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Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. Peace (AHD: pēs, /piːs/, /pi:s/ Audio (US) (help·info), Symbol: ☮) is a term that most commonly refers to an absence of aggression, violence or hostility, but which also represents a larger concept wherein there are healthy or newly-healed interpersonal or international relationships, safety in matters of social or economic welfare, the acknowledgment of equality and fairness in political relationships and, in world matters, peacetime; a state of being absent of any war or conflict. Reflection on the nature of peace is also bound up with considerations of the causes for its absence or loss. Among these potential causes are: insecurity, social injustice, economic inequality, political and religious radicalism, and acute nationalism. From the Anglo-Norman pas , and meaning "freedom from civil disorder", the English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the biblical terms pax (from the Vulgate) and Greek eirene, which in turn were renderings of the Hebrew shalom. Shalom, cognate with the Arabic "salaam", has multiple meanings: safety, welfare, prosperity, security, fortune, friendliness. The personalized meaning is reflected in a nonviolent lifestyle, which also describes a relationship between any people characterized by respect, justice and goodwill. This latter understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual's sense of himself or herself, as to be "at peace" with one's own mind attested in Europe from c.1200. The early English term is also used in the sense of "quiet", reflecting a calm, serene, and meditative approach to the family or group relationships that avoids quarreling and seeks tranquility — an absence of disturbance or agitation.

In many languages the word for peace is also used a greeting or a farewell, for example the Hawaiian word Aloha. In English the word peace is used as a farewell, especially for the dead as in Rest In Peace, RIP.

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1 Peace and conflict studies 2 Religious beliefs and peace 3 Justice and Injustice 4 Movements and activism 5 Polar opposite 6 Institutions devoted to peace o 6.1 United Nations o 6.2 Nobel Peace Prize o 6.3 Other 7 Monuments to peace 8 Quotations 9 Understandings 10 Active Peace Theory 11 Plural peaces 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

Peace and conflict studies

Detail from Peace and Prosperity (1896), Elihu Vedder, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. Main article: Peace and conflict studies Peace and conflict studies is an academic field which identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending social conflicts with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition. Some of the topics studied are issues related to political

referring to King James.violence. Main article: Democratic peace theory The democratic peace theory holds that democracies — usually. Buddhists believe that peace can be attained once all suffering ends. To eliminate suffering and achieve this peace. One. Gandhi deployed satyagraha in campaigns for Indian independence and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa. Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. it has been noted that peace has sometimes been achieved by the victor over the vanquished by the imposition of ruthless measures. democratisation. during the campaigns he led during the civil rights movement in the United States. welfare. Justice and Injustice Since classical times. human security. and producing sustainable forms of peace. they follow a set of teachings called the Four Noble Truths — a central tenet to their philosophy. social justice. In his book Agricola the Roman historian Tacitus includes eloquent and vicious polemics against the rapacity and greed of Rome. Main article: Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सतयागह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as "Mahatma" Gandhi). Psalms#Psalm 85 Psalms 85. Main article: Peace war game The Peace war game is a game theory approach to peace and conflict studies. Satyagraha theory also influenced Martin Luther King. Jr. liberal democracies — never go to war with one another. that Tacitus says is by the British chieftain . Religious beliefs and peace See also: Peace in Islamic philosophy and Catholic peace traditions "Justice and Peace shall kiss" depicts a biblical scene. development. human rights.

moral purchasing. they call empire. and to provide a platform for dialogue.Calgacus. to slaughter. and achieving world peace. atque ubi solitudinem faciunt. and where they make a desert. those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations". social progress. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations. international security. Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. pacem appellant. supporting anti-war political candidates. boycotts. Just War theory is a doctrine of military ethics for what criteria a war needs to meet to be considered just. Polar opposite Main article: War War is considered to be the exact opposite of peace. (To ravage. However. conflict or oppression through their moral leadership. Institutions devoted to peace United Nations Main article: United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law. to usurp under false titles. ends Auferre trucidare rapere falsis nominibus imperium. they call it peace. non-violent resistance. human rights. Nobel Peace Prize Main article: Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually to notable peacemakers and visionaries who have overcome violence. diplomacy. economic development. to stop wars between countries. Means to achieve these ends usually include advocacy of pacifism. demonstrations and lobbying to create or amend pro-peace legislation. — Oxford Revised Translation). The prize has often met with controversy. Movements and activism Main articles: Peace movement and Pacifism Peace movements are made up of socially active individuals and groups that seek to achieve ideals such as ending war and minimizing inter-human violence. but the University for Peace is not subject to UN regulation. The United Nations charters the University for Peace. as it is occasionally awarded to people who .

