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Engineering System Investigation Process
Electrical & Computer Engineering
Selection of Engineering Materials
Physical & Mathematical Modeling
ma t ic s
Processes to Make Products
Engineering Analysis & Computing
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Engineering System Design Process
Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 1
Modern Multidisciplinary Engineering System
Power Modulation Energy Conversion
Simultaneous Optimization of all System Components Physical System
Mechanical, Fluid, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical, Mixed
Energy Conversion Signal Processing
Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction
Information Domain Digital Set Point Sampled & Quantized Measurement Digital Computer Sampled & Quantized Control Signal A/D Converter Sampling Switch Sampling System D/A Converter Anti-Aliasing Filter Sensor Plant / Process Actuator Power Domain Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 3 .
Signal Classification Discrete in Time Discrete in Amplitude Continuous in Amplitude Continuous in Time D-D D-C C-D C-C Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 4 .
– Knowledge of the instruments available for various measurements.Introduction • Measurement System – This term measurement system includes all components in a chain of hardware and software that leads from the measured variable to processed data. and how they interface with other parts of the system is essential for every engineer. Craig 5 . – In a modern automobile there are as many as 40 – 50 sensors (measuring devices) used in implementing various functions necessary to the operation of the car. Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. – Modern engineering systems rely heavily on a multitude of sensors for monitoring and control to achieve optimum operation. how they operate.
• Every application of measurement. with minimal error. Understand and preserve the environment Help an operator control a machine. Craig 6 Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction . • Common Applications • • • • • Input to a design project Evaluate a physical / mathematical model Test a product before shipping – quality control Conserve energy. including those not yet invented. Provide safe workplaces K. and automatically measure physical properties with a computer data acquisition system (DAQ). can be put into one of these three categories or some combination of them: – Monitoring of processes and operations – Control of processes and operations – Experimental engineering analysis • All Engineers must be able to confidently.
scale up. and maintain. These poorly-programmed applications run slow. have errors. often cause energy inefficiency. and are difficult to read. Craig 7 . DAQ also improves speed and precision by controlling computer hardware with software.• Why Automate Measurements? • Reduce the risk of errors • Remove humans from system doing repetitive tasks • Perform complex tasks that can not easily be done by hand • Automate systems • Avoid having to write new computer programs • Used extensively in industry • DAQ provides essential information for product testing and new product design. • Software design is extremely important to stop the spread of poorly-programmed applications used in industry and research today. use too many computer resources. Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K.
and it is more enjoyable than learning the syntax and format common to text programming. • The LabVIEW general graphical programming language is an excellent environment for learning how to program correctly. • DAQ applications are not limited to making measurements. successful DAQ applications require knowledge of hardware and software. Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 8 .• Correct. They also include analyzing and presenting data and performing real-time control.
some things to consider are: • What variables should be measured? Range and precision of values to be measured? • How often does data need to be recorded? Timing of measurements? How much data to collect? • Reliability of measurement system? Budget and system cost? • What sensors are available? • What type of signals will be generated? • Where will the system be located? Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 9 .• In making measurements.
• Two main sources: – – – – – Transducer / Instrument errors Errors caused by the person taking the measurements % accuracy = 100 * (error / true value) % precision = 100 * (measurement – mean of n steady-state measurements) / (mean of n steady-state measurements) Accuracy is the degree of closeness of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. The results of calculations or a measurement can be accurate but not precise. precise but not accurate. Craig 10 • Described in two ways: – Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction . K.• Error • Difference between true value and recorded value. neither. or both. Precision. is the degree to which further measurements or calculations show the same or similar results. also called reproducibility or repeatability.
Craig 11 .High Precision Low Accuracy High Accuracy Low Precision Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K.
• Types of Transducer/Instrument Errors • Hysteresis – If you make a set of sequential measurements upscale and downscale and there is a difference in the values. Linearity error occurs when the measured value doesn’t exactly fit the linear relationship. Craig 12 . causing bias error. • Bias – Some transducers/instruments give consistently high or low values. • Linearity – Some transducers/instruments have a linear relationship between the property measured and their output value. Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. the error is called hysteresis. • Repeatability – A repeatability error occurs when you measure the same value repeatedly over time and the value varies.
• Dynamic – Dynamic variables vary with time. • Overall – The overall error of a transducer/instrument is the square root of the sum of all the instrument errors. • Zero offset – If the transducer/instrument should read zero. An error occurs when the dynamic response of the transducer/instrument does not instantaneously capture the variable value at the time the measurement should occur. but gives a nonzero value.• Resolution – Errors result from the analog-to-digital conversion process in data acquisition. it has a zero-offset error. Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 13 .
• Types of Errors Caused by the Person Taking the Measurements • Reading – reading the value incorrectly • Dynamic reading – inability to read and record the data quickly enough to capture the dynamic variations in the values • Interpolation – incorrect interpolation between the markings on a meter • Misusing an Instrument – not following the correct procedures • Misapplication of an instrument – using the wrong transducer/instrument for the measurement • Inadequate calibration – using an instrument without knowing its errors • Recording – typing or writing the measurement value incorrectly Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 14 .
• Date Acquisition Process – Steps to Data Acquisition 1. Convert electrical signals into digital data for computer processing 3. Converter physical properties to electrical signals with transducers 2. Craig 15 . Process digital data 4. Display and/or record test data Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K.
Craig 16 .• Common transducers for measuring physical properties Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K.
• Common Data Types Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 17 .
Craig 18 .• LabVIEW Program – LabVIEW program to count the number of zeros in an array Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K.
and output • Can develop graphical user interfaces Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. processing. Craig 19 .• Some other uses for LabVIEW • Can be used to create Virtual Instruments (VI) • Virtual instruments can be easily transported unlike traditional instruments • Can perform file input.
Rotary Inverted Pendulum System (See Video on D2L) Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 20 .
LabVIEW Block Diagram Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K. Craig 21 .
Craig 22 .LabVIEW Front Panel Data Acquisition with LabVIEW: Introduction K.