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the Circle From a Freemason Square & Compass Kerry A. Shirts Eagle Rock Lodge 19 Idaho Falls, Idaho October 20, 2010 The most famous Masonic symbols are the square and compass united in an eternal bond of love and friendship. I have discovered for myself another way of viewing them as I prepared to present the Staircase Lecture of the Fellowcraft degree in lodge for the Nirst time. At the back of this paper in the appendix is given all sacred geometrical Nigures, calculations, and relationships that I discuss in this paper. It is something we need to see how works, as well as draw for ourselves to get it in our gut how it works. In the Staircase Lecture, Freemasonry emphasizes Geometry as the most important of the 7 Liberal Arts of Antiquity. The square and compass holds an esoteric, symbolic meaning that is largely lost on the world, and on many a Freemason as well. The actual geometry of the square and compass, their constructing geometrical shape, and their combination together as a single unit is hiding one of the most interesting mysteries. Allow me to explain. Everyone knows that a compass is used to produce circles, while the square is used to produce, what else squares! These instruments demonstrate the symbolism of contradictions, differences, and unique moral lessons. A circle is the opposite of a square as surely as mortality is the opposite of immortality, and yet, the meaning and symbolism of the squaring of the circle from antiquity has a profoundly deep and amazing lesson to teach us. The squaring of the circle was the basis for many of the Medieval Gothic Cathedrals with their astonishing multi-storied levels of astounding architectural miracles. We Freemasons, as inheritors of the ancient ideas, the ancient laws of number canon and law of ratio and proportion in sacred geometry, learn that geometry teaches us moral truths. And yet all the compass and square does is draw circles and squares. So what? How can geometry, the mathematical science of shapes, teach moral truths? Symbolic mathematics provides a map of our own inner psychological and sacred spiritual structure.[1] One of the great keys to the reason for our emphasis on Geometry in Freemasonry is because by using the compass and square, physically to produce shapes before our eyes, we learn to pay attention to paying attention to that which the symbols refer to within us. When the lessons of symbolic or philosophical mathematics seen in nature, which were designed into religious architecture or art, are applied functionally (not just intellectually) to facilitate the growth and transformation of consciousness, then mathematics may rightly be called sacred. To me, the terms sacred arithmetic and sacred geometry only have signiNicance when grounded in the experience of self-awareness.[2]

The power of shape and the mathematics involved in shape is astonishing for what it can teach us about ourselves. The compass and square is one of the surest guides to showing us why and how Freemasonry works, thrives, and survives the ravages of time and criticism. They are not mere decoration, but physical embodied truth, as well as means to attain the truth of self when used. The point within a circle is one of the oldest symbols for Deity known from hoary antiquity. It also was a symbol for the sun, which was also known as the giver of life, because that is exactly what it does, in fact, do. The point within a circle is one of Masonrys great symbols. Our compass precisely gives us this symbol every time we use it, physically, to draw a circle on a piece of paper. One very important thing for us to begin to understand is that it is literally necessary for us to take a real compass and square, and use them to make the geometric shapes. It is a meditation that is important for us to not only enact by doing, but see, feel, and understand what it is we are doing with our tools of the craft. To participate is the main lesson and point of having our tools, not merely look at them and say yes, that is their meaning, but I dont have time to actually sit down and do this. If we say to ourselves I see them used on the Volume of Sacred Law in our lodges during or rituals, and that sufNices for me to understand their meaning, we miss out on an amazing transformation of ourselves into the higher spiritual laws of which the square and compass are but guide posts to get us to act, by using them literally to produce the circle and square. From a point to a line, from a line to a superNice, from a superNice to a solid. The lecture is saying get the instruments and make these Nigures ourselves to enact them, create them, feel them, see them, and really learn their meaning. They teach us what it is we are ourselves. They teach us WHAT it IS we ARE ourselves. I am serious, but this comes through acting, through participating, and creating the laws, ratios, shapes and proportions, with our working tools working tools not viewing tools, of Freemasonry, the square and compass, with pencil and paper. To do is to learn. To do is to live and realize who and what we are. It is an exercise that awakens us to the reality of what we Nind ourselves in, our meaning for our lives here in this world surrounded by nothing else than pure geometry of ratio and pattern of eternal laws, of which we are, but a part of the whole. Leonardo Da Vincis Vetruvian man whose arms and legs are spread out within a circle within a square, perfectly proportional to both geometric Nigures, is an outstanding artistic graphic of this. The sacred Geometrician Robert Lawlor has shown and taught that modern quantum physics now proves that reality is the concept that the fundamental nature of the material world is knowable only through its underlying patterns of wave forms. Both our organs of perception and the phenomenal world we perceive seem to be best understood as systems of pure pattern, or as geometric structures of form and proportion.[3] There is no physical basis of physical reality. The underlying reality of what we think of as stuff is pure pattern, pure geometric pattern, and all matter is is differences of periodicity, as the mathematician Bertrand Russell said.[4] There is no smallest particle to arrive at through dividing a board of wood time and again into smaller and smaller pieces. The complete