USA Chicago Park District 100 years of peace between the USA and UK Confederate Memorial[1] International Peace Garden Arlington. Smaller institutions: • • • Randolph Bourne Institute The McGill Middle East Program of Civil Society and Peace Building International Festival of Peace Poetry Monuments to peace Fountain of Time honors the first 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain resulting from the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. Other See also: Peace museums A peace museum is a museum that documents historical peace initiatives. Va. regional or international level.have formerly sponsored war and violence but who have. United Nations USA World peace Fountain of Time Chicago.Manitoba . This may include conflicts at the personal. Name Japanese Peace Bell Location Organization Meaning New York City. through exceptional concessions. World North Dakota. IL. helped achieve peace. Many peace museums also provide advocacy programs for nonviolent conflict resolution. NY. USA Arlington National Southern States Cemetery choosing peace over war non-profit organization Peace between the US and Canada.

on 'Positive Peace'. but nobody addresses the individual—from where peace has to begin. Wilmerding. and societies. and peace building. justice. Norwegian co-founder of the field of Peace Research. founder of John Woolman College. and on the writings of Maine Quaker Gray Cox. This theory posits that Peace is part of a triad. Muste ” ” A peace not of consequences but an individual peace for every human being on the face of this earth. to also fit into a triadic formulation.. called by some the Bible's word for salvation. tolerance persists. peace is the way. —P. Many different theories of "peace" exist in the world of peace studies. a consortium of researchers and disputants in the experimental John Woolman College initiative have arrived at a theory of Active Peace.Rawat Understandings This section requires expansion. culture. Furthermore. Peace is a state of balance and understanding in yourself and between others. conflicts. Jr. —Bruno Picozzi[1] ” There is no way to peace. communities. and peace. or subject of study. which also includes justice and wholeness (or well-being). consonant with scriptural scholarly interpretations of the meaning of the early Hebrew word S-L-M or 'Shalom'. posits five stages of growth applicable to individuals. the consortium have integrated Galtung's teaching of the meanings of the terms peacemaking.peace [edit] Quotations “ “ “ Peace is what happens when all peoples are free to develop themselves in the way they want. without having to fight for their rights. —A. disarmament. peacekeeping. J. Active Peace Theory Borrowing from the teachings of Johan Galtung. where respect is gained by the acceptance of differences. [2] The definition of "peace" can vary with religion. Vermont Quaker John V. conflicts are resolved through dialog. whereby one transcends first the 'surface' awareness that most people have . which involves the study of conflict transformation. and everyone is at their highest point of serenity without social tension. and cessation of violence. People want to stop wars. people's rights are respected and their voices are heard.

which refers to a harmonious balance between human beings. ^ a b c A Call for Many Peaces. they promote the idea of many peaces. They argue that since no singular. passive resistance. ^ Picozzi. Letter from Birmingham Jail by Rev. LIT Verlag. Plural peaces Following Wolfgang Dietrich." esp. emerging successively into acquiescence. A History of the Commonwealth. pacifism. in the Great Lakes region of Africa..[2] These thinkers also critique the idea of peace as a hopeful or eventual end. we can create and expand it in small ways in our everyday lives. correct definition of peace can exist. and/or peace building. Bruno (2007). See also • • • • • • • • Peace education Peace symbol Peace makers World peace Structural violence Anarchy Moral syncretism Creative Peacebuilding Notes 1. This vision is a much broader view of peace than a mere "absence of war" or even a "presence of justice" standard. 2. edited by Randall M. the word for peace is kindoki. BIPPI independent pro-peace initiative 2. the rest of the natural world. peacekeeping. 109. Miller and William Pencak. This view makes peace permeable and imperfect rather than static and utopian. The Pennsylvania State University Press. "Pennsylvania. 2002. and the cosmos.of these kinds of issues. active resistance. Vienna. References 1. dedicating themselves to peacemaking. Jr. and finally into Active Peace. Martin Luther King.[2] Such a view is influenced by postmodernism. some "peace thinkers" have abandoned any single and all-encompassing definition of peace.[2] For example. Wolfgang Sützl. in: Dietrich/Echavarría/Koppensteiner: Key Texts of Peace Studies. and the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies. Rather. . They recognize that peace does not necessarily have to be something humans might achieve "some day. and peace changes constantly. pg." They contend that peace exists in the present. peace should be perceived as a plurality. 2006. pages 282-305.

3. 3. Public security and order: was arrested for disturbing the peace. serenity: peace of mind. An agreement or a treaty to end hostilities. 4. . Alternatives to Violence and War Short profiles on 25 peaceful peace Dictionary: peace (pēs) Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary n. harmonious relations: roommates living in peace with each other. Inner contentment. 1.wikipedia. 5. Freedom from quarrels and disagreement. 2. 1. The Path to Peace. Peaceful Societies. by Laure Paquette External links http://en. The absence of war or other hostilities.

