/a sint egale. Inconsecinta, OA OF

=

a R

=-;=

s

OP OB·

(12.22)

Bezulta apoi umatoarea relatie intre unghiuri (12.23) Pentru perechea de virtejuri 'Putinlnd seama de (8.46)
cP = _,-(Ob 1 2Tr

din A ~i B se poate. scrie potentialul

r

r + 0..) = -2Tr

(rr

+ 0).

(12.24.) din Al ~i B; se (12.25)

in mod asemanator pentru perechea de virtejnri poate a:rata m'i. existit relataa intre unghiuri
Oa, + 0.,'
b CP2 este

=

0,

(12.26)
r: Fi!l. 12.10

.punctele 'A'~i B', ~~L distante ± D2/2b de origine, vor apiirea virtejuri imagine de sensuri contrarii, (fig. 12.10, a).. .., Daca frontiera. este fluida, conditiile de miscare sint cele Inentionate pentru care frontiera rezulta linie de egal potential (12.4). In aceste
216

Atunci potentialul total este
m
T

=

m

Tl

+ m. == - 2 ™

·T

=const.

.

(12.27) 277

R.evcninclla figurile 12,10, a" b, vit,ezele suplimental'c induse in aripii, tntr-un punct y al anvEl'guri.i, dato1'ita virtejmilo1' imagine' exterior VOl' fi egale cu
to

UI. MECANICA

r. = ± _-

4r.:.1)2

[1

+----.- , ])2
--_"'.-"
r

1]

FLUIDELOR PERFECTE COMPRESIBILE

C

___ ...... -

unde semnul + coref\pumle cazului frontierei solide, iar semnul tierei fluide,Intr-adevar se constat.a, din j'igura 12,10 cit in caznl solide viteza indus a 'W este dirijat-i1in sui; (pozitiv[L) iar in cazul fran fluide viteza reznltil. dirijata. in jos (nega.t,iva), Viteza to (la.ta de (12.28) reznlta, variahiJii, en 11; 11entru a in continuare t1'ata.1'ea, in locul vitezei va1'iabi1e 10 se va euusiuera vuloare medie 10m constanta pe toatii. allvergura.
_~_ ) 112 h
tV
m

21J

,II

'-'

+Y

(AERODINAMICA VITEZELOR MARl)
13. RELATIlLE DE BAZA ALE MI$CARII FLUIDELOR COMPRESIBILE
13.1. ECUATIlLE FUNDAMENTALE ALE MI~CARII FLUIDELOR PERFECTE COMPRESIBILE

=~

(wdY
I,

Ii

=

_E.__In =_~_J)2
21t1i

'_in acest capitol ~e vorprez,ent.,n. ecuayiile geJ?-erale~l~ ~ni.~carii luidelor f
2

Dadi. se dezvolta in serie logaritrnul din relatia r no en expresia. sa din (12.11) se obtine
10".

,1-]52

(12.29)

ecun.tu. de contlllUltate fll eCl1av1H eneIglel . De usemenea, s~ va analizH problema. })l',ol?agi'Lrii pertnrbatiilor, deosebit importanta. in cazul,fl1iidelor cOInpreslbllc.
13.1.1. ECIlHliiltl de mi~cnre ~i de eontinnitatr:. Aeeste ecuat,ii au fost anterior (2.1~), (2.30) fli form,e~za. u~ slstem de .patru ecuai;': trei ecna.tii ca uroiectii a. ecuavlel de mu~mwe.vectoriala si ecu"t~n , r • • ,,,la

=

---81:--

VooG/)

(. 1 (IJ')4 1 -I-- 3 \ D .'.-I-- •.•

1
J

uud e s-a notat

cu :L: aria t.nnelului acrodinamic
~ =~ --,
1tD2

de contilluita.te)

(

DV __r=i Dt
D 3_

.

':

1 -]1,

P

4

(l~~,l)

iar S este Buprafata anpn. Existenva acestei vitcze i11(1u8C face ea. in ca:11I1frontieiei solide, a denta reala sa. fie mai mare dedi; cea masurata O:",iI,· ci.{o incideni
numita

Dt

-I--

V(pV) = 0,

suplimentara..
a,

,

= ~l~I"_'
Voo
::= Clmd.s

(f.

'8~

=

Sii_ [1 + _1_ (_~.)4 -+ .. ' ]
3

D ,., ~ .'

,.

en cffici necunoscute, in cazulfluidelor compre~ibile 11, 1', '10, p,p. III eaz 1 'lij~1~~""~TI~".f111id1~lor incompresibile conditia p = const fll CUn?8?ut reduce numar~~l necunoscutelor Ia patru !;Iisistemul devine compatlb~l. De data aceast ~' "~~Ila este neeesarii inca. 0 ecuatie; in acest, s.ens se poateface apel la eC11"j-:a
de stare (1.9). p

Cf. real

-1-

<l..~

'

~irezistenta

la inaintare

1'(,:1]:1.

O.<w.lsa fie mai mare decit. cea masnn~t.a 0.
•. !

JL= BT,

(1.'3.2)

Gx«

'= O"""ls. '-1- ~--'-\

.• -

In cazul frontierci f1llide sensul vitezei induse este in JOB avil1d "f'.,,'('~,;:L<· mi1rime (12.30) ~i deci incident a reula ~i rezistenta la inaintare l'eala. vor

f
t
278

darse n:.trodUCf>, r:~HlrL o necur.;osc~til, viJ?- plus. '1', ceca ce i,mplie.a neceaita_ tea nnei alte ,Cclmtn. Aceasta ul,tl~l1.?'ec~m~le.este c(:llatl~, energiei. Pro· blen~a deville 111 acest fel C~11~])~tlbl1a., .eXlstmcll-)ase ecuatu cl_l)ltSe netlUi noscute, dar rezolvareaunm astfel de slstem e:>tefoarte eomphcata,. , 0 al~a. calc d~ ~bor~are a. prob~cl11e~est~ lnlocuh~ea ~cl:atiei (le state ~t ecuatlel energlel, IJrllltr-o relatle cllrect>', de legatura. mtre presiun ~i densitate p = 1)(p), deci considerinc1 Huicllli barotropic. 'e ,', ABt.fcl.."yari~Viilei"ilt1 \preshme :la mi~carea nnui a~ioll sllltdatol'ate v.al'iI11;oiHorQ,(}: vi.t~~r~. aci\.· vit£.zl1l de deplasarc a avienului este n1:11'e , D

L----_------~~--------------------------------

--------~ -

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