underlying thing, the underlying reality is that nothing is there, except geometric pattern, the real law of existence. The architecture of bodily existence is determined by an invisible, immaterial world of pure form and geometry.[5] And astoundingly, it is not the form, the physical, that is invariable but it is the underlying laws of geometry and pattern that are eternal. Within the human consciousness is the unique ability to perceive the transparency between absolute, permanent relationships, contained in the insubstantial forms of a geometric order, and the transitory, changing forms of our actual world. The content of our experience results from an immaterial, abstract, geometric architecture which is composed of harmonic waves of energy, nodes of relationality, melodic forms springing forth from the eternal realm of geometric proportion.[6] Our Staircase Lecture teaches us that the beginning of all geometrical matter is the point. Euclid taught: Semeion estin ou meros outhen A point is that which has no part.[7] The Pythagoreans deNined the point as a monad having position and Aristotle further elaborated that what has a position and is indivisible is a point.[8] It is a very interesting point (pun, pun) that the original concept of unity from antiquity while represented by a circle, is then restated in the concept of the Real-Idea, the thought of God, which the Hindus called the bindu or seed, what we call the geometric point. The point, according to the Shiva Sutra Vimarshint Commentaries, forms the limit between the manifest and non-manifest, between the spatial and non-spatial. The bindu corresponds to the seed-sound idea of the Tantras. The Divine transforms himself into sound vibration (nada), and proliferates the universe, which is not different from himself, by giving form or verbal expression to this self-idea thus the universe springs forth from the Word. This transcendant Word is only a vibration (a materialization) of the Divine thought which gives rise to the fractioning of unity which is creation.[9] Simplicius says that a point is the beginning of magnitudes and that from which they grow. He also noted as Aristotle did that it is by its motion that a point can generate a magnitude.[10] This is one reason why the ancient Pythagoreans were so fascinated by the Tetractys, the triangle of ten dots. Because the top point or dot is the beginning of all manifestation of the laws which reality is based on, which can come into manifestation with the next line of two dots, then the next with three, then Ninally the four. Our lecture teaches this speciFically From a point to a line, from a line to a superNice, from a superNice to a solid. From one to two, three, then four. This Pythgorean science and math was also understood and used by the ancient Hebraic Priesthood of the Jews who used the Pythagorean science of geometry, harmonics, and number in their own theology, reNlected in the creation account of the Bible, as well as in the Temple of Solomon, and among other things in Ezekiels vision of the temple. This theological, mathematical system could have been used and developed by the ancient Zadokite Priesthood of the Second Temple.[11]