Used as a greeting or farewell.. pāc-. þÿ . from Old French pais. In a state of tranquillity. and as a request for silence. serene: She is at peace with herself and her friends. Free from strife: Everyone wants to live in a world at ▼ o Home Page o Browse o Personalize o Print page o Email page o Translate page WikiAnswers. keep (or hold) (one's) peace 1. [Middle English pes. idioms: at peace 1. ▼ o Home Page o Browse o Recently Answered o Recently Asked o Unanswered questions Search Help Search unanswered questions.interj.. keep the peace 1. from Latin pāx. To maintain or observe law and order: officers who were sworn to keep the peace. See pax.] • • • • • • Answers. pes. To be silent.

. Antonyms: peace Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Antonyms n Definition: calm. also see at peace.• Browse: Unanswered questions | Most-recent questions | Reference library Enter a question or phrase. keep the peace. worry n . stillness. serenity Antonyms: agitation. peacefulness. placidity. quietness. See calm/agitation. An absence of motion or disturbance: calm. tranquillity. placidity. All þÿ Community Q&A Reference topics • Browse: Unanswered questions | Most-recent questions | Reference library Thesaurus: peace Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Thesaurus noun 1. serenity. Lack of emotional agitation: calm. hold one's tongue (peace). peacefulness. make one's peace with. untroubledness. hush. calmness. irritation. tranquillity. serenity. make peace. distress. placidness.. leave someone in peace. frustration. quiet. noise. 2. calmness. quietude. placidness. lull. Idioms: peace Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Idioms Idioms beginning with peace: peace and quiet In addition to the idiom beginning with peace. upset. See calm/agitation.

hunger. conflict. peace has been used to refer to everything from “absence of war” to “equilibrium” to “a utopian state of spiritual and social harmony devoid of conflict. such images provide faint shadows of peace rather than illuminate its essence. as a harmonious world devoid of conflict. disagreement. it is understandable that many continue to envision human history as a series of wars and respites from wars. agreement Antonyms: agitation. distress. Those engaged in such wars tend to believe theirs will be the last.” This meaning arises primarily in historical. oppression. More often than not. either by devaluing it (a simple interlude between wars) or by ascribing unattainable. interludes between wars. Given the fascination of Western historians with war. peace is seen as an ultimate or ideal goal rather than a means to an end. in American military history. or. since we seek to define it in terms of what it is not rather than what it is. as they consist of stereotypical assumptions that do not invite further examination of a complex phenomenon. institutionalized violence) such as economic exploitation. the word peace essentially means “the absence of war. In military paradigms. or heads of state who declare and prosecute wars against other states. that the subsequent nonwar period of peace will be enduring. fighting. and salient historical figures as warriors. Understanding peace requires an acknowledgment of these different contexts as well as a willingness to explore those meanings with which we are less familiar. they serve to lessen any interest in peace as a desirable or achievable state.Definition: harmony.” These widely differing images are indicators of essential differences in ideology. Within this context. the end of war. These highly idealistic images generally depict peace either as the condition that exists when wars are suspended or terminated. political. Among other conclusions. which appear to be closely related. the absence of war and “direct” violence. And they describe what it is not in terms of something with which we appear to be quite familiar: violence and war. racism. we might infer from this that our knowledge about peace is at best very limited. and perceptions of history. conversely. many forms of “structural” violence (indirect. peace has come to be narrowly understood as the absence of war. that is. Such narrow notions of peace say nothing about what peace is—only what peace is not. the most familiar images of peace are perhaps the least helpful. At best.Ironically. or that moments of nonwar are only interludes that will ultimately give way to future wars. Politics & Society > US Military History Companion Perhaps one of the most complex concepts in human history. Related to this is what the Norwegian peace scholar Johan Galtung has termed negative peace. culture. disharmony. and military contexts. militaries fight wars to “win the peace”—to bring about periods of nonwar through the use of force. meaning “a pact or settlement to deter or end hostilities. a common understanding of peace originates from the Latin pax. Accordingly. and poverty still exist. sexism. war US Military History Companion: Peace Top Home > Library > History. military leaders. . or nonwar.” Thus. Under this kind of peace. utopian preconditions to it (a world in total harmony without conflict). In the West.

environmental). in fact. among other qualities. suffering. the pursuit of collective and individual ends through nonviolence rather than violence. Nonetheless. violence and conflict).g. and the idyllic image of peace becomes unnecessary and unrealistic. sociological. a world at peace will be full of conflict. pain. Essential Peace If. but it also can be constructive and useful. Although these shadow images of peace seem antithetical (i. it can be destructive and painful. and (2) one or two basic components (e. The following ideological and infrastructural conditions are not exhaustive by any means. or order—even “rejecting force as a means of achieving policy objectives. they have much in common with one another. What distinguishes a peaceful world. Thus. etc. Conflict is a basic fact of life. which it is not. Both types attempt to define peace in terms of (1) what is missing rather than what is present. For many scholars in peace studies and peace research. thus. spiritual. social.” Here it is important to acknowledge that peace can exist at every level of existence. and military contexts. is the extent to which unnecessary conflict is prevented and all other conflict is managed in nonviolent ways. peace means much more than the absence of a specific phenomenon. generic definitions of peace become extremely problematic. and the French pacifique)—we see a different face of peace altogether: one involving reaching agreement by negotiation (as opposed to the use of force). violent) management and resolution of conflict.Related to this is the idyllic image of a world without conflict. we begin with equally valid definitions of pax—and with pacific (from the Latin pacifico and pacificus.. it is much more than not‐ violence. political. there is general agreement in peace research and peace studies on the broad parameters of peace. the nonviolent (vs. cultures of violence). and political). instead. amity. calm. peace is much more than not‐war. . tranquility. Conflict and violence are not synonymous terms: conflict can be violent. The existence of conflict in the future then becomes an understandable and acceptable fact of life.) to the global (political. the presence of justice (economic.. the shared democratic use of power (economic. but represent what many experts believe to be essential for peace to develop in the world: the presence of cultures of peace (vs. the presence of economic and ecological sustainability. Once outside (Western) historical. Yet at all levels of human existence—from the interpersonal to the global— peace includes. This idyllic image often arises out of a fundamental confusion surrounding conflict and violence. social. from the intrapersonal (psychological. Clarification of these concepts allows movement beyond the normative fear of conflict and negative associations with it. rather than precludes. reconciliation. conflict. and struggle. the development of common security that does not rely on the threat or use of violence. however. Some peace researchers approach an understanding of what peace is by identifying the conditions necessary for it to exist. they could be easily juxtaposed at opposite ends of a continuum depicting ideological views of peace). but it also can be nonviolent. and it is never seen as not‐conflict. and political) among people who govern themselves (“power with”) rather than the governance of the many by the few who have “power over” the many.e. mediation.

” “exchange. and global security. and in our homes does not exist without belief systems that legitimate and encourage it. love. people would not be entertained by violence (nor would they seek to be entertained by it). the American economist Kenneth Boulding identifies three basic forms of power (“threat. economic status. The ubiquitous violence that exists in the media. Similarly. theories. in our streets. The presence of economic and ecological sustainability is essential because economic or ecological development that is not sustainable assumes dysfunctional levels of . political affiliation. nations—as well as relationships between human beings and the rest of the nonhuman world—cannot exist without cultural values and ideologies that promote nonviolence. international relations. etc. would embrace “species identity” and other inclusive forms of identifications with humanity. In his groundbreaking work Three Faces of Power. peaceful relationships among individuals.” which in turn is the first step toward aggression and violence. The shared democratic use of power is relevant to all personal and social relationships. which Elise Boulding and Robert Jay Lifton have so eloquently examined in their research and writings. genders. As Johan Galtung notes. In a culture of peace. While justice is a highly debated term. especially those who are somehow different from us. classes. there is little disagreement that peace can exist without it.” Once a person or an ethnic group or a country is a “them.and the elimination of violence in all its myriad forms (including the “war systems” inherent in many nations). for example. Each of these conditions requires a brief explanation. societal norms. belief systems. the Greek eirene. respect. Cultures of peace. in entertainment. religious ideology.” they are less valuable. groups.) that undergird and legitimate everyday life and the infrastructures we create to carry us into the future. on the other hand. social.” This is the first step toward dehumanizing “the other. The presence of cultures of peace refers to the social and cultural components (values. or socioeconomic class. The result of this kind of identity formation is the grouping of people into “us” and “them. and so on. friendship. as it is what gives rise to relationships of respect. but especially to those in the arenas of governance.” In this view. race. and political) refers to the ways in which individuals and groups are treated by society and one another. The presence of justice at all levels (economic. and somehow less human than “us. less important. and the Arab salam take us beyond the Roman pax to an understanding of peace that includes “justice. Cultures of violence inculcate ideologies that give rise to the formation of these kinds of mutually exclusive identities. national origin. A fundamental ideological cornerstone of the violence surrounding us today is the idea that one's identity is primarily related to one's gender. In particular. this is true because the existence of injustice implies ongoing structural violence against certain peoples or groups. Wars are not fought without ideologies that tell us that it is acceptable and justifiable to conduct them. business.” and “integrative” power) and argues that integrative power is the most important of the three. and tolerance for everyone. ideologies. peace is not only the absence of all violence (including underlying structures of violence) but also the presence of justice (Galtung calls this positive peace). philosophies. the Hebrew shalom. in our schools.