It is fascinating in light of what I am going to show with the philosophy and math of the circle verses the square, and their meanings, that we are taught in the Zohar, as well as in the Hebrew writings of Moses de Leon, the transformation of Nothing into Being is frequently explained by the use of one particular symbol, that of the primordial point.[12] Arthur Green noted that the Nirst Sephiroth in the Kabbalah Tree of Life Keter means crown or Circle and from here, out of Keter emerges Hohkmah, the Nirst and Ninest point of real existence. All things, souls, and moments of time that are ever to be, exist within a primal point, at once inNinitesimally small and great beyond measure.[13] And from the point, all existence expands into circular form, harmonizing the polarity of point and line into the complimentarity of circular line[14] This circularity, of this myth of the eternal return theme is powerfully and fully graphed by the compass. This is also shown literarily in James Joyces book Finnegans Wake, which begins in the middle of a sentence and a small letter! If you want to Nind the beginning of that sentence, you turn to the end of the book.[15] This literary masterpiece is a mighty allegory of the fall and resurrection of mankind. It is a strange book, a compound of fable, symphony, and nightmare a monstrous enigma beckoning imperiously from the shadowy pits of sleep. Its mechanics resemble those of a dream, a dream which has freed the author from the necessities of common logic, and has enabled him to compress all periods of history, all phases of individual and racial development into a circular design, of which every part is beginning, middle, and end.[16] The entire staggeringly difNicult, enlightening, entertaining and astonishing reading of the book is a perfect literature view of what a circle is geometrically, the one and the many, the one central point, and the inNinite points which compose the circular line around the point. The great world renowned mythologist, Mercea Eliade has shown that all of ancient mankind constantly returned to their origins, i.e., went back in a circle to their beginnings and re-enacted the creation with their rituals. The creation was continuously enacted by mankind through millennia as we found our ties with our origins which was neither in the beginning or end of time, but is eternal, symbolized in a simple circle.[17] This symbolism of the center was understood to be the summit of the cosmic mountain, the highest point, the navel of the earth, and point of creations beginning. The Mesopotamian tradition was that mans creation at this center point was also the Dur-an-ki, the link between heaven and earth.[18] The Masonic altar in the middle of the lodge is just such a representation of the center point, as the Temple of Solomon was the point in relation to the earth and heaven, the link of the temporal with the eternal, as is an individual person as the point within a circle. Like the great circle of the Precession of the equinoxes of which the Mithraic mysteries elaborated and symbolized, and the Ancient Near Eastern rituals of circumambulation, (circling around a central point as we Freemasons do around our altars in our rituals) which did likewise, or even the symbolisms of the Medieval Tarot Card symbolisms, mankind has always been fascinated with the relation of the eternal with the temporal.[19]

It
is
precisely
the
philosophical
truth,
at
once
so
astonishing,
which
is
rejected
by
most
of
mankind
throughout
the
ages
and
into
our
supposed
modernity
and
maturing
as
a
civilization,
that
our
square
and
compass
points
us
to.
Lets
explore
the
circle
and
square
mathematically
and
then
arche-typally
to
see
what
this
incredible
symbolism
in
Freemasonry
really
speaks
of.
The
ancients,
as
we
have
been
told
many
times
by
many
authors,
were
interested
in
what
is
called
The
squaring
of
the
circle.[20]
John
Michell
explains
that
Pi
denotes
the
periphery
or
circumference
of
a
circle
in
relation
to
its
diameter.
Pi
is
an
irrational
number,
or
better
yet,
a
transcendental
one,
because
its
decimal
goes
on
forever,
without
ever
repeating,
or
producing
a
pattern
that
we
can
pin
down,
and
we
have
taken
Pi
to
literally
trillions
of
units
out![21]
It
is
not
a
whole
number,
and
cannot
be
a
rational
one.
It
is
an
inNinite
number,
a
transcendental
number.
How
this
relates
to
the
square
is
most
interestingly
presented
to
us
by
Robert
Lawlor.