Gandhi saw life as one long “experiment with truth. and spiritual—as well as physical. transformation. For most in peace studies. interpersonal relationships. It is an object. is the antithesis of being interested in the truth. instead. Violence (from the Latin verb violare) means “to violate. training. Thus. which defines peace as the absence of violence. and the conduct of international relations will need to be reenvisioned as nonviolent means and ends rather than accepted as status quo violent means and ends. only the violent waging of conflict for reasons that are legitimated by cultures of violence. The political scientist Gene Sharp carefully explains that known histories of successful nonviolent struggle and conflict resolution date back to the fifth century B. peace is a noun. revolution) that happens not to be violent (as in the case of “nonprincipled nonviolence”).” The strength of nonviolence emanates from an understanding of the origins of power: all power derives from the consent of the governed. in part. and. Mahatma Gandhi's nonviolence (ahimsa and satyagraha) was “the pursuit of truth through love. The remaining four conditions fall within the category of nonviolence. the elimination of all forms of violence. by stable economic systems and viable ecological relationships with the natural world. Yet peace. to do violence to someone is to violate the integrity of that person. and education. the nonviolent pursuit of collective and individual ends. like war. organization. violence cannot be seen as conflict resolution: it is.injustice and violence in the present moment and ultimately will lead to conflict. No one “does” peace. It also requires immense resources and commitment. personal growth and individual success. emotional. Peace will not exist without being developed and built from the ground up. and systemic imbalance. social change and transformation. Peace development requires leaders: those who can envision a world without violence and design its blueprints.” Violence can be verbal. not a verb. for example. a goal. it is a means to “win” a conflict temporarily—not to be right in the long run. then. For the same reasons that nonviolent conflict resolution is necessary. Waging conflicts violently. requires intensive preparation. It can be collective as well as individual. The shadow of peace assumes that . Peace requires the nonviolent management and resolution of conflicts for many reasons.” wherein each person possesses a small piece of the truth and conflicts are the moments in which we learn from one another about our separate and collective truths. whether direct or indirect. As Duane Friesen makes clear. peace also requires the development of nonviolent systems of common security. not least of which is found in the shadow of peace. a future state of being to be passively wished for and waited upon. this term is used most often in peace studies to refer to the waging of conflict and the transformation of society through the power of active love. violence. psychological. which are ensured. ultimately.C. Peace development also requires actors who will transform the elements of nonpeace into the fabric of peace. Peace Development In the languages of Western culture. While nonviolence can refer to anything (change. A peaceful world requires basic levels of security.

Ira Sandperl. 1993 US Military Dictionary: peace Top Home > Library > History. and that the political and military leaders of these nation‐states are the primary actors and leaders. Since essential peace can exist at all levels of existence. Politics & Society > US Military Dictionary . Mohandas K. 1950. Rather. Bondurant. Three Tales of Power. This awareness allows for everyone to contribute to the building of peace in their lives and in their communities. eds. Elise Boulding. from the spiritual to the global. Gandhi. The Future of Immortality and Other Essays for a Nuclear Age. James A. The Politics of Nonviolent Action. 1974. Lifton. Peace and Antiwar Movements. The development of essential peace.. the development of peace in one arena of the world may contribute to the development of peace in many arenas of the world. According to many Eastern religions and philosophies. 1986. Stable Peace. Robert J. eds. networks. Ervin Laszlo and Jong Youl Yoo. and the nontraditional loci of nonviolent power. local and regional governments. 1987. An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth. 1958. Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict. Michael Shuman and Julia Sweig. 1991.geopolitical entities called nation‐states are the fundamental units of analysis. Johan Galtung. the paths to its successful development are many: there is no one “right” path to peace and there is no one “right” leader who will take us to it. teachers. 1978. 1991. Kenneth Boulding. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. communities. Building a Global Civic Culture: Education for an Interdependent World. international nongovernmental organizations. nongovernmental organizations. World Encyclopedia of Peace. 1989. Joan V. Sissela Bok. 1982. Therefore. The Science of Conflict. 1957. Gene Sharp. [See also Pacifism. Oxford Companion to Politics of the WSVW. 1988. 1989. 1986. Quakers. Duane Friesen.. David P. is not limited to nation‐states and their leaders. A Strategy for Peace. Kenneth Boulding. 3 vols. 1989.] Bibliography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Louis Fischer. peace at all levels of existence is interconnected. Conditions of Peace: An Inquiry. A Little Kinder. 1973. Christian Peacemaking and International Conflict: A Realist Pacifist Perspective. on the other hand. Introduction to Peace Studies.. essential peace requires the effort of individuals. Schellenberg. Barash.

Abbreviations and Pronunciation for further details. partial value that must compete with other values. strict justice is incompatible with peace. and the name of the Messiah. and the essence of prophecy and redemption. and prosperity. shalom. In the Bible. 1:5. it also denotes the opposite of war. 65b). such as justice and truth. but in many sayings it appears in a normative context: the pursuit of peace is the obligation of the individual and the goal of various social regulations and structures. tranquillity. the summit of all other values. a manifestation of Divine grace. to the point of viewing it as a meta-value. 2. and national life. the sages discuss the relationship between peace and other values. Joshua ben Korḥa. a judge should therefore temper justice with peace and rule in favor of compromise (TJ.[pēs] n. In this context. communal. there are also discussions concerning which value prevails in cases of conflict. One view is that peace. 3. Shalom is a blessing. The rabbis went to great lengths in their praise of peace. justice. Furthermore. shalom primarily signifies a value. freedom from civil disorder: police action to restore peace. an ethical category. too. even where peace is given priority it is viewed as an individual. Ta'an. Shalom is the name of God. Of course. freedom from or the cessation of war or violence: the Straits were to be open to warships in time of peace. Thus. keep the peace refrain or prevent others from disturbing civil order: the police must play a crucial role in keeping the peace. Peace is the ultimate purpose of the Torah. 4:2). for the absence of war. the name of Israel. See the Introduction. Sanh. is derived from a root denoting wholeness or completeness. However. the overcoming of strife and enmity in family. 1. one may lie for the sake of peace (Yev. and truth are fully harmonious and complementary (TJ. according to R. . and its frame of reference throughout Jewish literature is bound up with the notion of shelemut. one of harmony. In rabbinic texts. It is still depicted as a manifestation of Divine grace. perfection. suggests an orderly and tranquil state of affairs. and the prevention of war. Nevertheless. a treaty agreeing to the cessation of war between warring states: support for a negotiated peace. the word shalom is most commonly used to refer to a state of affairs. Encyclopedia of Judaism: Peace Top Home > Library > Religion & Spirituality > Encyclopedia of Judaism The Hebrew word for peace.

6b. the universal knowledge of God. the principle that harmonizes contending forces within each individual object and reconciles the separate elements of nature as a whole. The post-biblical discussion of this question was greatly influenced by the reality of Jewish powerlessness. three different models of peace were put forward. was discussed primarily from a utopian perspective. Book of Doctrines and Beliefs. The unique development of the philosophical and mystical literature in the Middle Ages is reflected in its portrayal of peace as an ontological principle. Other thinkers envisioned a kind of Pax Judaica. too. 4). war was described as a . Peace is the foundation of all being. 11). the metaphysical. man's destructive impulses are to be overcome not by an intellectual change but by an emotional one. Judah Low ben Bezalel. War reflects the actual situation of man. Peace. Netivot Olam. In this context. According to the second view. David Kimḥi (Commentary to Isa. Sefer ha-Ikkarim. The apprehension of truth. Only the wars of the Gentiles belonged to historical reality. but rather of a kind of international court whose authority and righteousness are accepted by all. 4:42). This vision speaks not of a human society that has risen above all striving and conflict. by a sense of intimacy and love that will grow among men in the Messianic era. Mic. Peace and War Jewish sources. central government in Zion to which all peoples would be subject (Saadiah Gaon. Sanh. 2:4. 4:3) and Isaac Arama (Akedat Yitsḥak. Maimonides viewed intellectual perfection as the guarantor of peace. namely. acknowledge war as a given of human existence. will displace man's attachment to illusory goods and destructive impulses. as opposed to the meta-historical era of the End of Days. According to the first model. ̈ Netiv ha-Shalom. Guide III. in light of the prophetic vision of eternal peace. 8:8. Thus. It is a reflection of the real. and in this He comprehends all and joins and unifies all. A third view anticipated the achievement of peace by an internal reformation of the socio-political order. Thus. justice at all costs). from the Bible on. human condition in history.TB. once they have all chosen to adopt the same faith and path (Hegyon ha-Nefesh. utopian judge who would make peace between the nations. but not his destiny. the Divine. 1). peace is the embodiment of the Divine immanence in the world: "God is the ultimate form of the world. Melakhim 12:5. and this is the very essence of peace" (R. and completely eliminate the irrational factors that cause conflicts and wars (Yad. the people of the world will be made to live in peace by being brought together under a single universal framework. peace will eventually be achieved by a transformation of the consciousness of the individual. Peace was elevated to the level of the cosmic. The Jew waged war against the evil inclination far more than he did against any historical foe. Ultimately. Albo." that is. Neither war nor peace really stood as concrete options for the Jewish people. the opposing view is "let justice pierce the mountain. In the teachings of Isaac Abravanel. the ancient wars of Israel were a matter more for theology than for politics. yet fallen. According to the 11th-12th century Spanish thinker Abraham bar Ḥiyya. 46) portrayed the Messiah as a supreme. a single. on the other hand.