R.
A.
Schwaller
de
Lubicz
gives
an
analogy
by
which
this
universal
and
archetypal
sense
of
number
can
be
understood.
A
revolving
sphere
present
us
with
the
notion
of
an
axis.
We
think
of
this
axis
as
an
ideal
or
imaginary
line
through
the
sphere.
It
has
no
objective
existence,
yet
we
cannot
help
by
be
convinced
of
its
reality;
and
to
determine
anything
about
the
sphere.,
such
as
its
inclination
or
its
speed
of
rotation
we
must
refer
to
this
imaginary
axis.
Number
in
the
enumerative
sense
corresponds
to
the
measures
and
movements
of
the
outer
surface
of
the
sphere,
while
the
universal
aspect
of
number
is
analogous
to
the
immobile,
unmanifest,
functional
principle
of
its
axis.
Let
us
shift
our
analogy
to
the
two-dimensional
plane.
If
we
take
a
circle
and
a
square
and
give
the
value
of
1
to
the
diameter
of
the
circle
and
also
to
the
side
of
the
square,
then
the
diagonal
of
the
square
will
always
be
(and
this
is
an
invariable
law)
an
incommensurable,
irrational
number.
It
is
said
that
such
a
number
can
be
carried
out
to
an
inFinite
number
of
decimal
places
without
ever
arriving
at
a
resolution.
In
the
case
of
the
diagonal
of
the
square,
this
decimal
is
1.4142
and
is
called
the
square
root
of
2.
With
the
circle
if
we
give
the
diameter
the
value
of
1,
the
circumference
will
also
always
be
of
the
incommensurable
type,
3.14159
which
we
know
by
the
Greek
letter
Pi.
The
principle
remains
the
same
in
the
inversion;
if
we
give
the
Fixed,
rational
value
of
1
to
the
diagonal
of
the
square
and
to
the
circumference
of
the
circle,
then
the
side
of
the
square
and
the
radius
of
the
circle
will
become
of
the
incommensurable
irrational
type:
1/sq.
root
2
and
1/Pi. It
is
exactly
at
this
point
that
quantiFied
mathematics
and
geometry
go
their
separate
ways,
because
numerically
we
can
never
know
exactly
the
diagonal
of
a
square
nor
the
circumference
of
the
circle.
Yes,
we
can
round-off
after
a
certain
number
of
decimal
places,
and
treat
these
cut
off
numbers
like
any
other
number,
but
we
can
never
reduce
them
to
a
quantity.
In
geometry,
however,
the
diagonal
and
circumference,
when
considered
in
the
context
of
a
formal
relationship
(diagonal
to
side;
circumference
to
diameter),
are
absolutely
knowable,
self-evident
realities:
1:sq
root
of
2,
and
1:Pi.
Number
is
considered
as
a
formal
relationship
and
this
type
of
numerical
relationship
is
called
a
function
The
square
root
of
2
is
the
functional
number
of
a
square.
Pi
is
the
functional
number
of
a
circle.
Philosophic
geometry
and
consequently
sacred
art
and
architecture
is
very
much
concerned
with
these
irrational
functions
for
the
simple
reason
that
they
demonstrate
graphically
a
level
of
experience
which
is
universal
and
invariable.[22]

So yes, we can use numbers in a numerical sense, and come up with what is real. However, in a relationship sense when the irrational and rational combine in squares and circles, both within themselves, and with a relationship of each other, we have a powerful metaphor for what is our own true and real nature to ponder.

The
circle
represents
inNinity,
that
which
is
literally
endless,
having
no
beginning
and
absolutely
no
end,
it
is
eternal.
The
square,
however,
is
that
which
is
Ninite,
has
limits,
and
we
can
calculate
it
using
rational
numbers.
That
is
why
it
is
literally
impossible
to
square
the
circle!
The
area
and
size
of
a
square
is
a
fundamental
calculable
known,
while
the
area
of
a
circle
is
unknowable
to
precision.
But
that
is
not
what
the
ancients
were
working
on.
Our
modern
orthodox
mathematicians
and
scientists
completely
miss
the
point
of
the
squaring
of
the
circle
when
they
pooh
pooh
the
ancients
for
showing
and
attempting
to
do
this.
They
were
showing
the
analogy
and
metaphor
for
our
own
reality
of
who
and
what
we
are,
by
using
the
two
perfect
geometric
symbols
of
our
nature,
the
Ninite
and
inNinite
aspect
of
ourselves.
Da
Vincis
Vetruvian
man
means
this,
and
powerfully
shows
this
artistically
(See
Appendix
for
man
being
circle
and
square).
They
were
trying
to
symbolize
the
truth
of
heaven
(the
circle)
and
earth
(the
square),
the
truth
of
God
(circle)
and
man
(square),
and
the
actual
relationship
with
god
and
man,
the
Ninite
with
the
inNinite,
etc.
From
the
circle,
all
shapes
have
their
rising
and
are
produced.
It
is
from
inNinity
that
the
Ninite
worlds
whirl
into
existence.
It
is
from
the
inNinity
of
God
that
mankind
is
produced,
not
as
separate
and
completely
different,
but
of
the
same
cloth,
the
same,
yet
different,
exactly
as
the
squared
circle
teaches.
Our
square
and
compass
teach
the
uniNication
of
the
Ninite
with
the
inNinite
because
we
are
both!
The
compass
produces
the
eternal
circle,
the
square
produces
the
Ninite
square.
Putting
them
together
shows
the
union
of
heaven
and
earth,
of
God
and
man,
returning
to
the
source.
Within
the
concept
of
number
[and
hence
geometrical
shape,
e.g.,
circle
and
square]
there
is
a
deNinite,
Ninite,
particularizing
power
and
also
a
universal
synthesizing
power.[23] Numbers,
and
geometrical
shapes
are
emblems.
Naturally
and
easily
the
term
emblem
became
applicable
to
any
painting,
drawing,
or
print
that
was
representative
of
an
action,
of
a
quality
of
mind,
or
of
any
peculiarity
or
attribute
of
character.
Emblems
in
fact
were,
and
are,
a
species
of
hieroglyphics,
in
which
Nigures
or
pictures,
besides
denoting
the
natural
object
to
which
they
bear
resemblances,
were
employed
to
express
properties
of
the
mind,
virtues
and
abstract
ideas,
and
all
the
operations
of
the
soul.[24] A
particularly
acute
observation
of
the
emblems,
symbols,
and
themes
given
to
us
from
antiquity
and
up
into
and
through
the
Renaissance
of
the
Hermetic,
Alchemical,
and
Kabbalistic
lore,
literature,
and
art
is
made
by
Manley
P.
Hall
who
noted:

Locked
within
these
forms
are
moral
truths
captured
geometrically
in
stone
and
marble
and
artistically
in
ornaments,
embellishments,
and
other
designs.
The
spiritual,
philosophical,
and
scientiFic
secrets
of
the
past
are
preserved,
but
concealed
in
the
symbolic
forms
of
mythology,
drama,
poetry,
and
fables.
[and
I,
Kerry
Shirts,
would
add
geometry][25]

Hall also noted and demonstrated in his richly and beautiful book on Mandalas, that the mandalas are cosmic patterns on the level of universal truth, and by extension, reveal the internal composition of mans complex nature.[26] This is precisely what the Masonic square and compass do, as they also on yet another level add to the

dimension
of
their
meaning
by
producing
(as
we
draw
them
ourselves
using
our
working
tools)
the
squared
circle.
This
contradictory
enigma
works
absolutely
perfectly
since
in
the
square
yet
roundly
domed
churches
and
other
buildings,
the
square
represents
the
earth
held
in
fourfold
embrace
by
the
circular
vault
of
the
sky
and
hence
subject
to
the
ever-Nlowing
wheel
of
time.
When
the
incessant
movement
of
the
universe,
depicted
by
the
circle,
yields
to
the
comprehensible
order,
one
Ninds
the
square.
The
square
then
presupposes
the
circle
and
results
from
it.
The
relationship
of
form
and
movement,
space
and
time,
is
evoked
in
the
mandala.[27]
Masonic
scholar
Rex
R.
Hutchens
indicates
the
Masonic
square
and
compasses
may
also
represent
the
duality
of
light
and
darkness
in
the
universe,
and,
in
fact,
may
represent
the
universe
itself,
an
interesting
angle
on
this
theme
we
are
developing. [28]
These
mandalas
were
anciently
built
right
into
the
very
structure
of
ancient
temples
all
over
the
ancient
world.
And
it
began
with
the
tabernacle
and
tents
of
Ancient
Israel,
and
the
Aron,
or
Ark
of
the
Covenant
as
the
square
box.
In
the
Nigure
of
a
tent
we
have
the
perfect
precursor
to
the
square
churches
having
round
domes.
As
Mercea
Eliade
has
shown,
extensively
in
the
ancient
cultures,
such
as
the
Lapp,
Finns
and
Estonians,
Mongols,
Kalmyk,
Buryat,
Siberian
Tartars,
and
Mongolians
hordes,
the
central
pole
of
the
tent
is
often
identiNied
with
the
polestar
of
the
heavens,
or
simply,
the
pole
of
the
heavens.
From
a
point
(polestar)
to
a
line
(the
central
column
of
the
tent
itself
representing
the
space
of
the
universe
for
inhabitation).[29]
The
tent
represents
the
circle
around
the
point.
In
Scottish
Rite
Freemasonry,
The
North
Star
always
Nixed
and
immovable
for
us,
represents
the
point
in
the
center
of
the
circle,
or
the
Deity
in
the
center
of
the
universe.[30]
This
architecture
was
later
adapted
into
the
domed
churches
and
buildings
of
later
ages.
It
was
the
Weltenmantel,
the
expanse
of
the
Nirmament.
As
Hugh
Nibley
noted:

There
are
two
kinds
of
temple
architecture
the
circle
and
the
square.
At
Gilgal
twelve
stones
stand
in
a
circle.
Generally
the
rites
are
said
to
be
in
the
form
of
a
circumambulation.
The
king
goes
through
the
land
in
a
great
circle
[circumambulation],
in
his
royal
progress,
the
kings
tour.
He
visits
one
by
one
each
holy
place,
to
take
possession
of
his
land,
something
he
has
to
do
every
year.
When
he
arrives
at
each,
he
circumambulates
it
three
times.
Thats
the
combination:
the
circle
and
square.
To
the
Pythagorean
mystic,
the
cube
represents
perfect
solidity;
the
sphere
is
perfect
continual
motion.
The
two
must
always
be
together;
thus
we
Find
them
so
combined
in
ancient
temples
there
is
always
motion
around,
but
also
always
stability
in
the
center.[31]

Geometry shows how inNiniteness links with Niniteness, via square and compass. In antiquity, the mysteries were concerned with one main theme found in ancient Judaism, Grecian, Gnosticism, Christianity, Medieval Kabbalah and Alchemy, including the Hermeticists and Rosicruscians. That idea is the squaring of the circle which teaches the divine son represents a uniNication of the human with the divine, of puriNied personality with the eternally subsisting divine essence.[32] The Gnosis concerns the divine nature of ones own essence: the soul appears as a divine spark of light.[33] The Hermetic Asclepius taught what made man immortal was the possession of the nous the power of spiritual perception, mind, reason, spirit, the supreme hypostasis in the realm of the intelligible, original divine principle,

consciousness.[34] The Kabbalists taught this same idea.[35] This wisdom is breathed into man.[36] The ancient Brahmins also taught, according to Albert Pike, One great and incomprehensible Being has alone existed from all Eternity. Everything we behold and we ourselves are portions of Him. The soul, mind or intellect of gods and men, and of all sentient creatures, are detached portions of the Universal Soul, to which at stated periods they are destined to return.[37] And, to add one more voice in the cacophonous chorus of similar sentiments, Jesus of Nazareth also taught The Kingdom of God is within you. (Luke 17:21). Man is thus both of a Ninite nature and an inNinite nature. Geometry, which Freemasonry properly emphasizes, is the very Ninest way to express this using our very own working tools. This is better than winning the sweepstakes. Life and living is the inNinite sweepstakes.

Endnotes

1. Michael
Schneider,
The
Beginners
Guide
to
Constructing
the
Universe,
The
Mathematical
Archetypes
of
Nature,
Art,
and
Science,
HarperPerennial,
1994:
xxiii. 2. Schneider,
The
Beginners
Guide,
p.
xxiii. 3. Robert
Lawlor,
Sacred
Geometry,
Philosophy
and
Practice,
Thames
and
Hudson,
1982:
4. 4. As
quoted
in
Lawlor,
Sacred
Geometry,
p.
4. 5. Lawlor,
Sacred
Geometry,
p.
4. 6. Lawlor,
Sacred
Geometry,
p.
5. 7. Euclid,
The
Elements,
Books
I
XIII
Complete
and
Unabridged,
Translated
by
Sir
Thomas
L.
Heath,
Barnes
&
Noble,
2006:
3. 8. Euclid,
Elements,
p.
3. 9. Lawlor,
Sacred
Geometry,
p.
21-22. 10. Euclid,
Elements,
p.
4-5. 11. Leonora
Leet,
The
Universal
Kabbalah:
Deciphering
the
Cosmic
Code
in
the
Sacred
Geometry
of
the
Sabbath
Star
Diagram,
Inner
Traditions,
2004:5-6. 12. Leet,
The
Universal
Kabbalah,
quoting
Gershom
Scholem,
p.
6. 13. Arthur
Green,
Introduction,
in
Daniel
C.
Matts
Pritzker
edition
of
The
Zohar,
Stanford
University
Press,
2004,
Vol.
1:XLVII. 14. Leonora
Leet,
Universal
Kabbalah,
p.
11. 15. Joseph
Campbell,
Mythic
Worlds,
Modern
Words,
On
the
Art
of
James
Joyce,
Harper
Collins
Publishers,
1st
ed.,
1993:
199. 16. Joseph
Campbell
and
Henry
Morton
Robinson,
A
Skeleton
Key
to
Finnegans
Wake,
Penguin
Books,
1972:
3.
17. Mercea
Eliade,
The
Myth
of
the
Eternal
Return,
or
Cosmos,
and
History,
Princeton
University
Press,
2nd
paperback,
1974. 18. Mercea
Eliade,
Images
and
Symbols:
Studies
in
Religious
Symbolism,
Princeton
University
Press,
1st
paperback,
1991:
43. 19. See
the
treatment
of
David
Ulansey,
The
Origins
of
the
Mithraic
Mysteries,
Cosmology
&
Salvation
in
the
Ancient
World,
Oxford
University
Press,
1989.