They're working by night and by day On their problem. peace and war are discussed in relation to the presently operative political and judicial order.consequence of man's historical and cultural fall. they woo it -Would marry it. 81. 11:1 and elsewhere). universal sense of justice. Ah. a fall that is embodied preeminently in man's technological civilization and political tradition and institutions. 6:27). to Gen. Ultimate redemption is destined to bring about the demise of materialistic civilization and the disappearance of political structures and boundaries (Commentary. all-hailing The horrors of peace. O Heaven. as does the Priestly Blessing (Num. the Kaddish. The emphasis on peace in Judaism is demonstrated by the fact that all major prayers (including the Amidah. I pray. In the teachings of Isaac Arama. Have mercy. Peace Universal. what's the loud uproar assailing Mine ears without cease? 'Tis the voice of the hopeful. the more peace will tend to overcome war (Akedat Yitsḥak. . In international affairs. a period of cheating between two periods of fighting. On their meddlesome souls! Amil Ro Word Tutor: peace Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Spelling & Usage IN BRIEF: Freedom from war or fighting. 3:22. like moles. 46. 4:1. too. O. The closer the laws and the political order come to satisfying the natural. 105a). Devil's Dictionary: peace Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Devil's Dictionary A cynical view of the world by Ambrose Bierce n. If only they knew how to do it 'Twere easy to do. Also: Calm or quiet. and the Grace After Meals) conclude with a prayer for peace. on the other hand. 17.

" .World peace must develop out of inner peace. Bailey "If the history of the past fifty years teaches us peace  pisShow Spelled Pronunciation [pees] interjection. or the world. But they can be taken out of the gun. Nothing unreal exists. peaced. the normal." . — Dalai Lama Quotes About: Peace Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Quotes About Quotes: "Nothing real can be threatened.A Course In Miracles "Harmony is one phase of the law whose spiritual expression is love.Marcus Aurelius "Right human relations is the only true peace.answers." . group of nations. nonwarring condition of a nation. verb. it is that peace does not follow disarmament -." . Show IPA noun. peac⋅ing." . –noun   1.James Allen "Bullets cannot be recalled. Baruch See more famous quotes about Peace http://www.disarmament follows peace.Martin Amis "Adapt yourself to the things among which your lot has been cast and love sincerely the fellow creatures with whom destiny has ordained that you shall live. ." .Bernard M. They cannot be uninvented.Alice A. Herein lies the peace of God.

c.c. at peace. deceased. 7. adjective peace⋅less⋅ness. —Idioms 13. a. of pais < L pax (s. not at war. (often initial capital letter ) an agreement or treaty between warring or antagonistic nations. 4. the normal freedom from civil commotion and violence of a community. an obsession. (used to express greeting or farewell or to request quietness or silence). italics ) a comedy (421 b. untroubled. ME pes < OF. tranquillity. pāc-). 10. cause to refrain from creating a disturbance: Several officers of the law were on hand to keep the peace. or characterized by tranquillity: the peace of a mountain resort. to end hostilities and abstain from further fighting or antagonism: the Peace of Ryswick. anxiety. to be or become silent..2. noun peacelike. public order and security: He was arrested for being drunk and disturbing the peace. to maintain order. 17. hold or keep one's peace. serenity. 16. keep the peace. distraction. var. adjective . Obsolete. stillness: The cawing of a crow broke the afternoon's peace. groups. (initial capital letter. –interjection 11. cessation of or freedom from any strife or dissension. tranquil. 6. content. 15. a state of tranquillity or serenity: May he rest in peace. etc. freedom of the mind from annoyance. 5. to become reconciled with: He repaired the fence he had broken and made his peace with the neighbor on whose property it stood. a state or condition conducive to. in personal relations: Try to live in peace with your neighbors. make peace. akin to PACT Related forms: peaceless. make one's peace with. to refrain from or cease speaking. 14. b. keep silent: He told her to hold her peace until he had finished. proceeding from. –verb (used without object) 12. 8. esp.. to ask for or arrange a cessation of hostilities or antagonism.) by Aristophanes. 9. 3. silence. Origin: 1125–75. in a state or relationship of nonbelligerence or concord. etc. a state of mutual harmony between people or groups.