For the Ancient Near Eastern ideas of circumambulation or circling around a center to acquire the territory, see Theodor H. Gaster, Thespis: Ritual, Myth, and Drama in the Ancient Near East, Gordian Press, 1975: p. 193, note XL. On the Tarot symbolism of the eternal circle symbolism of the cards and their astronomical as well as personal meanings in our lives, see especially the two excellent treatments of Richard Roberts, Tarot Revelations, Vernal Equinox Press, 1987; and Paul Foster Case, The Tarot: A Key to the Wisdom of the Ages, BOTA, Revised edition, 1990. 20. For a fun popular treatment, see Petr Beckmann, A History of Pi, St. Martins Press, 1971. A typical modern sneering at the impossibility of squaring the circle is Isaac Asimovs Asimov on Numbers, Pocket Books, 1977: 107-111. I say sneering, because Asimov, as so many other modern authors assume the Greeks and other ancients were only involved in the math of squaring the circle instead of the philosophical, religious theme which the properties of the circle and square illustrated allegorically to them. The literalist approach in our modern orthodox mathematicians is astonishingly wrong headed thinking about what the ancients were up to. 21. John Michell, How the World is Made: The Story of Creation According to Sacred Geometery, Inner Traditions, 2009: 36. 22. Lawlor, Sacred Geometry, pp. 11-12. 23. Lawlor, Sacred Geometry, p. 12. 24. Manley P. Hall, Meditation Symbols in Eastern & Western Mysticism: Mysteries of the Mandala, Philosophical Research Society, 1988: 5. 25. Manley P. Hall, Meditation Symbols in Eastern & Western Mysticism, p. 10. 26. Manley P. Hall, Meditation Symbols in Eastern & Western Mysticism, p. 14. 27. Lawlor, Sacred Geometry, p. 16. 28. Rex R. Hutchens, A Bridge to Light, A Study in Masonic Ritual & Philosophy, The Supreme Council 33, 2006:230. 29. See especially chapter 8 in Mercea Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, Princeton University Press, 2nd printing, 1974. 30. Arturo de Hoyos, The Scottish Rite Ritual Monitor and Guide, 2nd edition, The Supreme Council, 33, Southern Jurisdiction, 2009:273. 31. Hugh Nibley, Temple and Cosmos, Deseret Book, 1992: 145-149. 32. Leonora Leet, The Secret Doctrine of the Kabbalah: Recovering the Key to Hebraic Sacred Science, Inner Traditions, 1999: 73. 33. Alexander Roob, The Hermetic Museum: Alchemy & Mysticism, Taschen, 1997:18. 34. Gerhard Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 10 vols., Eerdmans Publishing, 4:952. 35. Arturo De Hoyos, The Scottish Rite Ritual Monitor and Guide, p. 823. 36. R. B. Onians, The Origins of European Thought, About the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate, Cambridge University Press, 1st paperback, 1988: 58-59. 37. Albert Pike, Morals & Dogma, Supreme Council of the 33, Southern Jurisdiction, n.d., p. 604.

Some Illustrations:

From the circle every other geometric figure comes into being.

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