Antonyms: 6. © Random House.] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language. rapport. disturbance. 2009. World peace Ideas needed. concord. armistice. Watch Online Video Sponsored ResultsScientology. pact. 1050 mi. 4. interj. and as a request for silence. 5. post for free Viewed by 1 Million www. harmonious relations: roommates living in peace with each other. amity. pāc-. (1690 km) long. flowing NE from the Rocky Mountains in E British Columbia through Alberta to the Slave New Emerging Religion The Only Major Religion To Emerge in 20th Century. pes. 3. Used as a greeting or farewell. truce.Synonyms: 2. serenity: peace of mind. insecurity. All rights reserved. The absence of war or other hostilities. 2. Dictionary. 3. from Latin pāx. Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary. quiet. accord.IdeaConnection. Fourth Edition Copyright © 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Cite This Source Peace .org Peace River   –noun a river in W Canada. Cite This Source | Link To peace peace n. Inner contentment. An agreement or a treaty to end hostilities. Inc. 6. Freedom from quarrels and disagreement. from Old French pais. Public security and order: was arrested for disturbing the peace. (pēs) 1. [Middle English pes. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. see pax.

pees." --Shak. to plead one's cause with. a civil officer whose duty it is to preserve the public peace. paix). agreement after variance. Justice of the peace. Breach of the peace. to refrain from speaking. Pacify. Sp. reflecting vowel shift. in a state of peace. German: der Frieden. (Law) (a) A term used in wills. pax) "treaty of peace. freedom from disturbance or agitation. pacem (nom. agitating passions. When the thunder would not peace at my bidding. To make or become quiet. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary.. & i."fasten." --Shak. paiz. F. absence of war" (cf.. akin to pacere.Peace\. a.Fr.. Appease. Fay. indictments. v. from O. v. or order. paciscere. or to become reconciled with. repose." --Chaucer. patz. Fair. which also meant "happiness. "freedom from civil disorder. See under Justice. It. To make one's peace with. from L. (b) (Theol. to be silent. "I will make your peace with him. order. At peace." Modern spelling is 1500s. Peace Peace\. or cessation of.E. Prov. and prob. or subjection of. as a sheriff or constable. calm. Fang. specifically: (a) Exemption from. pes. Peace of God. 1998 MICRA. frið. Cite This Source Spanish: paz. quiet. pais. See under Breach. also pangere to fasten. tranquility. (a) (Jewish Antiq. Replaced O.) A voluntary offering to God in token of devout homage and of a sense of friendly communion with Him. to reconcile one with.] "Peace your tattlings. n. Pact. [OE. pais. (c) Exemption from. another." related to pacisci "to covenant or agree" (see pact). Japanese: 平和 More Translations » peace 1140. to prevent riots. also sibb. © 1996. (b) Public quiet. Fr. "Peace! foolish woman. (d) Reconciliation. paix." from Anglo-Norm. [R. war with public enemies. paz. pacis.] A state of quiet or tranquillity. etc. --Shak. concord.) The peace of heart which is the gift of God. pacisci. from PIE *pak. "The eternal love and pees. (b) A gift or service offered as satisfaction to an offended person. Cf. harmony. To hold one's peace. Sense Language Translation for : peace . Inc. Note: Peace is sometimes used as an exclamation in commanding silence. as denoting a state of peace and good conduct. pax. to make an agreement. pais (11c.. Pay to requite. to be silent. Peace officer. tranquillity of mind or conscience. Peace offering." --Shak. to stop. L. Friedens-…. OF. and contentment in obedience to law. etc.. pes. pace). t.

which were used by translators to render Heb. Native American peace pipe is first recorded 1760. 1962. Used in various greetings from c. eirene. so called from 1944. see beatnik).in peace of mind is from c.reference. welfare. properly "safety. © 2001 Douglas Harper Cite This Source Main Entry: peace Function: noun : a state of tranquillity or quiet: as a : a state of security or order within a community provided for by law or custom peace> b : freedom from civil disturbance Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law. The Peace Corps was set up March 1. from Biblical L." Sense of "quiet" is attested by 1300. Peacemaker is from 1436.1300. pax. Gk. Phrase peace with honor first recorded 1607 (in "Coriolanus").1200. Peacenik is from 1965 (for . an earlier equivalent was peacemonger (1808). prosperity. As a type of hybrid tea rose (developed 1939 in France by Francois Meilland). shalom. © 1996 http://dictionary. Online Etymology Dictionary. meaning "absence or cessation of war or hostility" is attested from 1297.